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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 161 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Agua y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
altlastenforum Baden-Württemberg e.V., Schriftenreihe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries     Open Access  
Aquasains     Open Access  
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Discover Water     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal and Hydraulic Structures (JCHS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecohydraulics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of South Carolina Water Resources     Open Access  
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Enggano     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural and Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
npj Clean Water     Open Access  
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ribagua : Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access  
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Soil Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Cycle     Open Access  
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Water Research X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
wH2O : The Journal of Gender and Water     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Water Policy     Hybrid Journal  
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Sustainable Water Resources Management
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2363-5037 - ISSN (Online) 2363-5045
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Graphical user interface for water distribution network pressure-driven
           analysis using artificial elements

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      Abstract: The simulation of the water distribution network (WDN) can be carried out either by demand-driven analysis (DDA) or by pressure driven analysis (PDA). DDA fails to present the real scenario when a pressure deficiency problem happened. On the other hand, in PDA, a relation between the available pressure and the actual demand exists. Many researchers have tried to model PDA using different methodologies by changing the source code of EPANET, adding artificial elements (AE) to the network, or changing demand nodes (DN) to emitters. Recent softwares are available to model the network in normal conditions using DDA; however, solving PDA's automated process is not available in any available software. This paper describes the development of a MATLAB-based program, which simulates the WDN in normal and abnormal situations. The developed program uses different existing PDA methods that add artificial elements to the network, which helps the decision-maker evaluate the network in different failure scenarios.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Hydrochemical assessment for the suitability of drinking and irrigation
           use of surface water in Grouz Dam Basin, Northeast Algeria

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      Abstract: Surface water quality is critical for regional and local community needs in Grouz Dam basin, NE Algeria. Subsequently, this research was assessed out to analyze the surface water suitability for drinking and irrigation and also aims to measure the degree of the hydrochemical implications to the sustainable control of water resources in this basin. Throughout this study, the aptness of surface waters for domestic use was assessed via evaluating the physicochemical levels with the recommended values for potable water settled by the WHO and water quality index. The values of the considered parameters are below the maximum tolerable limits for drinking except for Na+, NO32−, Fe, Cu, Al and turbidity. The suitability for irrigation was appraised using multiple agricultural water quality indicators like SAR, Na% and RSC. The ionic dominance in water changed into descending order of Na+  > Ca2+  > Mg2+  > K+ for cations and of Cl− > (HCO3− + CO32− > SO42− > NO3− for anions and, in all waters, two facies were determined. The hydrochemical analysis divulges that weathering and dissolution additionally to the anthropogenic activity are the dominant hydrogeochemical processes governing and/ or influencing water chemistry in Grouz Dam Basin. The overall surface waters are good for irrigation use and presenting a low salinity hazard but unsuitable for drinking. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the surface water quality and to implement and formulate an integrated plan to control the level of anthropogenic occurring contamination. It is recommended to carry out a systematic water quality monitoring program and development of effective management practices for water resources utilization in order to their best protection and sustainable preservation in this region of Algeria.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Effects of enset-based land use system on infiltration rate and curve
           number of the soil in Meki river watershed, Western Lake Ziway Sub-Basin,
           Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Background Enset-based land use system (EBLUS) exhibits good carbon stock and infiltration rate equivalent to forest covered areas, which enhances infiltration rate and water holding capacity of the soil and it can also reduces the curve number (CN) of the soil but it was not considered in former studies in Meki river watershed. Therefore, this study was planned to articulate the influence of EBLUS on infiltration rate and CN of the soil and also to interpolate the CN matrix of EBLUS relative to other LUSs with established hydrological characteristics in the watershed. The soil type data collected from Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy (MOWIE) and verified by Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) was used to determine the Hydrologic soil group (HSG) of the watershed. Land cover considering EBLUS was classified using ERDAS Imagine 2014 while other watershed parameters were generated from Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Infiltration rate of the soil was measured using Amozi-meter (Hood infiltro-meter) under different LUSs and considered in EBLUS CN matrix interpolation. HEC-Geo-HMS model, Geo-statistical tool, SPSS and MS-Excel were used to interpolate CN matrix of EBLUS relative to other LUSs. Result The field measurement results show that an infiltration rate of 12.9675, 11.1875, 10.375, 7.065 and 12.8125 mm h−1 for Natural Forest LUS, Grassland and plantation LUS, cultivated LUS, Bare/built-up LUS and EBLUS, respectively. The resulting CN matrix of EBLUS was 39, 51.5, 58.3 and 61.6 for HSG of A, B, C and D, respectively. There was higher infitration rate and lower CN matrix in EBLUS relative to other land use systems with formerly established hydrological parameters. Conclusion and recommendations The relatively high infiltration rate of the soil and a significant reduction in mean CN of the watershed shows the high role of EBLUS in water resources management. Therefore, escalating EBLUS will increase infiltration rate and reduce the CN of the soil which reduces runoff volume in the watershed and it ensures the sustainability of water bodies such as Lake Ziway by reducing sedimentation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Investigation of groundwater level fluctuations on the Ba river basin for
           water resources management and planning: a GIS-based approach

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      Abstract: Abstract Groundwater is the primary source of water supply for drinking, eating, living, and using in agriculture in the Ba river basin. In recent years, the rapid growth of the population leads to an increased need for water and food, this has put water resources under severe stress. The main objective of this study was to investigate the groundwater level fluctuations and water use information of residents in the Ba river basin. We selected and analyzed data from 56 monitoring wells and 25 boreholes from 1997 to 2017 in the research area. In addition, in situ investigation techniques for determining groundwater quality and water use are discussed in this study. The highest groundwater level contour map, the lowest groundwater level contour map, and the 3D model of the surface of the aquifer in the Ba river basin are established using inverse distance weighted interpolation technique on the GIS platform. Research shows that there are differences in groundwater between the rainy and dry seasons. Rainfall also was found as a significant factor affecting the groundwater level fluctuation. The results of the analysis have indicated that 64% of wells are contaminated with chemical, salt, ion, lime, and aluminum, while only 3% of groundwater resources are suitable for drinking and eating. The groundwater fluctuation was validated with the elevation map of the study areas. It was observed that the northern and southern–western areas had high elevation values, and these regions stretched out in the high groundwater-level fluctuation. These findings can be applied for investigating, planning, and managing water resources to develop sustainable socio-economic on the Ba river basin. This research will be helpful for planners and policy-makers to allocate groundwater resources in various sectors including drinking, eating, domestic, industry, and agriculture.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Sustainable integrated urban flood management strategies for planning of
           smart cities: a review

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      Abstract: Abstract Accelerated urbanization, changes in climate and rapid increase in urban population have several impacts on the urban hydrological cycle. Severe water stress and urban flooding are evident in urban cities and hence, smart cities, which are water-sensitive are the need of the hour. Extreme climate events and frequent urban flash floods, effect the performance and development of smart cities. Sustainable integrated urban flood management strategies are considered to be crucial in planning and development of smart cities. High rainfall intensity—short duration flash floods occur frequently in high-density-core urban areas causing disruption of social life, economic activities and infrastructural damages. Urban floods have become disastrous, due to random and unplanned urbanization, inefficient drainage systems and lack of real-time monitoring technologies. Urban floods are also accompanied with huge flood runoff which can be routed, stored and used for other smart city applications. This study highlights the various sustainable integrated urban flood management strategies and technologies in development of water-smart city. Framework for managing urban floods and planning of smart cities using smart source control systems, digital automations, remote-sensing applications and real-time technologies are reviewed. As a part of case study, current urban flood management strategies in Indian smart cities are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Impact of the environmental degradation of rivers on the reappraisal of
           international agreements related to the transboundary watercourse, Shatt
           Al-Arab River (Southern Iraq): a case study

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to demonstrate the dramatic environmental degradation of the freshwater flow in the Shatt al-Arab River (SAR) in southern Iraq and to review and evaluate the agreements, particularly the 1975 Algiers Accord, between Iraq and Iran, which share the southern part of the river. The data used were categorized into four parts, the discharges and salinity water data at two main stations located upstream and downstream of the southern of the shared area of the SAR. Data on constructed hydraulic structures, data related to the 1975 Algiers Agreement, and satellite images obtain in 1986, 2002, and 2020 were used in detecting land cover change. Results show that the SAR has been under major threat from the deterioration of freshwater characteristics, green cover degradation, and drought and warming conditions. The Algiers Agreement emphasized the demarcation of the river frontier and the freedom of international navigation without considering the importance of freshwater inflow sustainability. The minimum environmental runoff in the river is approximately 124 m3/s, which is required to sustain river fresh water. The study proposes a Freshwater Sustainability Principle that can be added as an amendment to the recent accord. This principle allows the contracting parties to collaborate on the security of SAR and sustenance of the minimum environmental inflow of the river.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Reconciling water circularity through reverse osmosis for wastewater
           treatment for a hyper-arid climate: a life cycle assessment

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      Abstract: Aiming to reconcile the water cycle and combating water scarcity, this study investigates the tradeoffs of upgrading tertiary wastewater treatment with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane, and reverse osmosis (RO) using life cycle assessment (LCA). The tradeoffs investigate if the higher burden of UF/RO is justified by providing higher quality of water returned to the cycle for arid regions that rely on seawater desalination. The tertiary treatment wastewater inventories are built based on activated sludge by vertical loop reactor (VLR), rim clarifiers and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. The inventories for the UF/RO trains are build according to the largest wastewater treatment facility worldwide. Open-loop, and consequential modeling principles were applied using the credited municipal water, while considering the local electricity-water cogeneration system for a hyper-arid region. The analyses are conducted on two levels: UF/RO versus advanced tertiary wastewater treatment with UV disinfection, and UF/RO versus the conventional seawater desalination. Wastewater treatment has reduced consumption of scares brackish water abstraction by 71.3%, a credible improvement towards reconciling the water cycle, that could be achieved by 40% of the current environmental burden and cost using tertiary treatment. If the UF/RO was legalized to be utilized for amenities use to substitute for desalinated water beside aggregation, only then the environmental and economic marginal increase could be justified.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Land suitability evaluation for surface irrigation using geographic
           information system: a case study in Didessa River Sub-Basin, Western
           Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Surface irrigation is one of the key strategies to address the 1st and 2nd United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (no poverty and zero hungry) to be achieved by the year 2030. This study is aimed to identify the physical land suitability of Didessa River Sub-Basin for surface irrigation. This study used GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) with 11 factors: soil depth, soil texture, soil drainage, soil types, slope, streams, land use land cover (LULC), temperature, rainfall, roads and market accessibility. This study produced potential surface irrigation areas of Didessa River Sub-Basin to be utilized by the farming communities. The obtained results showed that 3135.1 km2 (67.8%) of the study area is moderately suitable for surface irrigation. Thus, our results showed that the majority of the Didessa River Sub-Basin are suitable, while 479 km2 (10.4%) is not suitable for surface irrigation. We conclude that land suitability assessment for surface irrigation will minimize any unforeseen factor that may affect agricultural productivity. Lastly, we recommend further research to identify the most suitable crops for the identified potential surface irrigation areas.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
       
  • Hydrological impacts of climate change in gauged sub-watersheds of Lake
           Tana sub-basin (Gilgel Abay, Gumara, Megech, and Ribb) watersheds, Upper
           Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Climate change has been increasing in influencing the water resources of the whole world as a result of increasing carbon emissions. Hence, evaluating the impacts of climate change on the hydrology of gauged watersheds of Lake Tana sub-basin where the socio-economic activities of the surrounding community highly depend on this basin is the prime task of the researchers. For this study, HBV hydrological model was used to simulate future climate change impacts on hydrology. For Gilgel Abay, Gumara, Megech, and Ribb, the model exhibited NS values of 0.803, 0.79, 0.68, and 0.797 during calibration and 0.82, 0.8, 0.801, and 0.82 during validation, respectively. For Gilgel Abay, Gumara, Megech, and Ribb, model results RVE of − 0.72%, 3.7%, 8.9%, and − 0.68% are during calibration and 8.76%, − 1.5%, − 5.89%, and 8.5% during validations, respectively. Climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Gilgel Abay, Gumara, Megech, and Ribb watersheds were assessed using projections from two ensembles GCMs (MPI and MIROC) for one RCM (RCA4) under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for the 2040-s and 2070-s time domains. Even though the expected number of changes differed among watersheds, GCMs, and RCPs, increasing runoffs in the dry season and lowering runoffs in the wet season are detected in both periods, owing primarily to changes in projected precipitation. Even if future flow improves in the dry seasons, which might provide water for agriculture, a decrease in flow during the wet seasons would diminish Lake Tana storage during the summer, which would be used for the Tana Belles Hydropower project, potentially affecting Tana Belles Hydropower water demand and Lake Navigation depth. These changes will harm the country's economic well-being, necessitating successful adaptation measures to lessen susceptibility. The study revealed that climate change will influence the hydrology of the basin; hence, the government and concerned bodies have to be planned and implement future water resources management and adoption activities in the Lake Tana sub-basins.
      PubDate: 2022-04-30
       
  • The sustainability of freshwater supply as a function of temperature
           change and forest size in Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract The study examines the sustainability of freshwater supply as a function of temperature change and forest size in Africa. In particular, it analyzed the extent to which freshwater quantity is affected by changes in average annual temperature and stock of forests in African countries. Logarithmic regression models are employed to analyze secondary data from established web-based sources on Africa’s 54 countries. The model linking the dependent variable (DV), available freshwater per capita (FRESHWATER) and the independent variables (IVs), temperature (TEMP), and forest size (FOREST) as well as the control variable (CV) classifying countries as coastal or not (COAST), is shown to be statistically significant. Both IVs are found to be statistically linked to the DV, suggesting that the freshwater supply of African countries is influenced by temperature and their forest inventory as a proportion of all land. The link between FRESHWATER and COAST is not statistically significant, implying that a country’s location vis-à-vis the coast has no impact on its freshwater supply. An important policy implication of these findings is that authorities in Africa would do well to promote afforestation programs as a means of ‘making’ and conserving freshwater, and also a means of contributing to terrestrial cooling.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Groundwater management in the framework of socio-ecological system: a case
           study of Urmia plain, Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract The unbalanced exploitation and extraction of groundwater has put aquifers in crisis and made governance an important issue for governments. Research shows that aquifers are rarely restored after demolition. Plain Urmia in Iran with an annual reduction of 20-cm groundwater level is close to the critical disaster. The government has taken steps to exploit the water in recent years, but it has not positively affected the aquifer and has not been well received by the people. In this study, we identified factors and gaps using the resilience socio-ecological management framework of Bouchet et al. (Groundw Sustain Dev 8:579–589, 2019), which significantly impacts the current situation. We have identified factors such as economic growth, economic incentives, and population growth at the macro level as key factors influencing the groundwater management system. We also introduced internal factors such as water laws and regulations, technical approach and technological measures, power inequality among tourism operators, traditional smallholder, and commercial operators, and livelihood dependence on agriculture in the inefficiency of measures to control groundwater crisis. In addition to theoretically developing the management framework, we used empirical measures to explain it. We found that the adaptation and services of the aquifer ecosystem and the natural environment above the aquifer do not have the necessary efficiency under certain conditions such as being next to salinity factors such as lake and supra-local factors and community resilience and adaptation feedback above the aquifer plays a major role in groundwater management. This research opens both theoretical topics for study in different parts of the world and provides a framework for studying experimental projects.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Assessment of household water consumption during COVID-19 pandemic: a
           cross-sectional web-based study in India

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      Abstract: Abstract The fatal novel COVID-19 creates precarious threats to humans through speedy diffusion. This virus not only disrupts human health but also makes multidirectional loss and slowdown of modern earth. Almost all countries strictly imposed lockdown and social distancing norms to prevent the infection of COVID-19 virus. In almost all parts of the world, people are using more water for washing, cleaning, bathing and hand washing practices. As a result, per capita water demand along with expenditure have been significantly increased. The principal objective of this study is to evaluate the household level water consumption status and to improve the water security with management for future. The current study has been conducted among the general population of India to assess household level water consumption through internet E-Surveys Google form from August 18 to September 8, 2020. Around 1850 respondents have sent their comments from different sites (rural and urban areas in various climatic regions) of Indian subcontinent. The results show the tremendous increase of water usage along with electrical consumption and expenditure during COVID-19 pandemic situation. Our results revels that 10%, 15% and 17% of higher water consumption per day in rural, urban and peri-urban residential respectively. We hypothesize that the reasons for the increasing water demand and household consumption per day may be found in changed behavioral routines through bathing, washing clothes, and hand washing practices. This web-based study also suggests that few alternative and dependable management techniques i.e. rain water harvesting can be installed to fight the crisis and for the sustainable future. Subsequently, research and development are highly required for long-term management of water resources or reuse of water.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • Occurrence, spatial distribution, and health risk assessment of heavy
           metals in groundwater from parts of the Kassena Nankana area, Ghana

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      Abstract: Abstract In the absence of treated pipe-borne water supply to some local communities, groundwater can readily serve demands for agricultural and drinking purposes. Nonetheless, natural and anthropogenic activities can impact groundwater quality and render it unsafe for human consumption. Most communities in the Kassena Nankana district depend on water from boreholes for domestic use. The quality of groundwater in the area, particularly the heavy metals content, therefore needs to be assessed. In this study, the occurrence, spatial distribution, and human health risks due to exposure to heavy metals from groundwater in the area were assessed. The water samples were subjected to acid digestion (HNO3 + H2O2 + H2SO4) and analyzed for Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, and Cu using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The health risks due to heavy metals were computed using risk indices. Spatial maps were created with the aid of ArcMap and statistical analyses were done with SPSS. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were above the WHO limits for drinking water in 40 and 56% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals showed a complex distribution pattern in space with high concentrations observed mostly in the northern parts of the study area. The sources of heavy metals in the groundwater were potentially from both the aquifer material and anthropogenic inputs. Total hazard index (HItotal) showed potential non-carcinogenic health effects in 61.04 and 62.34% of samples for adults and children, respectively, and the total cancer risk (CRtotal) showed potential carcinogenic health effects in 64.94% of samples for both groups. Risks of heavy metals exposure were higher in children than adults with Cr posing the highest threat. Constant quality monitoring, implementation of environmental management strategies, and treatment of groundwater before drinking are recommended to protect the groundwater and safeguard the health of inhabitants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
       
  • Hydrochemical and isotopic assessment of a stressed multilayer aquifer in
           the Moroccan eastern High Atlas

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      Abstract: Abstract Water pollution is an increasing global concern affecting millions of people around the world, especially in arid to semi-arid areas. Management of water resources has become a crucial requirement for present times and specifically for future decades due to its detrimental impact on populations. The eastern High Atlas represents a demonstrative situation to highlight the problems in water-stressed areas. The eastern High Atlas of Morocco has a semi-arid climate and low rainfall (< 200 mm), irregular in time and space. The hydrology of the studied basin is characterized by intermittent flows and frequent, sometimes intense, limited floods. The main aquifer corresponds to the Plio-Quaternary deposits containing an unconfined groundwater of low thickness, from 3 to more than 30 m. This aquifer is controlled by the Paleozoic basement—Mesozoic to Quaternary cover interface. The hydrogeological system is located in a structurally complex area. The fractured and weathered surface part of the basement, directly in contact with the cover deposits, is also permeable. This system is mainly recharged by the depletion of the seasonal groundwater which take place in the Mesozoic landforms during rainy periods. In this semi-arid area, we show that the water resources and their qualities are highly dependant on the climatic conditions and water–rock interaction. The 2H and 18O isotopes indicate that the recharge of the Plio-Quaternary aquifer is mainly through precipitation on the summits of the NW part of the basin. The 3H isotope reveals that the waters in the basin are less than 50 years old, implying a rapid turnover. The reduced potential of the groundwater and its quality of medium to high alkalinity, limit its use for drinking and irrigation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Role of horizontal bores in improving the yield of large diameter wells in
           low permeability aquifers

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      Abstract: Large diameter wells successfully abstract groundwater from aquifers with low permeabilities and ensures sustainable water supply in many arid and semi-arid regions. Their efficiency can be enhanced by the provision of horizontal bores drilled from near the bottom of the wells; these bores are often unlined. Hydraulic conditions in these bores can limit their effectiveness if non-laminar flows occur. This paper describes conceptual and computational models which represent conditions in an aquifer, in the well, and in the bores, where laminar, transitional, or turbulent flows can develop. When a bore is unlined, the friction factor is unknown; hence the Reynolds number cannot be calculated; consequently, an equivalent conductivity approach is adopted. A large diameter well in Rajasthan, India, is used to explore how conditions in the system change with time. The computational model is verified by replicating data from a pumping test in a large diameter well with horizontal bores; the recovery phase, extending over more than 2 days, is of crucial importance. The operation of the well for longer time periods is investigated, comparing responses without and with bores. When simulating pumping for 30 days, the yield of the system is increased with the bores collecting water from the water table at greater distances from the well.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • The use of environmental isotopes in groundwater studies with
           hydrogeoethics: essential or dispensable'

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      Abstract: Groundwaters are the primary source of drinking water for half of the world’s population. They represent about 97% of the world’s available freshwater resources, being extensively abstracted and contaminated in many parts of the world. Among groundwaters are the thermal waters, a source of health, well-being, and a major touristic attraction (geoheritage), also providing a link to the natural environment. Therefore, it is strongly important to manage such type of groundwaters in a sustainable way, according to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Development Agenda. In this context, geoethics plays an important role to raise in geoscientist’s community their awareness of ethical, social, and cultural responsibilities in conducting scientific Earth Sciences activities, and their possibility to influence decision-makers concerning groundwater sustainable management (hydrogeoethics). This paper aims to highlight the role of environmental isotopes in hydrogeoethics. A brief review of two case studies is presented, showing that nuclear techniques (Isotope Hydrology), combined with other tools of Geosciences (e.g., Geology and Geochemistry), have demonstrated to be essential in the sustainable management of different types of groundwater resources: (i) the Caldas da Rainha thermal waters, where conventional geochemical and isotopic techniques (e.g., δ2H, δ18O, 3H, δ34S(SO4) and δ18O(SO4)), showed that the thermal waters are “geologically protected” from anthropogenic contamination, and (ii) the Santa Margarida Military Camp case study, where δ2H and δ18O data clearly showed no mixing between the Mediterranean temporary pond waters (projectile impact zones associated with real fire training) and the groundwaters of the region, used for agriculture and human consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Investigation of seepage paths from dam embankments using magnetic
           methods: case study of Jebba earth dam, Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to detect possible seepages paths from the dam embankment and describe structural defects such as faults, joints resulting from fracturing, and their antagonistic effect on the dam embankment. The land magnetic survey was conducted to identify the chief structure and the depth to the basement along the embankment part of the Jebba dam. Data were acquired with a proton precession magnetometer G-857 along three parallel profiles oriented NS with a length of 1.21 km along the dam embankment at an interval of 10 m apart. The Analytical Signal map against the total magnetic intensity (TMI) map indicated a fault at 48 m distance from the beginning of profile 1 closest to the dam axis, and an intrusion at 34 m distance. Faults were detected around horizontal distance 12 m, 38 m and there is an intrusion at 4 m and 54 m distance along with profile 2. No faults were observed but an intrusion was observed at a 95 m distance along with profile 3. Reduction to Pole map was produced to show the correct position of the magnetic susceptibility over profile distance. The correlation of the upward modeling maps and first derivative maps shows that the geological structures are continuous from shallow depth to a deeper depth. Thus, this study shows that beneath the embankment (i) there exist fractures and intrusions (ii) the geological structures are continuous from shallow depth to the deeper depth, (iii) there is enough evidence to suspect seepage in the dam area. Therefore, the magnetic investigation revealed the present condition of the Jebba dam.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
       
  • A new decision-oriented groundwater protection model: framework and
           implementation in a case study in Morocco

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      Abstract: Groundwater protection models systematically assess the vulnerability of the entire aquifer. They require extensive but often scarce or expensive data to produce guidelines that are barely comprehensible to policymakers. A better alternative would be a cartographic fragmentation of the landscape to target locations where polluting activities exist or are expected and simplify the model so that it is easier to implement and leads to measurable, realistic, and timely actions. In this paper, we propose a new flexible user-oriented Groundwater Protection Model (GPM) that adapts to land use changes to anticipate protection measures. It was designed to provide two key elements: (i) the response time which is a function of thickness and hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated zone, and (ii) the protection measures that depend on the type of contaminant likely to penetrate from a surface spill. GPM was tested in a case study in Morocco where targeted geophysical surveys filled the data gap. The results are consistent with previous classic studies and have the advantage of being cost-effective and spatially specific. For this, we recommend its broad application to improve the management and protection of groundwater, particularly in the event of a lack of means or data. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Forecasted water demand using Extended Cellular Automata Markov Chain
           Model: case of Saida and Jezzine regions in Lebanon

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      Abstract: Abstract Forecasting water demand in urban areas is crucial for local officials and water network planners in allocating investments in water infrastructure. Estimates of future climate variation, urbanization, population growth, socioeconomic development, water pricing and water management programs are considered the baseline data to forecast future water demand. However, there is a continuous change in the urban fabric and dynamic transitions in land use. The land use/land cover evolution and the changes of the urban agglomerations and population distribution could additionally affect the water demand. This paper discusses the applicability of the Extended Cellular Automata Markov Chain Model to forecast future water demands in urban areas based on forecasting future land use dynamics. Results generated from simulating the future land use pattern reveal that new urban settlements will take place in areas with very low coverage of water supply service. Furthermore, differences in urban densities provide an overview of the water demand relatively to the population density. It is worth noting that 57.6% of new urban development, taking place between the years 2018 and 2054, is expected to have a population density less than 500 per km2. Further studies are needed to investigate water demand in low density areas since the corresponding housing types may increase the water usage.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Assessment of water harvesting potential sites using GIS-based MCA and a
           hydrological model: case of Werie catchment, northern Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to erratic and unpredictable rainfall pattern in northern Ethiopia, water availability for various purposes is becoming uncertain. As a result, harvesting potential surface runoff during the wet season is indispensable for satisfying demands in the dry period. The objective of this study was, therefore, to develop site suitability index for the implementation of water harvesting techniques (WHTs) such as check dams and farm ponds. A GIS-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) integrated with the Soil Conservation Service-Curve number model was used to process and generate the suitability index. Results of the WHTs suitability index showed that from a total of 885 km stream length, 52.3% was highly suitable and 40.6% was moderately suitable for check dams. Similarly, 18% of the total study area was highly suitable and 51.2% was moderately suitable for farm ponds. The developed suitability indexes were validated and results showed that 88% of existing functional check dams were located in a moderately to very highly suitable streams. The remaining 12% of the check dams were located in unsuitable streams. Similarly, 74% of existing functional farm ponds were located in a moderately to highly suitable areas and the remaining 10% were located in unsuitable areas. Validation of GIS-based MCA integrated with hydrological model indicates that a similar method can be used to assess suitability of other areas to WHTs. Moreover, practitioners and decision makers can also use these findings for planning and development of water resources.
      PubDate: 2022-04-16
       
 
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