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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Sustainable Water Resources Management
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2363-5037 - ISSN (Online) 2363-5045
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Taking stock of trends and status of non-revenue water level and
           management for the City of Mutare, Zimbabwe

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      Abstract: Abstract Globally, non-revenue water (NRW) is one of the greatest challenges affecting water service providers, especially in developing countries where it is generally above 50%. This is the case for the City of Mutare (Zimbabwe). This study assessed NRW trends for Mutare based on the Standard International Water Association Water Balance (SIWAWB) and the Modified International Water Association Water Balance (MIWAWB) methods. The MIWAWB method unlike the SIWAWB method incorporates revenue collection efficiency. Additionally, the study assessed the status of the city’s NRW management arrangements. Data were collected from the council records and supplemented by questionnaires, interviews, and documentation review. The study found that the NRW level determined by the MIWAWB was higher (26.9 × 106 m3/year; 79.9% and 2244 L/connection/day) compared to the SIWAWB method (20.5 × 106 m3/year; 60.6% and 1713 L/connection/day). It was established that the overall current NRW management arrangements regarding apparent losses, real losses, unbilled authorized consumption and billed but not paid for water are poor leading to the high level of NRW. The City of Mutare should review arrangements for NRW and adopt the MIWAWB method to determine the level of NRW as it reflects the true NRW for the city. Also, the City of Mutare should consider having a NRW unit under the Engineering and Technical Services Department which specifically focuses on effective NRW management. The NRW unit should, thus, be capacitated in terms of skills, financing, and appropriate tools or equipment.
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
       
  • Role of Naga Nullah tributary as a major polluter of Loktak: a Ramsar site
           from Manipur, India with 3 decades in the Montreux records of the
           wetland’s convention

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      Abstract: Abstract For 3 decades, Loktak—a Ramsar site from the northeastern region of India (Manipur) in the Indo Burma hotspot has been in the Montreux list of Ramsar convention. Among the major threats to the wetland, the 36 tributaries play a significant role in the pollution of the Ramsar site. Therefore, the research was undertaken as a part of the ongoing continuous process to assess the characteristics of the major polluting tributaries of the wetland. The present paper reports the pioneer study conducted at Naga Nullah, one of the most polluted tributary during 2019–2021. During the study, water parameters showed low pH (5.95 ± 0.09), high electrical conductivity (1620 ± 0.55 µS cm−1), high turbidity (26.01 ± 2.13 NTU), high total dissolved solids (700 ± 1.83 mg L−1), poor dissolved oxygen content (0.32 ± 0.01 mg L−1), high nitrate and phosphate concentrations (51.73 ± 0.02 and 0.94 ± 0.03 mg L−1), respectively. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and irrigation water quality parameters calculated showed that the river water is unsuitable for both drinking and irrigational usage. Ultimately, the river empties into Nambul river and makes the river the main polluting tributary of Loktak. The Nambul river showed decreased pH (6.97 ± 0.44–6.28 ± 0.09) and dissolved oxygen (1.62 ± 0.01–0.32 ± 0.01 mg L−1), increased electrical conductivity (1000 ± 1.28–1640 ± 2.16 µS cm−1), turbidity (43.0 ± 1.06–69.4 ± 1.96 NTU) and total dissolved solids (334 ± 0.78–710 ± 2.97 mg L−1) after Naga Nullah discharges its heavily polluted water collected from the Imphal Urban region.
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
       
  • Classifying arsenic-contaminated waters in Tarkwa: a machine learning
           approach

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      Abstract: Abstract Access to clean and safe drinking water is key to the improvement of social lives in most developing countries. Due to its hazardous nature and detrimental effects on human health, increased quantities of arsenic in water bodies have been a growing global health concern in recent years. In Ghana, elevated arsenic concentration is reported in some waters in Tarkwa. However, constant monitoring of arsenic concentrations in these water sources are inhibited by the associated huge expenses. To facilitate early detection, this study aimed at developing efficient machine learning models for classifying high, medium and low levels of arsenic contamination using physical water parameters, such as total dissolved solids, pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity. These parameters were selected, because they are relatively inexpensive to measure, their data were available and they may influence the concentration of arsenic in the water. Thus, three machine learning models, namely, extra trees, random forest and decision tree, were developed and assessed using evaluation metrics, such as accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The evaluation results justified the superiority of the extra trees and random forest models over decision tree. However, all developed machine learning models generally gave remarkable performance when classifying waters with high and low levels of arsenic contamination. Moreover, the variable importance analysis revealed that pH had the strongest influence in classifying arsenic contaminated waters followed by electrical conductivity. The outcome of the study has revealed the potency of machine learning algorithms in assisting water monitoring practitioners for monitoring arsenic concentration in water sources.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
       
  • Identification of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing
           factor method, GIS and remote sensing techniques in the hard rock terrain
           of Madurai district, southern India

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      Abstract: Abstract The development of groundwater resources has been challenged due to an increase in water demand. An irregular climate and overpopulation have contributed to the groundwater crisis in recent years, resulting in overexploitation and overstressed aquifers. This work was carried out in the hard rock terrain of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India. The purpose of this study is to identify suitable groundwater recharge zones to satisfy this region's water resource demand. Each feature's weighting and ranking were calculated using the multi-influencing factor method and literature review. A number of thematic maps were prepared with ArcGIS software as part of this study. Groundwater potential zone is delineated by seven influencing factors including geology, geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, slope, lineament and drainage density. In this study, groundwater potential maps were obtained using GIS and remote sensing techniques by weighted overlay analysis. Groundwater potential is influenced by land use, geomorphology and geology. According to results, groundwater potential zones were found to be covering this region in increasing order such as high groundwater potential, low groundwater potential, and medium groundwater potential. With the help of groundwater level data, a groundwater potential zone was validated. In the future, it will be very useful to identify new locations for good groundwater resources as well as to manage water resources sustainably.
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
       
  • Application of Pb isotopes to the identification of geogenic and
           anthropogenic sources in groundwaters and surface waters in a world-class
           coal deposit area and associated thermoelectric power plant in Candiota,
           southern Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of lead isotopes has been widely applied to identify contamination sources in nature. The present study aims to investigate the Pb isotope signature of surface and groundwaters in the region of Candiota, southern Brazil, where the largest mineral coal field in the country is found to identify geogenic and anthropogenic sources of Pb. Sampling was performed following an environmental monitoring program carried out in the area surrounding a thermoelectric power plant. Isotope and concentration analyses of Pb were performed also in a variety of geological materials, such as coal, sandstone, and metasandstone, to identify geogenic sources of Pb. For the identification of anthropogenic sources, sampling covered all the activities developed in the area, including farming, marble mining, and urbanization, by measuring Pb isotopes on samples of coal ash, marbles, sediments, and pesticides used in rice and soy cultivation. The results obtained for 206Pb/207Pb were compared to data from the literature on anthropogenic sources of contamination worldwide. The data assessment showed that, regarding geogenic sources of Pb, the surface waters are influenced by coal in comparison to groundwaters which possess a signature matching sandstones as well as signatures similar to the ones from surface waters in some locations. As for anthropogenic sources, the study identified sources of Pb connected to marble mining, coal ash, and pesticides and their possible impact on the isotopic composition of waters and sediments analyzed in the region. Finally, the isotopic signature 206Pb/207Pb of groundwaters from two monitoring wells indicate also the influence of fuels and domestic sewage in their composition, showing, for the first time, that the area has a complex distribution of Pb both by geogenic and anthropogenic sources.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
       
  • Assessment of groundwater quality with special emphasis on fluoride
           contamination: a case study in Thar Desert, Pakistan

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      Abstract: Abstract Safe drinking water is inaccessible for about 1.1 billion people globally. This study scrutinizes the physicochemical characteristics, pollution sources, suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes, and associated health risks of groundwater in the Thar Desert of Pakistan. Groundwater collected from 15 villages was analyzed for physical and chemical contaminants We found that a significant number of sampled wells exceeded the World Health Organization’s (WHO) guidelines for various contaminants: F− in 9 wells, Cl− in 12 villages, SO42− in 10 villages, and NO3− in 11 wells. The groundwater was predominantly classified as Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl− > SO42− > HCO3− > NO3− > F−. Elevated concentrations of F− (0.24–29.9 mg/L), Cl− (20.6–8310 mg/L), NO3− (2.73–196 mg/L), and SO42− (7.74–1158 mg/L) exceeded WHO safe limits in most samples. Factor analysis identified both geogenic and anthropogenic activities as significant contributors to the observed groundwater chemistry. Based on the water quality index, 87% of samples were unsuitable for drinking, and a non-carcinogenic risk assessment deemed groundwater from 80% of the sites unacceptable for adults and entirely unsuitable for infants. Our findings indicate a high risk of F− and NO3− exposure for Thar Desert inhabitants. To ensure safe water consumption, we propose community-level implementation of treatment methods like distillation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Our study elucidates an urgent need for multi-stakeholder efforts toward sustainable water resource management and effective remediation. Implementing our proposed interventions and ongoing monitoring will be vital for protecting this vulnerable population's health and wellbeing.
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
       
  • Contribution to the land suitability analysis for potential surface
           irrigation development using remote sensing and GIS-MCE of the Soroka
           watershed, northwestern Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Lands are one of the most important assets of countries globally. Their potential, suitability, quality, and quantity are directly related to agricultural development and food safety. Sustainable agricultural production using irrigation is the most important goal of development for developing countries like Ethiopia, where chronic food shortages occur on a recurrent basis while the country has abundant surface water resources. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential lands suitable for surface irrigation using a nexus of geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques. In this study, different factors were considered, such as slope, soil properties (depth, drainage, texture, and stoniness), land use change, river proximity, road distance, stream power index, and topographic wetness index. The ranks of influencing criteria were designated based on expert judgments and correlation analysis, while the relative weights were determined using a pairwise comparison matrix. Weighted overlay analysis was done using the ArcGIS tool, and then the suitability of each factor was evaluated. The results showed that 18.31% (225.54 km2), 67.83% (835.46 km2), and 13.68% (170.69 km2) of the watershed area were highly suitable, moderately suitable, and marginally suitable for surface irrigation, respectively. The downstream and near-central parts of the study area are highly suitable for surface irrigation. This study is important for policymakers and national and regional irrigation development experts to develop irrigation projects in the future at the Soroka watershed. This kind of study is vital to boost agricultural production, improve community livelihoods, and contribute to food security.
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
       
  • Investigation regarding assessment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs)
           contamination risk in Rasht city with emphasis on the two rivers,
           Goharroud and Zarjoub, Gilan province, Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract Goharroud and Zarjoub rivers, vital contributors to Anzali Wetland in Rasht, Iran, face contamination risks from agricultural, industrial, and urban effluents. This study assesses heavy metal pollutants (Ni, As, Cd, Pb, Zn) in Rasht city and these rivers. Using Landsat 9 imagery and slope data, we classified diverse zones. 32 soil samples were collected from various locales, while 16 water samples were gathered for ICP-MS analysis during winter 2022. The analysis unveiled a low overall environmental risk, with As, Pb, and Cd posing the highest risks. Water monitoring indicated moderate pollution levels in the rivers. Metal concentration peaks were observed in the city center and areas adjacent to the Goharroud and Zarjoub rivers, largely tied to urban transportation and industry. This underscores the potential environmental impact on the city and the Anzali Wetland ecosystem. The study urges immediate attention to mitigate risks and emphasizes the urgent need for proactive policies to protect these crucial water bodies and the surrounding environment.
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
       
  • Pro-environmental behaviour in household water use. A gender perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract Efficiency in the use of water resources is one of the SDG 6 in all sectors. This research focuses on the efficient use of water in households. Specifically, we analyse differences in people’s behaviour towards ten household water uses. Compared to previous research, the main contribution of this study is the emphasis placed on the gender perspective. This research is carried out for Andalusia, a region in southern Spain with high water stress. OLS and probit estimations were made with a database of 2650 observations from 2018. No gender differences are found in the number of habits applied to make efficient use of water in the household. On the other hand, after studying ten household water uses in isolation, gender differences are found in certain pro-environmental habits. We cannot conclude the existence of a gender gap in environmental awareness of water use. However, the results suggest that there are differences in the adoption of pro-environmental habits in water use due to the distribution in the household chores, especially in those which are traditionally female or male.
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
       
  • Groundwater assessment using satellite data: study of a semi-arid area in
           Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract In the present research, changes in Ground Water Storage (GWS) in a certain period of time in a semi-arid area were investigated by employing GRACE (The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) dataset and GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) hydrological model. The time-series analysis of the studied area indicates declining trend of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) and GWS with mean depletion rates of 1.13–1.39 cm/year and 0.84–1.06 cm/year, respectively. However, parameters of soil moisture, precipitation, and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) do not show continuously declining trend. Results of this research prove that since about 9 years, groundwater extraction has continued, indiscriminately. Also, the average per capita water per person in plain has been decreased 100 m3 according to the JPL and CSR products, 79 m3 according to the GFZ product and 86 m3 based on Mascon and Mascon-CRI filtered products. Moreover, it is evident from the results that remote sensing is an effective tool to interpolate the observed regional groundwater data of wells and to improve estimations of GWS.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
       
  • Correction: Groundwater exploration in a granite aquifer using the
           telluric electric frequency selection method (TEFSM) in Eswatini, Southern
           Africa

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      PubDate: 2024-02-07
       
  • Simulation of urban environment flood inundation from potential dam break:
           case of Midimar Embankment Dam, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Urban settlements and infrastructures have been developed along rivers, often are located downstream of water storage structures such as dams or lakes. However, such proximity exposes many lives and properties to flood hazards. Hence, prediction of floods generated by the potential collapse of dams and their consequences on downstream urban areas helps to devise an appropriate early warning system and emergency action. This study simulates flood inundation effects of Midimar dam break on the downstream areas of Adwa town, located in Tigray regional state, northern Ethiopia. For this purpose, the study incorporated both Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and hydraulic simulation with Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for Midimar dam break analysis. The results from this study showed that both overtopping and piping failure scenarios at 423 m3/s probable maximum flood condition of Midimar reservoir represents a significant threat to downstream areas in an event of dam break. Accordingly, there is a significant risk on 16,168 human lives and 3319 houses. A loss of physical properties are expected to occur especially in the Adi-Abun and Adwa areas situated along the river floodplain area of 6.4 km2. It is also evident from the study that major infrastructure including seven out of nine bridges along the downstream river will be overflown. Hence, provision of flood hazard prevention strategy, emergency plan; and adequate buffer zone between the flood prone area and residential settlement and urban development sites need to be enforced. This study helps decision-making authorities in land use planning and developing emergency action plans to mitigate catastrophic loss of human life and property.
      PubDate: 2024-02-07
       
  • Groundwater and hot-spring interactions around Bakreswar geothermal spring

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to evaluate the groundwater quality and geochemical vulnerability using an integrated approach of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), statistical, and GIS methods in Birbhum district, West Bengal. About 55% of the study area shows excellent-to-good water quality, suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes. Nearly 45% of the area shows moderate-to-very poor water quality which is unsuitable for domestic use. The US Salinity Diagram indicates that ~ 82% of groundwater samples fall in low salinity and low sodium hazard categories, whereas thermal water samples fall into medium salinity and medium sodium hazard zones. The freshwater types, i.e., Ca–HCO3 (~ 24.14%), and mixed water types such as Ca–Na–HCO3 (~  \(55.17\%)\) and Ca–Mg–Cl (~  \(12.07\%)\) are the most dominant groundwater types in the region. The thermal water samples were mostly of Na–Cl–HCO3 water types. Factor analysis reveals that approximately 52.092% of ions, attributed to Factor 1, primarily originate from natural sources. Factor 2 (13.785%) and Factor 3 (9.153%) are predominantly derived from anthropogenic sources. The ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3−, SO42−, and Cl−, are mostly derived from natural sources such as water–rock interaction. Furthermore, Na+, K+, NO3−, SO42−, and Cl− may also be derived from anthropogenic sources such as infiltration of domestic wastewater, irrigation return flow, inorganic fertilizer, effluent from septic tanks, discharge of domestic trash, and industrial wastewater near the industrial area, etc. About 25% of the study area appears to be under high-to-very high geochemical vulnerability. The geochemical vulnerability model was cross-validated by the Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, which indicates a prediction accuracy of 0.73%.
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
       
  • Dam breach analysis and flood inundation mapping of Dire Dam, using
           HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS models

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      Abstract: Abstract Pre-event study of dam breaches is required to predict the amount of outflow and downstream propagation conditions that result in dam breach issues. This study aimed at dam breach analysis and flood inundation mapping of the Dire Dam in Ethiopia. The rainfall-runoff data was analyzed using the hydrological model of HEC-HMS. The hydraulic models of HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in conjunction to investigate the dam breach and flood inundation mapping hazards. In HEC-RAS, the breach parameters were calculated and peak flood was routed through the cross-sections for both overtopping and piping scenarios. Dire Dam is expected to face breaching problems due to overtopping when the flood reaches 7073.02 m3s−1. The peak flood hydrograph obtained for a piping mode of failure immediately downstream of the dam was obtained at 11,021.92 m3s−1, while it decreased to 1418.33 m3s−1 when traveling 33.2 km downstream with a time to peak of 0.4 and 2.4 h, respectively. The flood depth obtained by 1D and 2D downstream of the dam ranges between 0.0078–31.56 and 0.00195–20.45 m respectively. While the corresponding estimated flow velocity values of the 1D and 2D vary from 0.9100–12.5 and 0.0034–8.43 ms−1. Thus, the 1D flood modeling overestimated the depth of the water and flow velocity when compared to the 2D flood modeling. This is because the 2D model uses an implicit finite volume algorithm, which is more precise, accurate, and stable as compared to 1D. The total area that could be at risk because of the flooding hazard downstream of the dam is 358.7 ha. Overall, the study's conclusions showed that the downstream villages face terrible circumstances as a result of the flood risk brought on by the dam break issue and it should be advised that improved flood protection infrastructure be put in place.
      PubDate: 2024-02-05
       
  • Evaluation of the distribution and effect of potentially toxic elements in
           the sediments, surface water, and plants system with touristic activities
           in Xochimilco channels, Mexico

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      Abstract: Abstract Xochimilco is located in the southeastern part of the Mexico City basin; it is influenced by a floating agricultural system called chinampa. In this system, aquatic plants play an essential role in the environment and are impacted by various anthropogenic activities. This study aimed to determine the concentrations, distributions, and sources of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in water, sediments, and plants and evaluate the water quality of seven chinampa sites. The plants collected were Typha latifolia L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. T. latifolia is an emergent plant, whereas E. crassipes is a floating one. The results showed that most of the water's physicochemical parameters were within acceptable ranges, except for total dissolved solids, which exceeded the federal law on water rights (FLWR). The PTE did not exceed the limits proposed by SQuiRTs; however, Mn and Zn exceeded FLWR at all sites. PTE concentrations in the channel sediments were within normal ranges. PTE concentrations in the plants were within normal ranges, except for Zn in T. latifolia at sampling site 2. Pb was not bioaccumulated, indicating that these plants are Pb excluders or that Pb is not bioavailable. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation factor showed a high accumulation of Zn in most chinampa sampling sites, indicating its bioavailability. Hazard Quotient and Hazard index showed a risk of ingestion and inhalation of Pb for people through sediments. However, contact with water does not pose a risk of oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact.
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
       
  • Removal of Congo red dye by electrochemical advanced oxidation process:
           optimization, degradation pathways, and mineralization

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      Abstract: Abstract The degradation of Congo red dye has been studied by electrochemical advanced oxidation process based on the generation of powerful oxidizing agents especially hydroxyl radicals ·OH. In this study, the effect of several experimental parameters, such as pH, ferrous ion concentration, electrolyte support concentration and current intensity, on the process was investigated. The experimental design of Doehlert was applied to determine the optimum conditions of three factors, namely current intensity, initial Fe2+ concentration and electrolysis time for the Congo red removal. The relationship of response to experimental variables was represented graphically by the construction of the two-dimensional iso-response contour plots and those indicated that 360 mA, 19 mM Fe2+ and 30 min reaction time were optimal under 50 mM Na2SO4 at pH 3, leading to a total Congo red degradation. A quadratic polynomial model was determined and its statistical significance was verified through the variance analysis, which indicated that the proposed model was statistically meaningful and convenient for the results prediction. The mineralization of Congo red under the obtained optimum conditions was examined and the results showed a high TOC removal rate (81.1%) after 300 min of reaction time. Finally, a plausible degradation pathway was suggested.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • Economic productivity of irrigation water in large-scale irrigation
           schemes with different typologies: the case of Fincha’a and Koga
           irrigation schemes in the Abbay River Basin, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Improving irrigation water productivity by promoting the economic value of water is an essential strategy for sustainable water resource management. This study aims to evaluate the economic worth of irrigation water and water productivity (WP) in Abbay Basin, Ethiopia, using the Residual Valuation Method (RVM). Irrigated crop input used, production, and farm gate prices were collected using interviews and observation. The study's findings showed that from 10,061,354 ha (49.54%) of the basin's total cultivated area, only 75,193 ha (0.75%) was under irrigation. Two irrigation schemes (Koga and Fincha'a) with regular and accurate data were selected and used to estimate the economic worth of irrigation water. The Koga irrigation scheme's average WP of crops was 0.5 kg/m3. On the other hand, the WP of Fincha’a was 4.31 kg/m3, which was higher than the WP of crops grown at the Koga irrigation scheme. The average economic worth of irrigation water was 0.168 and 0.075 USD/m3 at Koga and Fincha'a irrigation schemes, respectively. The large difference in WP and economic value of irrigation water is because of water use, irrigation management, and market conditions. Generally, a community-managed scheme evidenced higher economic value of irrigation water than the government-managed one. The finding implies that water pricing and privatization of irrigation schemes can improve the economic value of irrigation water. The information generated will contribute to ongoing policy discourse to set water tariffs for different uses.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • Environmental impacts of a sprawling rural city on drinking water supply
           and quality in view of population growth prognostics and climate changes:
           a case study

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      Abstract: Abstract Drinking water supplied to Soran City originates from natural springs, wells, and rivers. The water has the essential requirements of drinking water. In recent years, the water supply has become problematic given the rapid population growth, lower annual precipitation rates due to climate change, and mismanagement of the water supply–demand strategy for near and future perspectives. These issues are compounded by the absence of water treatment plants, the lack of an efficient water distribution network, and the knowledge of seasonal variations in water quality. Despite the explosive population growth from 27,000 in 1991 to 196,895 in 2018 led to enormous pressure on the water supply and available water resources, which are limited. On a larger scale, these problems extend to include the indigenous and ongoing water scarcity that plagues Iraq. In part, this is caused by the neighbouring countries drastically decreasing the available surface water resources through numerous dams built on the Tigris and Euphrates, including the rivers flowing into the Kurdistan Region. Recently, the Kurdistan Region's springs depleted down to 40%. Furthermore, injudicious water usage is a social and administrative problem in Kurdistan, since it largely contributes to greater water loss. Mismanagement of water resources caused pollution and cholera outbreaks recently in the Kurdistan Region. Therefore, water resources represent significant national health, economic, political, and social security issues. This detailed study provides chemical, biological, technical, and statistical insights into the current and futuristic situation of safe drinking water and supply to Soran District, given population growth and climate changes.
      PubDate: 2024-01-30
       
  • Groundwater quality status in the Division of Fitri (Chad)

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      Abstract: Abstract In the Sahel region, groundwater is the main resource used for drinking and irrigation purposes. However, pressure from human activities poses several threats to this resource. The water quality of the Division of Fitri (Chad), is particularly concerned. The study, therefore, investigates the shallow water chemistry of this region by using major ions chemistry and water quality index. Firstly, result from piezometric analysis shows a recharge area in the north-eastern part of the division. Groundwater flows towards the lake where the aquifer becomes semi-confined to confined. In situ parameters revealed a dominance of neutral pH (7.2–8.01) due to a mixing of water circulation from silicate and evaporitic rocks. The mineralization increases significantly with depth due to borehole tapping gypsum while silicate rocks are associated mainly with the superficial formations. The facies CaMg-SO4 is the most important related to the dissolution of gypsum minerals. An influence of anthropogenic activities on groundwater is also reflected by some higher concentrations in NO3− (up to 160 mg/l) which is partially correlated with Cl− indicating a consequence of poor sanitation systems in the study region. Whilst Irrigation Water Quality Index suggest “No restriction’ for irrigation, Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) clearly shows that “poor” to “unsuitable” samples are located in the south of the Division where population is few. On the other hand, “Excellent” and “Good” water samples for drinking are observed in the north where human activities are less developed. This is evidence of the negative impacts that human can have on groundwater quality in rural areas thus, efforts must be carried out by stakeholders to protect the resource.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
       
  • The impact of land use land cover change on hydropower potential in
           northern Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Hydropower is the primary source of electric energy in Ethiopia. However, it is dependent on hydrology and sensitive to land use land cover (LULC) changes. However, little has been done to examine the potential impacts on hydropower from LULC changes. The objective of this study is to understand the impact of LULC change on hydropower potential of upper Geba catchment in northern Ethiopia. The LULC change analysis result revealed that croplands and urban areas significantly expanded from 49.5% and 0.9% in 2000 to 60.0% and 4.9% in 2018, respectively. In contrast, shrublands and grasslands constituted 39.7% and 8.2% in 2000 shriveled to 28.7% and 0.7% in 2018, respectively. Prediction of streamflow required for hydropower potential computation was performed with the Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants, and Atmosphere (WetSpa) model. The WetSpa model performed very well for both the calibration period from 1997 to 2008 and validation periods from 2009 to 2014 with results in Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients (NSE) values of 0.86 and 0.80 and model confidence values of 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. The result indicated that the mean daily streamflow in 2018 has increased by 19% compared to that of 2000. Hence, the output is found applicable for the prediction of hydropower. The study evidenced that the hydropower potential of the upper Geba catchment has significantly increased between 2000 and 2018 at an average rate of 167.3 kW, 57.8 kW, and 20.5 kW per year for 50%, 75%, and 90% dependency levels, respectively. Hence, it can be concluded that the LULC change in the upper Geba catchment has significantly increased the hydropower potential. Hence, it is recommended that the planning and operation of hydropower plants in Ethiopia shall consider the impacts of the changing LULC.
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
       
 
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