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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Sustainable Water Resources Management
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2363-5037 - ISSN (Online) 2363-5045
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Hydrochemistry of mountain rivers in the Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja,
           Argentina: implications on dental fluorosis through statistical modeling

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      Abstract: Abstract Dental fluorosis is a disease associated with prolonged intake of high concentrations of fluoride, mainly by drinking water consumption. In a rural region in NW Argentina, several localities are supplied for domestic use by surface waters with variable contents of dissolved F− (from 0.3 to 3.1 mg L−1) of geogenic origin. Dental fluorosis, from very mild to severe, has been registered in the population according to the spatial variability of dissolved F−. In this work, statistical models demonstrated that the concentrations of dissolved F− that determine the occurrence of dental fluorosis (and its severity) depend on the concentrations of dissolved Ca2+. In children and adolescents, the probability of presenting this disease, at any degree, increases with age and dissolved F−; whereas moderate-to-severe degree is controlled by an inverse relationship between dissolved F− and Ca2+. This last result was also obtained in the group of adults, for any degree of dental fluorosis. Thus, for a particular concentration of dissolved F−, as dissolved Ca2+ increases, the probability of developing dental fluorosis decreases. The findings of this work could be useful to adjust the current regulations, since guidelines of dissolved F− in drinking water for different degrees of dental fluorosis are not considered, nor the relationship between F− and Ca2+.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater using Azolla pinnata and
           evaluation of its suitability for irrigation purpose

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      Abstract: Abstract Water scarcity is on the rise due to an abrupt increase in population and the competitive use of water resources. This necessitates the reuse of wastewater such as grey water and aquaculture wastewater for irrigation, particularly in developing countries, where treatment and reuse of wastewaters have not been prioritized. This study was conducted to evaluate aquaculture wastewater treated in constructed wetland using Azolla pinnata, and studies that comprehensively evaluated the efficacy of A. pinnata for the treatment of aquaculture wastewater is scanty. Aquaculture water from a Research Fishpond was treated with A. pinnata on a 5 day retention time, untreated and treated water from the constructed wetland (CW) were sampled for determination of physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The result from the study showed that the constructed wetland was capable of removing microbial counts within the 50 and 77% range, while the percentage removal of heavy metal ranged within 2.98 and 82.4% In addition, in most cases the physico-chemical properties of the treated aquaculture wastewater were within the permissible limit recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), hence, its suitability for irrigation purpose. However, the chemical properties were significantly highest (p < 0.05) in the untreated aquaculture water compared to groundwater and treated aquaculture water. Therefore, this study has innovatively shown the efficacy and effectiveness of A. pinnata in treating aquaculture wastewater for irrigation purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12
       
  • Comparative evaluation of classic and seasonal time series hybrid models
           in predicting electrical conductivity of Maroun river, Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA), Holt–Winters models (Hw), artificial multilayer perceptron neural network (ANN), seasonal time series hybrid models, Holt–Winter ANN (HN), and SARIMA–ANN hybrid models have been used to model and predict the parameter of monthly electrical conductivity (EC) of the Maroun river at Idenak hydrometer station. In this research, the data related to Khuzestan water and power authority organization has been used for 47 years from 1971 to 2018. Partial mutual information algorithm (PMI) was used to select the effective input parameter. The value of magnesium with a delay of 2 months and sodium with a delay of 1 month and the factors of temperature (with a delay of 1 month), acidity (with a delay of one month), and flow rate (with a delay of 2 months) were introduced as inputs to artificial neural networks in this study. By the values of the coefficient of determination 0.86 and the root mean square 11.3, SARIMA–ANN hybrid model has higher accuracy than the other models in predicting the monthly EC qualitative parameter. The results of this study showed that among the classical models, the neural network model with input parameters affected by the algorithm had better performance than the four classical models. Also, the weakest performance in predicting the quality parameter is the Holt–Winters model.
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
       
  • Rethinking the sustainability of rural water delivery under the community
           ownership and management model

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      Abstract: Abstract Community ownership and management (COM) is, without a doubt, a viable alternative for rural water management. However, the extent to which communities control their water supply infrastructure in terms of engaging in crucial decisions and the performance of all stakeholders along the service delivery chain—from national to community levels—continues to be a challenge. The goal of this research is to add to the conversation on COM by clarifying the paradigm and its implications for the long-term viability of rural water services. It is also expected to spark debate in the rural water sector and, in turn, influence a revision of the National Community Water and Sanitation Programme to reflect current needs. The study looked at how the COM model of rural water provision was implemented. Using focus groups and surveys, the study used a non-probability purposive sample technique to identify stakeholders at the regional, district, and community levels. The paper discovers and suggests that COM has been the least responsive to rural water service sustainability. In actuality, at all stages of the delivery chain, there is a flagrant disregard for clearly stated functions in sector manuals. Regional and district players face logistical challenges, while community service providers struggle with governance, technical operations, and financial management. For effective and efficient management of water systems, more needs to be done by key stakeholders, including greater capacity support and oversight of service providers' activities, as well as engagement with partners.
      PubDate: 2022-09-07
       
  • Heavy metal contamination and exposure risk assessment via drinking
           groundwater in Ain Azel territory, north-eastern Algeria

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      Abstract: Abstract This study examined the degree of heavy metal contamination of Ain Azel territory in north-eastern Algeria. The groundwater quality was evaluated using water samples collected from 11 localities during May 2018. Thirteen physicochemical parameter values including temperature (T), pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), bicarbonates (HCO3−), sulfates (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), and nitrates (NO3−) were recorded. Six heavy metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). All the results were compared with WHO standard for drinking water quality. Also, the data were used to estimate the pollution evaluation indices (HPI, HEI, Cd), which indicated that 63.63% of the water samples had high HEI value and 72.72% of the total analyzed samples had high Cd values, indicating high contamination in these samples. The high values of health risk assessment parameters (ADD, HQ, CR) for the groundwater samples predicted possible health risks to the local people by drinking metal-rich groundwater. Principal component analysis unconnectedly grouped heavy metals and physicochemical characteristics of groundwater and the calculated pollution indices. This correlation indicated that chromium and lead were responsible for the high values of HPI, HEI and Cd obtained in this study. Therefore, there is lead and chromium pollution in the groundwater of the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
       
  • Major ions, trace elements and stable isotope characteristics of shallow
           groundwater in the Bonaberi district, Douala, Cameroon

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      Abstract: Abstract Shallow groundwater of unknown quality, mineralisation and recharge processes is a major source of water supply to most households in the informal settlements in the Bonaberi (Douala IV) district, Cameroon. Accordingly, this study (December 2018) investigated the quality, hydrogeochemical controls, and recharge mechanism of 18 shallow groundwater (< 10 m deep) and 6 surface water sources in Bonaberi. Apart from Na+, Cl−, SO42−, Fe, Mn, and Al in some water sources, all other analysed chemical parameters were within the WHO (2011) guidelines for drinking water. The order of major ions abundance (meq/l) in the studied water was Na2+ > Cl− > Ca2+ > HCO3− > SO42 > K+ > NO3− > Mg2+ while the trace element abundance (ppb) was Ti > Fe > Mn > Sr > Ba > Al > Rb > Zn > As > Se > Cr. Two main water types identified in Bonaberi are Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Na-HCO3. Mineral weathering and leaching from pit toilets and waste dumps are major factors influencing groundwater composition. Stable isotopes show overlaps in surface water and groundwater, indicating hydraulic connectivity. The narrow ranges in δ18O values of the shallow groundwater suggest good water mixing and a homogenous aquifer. The major source of groundwater recharge is rainfall occurring by direct diffused rapid recharge through the permeable alluviums. This recharge favours the leaching of pollutants from residential pit toilets into the shallow aquifer. However, the groundwater mixing and its dilution by heavy rains results in relatively low NO3− and Cl− concentrations in the water though relatively higher in densely populated areas. The shallow aquifer in Bonaberi is vulnerable to pollutants generated within the city. Thus, drilling deep boreholes (after detailed hydrogeochemical studies) is recommended for a good quality groundwater supply. This will prevent water-borne infections given the increasing urbanisation.
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
       
  • Optimal surface water allocation under various scenarios in the Central
           Rift Valley basin in Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Lack of sufficient knowledge about available water resources, unbalanced supply and demand collaboration in water resource management, conflicts among different water use sectors, and improper allocation of available water resources in river basins are still major issues around the world, including Ethiopia. This will allow us to establish water allocation strategies and principles for current and future development planning. Therefore, the overall objective of this study was to allocate surface water resources within the Central Rift Valley basin, Ethiopia, sustainably for social, economic, and environmental benefits. The future water demand was projected using three future development scenarios: short-term, medium-term, and long-term. The water Evaluation and planning model (WEAP) was used to assess water supply and demand. The parameter estimation tool (PEST) was used to evaluate the model’s performance in simulating water availability, and the model accurately addressed surface water flow. According to the model findings, total estimated mean annual surface runoff leaving the watershed is 289.61 MCM. The estimated mean annual actual evapotranspiration, interflow, and baseflow were 2649.72 MCM, 78.74 MCM, and 77.60 MCM, respectively, whereas the estimated mean annual precipitation was 3095.67 MCM. The total available yearly streamflow at the outlet point is 445.95 MCM. The current domestic, industrial, livestock, and irrigation water consumption was 45.13 MCM. The present water demand result indicates that there is no shortage of water. Three basic scenarios were developed to forecast water demand up to the year 2050. The first, short-term scenario has little impact on future water demand. In the medium and long term, irrigation activities and the expansion of industry in the basin were implemented. In the medium and long run, there will be a shortfall of water demand in the industrial and agricultural sectors in upcoming years. Based on the findings of this study, it is advised that both water supply and demand side management strategies be adequately implemented and integrated in the Central Rift Valley basin in Ethiopia.
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
       
  • Evaluation of geochemical processes and nitrate contamination pathways in
           Vailapally watershed, Telangana, India: a stable isotope perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract Present research work is carried out to identify the sources of nitrate (NO3−) contamination in groundwater of Vailapally and its surrounding areas of Nalgonda district, Telangana having mixed agri-rural set up by means of geochemical perspectives. Altogether Twenty seven (27) groundwater samples are collected from borewell/hand pump covering both agricultural as well as rural residential areas. Analytical results reveal that maximum nitrate contamination (263 mg/L) is restricted to rural areas whereas, most of agricultural areas have nitrate concentration below the WHO permissible limit of 45 mg/L. Presence of significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations between EC, TDS, Cl− and SO42− with nitrate signify the unlined domestic sewage and sanitary system of the residential areas as the source of contaminant. Elevated concentration of lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and their affinity towards NO3− are found to be regulated by some anthropogenic sources like inorganic fertilizer, animal manure or sewage. Maximum NO3− concentration is also corroborated to minimum C/N ratio (0.32). Isotopic signature further pinpoints that both animal waste and organic soil nitrogen are the major contributor of nitrate in the groundwater of Vailapally watershed.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
       
  • Critical review on sustainable bioreactors for wastewater treatment and
           water reuse

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      Abstract: Abstract Rapid developments are habitually connected with substantial wastewater production (sources- municipal, textile, landfill, digester reject, saline industry, tannery, greywater, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, coal gasification, etc.), which contains different pollutants like nitrogen, phosphorous, carbon, heavy metals, emerging pollutants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptive compounds) and others. In this critical situation and rising water demand, biological techniques are the need of the hour for wastewater treatment and reuse, thereby protecting the environment. This paper highlights the most used bioreactors like Biofilter, Vermifiltration, MFC, MBBR, UASB, and MBR and their unique features. Additionally, details like intermediates, microbiology, operational conditions, mechanisms, implications, advantages, recent advancements, shortcomings, and removal efficiency of target pollutants (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous- CNP; emerging contaminants- pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptive compounds) were discussed. The traditional and advanced versions of those bioreactors were also emphasized. Moreover, the review highlights different case studies related to the reuse scope of treated water that must be addressed for upcoming expansions and large-scale application of biological techniques in water reuse and the further development of hybrid systems. MFC is a well-known treatment technology for removing pollutants from wastewater when undertaken on a small scale; however, attempts should be made to make it successful on a larger scale. In Vermifiltration, further attempts must to be conducted to develop and design of robust systems as earthworms are sensitive to temperature and moisture.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Comparison of the monthly streamflow forecasting in Maroon dam using
           HEC-HMS and SARIMA models

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      Abstract: Abstract Streamflow forecasts are fundamental to the effective operation of flood control reservoirs and levee systems. Therefore, streamflow forecasting is of great importance. In this paper, the HEC-HMS conceptual model and SARIMA time-series model are compared to forecast streamflow in Maroon basin in the southwest of Iran to evaluate their ability and accuracy in monthly streamflow forecasting. First, the continuous rainfall–runoff was simulated monthly before the forecasting period by the HEC-HMS model. The monthly data from October 1991 to 2010 were used for verification. Also the data from 2011 to 2017 were used for calibrated HEC-HMS model. Streamflow forecast was conducted from 2018 to 2021 at the Idanak hydrometric station. To validate the SARIMA model based on the autocorrelation function, the partial autocorrelation of the residuals, Port-Manteau test, Akaike criterion and plotting the residual time series diagram on normal probability paper were used. The results showed that the accuracy of the HEC-HMS model in forecasting streamflow is higher than SARIMA model, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of predicted and observed discharges for HEC-HMS and SARIMA models are 2.8 and 3.4 m3/s, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
       
  • Processes governing nutrient dynamics in tropical urban-agriculture
           rivers, NE Thailand

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      Abstract: Abstract Eutrophication induced water quality deterioration is typically found in urban–agricultural environments, especially in tropical cities. This study aims to understand processes governing nutrient dynamics in surface running waters at three cities in NE Thailand. Sampling was performed in both dry and wet seasons. The sampling sites exhibited different hydro-morphological characteristics. The results showed high NH3 concentration, exceeding the national standard, and high PO43−, classified as eutrophic water. The N:P ratio, however, was typically below the Redfield ratio for optimal algal growth. Stepwise linear regression models describe the processes governing loss and supply of TKN, NH3, NO3−, and PO43− in the urban river waters. The processes include upstream dilution, sorption/desorption, resuspension, urban wastewater discharge, and biological processes. The findings suggested that urban nutrient management should focus on minimizing NH3 and PO43−, preferably by proper wastewater and stormwater collection, upstream soil–water conservation, and river bed maintenance.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
       
  • Potential use of groundwater for irrigation purposes in the Middle
           Euphrates region, Iraq

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      Abstract: Abstract Middle Euphrates Region—Iraq (MER) is important for Iraq’s agricultural activity and production. This paper evaluated the possibility of using groundwater for irrigation in this region. This evaluation was based on computing the irrigation water quality index (IWQI) spatial distribution via the geographical information system (GIS). The IWQI distribution map was integrated with the groundwater depth, land capability, and irrigation suitability maps to classify and zone the potential of using groundwater in the MER. To this end, the weighted overlay approach was applied. Spatial analysis of the IWQI illustrated that the groundwater quality in the MER could be classified into High, Severe, and Moderate Restriction classes, each covering 62%, 33%, and 5% of the MER, respectively. Classifying the groundwater via the weighted overlay approach produces four classes with low, moderate, high, and severe restrictions. Each has a percentage of 24%, 50%, 23%, and 3%, respectively. As these results showed, most MER has groundwater that can be exploited with low to moderate restrictions. These two classes are distributed along and near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. However, good percentages of these classes are distributed in the eastern and northwestern regions of the MER. Given the water scarcity that the MER suffers, groundwater with these classes represents a potential solution that can be employed to overcome the water shortage; nevertheless, it should not be exploited intensively as it may induce irreversible environmental impacts.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
       
  • Implementation of water-saving agro-technologies and irrigation methods in
           agriculture of Uzbekistan on a large scale as an urgent issue

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      Abstract: Abstract Usable water resource is limited, even though 71% of world is covered by water. Therefore, enough conflicts to the usable water can be found throughout the world. Usable water for irrigation is a top priority, probably it would be seconding only to the drink water supply. However, prioritizing one usage over another is challenging to many stakeholders. Therefore, sustainable water usage is essential to avoid any conflicts among the stakeholders; nevertheless, highly challenging in the developing world. Therefore, this paper discusses the water saving irrigation practices and ways to use agriculture around the world, including Uzbekistan. Relying on the ancient irrigation technologies used by ancestors and also modern irrigation methods, different irrigation water management technologies are presented to apply for various weather conditions and water availability situations. Suitable irrigation practices are discussed based on the water needs especially the arid countries, such as Uzbekistan. The results of an experiment conducted for hilly areas of Uzbekistan using “mulching” agro-technology is presented along with its suitability for Uzbekistan. Therefore, the expectations of sustainable water usage for irrigation is proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
       
  • Evaluation of statistical models and modern hybrid artificial intelligence
           in the simulation of precipitation runoff process

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      Abstract: Abstract To date, the rainfall-runoff process is among the most significant and complicated hydrological phenomena, regarding taking appropriate measures in terms of floods and droughts and surface water resources management. A proper understanding of the basin's behavior can play an effective role in model selection, such that simulation may become time saving. Providing the water of several large rivers in Iran, the Karkheh catchment is of vital significance in order for its precipitation runoff processes to be modeled. In this study, statistical and artificial intelligence (AI) approaches, i.e. multivariate linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector regression (SVR), wavelet SVR (WSVR), black widow optimization-SVR (BWO-SVR), and the algorithm of innovative gunner-SVR (AIG-SVR), were used to simulate the runoff process of the Karkheh catchment on a daily time scale during the statistical period 2010–2020. To evaluate the simulation performance, statistical indices were employed, including coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE), and percentage bias (PBIAS). As it was demonstrated, the studied models exhibited better performance in composite structures. Additionally, AI models have less error and better performance than statistical models. Further, the results highlighted that the AIG-SVR has the greatest efficacy with the least error in comparison with other models (R2 = 0.978–0.985, RMSE = 0.004–0.008 m3/s, MAE = 0.002–0.004 m3/s, NSE = 0.984–0.991, and PBIAS = 0.001). Finally, the use of hybrid AI models is an effective approach in the rainfall-runoff processes and can be considered as a suitable and rapid solution in water resources management.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
       
  • Impacts of temperature–rainfall and land use/land cover changes on the
           hydrological regime in the Muhuri River basin, Northeast India

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study aims to assess the impact of temperature–rainfall (TR) and land use/land cover (LULC) on the hydrological regime of a forested watershed. The authors consulted meteorological, hydrological, and remote sensing data in this research work. The study applied statistical techniques like regression and analysis of variation (ANOVA), which have been used to analyze the variability of TR and LULC and their impact on the hydrological regime of the river. To analyze the variability, the whole study period (1986–2016) was divided into two phases, i.e., 1986–2000 (Phase I) and 2001–2016 (Phase II). The statistical analyses proved that within the study period, water discharge, water level, hydraulic radius, and flow velocity experienced variation significantly (p value < 0.05) except for wetted perimeter (p value > 0.05). All the variables have decreased considerably in the second phase of the study period, i.e., in the 2001–2016 periods. Moreover, phase-wise seasonal analysis proved that the variations during monsoon and non-monsoon are lacking and prominent, respectively. The response of hydraulic variables to temperature–rainfall proved that the hydraulic variables had an insignificant correlation (R = 0.15 to 0.41) with the annual and the monsoon rainfall, while significant relation (R = − 0.26 to 0.78) was observed with the non-monsoon rainfall and temperature (maximum and minimum). There was a significant variation (p value 0.00) of LULC change in both phases. Statistical analyses proved that among the two phases of the study, the mean value of the forest class decreased significantly (from 550.37 to 425.67 km2). In contrast, rubber plantations increased extensively (from 21.36 to 128.36 km2) in comparison to the other LULC classes. Statistical analysis proved that the LULC change is very much responsible for the hydrological modifications rather than the rainfall.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
       
  • Assessment of the quality of dug well water samples in Nigeria and their
           suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes

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      Abstract: Abstract The quality of dug well water for drinking and irrigation purposes must be measured as part of a sustainable groundwater analysis. The study aimed to assess water quality and to evaluate their usefulness for drinking and irrigation, using the Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) and Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI). To achieve this, standard methods were used for the determination of physicochemical parameters of the water samples, while using models (ESP, SSP, SAR, MAR, KR, TDS, and EC) to ascertain their suitability for drinking and irrigation. According to the findings, the determined physico-chemical parameters were compared to standard limits and found desirable because they were within the guidelines. Low pH (6.4–7), total dissolved solids (106–130 mg/L), total hardness (42–56 mg/L), calcium (3.5–8.3 mg/L), magnesium (1.13.6 mg/L), nitrate (4.6–16 mg/L), chloride (1.8–3.1), and sulphate (14–15. mg/L) in the well samples were found to be the key cause of the low DWQI and IWQI value at these sites. The results also depicted that all the water samples are of excellent quality.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
       
  • Civil war's impact on the environment and on access to water and
           sanitation services: the case of Colombia

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      Abstract: Abstract Civil wars may result in deteriorated environmental conditions, and, in turn, may reduce the quantity and quality of water available to households. This paper explores the impacts of the Colombian civil war on access to water and sanitation services, using a theoretical household model in which civil war enters as a tax on the household income and on the prices of goods. The paper takes a unique approach by exploring how different levels of conflict intensity impact the probability of curtailing access to water and sanitation services. Empirical results suggest that civil war reduces access to water and sanitation services and deteriorates children's health. However, households adapt by internalizing the conflict intensity experienced.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
       
  • Public health concerns and water quality integrity of selected water
           sources in a peri-urban community

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      Abstract: Abstract The quality of potable water and treatment of diseases related to water like infectious hepatitis, cholera, bacillary dysentery, typhoid, paratyphoid, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis are critical public health issues. This research investigated the microbiological and physico-chemical quality of water sources in six towns in a peri-urban community, Edo State, Nigeria. The pour plate method was employed to investigate the microbial counts. The DO (dissolved oxygen) of the stored rainwater was the highest (6.59 mg/l) while sachet water had the lowest (4.61 mg/l). The temperature and pH range varied with the sachet water having the highest temperature of 31.9 °C and highest pH of 6.49 while borehole water had the lowest temperature value of 30.4 °C while the stored rainwater had the lowest pH of 5.30. Total coliform counts of the samples 40.0 × 10–2 cfu/ml to 152.0 cfu × 10–2/ml were highest in rainwater at Igueben town and lowest in sachet water at Udo town. The heterotrophic count was higher in the stored rainwater and lower in the sachet water; highest in Igueben town and lowest in Udo town. Bacterial species identified include Micrococcus sp (14.3%), Bacillus sp. (28.5%), Escherichia coli (14.3%), Pseudomonas sp., (7.1%), Enterobacter sp (7.1%) Staphylococcus aureus (7.1%), Corynebacterium sp. (7.1%), Samonella typhi (7.1%), and Vibro cholera (7.1%). Antibiotics susceptibility testing showed that all the Gram–bacteria were resilient to Amoxicillin except for Vibro cholera. All Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to streptomycin and resistant to amoxicillin. Drinking water from a sachet is the only water source that is suitable for drinking, according to W.H.O standard. It is recommended that the stored rainwater and borehole water should be boiled and treated well before consumption. Control measures against waterborne diseases will require improving water quality at the source, treating household water, safe storage, and good hygiene. To avoid and reduce waterborne diseases, drinking water sources should be monitored regularly.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
       
  • Analysis of meteorological drought indices in the Wadi Righ area (southern
           Algeria)

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      Abstract: Abstract Drought is a natural phenomenon represented by atmospheric changes in an area for a period. These changes cause an imbalance in the hydrological system. Our study aims to explain the meteorological droughts observed in the Wadi Righ area during the period of historical dryness from 1975 to 2018. It compares the performance of five indices for drought monitoring in the study area, such as the standardized precipitation index (SPI), rainfall anomaly index (RAI), deciles index (DI), Z-score, and percent of normal (PN). We compared the indices and examined the connection between them to come to a common conclusion that the Wadi Righ has suffered from dry conditions to varying degrees according to the indices. The years 1995, 1997, 2000, 2005, 2012, and 2014 experienced an extremely dry climate according to the classification of SPI (e.g., the drought of 2012 was extremely dry with an SPI value of − 1.67, PN = 26.4, RAI = − 2.38, and Z-score = − 1.25), RAI, DI, PN, and Z-score, while the climate of years 1999, 2001, 2004, 2009, and 2015 ranged from wet to extremely wet. The statistical methods of hierarchical ascending classification (HAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) were selected in the present research to prove and emphasize if there was a correlation between the indices. The use of HAC indicated that the data extracted from the calculated indices were grouped into two main groups; the first represented by rainfall which is the years characterized by low average precipitation (less than the average 68.84 mm/year), while the second is represented by the indices (the years which have a very high precipitation average). In general, this analysis confirmed the existence of a positive correlation between the studied indices and precipitation, which made it the main variable in measuring the indices.
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
       
  • Modeling the impact of land cover changes on water balance in the Vea
           catchment of Ghana, 1985–2040

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      Abstract: Abstract The ensuing effect of global land use changes on watershed hydrology is enormous, particularly in rapidly developing countries such as Ghana. Understanding how watershed land use dynamics influence hydrology is essential to devising effective land and water resources management strategies. This study evaluated the impact of land-use changes on hydrological components in the Vea catchment of Ghana from 1986 to 2040 using the Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov chain model for land change modeling and Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for hydrological modeling. The models performed satisfactorily with NSE values of 0.74 and 0.78 for calibration and validation, respectively, in SWAT and an overall Kappa value of 0.89 in CA-Markov. The land cover change analysis revealed a continuous increase in farmland and built-up areas alongside decreasing savanah forest which resulted in increased Curved Numbers (CN) from 81 in 1986 to 86 in 2040. Consequently, ET and baseflow decreased by − 7.8% and − 26.2%, respectively, while surface runoff, and water yield increased by 46.9%, and 5.1%, respectively. Despite the general decline in baseflow, the seasonal trend showed an extention to January, indicating adequate storage of water in the shallow aquifer that can be extracted for dry season gardening. While vegetation restoration is critical to reducing eroded sediment yield to guarantee reservoir storage, constructing dams and dugouts to harness the high surface runoff for irrigation and livestock watering in the long dry season is also needful.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
 
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