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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Sustainable Water Resources Management
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2363-5037 - ISSN (Online) 2363-5045
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Nature-based solutions to enhance urban flood resiliency: case study of a
           Thailand Smart District

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      Abstract: Abstract A Research through Designing approach was used to explore nature-based solutions (NbS) for flood management at the fluvial (regional) and pluvial (local) scales as part of a Smart District visioning study in a peri-urban area north of Bangkok, Thailand. The NbS visions were informed by community surveys (total n = 770) as well as in-depth, semi-structured interviews with community leaders and key stakeholders representing private sector business. Both fluvial and pluvial flooding commonly occur in the study area and the cost of damage incurred by individuals generally exceeds aid remuneration. The surveys revealed that flood insurance was not widely used as a form of resiliency to flood conditions. Furthermore, survey participants generally considered common space and green space unsatisfactory and inadequate to meet community needs. In light of these survey responses, example NbS visions were developed to address community concerns and promote well-being, while concurrently providing resiliency and improved ecosystem services through connectivity of blue and greenscapes. This case study provides a novel linkage between the concepts of NbS, Research through Designing, and Smart City/District, in exploring sustainable and resilient approaches to flood management in the context of tropical, Global South development and also provides a first step towards developing an NbS typology.
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
       
  • Improved remediation of contaminated water using ZnO systems via chemical
           treatment: applications, implications and toxicological mitigation

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      Abstract: Abstract Environmental remediation is an alternative field of science that can solve various environmental challenges based on numerous treatment methods. In particular, heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidative process that has been the subject of many studies related to environmental control. Globally, pollution by organic pollutants represents risks to environmental health that compromise public health and directly affect the scientific knowledge of public policies that potentially improve quality of life from a sustainable point of view. ZnO systems are receiving special attention due to their attractive characteristics (non-toxic nature, high surface area, thermal/chemical stability), availability of being chemically modified by various strategies, and particularly good environmental remediation. This review focuses on the efforts of ZnO-based photocatalysts, such as the methods, chemical modifications, operational parameters, and the effects after the release of effluents in aquatic matrices. Therefore, we investigated the recent advances in zinc systems aimed at treating contaminated water and their direct application in environmental remediation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
       
  • A hydro-environmental optimization for assessing sustainable carrying
           capacity

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study proposes an applicable method to determine the population carrying capacity of urban areas in which ecological impacts of river ecosystem as the source of water supply and sustainable population growth are linked. A multiobejctive optimization method was developed in which two objectives were considered: 1) minimizing the fish population loss as the environmental index of the river ecosystem and 2) minimizing the difference between initial population carrying capacity and the sustainable population carrying capacity. The ecological impacts of the river ecosystem were assessed through the potential fish population as an environmental index using several artificial intelligence and regression models. Based on case study results, the initial plan of development is not reliable because ecological impacts on the river ecosystem are remarkable. The proposed method is able to reduce the ecological impacts. However, the sustainable population carrying capacity is considerably lower than the initial planned population. It is needed to reduce the planned population more than 45% in the case study. Habitat loss is less than 35% which means the optimization model is able to find an optimal solution for balancing environmental requirements and humans’ needs. In other words, the optimization model balances the needs of environment and water supply by reducing 45% of population and decreasing habitat loss to 35%.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • The effectiveness of local sands of Indonesian South Sulawesi as
           filtration material in water treatment plant

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      Abstract: Abstract The regional water company in Sulawesi Island of Indonesia uses sand from Sumatra and Java islands to perform water filtration. However, this is time consuming and expensive. In fact, South Sulawesi Province has abundant local sand that may be used as filtration material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine novel alternatives for filtration materials in water treatment plants using local sand available in South Sulawesi. The proposed alternatives are implemented using four local sand sources, namely Malimpung, Bira, Jeneberang, and Tanralili in Pinrang, Bulukumba, Gowa, and Maros Regencies, respectively. The effectiveness of each sand source is analyzed by modeling a filter in the laboratory with a rapid sand filter system. The experimental work is conducted under unsaturated conditions for sand. We have considered three variations of initial raw water turbidity, namely 25, 50, and 109 NTU representing low, medium, and high turbidity levels, respectively. The initial total suspended solids (TSS) for each variation of initial turbidity is calculated as 19, 51, and 99 mg/l, respectively. In addition, we have applied three variations of filter thickness, namely 10, 20, and 30 cm. The results indicated that only Malimpung sand meets the physical requirements, namely effective size of 0.23, uniformity coefficient of 2.19, specific gravity of 2.69 g/cm3, and percentage of SiO2 as 97.07%. It was also clarified that Malimpung sand is the most effective in removing physical pollutants based on turbidity and TSS with an efficiency of 72% and 84%, respectively, during the observation time of 600 s.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • Correction to: Conflict and cooperation in Aras International River Basin:
           status, trend, and future

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      PubDate: 2023-01-24
       
  • Comparative evaluation of SWAT and WTF techniques for recharge estimation
           in the Vea catchment, Ghana

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      Abstract: Abstract Comparative study of approaches debugs the uncertainty associated with recharge estimates and improves confidence in decision making toward groundwater allocation. In this study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to develop water balance to estimate groundwater recharge of the Vea catchment with 36-year (1983–2018) climate data from 11 gridded climate stations within the catchment. The model was calibrated and validated with 2 years (2013–2014) and 1 year (2015) mean monthly continuously observed streamflow data, respectively. The most relevant and sensitive model parameters were adjusted to achieve a representative scenario. The model performance was evaluated using the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of determination (R2), which were 88.8% and 96.0%, respectively. Annual Recharge coefficient in the catchment ranged 0.6–20.4% (mean = 10.26%) of rainfall amount ranging between 747.1 and 1174.4 mm/year (mean = 963 mm/year) and the monthly mean recharge coefficient was 8.1%. The results of the water table fluctuation (WTF) technique (36.7–178.1 mm/year representing 6.1–16.5% of annual rainfall) confirmed the recharge estimates and proven reliable. Recharge and precipitation are found to have a strong exponential relationship with R2 of 98%. The model was within 95% predictive uncertainty and could be useful to forecast future recharge for known rainfall events. In addition, actual evapotranspiration and runoff were intense at an average rate of 71% and 24%, respectively, of the annual mean precipitation. The findings could be applied for decision making, policy formulation and watershed scenario planning for sustainable management of groundwater resources in the catchment and within similar terrain.
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
       
  • Specifying a cascade water demand forecasting model using time-series
           analysis: a case of Jordan

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to develop a model for forecasting water demand for 2021–2030 to examine water availability for municipality uses in the Al-Balqa governorate of Jordan. The method was developed using a time series analysis of historical data from 1990–2010, which comprised yearly and monthly water consumption and socioeconomic factors, including population, income, and climate factors, such as average precipitation and temperatures. The analysis of historical data was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The study found that the increase in population, reaching 740,790 inhabitants in 2030, the high level of social life, and the fluctuation of temperature and precipitation exceed the significant water demand, increasing to 69.88 million cubic meters in 2030 from 52.95 in 2020. The time series analysis employed historical data for 2011–2020 indicating monthly municipal water use to measure the model’s validity. The results confirm the model’s ability to forecast water demand. The study recommends intensifying managerial practices to avoid such difficulties that face the water sector to achieve water security at the country’s level.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
       
  • Enhancing adaptation to climate change through groundwater-based
           irrigation

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      Abstract: Abstract Changing climate in Northern Ghana has led to erratic rainfall patterns which have affected agricultural practice over the years. This research interrogates various factors which affect the success of agriculture in the area, specifically the Nasia sub-basin, to suggest prudent water management strategies which will be required to adequately adapt to the impacts of climate change. The research evaluates the irrigation water requirements of the major staple crops in the area in the context of a changing climate, and the implications on available groundwater resources to support small-scale irrigation. The study then proceeds to use a robust geostatistical technique to estimate the spatial variations in the thickness and characteristics of the regolith in the Nasia sub-basin since the latter plays an important role in the hydrogeological characteristics and the groundwater resources potential of the rocks of the Neoproterozoic Voltaian Supergroup. The variography conducted on the regolith thicknesses in the area suggests a high level of spatial variability within short distances, consistent with the nature of the underlying geology. The models suggest that the older, sandstone formations in the north of the terrain are associated with thicker regolith compared to the finer grained, younger formations in the south. Locations of thick regolith are generally regarded as areas of high promise in terms of shallow groundwater-based irrigation. Based on local conditions which dictate the crop types cultivated during the major cropping season, this research has computed crop coefficients for four crops (i.e., millet, maize, groundnut, and rice). The analysis suggests that the crop water requirements for the various staple crops are sensitive to variations in climatic conditions and will respond to increasing temperatures and evapotranspiration rates as predicted by climate models over the sub-region. This research recommends further detailed hydrogeological research which builds on the predicted variations in regolith thickness and characteristics already identified here. This will facilitate a proper delineation of prolific groundwater-bearing units within shallow, easily accessible depths to support smallholder irrigation in the area.
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
       
  • Thirty years of geoethic conflicts between natural groundwater
           vulnerability and land use in a southeastern Brazilian municipality

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      Abstract: Abstract Geoethics is the research and reflection about values, behaviors, and best practices to adopt in areas where human activities interact with the earth system. Considering that groundwater is one of the most vital natural resources for human survival and that the enormous increase in human pressures on ecosystems poses an imminent threat to its quality, it may be stated that there is a geoethical issue on a worldwide scale. In this context, the present study aimed to analyse the geoethical conflicts between the increase in human activities and the natural vulnerability of aquifers over the past 3 decades in a Brazilian municipality located in the Guarani Aquifer System, one of the world's largest freshwater reservoirs. For this purpose, we utilized geoenvironmental mapping techniques, treated and handled hydrogeological data (geology, soils, depth) from the GODS vulnerability model, and cross-referenced this information with 30 years of local land use data. The results indicated a considerable rise in geoethical conflicts in the region, with high-conflict zones increasing by 800% between 1989 and 2019, primarily as a result of the expansion of sugarcane monocultures and forests over natural environments. This evolution demonstrates that the process of changing land use has occurred without taking into account the potential and limitations of the local environment, endangering the quality and accessibility of drinking water.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
       
  • Modelling the impact of hydrological parameter effect on streamflow due to
           futuristic climate change scenarios in the South Omo-Gibe River basin,
           Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract The impacts of climate change on the catchment hydrology, especially streamflow, were assessed as a function of rainfall and evapotranspiration in Ethiopia’s lower Omo-Gibe River basin. The region’s climate data is bias-corrected by comparing present and historical observed data and applied in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to calibrate and validate the streamflow outputs from the basin. The bias-corrected forecast models for the region suggest an increase in percentage change in the future precipitation in the basin. However, the evapotranspiration rates decreased in the futuristic scenarios for the basin. The mean annual temperature in the mid-term year (the 2050 s) are projected to increase by 1.34, 1.58, and 1.47 oC for the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. In contrast, in the future long-term (the 2080 s), it is projected to decrease by 0.98, 1.03, and 1.35 oC for the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. The minimum error in geostatistical analysis substantiates the use of ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation methods. The Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) criteria, R2, and percent bias (PBIAS), for both simulated and measured streamflow for calibration and validation, were within the acceptable range. Climatic situations that influence evapotranspiration and precipitation processes, directly affect the basin’s surface runoff and soil moisture. The comparison of annual precipitation, evapotranspiration, and streamflow for the baseline period, mid-term, and long-term for the South Omo-Gibe indicated increasing trends. The analysis revealed the impact of climate change on future annual streamflow to be directly and indirectly correlated with an annual change in precipitation and evaporation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the water quality of the Damodar River, a
           tributary of the Ganga River in West Bengal

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is wreaking havoc on the planet, yet control of waste materials comforted the ecosystem during the lockdown restricting human activities. Damodar is the most important tributary of the lower Ganga River in West Bengal. It flows through an industrially developed, agriculturally flourished populated area. Different methods are applied to identify the changing pattern of water quality during the lockdown. BOD graph shows an increase in pollution levels in residential areas but a sharp decline in coliform levels in urban residential sites. The National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) shows the same pattern of water quality throughout the course. Irrigation suitability of water is examined using sodium percentage (%Na), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), potential salinity (PS), magnesium absorption ratio (MAR), and Kelly’s ratio (KR). Mujhermana (received maximum pollutants from industries and residential areas) station shows a decrease in ions concentration and subsequent improvement in agriculture water quality during the COVID-19 period. According to Kelly’s ratio, the water at this sample site is unfit for agricultural use; however, the water quality improved and became acceptable for cultivation during the lockdown period. Cluster analysis is used to understand the similar pollution concentration of eleven sampling stations in different periods. Mujhermana site makes a separate cluster due to its high pollution load compared to other sampling sites before the COVID-19. But during the lockdown period, this site was clustered with the most petite contaminated sites.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
       
  • Hydrochemistry and structural control of groundwater flow in the mining
           areas of Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract The Abakaliki area is endowed with solid minerals including lead–zinc, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and siderite. These generate metallic trace elements (MTEs) that contaminate water resources. Spectrophotometric method was applied to evaluate the main hydrochemical constituents of groundwater resources while geohydrological and field mapping techniques have been applied to study the fracture system and the influence on the migration, flow direction and subsequent transport of contaminants in the area. Result indicates that levels of Cl−, SO42−, As, Mn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Hg and Se in some wells are above the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water. Also, MTEs are transported in the saturated zone through fracture network which trends mainly in the NW–SE direction. This controls groundwater occurrence in the area. The distribution of geochemical elements indicates higher concentrations in wells within the mining areas and downstream. This is due to non-connectivity of fractures in all places. Northeasterly and Southeasterly groundwater flow vectors were observed. Predominance of recharge areas was observed in the central parts while the southern parts form the discharge areas. This is useful for proper groundwater resources and waste management planning.
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
       
  • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of Water Service Sustainability Index

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the Water Service Sustainability Index (WSSI) based on the application of the WSSI in the Mvila Division, Southern Region of Cameroon. The purpose was to examine how the weighting scheme and aggregation method affect the final index. The methodological approach used was based on Monte Carlo simulations and the Spearman correlation method. The results show that the final percentage of uncertainty for WSSI, calculated using the propagation of error method, is 6.33%. The results of sensitivity analysis indicate that self-financing capacity has produced the highest correlation coefficient (0.71), while the formalization of contracts produced the lowest correlation (0.019). The sensitivity analysis also shows that the final index values of WSSI are more sensitive to changes in the aggregation method than to changes in the weighting scheme. Hence, for future use of WSSI, either an equal or non-equal weighting scheme can be used, as it will not have a significant impact on the final index.
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
       
  • Institutional arrangements of the aflaj systems’ maintenance in
           Sultanate of Oman: operation of the different aflaj type case study

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      Abstract: Abstract The aflaj (singular falaj) may be viewed from Omani institutional term to distribute water using time to those hold water rights or viewed as an irrigation system by which transport aquifer water table/underground galleries naturally through gravity to the irrigated areas/villages. Such transportation process/the original water extraction takes three main forms, locally known as three aflaj types: daudi, ghaili and ayni. Since the main water source for the daudi found several kilometers from villages, it requires long closed tunnel extending deep into the aquifer (but must be constructed at a level of the upper part of the aquifer to allow natural flowing by gravity). Whereas the ayni main water sources (natural spring) come up to the surface and transported through short open channel. The ghaili extracts water from surface of an oasis and uses open short channel. Empirical information with respect to these three forms of the physical-extraction variation has been investigated and examined through a detailed case study. The primary objective is to evaluate and document the historical methodology undertaken to develop different maintenance institutional arrangements. Hence, an attemptis made to answer the following research question ‘To what extent did the development of the aflaj institutional arrangements reflect upon the original physical variation collection/extraction process'’ Although there exist three water-extraction processes in Oman, the finding clearly classified the three aflaj types with respect to institution for maintenance into two main categories. Our survey provided evidence which place daudi and ghaili within one category and ayni in another. This finding can be explained as follows: (1) since the ayni aflaj usually found in mountainous areas (which are not prone to flooding), limited financial support is required for their regular maintenance. In addition, their channel layout prevents extensive water damage; (2) although the main water source for ghaili aflaj appears simple and does not require complex construction, they tend to capture tremendous amounts of sand that remains after flash floods. This is attributed to the fact that its mother-well was constructed as an open, and hence, any flow of the wadi/oasis would bring large amounts of silty sand and clay, which may completely block the main water supply.
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
       
  • Assessment of groundwater occurrence in a typical schist belt region in
           Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria using VES, aeromagnetic dataset, remotely
           sensed data, and MCDA approaches

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      Abstract: Abstract This study presents modelling of groundwater potential in a typical schist belt region in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria using electrical resistivity, aeromagnetic, remotely sensed data, and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Lineaments extracted from filtered and enhanced Landsat 8 OLI satellite imagery and aeromagnetic data were superimposed to generate lineament intersection, which was subjected to line density in the ArcGIS 10.5 environment to produce lineament intersection density. Eighty (80) vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration were acquired within the study location. The geoelectric parameters from the VES interpretation were used to determine the second-order parameters. Integration of electrical resistivity, aeromagnetic dataset, and remotely sensed data was subjected to multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to model the groundwater potential of the investigated area. Four distinct groundwater potential zones, very low, low, moderate and high zones, were identified. Boreholes and static water level data across the study area were used to validate the accuracy of the groundwater potential map. The prediction accuracy obtained showed that the techniques used in this study are capable of producing reliable and accurate results.
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
       
  • Conflict and cooperation in Aras International Rivers Basin: status,
           trend, and future

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      Abstract: Abstract The transboundary Aras River basin is shared by Turkey, Armenia, Iran, and Azerbaijan. The water resources of the basin have been the basis for major economic activity that has been associated with different hydropolitical interactions of the riparian states. This study investigated the status and trends of these interactions from the perspectives of cooperation and conflict as well as their possible future. The records of the water events of the Aras basin from the IWED (International Water Event Database) database and other creditable sources for four periods from 1926 to 2021 were assessed. The interactions were temporally evaluated with respect to type and dynamics using the TWINS (Transboundary Waters Interaction Nexus) framework. The results showed that basin gains from numerous agreements, joint water projects, and joint technical commissions initially were the grounds for cooperation. However, the Nagorno–Karabakh terrestrial conflict and its anticipated consequences on the geopolitics of the basin as well as water quality and upstream water projects could produce additional conflict. The TWINS analysis revealed that 70% of the water interactions were at the non-politicization or politicization levels, indicating the basin experienced a relatively positive cooperative status (mainly subperiods 1 and 3). However, the remaining 30% of events fell into the securitization or violation levels in recent years (subperiod 4). This indicates that the basin is susceptible to moving towards more conflict.
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
       
  • Coupled runoff-sediment responses to conservation-based water supply
           management intervention in the Legedadie–Dire catchments in central
           Ethiopia: an investigation using SWAT hydrological model

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      Abstract: Abstract The Legedadie-Dire catchments in central Ethiopia have experienced soil erosion owing to inappropriate land use practices, population pressure, topography, and intense rainfall. The impacts of Ecosystem-Based Water Supply Management (EBWSM) interventions with five scenarios were assessed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which includes grassed filter strips, hillside terraces, reforestation, vegetated buffers, and their combination on runoff and sediment yield. The EBWSM was assigned to selected subbasins and hydrological response units (HRUs) based on land use land cover situations, proximity to water bodies, altitude, and suitability issues. The model was calibrated and validated for inflow discharge using transformed flow data obtained from the Sibilu River Gauging Station and calculated data based on the reservoir volume difference approach. Similarly, sediment yield was calibrated and validated using the data from bathymetric inspection and in situ sediment pit survey results. The SWAT model performed well during the calibration and validation periods. The combined implementation of the two scenarios at a time significantly reduced sediment yield. Hillside terraces in combination with reforestation on bare land, reduced sediment yield by 94% and 90% in Legedadie and Dire catchments, respectively. Similarly, filter strips with 10:45 riparian vegetative buffers cut sediment yield by 91% and 82% in Legedadie and Dire catchments, respectively. Surface runoff decreased between 0.35% and 5.76% for all EBWSM scenarios except for the riparian vegetative buffer, wherein it slightly increased between 1.3% and 2.5%. Overall, the results revealed that the implementation of the EBWSM can reduce surface runoff and sediment yield.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
       
  • Assessment of groundwater potential of Somebreiro-Warri plain sand of
           Ughelli, Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to assess the groundwater potential within the sedimentary basin of Ughelli situated in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This was carried out using a geoelectric survey, geophysical logging, pumping test and water quality analysis. The geoelectric survey was carried out by conducting twenty-four vertical electrical sounding using an SAS 1000 Terrameter. The well logging and pumping test were performed by drilling a well in the study area with well cuttings collected for geotechnical evaluation. Spontaneous potential and electrical resistivity logs were carried out in the drilled well using an electric probe connected through a calibrated cable to the Terrameter while samples of the well water were taken to the laboratory for water quality analysis. The result of the vertical electrical sounding which was correlated with the lithologic log from the drilled well showed that the subsurface is made up of four to five geo-electric layers comprising of topsoil, clay, fine sand, medium grain sand and coarse sand. Analysis of this result showed that the aquifer was encountered between a depth of 4.7–9.7 m with the resistivity of the aquifer varying from 136 to 1899 Ωm. The result of the geophysical well log revealed that the electrical conductivity and total dissolved solid of the groundwater are 180 µS/cm and 120 mg/L, respectively. These values and the results of the laboratory analysis revealed that the values of the various parameters determined are within the permissible limit of the World Health Organization. The result of the pumping test further revealed that the transmissivity of the aquifer and the specific yield of the well are 87.8 and 463.8 m2/day, respectively. These results indicate that the aquifer is prolific and capable of withstanding heavy pumping hence it is suggested that groundwater development be encouraged in the area under investigation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
       
  • Assessment of small hydropower in Songkhla Lake Basin, Thailand using
           GIS-MCDM

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to environmental issues associated with large dams, small hydropower (SHP) has recently won social acceptance in Thailand as a clean and predictable energy resource. This study was aimed at identifying small run-of-river hydropower sites in Songkhla lake basin (SLB) Thailand. An integrated geographical information system (GIS), soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approaches were adopted to identify potential sites based on technical, economic, and environmental criteria. Many potential SHP sites were first mapped using ArcGIS and their water discharges were modeled using SWAT. The weights of economic and environmental criteria were calculated using AHP. Nineteen SHP sites in the Songkhla lake basin were finally chosen and ranked based on their economic and environmental scores, with total power generating capacities of 2.3 MW, 2 MW, and 1.5 MW at 50%, 75%, and 90% flow dependencies. The sites identified in this study can be developed to provide clean, reliable, and cost-effective electricity to their surrounding communities. The development will help improve the local socio-economic outlook while reducing power imported from adjacent areas. The method adopted in this study can be applied in any other river basins around the world for sustainable hydropower potential assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
       
  • Historical issues of hydrotherapy in thermal–mineral springs of the
           Hellenic world

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      Abstract: Abstract Many springs have been recorded in Greece; some of them are characterized as thermo-mineral springs and are associated with their position between Eurasia and Africa, the volcanic activity, and the presence of tectonic faults. The therapeutic use of water (hydrotherapy) has been recorded in ancient Greece since at least 1000 BC. Asclepius was the god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and priests operated his worship centers (Asclepieia) offering medical services in areas with proper climatic conditions. In historical times, Hippocrates from the Aegean island of Kos (460–375 BC) is considered the father of scientific medicine as well as hydrotherapy. During the Hellenistic period, the significance of water in health was widely recognized. In the Roman era, many doctors evolved hydrotherapy treatment and the use of hot baths continued in the early Byzantine period until the sixth century AD. Finally, during the Ottoman period, the kind of respiratory bath, named Hamam, was the dominant form in public baths. Their temperature ranges between 20.5 and 83 °C, and the dominant hydrochemical type is Na-Cl. This review describes the history of hydrotherapy in Greece through the centuries, the physicochemical characteristics of thermal springs, as well as contemporary and future trends and challenges are presented.
      PubDate: 2022-12-21
       
 
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