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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Agua y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
altlastenforum Baden-Württemberg e.V., Schriftenreihe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Aquaculture and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Aquasains     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Living Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Discover Water     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Water     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hydrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Water Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal and Hydraulic Structures (JCHS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ecohydraulics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of South Carolina Water Resources     Open Access  
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Enggano     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural and Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
npj Clean Water     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ribagua : Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access  
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Shuiwen dizhi gongcheng dizhi / Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Soil Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Water & Sanitation Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Water Cycle     Open Access  
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Water Research X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 101)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
wH2O : The Journal of Gender and Water     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Water Policy     Hybrid Journal  
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2476-6283
Published by Razi University Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Evaluation of the various adsorption isotherm models for the
           photocatalytic removal of methylene blue from the wastewater by graphene

    • Abstract: Treatment of wastewater is a crucial step in reducing pollution from the textile and dyeing industries. One of the best techniques for dye removal is photocatalytic processes, and TiO2 is frequently employed in numerous wastewater treatment applications. In this study, different adsorption isotherm models and experimental data from the removal of the methylene blue dye from wastewater by applying GO/TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite were compared. The correlation coefficient values (R2) for the Langmuir isotherm type 1 (Hanes-Woolf), Temkin, and Freundlich were determined to be, respectively, 0.9957, 0.9823, and 0.9515. Additionally, the R2 values for the Redlich-Peterson, Sips, and Toth isotherms models were 0.9575, 0.9626, and 0.9629, respectively. Therefore, Langmuir isotherm type 1 has the highest R2 and is the best model for surface adsorption of methylene blue on GO/TiO2/SiO2 photocatalyst. As a result, monolayer adsorption was most likely dominating during the adsorption. Furthermore, this photocatalyst proved suitable for lower methylene blue concentrations and systems with lower temperature sensitivity.
  • Resistance to antibiotics and ability to tolerate heavy metals in bacteria
           isolated from Razi industrial wastewater treatment plant and effluent of
           refinery units in Isfahan, Iran

    • Abstract: Industrial activities present a significant threat to the environment and natural ecosystems like water and soil due to the release of toxic metals. This article primarily concentrates on the identification and isolation of bacteria, with the goal of effectively eliminating pollutants from industrial wastewater. In order to achieve this goal, the study was conducted to assess the ability of bacterial strains to tolerate copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as well as their antibiotic resistance and ability to tolerate elevated metal concentrations. The resistance of the isolates to various metals and antibiotics were assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and disc diffusion (DD) method, respectively. The technique of colony PCR was employed to determine the identity of the bacteria that were separated. Resistance to multiple antibiotics was assessed, including Penicillin, Sulfamethoxazole, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, Amoxicillin, Cefoxitin, Streptomycin, Chloramphenicol, Vancomycin, Gentamycin, Cephalothin, Rifampicin, and Novobiocin. In the current investigation, a total of 5 bacteria with a positive gram stain and 7 bacteria with a negative gram stain were identified. The study found that the effluent from the wastewater treatment plant in Razi industrial town showed resilience to copper ions, especially at a concentration of 7mM. The effluent wastewater from the refinery unit exhibited the greatest level of tolerance towards zinc, with a concentration as high as 6mM. The rise in copper and zinc levels in industrial wastewater treatment plants causes microorganisms to develop resistance to these heavy metals. The study of Gram-positive resistant bacteria conducted in this research focused on the examination of their susceptibility to zinc and copper. Notably, Staphylococcus hominis displayed resistance to a majority of the antibiotics evaluated. However, Kocuria rosea demonstrated sensitivity to all antibiotics. Agrobacterium fabrum exhibited susceptibility to all antibiotics as opposed to other Gram-negative bacteria resistant to zinc and copper. The findings of this study indicated that some strains displayed a degree of resistance to both antibiotics and heavy metals. The presence of heavy metals in bacteria isolated from a wastewater treatment plant exhibited the capability to restrict antibiotic resistance.
  • The use of response surface methodology for modeling and optimizing of
           p-nitrophenol contaminated water treatment process conducted by the
           non-thermal plasma discharge technology

    • Abstract: In the realm of industrial development, a variety of organic pollutants, including petroleum compounds, have emerged as persistent environmental concerns due to their non-degradable nature. To effectively address this issue, plasma technology has garnered significant attention as a promising approach for wastewater treatment, offering the capability to eliminate a wide spectrum of contaminants. This research capitalizes on Response surface methodology (RSM) to explore the independent and combined effects of key factors such as initial concentration, pH, applied voltage, and time on the degradation of a specific pollutant known as PNP, utilizing non-thermal discharge plasma technology. The outcomes of this investigation unveiled several noteworthy trends. Enhancing the initial pH, applied voltage, and reaction time while reducing the initial concentration exhibited a positive influence on the removal efficiency. Additionally, the study examined the interactions among these variables, revealing both antagonistic and synergistic effects. Specifically, antagonistic relationships were observed between initial concentration and initial pH, initial concentration and applied voltage, as well as applied voltage and time. On the other hand, a synergistic effect was noted between initial concentration and time. By employing an optimization approach, the optimal conditions for achieving PNP degradation were determined to be as follows: an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, pH of 9.7, applied voltage of 13.75 kV, and a reaction time of 8 min, resulting in an impressive removal efficiency of 96.503%. The findings of this study underscore the immense potential of non-thermal discharge plasma technology and the utilization of RSM in advancing the optimization of advanced oxidation processes for effective wastewater treatment.
  • Identifying and explaining the indicators and components of water
           reporting in corporate level using the Best-Worst Method

    • Abstract: The occurrence of global environmental crises, combined with population growth and increased global water demand, highlights the pressing need for effective management of water resources. This includes comprehensive attention to water administration, consumption, and reporting. The objective of this research is to investigate the frameworks of global water reporting and provide a robust and comprehensive model for water reporting in Iranian listed companies. To achieve this goal, a survey was conducted in 2023 involving sixteen experts in water reporting. The participants consisted of engineers and managers from prominent companies in the water consumption and sustainability reporting sector, as well as university professors specializing in sustainability studies and research. The aim was to identify the appropriate components of water reporting for companies listed on the Iran Stock Exchange. Subsequently, the Best-Worst Method (BWM), a multi-criteria decision-making approach, was employed to determine the importance of each reporting item and establish the priorities of the reporting components. The results revealed that the main components of water reporting, ranked in order of importance, are as follows: performance, business strategies, water-related impacts, metrics, water governance, risks and opportunities, and finally regulations and rights. These findings hold valuable implications for stock market policymakers and company managers. By recognizing these critical indicators and components, they can effectively mandate water reporting for Iranian listed companies. Furthermore, they can ensure that water reporting accurately reflects the significant aspects of corporate operations related to water resources.
  • Assessment of the impact and causes of malfunction of the wastewater
           treatment plant of CRE (Cameroon Real Estate Company) camp of the
           “Cité-Verte” district (Yaoundé Cameroon)

    • Abstract: This paper assesses the environmental impact of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the Cameroon Real Estate Company (CRE) camp in the "Cité-Verte" district in Yaoundé (Cameroon) and the causes of its malfunction. The study was carried out in two stages. The first stage consisted of describing the wastewater treatment steps of the WWTP, and analyzing the staff interviews in order to determine the causes of malfunction that had been suspected. The second phase consisted of collecting water samples at the entry of the WWTP (P1), inside the WWTP (P2), and at the outlet of the WWTP (P3). This, in order to produce a list of the WWTP's collecting systems, characterize the various types of wastewater (P1 and P2) and the treated wastewater (P3), and then determine the effect of effluent discharges on the environment. Finally, the structural and operational malfunctions of WWTP are identified using the Ishikawa and the Pareto diagrams. The results of water characterization show that the mean values of pH (7.7), EC (1059.3 μS/cm), TDS (524.6 mg/L), T° (23.6 °C), BOD5 (10.8 mg/LO2), NO3- (2.3 mg/L), and fecal coliforms (447.3 CFU/100 mL) are below the acceptable limit values of the Cameroonian standard of treated wastewater discharge. However, the mean values of TSS (269.3 mg/L), PO43- (1661.6 mg/L), K+ (1220.6 mg/L) and Escherichia coli (10133.3 CFU/100 mL) exceed the recommended values set by the Cameroonian standard of treated wastewater discharge. The values of the wastewater parameters at the sampling point P3 are globally lower than those at the sampling point P1 but higher than Cameroon’s standard for PO43- and K+. These results demonstrated that the current system (filters and plants) is appropriate but not optimal. The Pareto diagram reveals that the inadequate plant controls, unfavorable working conditions, lack of maintenance andsystematic control, and outdated equipment represent 20% of the causes responsible for 80% of the WWTP's malfunction. Therefore, the implementation of corrective and preventive measures is essential for better monitoring and determinization of the optimal performance of the WWTP of the CRE camp in the "Cité-Verte".
  • Comparison of head – leakage flow equations for circular holes in water
           distribution networks with a new equation

    • Abstract: In the operation of water distribution networks in cities, leakage from pipes always causes problems for human health and for the environment. Leakage openings in pipes may exist in different shapes. Circular holes are common in corroded and punched pipes. In the leakage studies, the area of these openings is usually assumed to be fixed and the leakage exponent is about 0.5. In this study, an analytical equation has been presented with two purposes. First, Examining the changes in the leak area and leakage exponent of circular holes. Second, providing an equation that contains more parameters than the general leakage equations. By using such an equation, the accuracy of leakage estimation is increased due to the direct involvement of the effective parameters. Also, for the possibility of modeling different leakage equations, including the present equation, a new hydraulic analysis model has been developed. This model tries to improve leakage modeling by including more capabilities than the existing hydraulic analysis models. Results showed that the leak area in circular holes is not fixed and changes due to different parameters. Comparison of the present equation and the orifice equation showed a significant difference which confirms that the orifice equation cannot be always used for circular leaks. In the study of leakage exponent, it was found that for polyethylene pipes, the leakage exponent is higher than value of 0.5 mentioned in the other studies and it can take different values depending on the leakage position in the network. Increasing the hole diameter did not affect the leakage exponent, but increased the leakage coefficient. On the other hand, for steel pipes, the leakage coefficient was fixed and the exponent remained around 0.5. Finally, the results showed the usefulness of the developed hydraulic analysis model for implementing the scenarios defined in this study.
  • Investigation of integrated model for optimizing the performance of urban
           wastewater system

    • Abstract: Due to the rapid population and economic growth, the demand for water has increased. In addition, the natural resources are limited and degrade because of several factors such as the climate change. These challenges lead to reduce the ability of providing water at the required quantity and quality. One of solutions to maintain the sustainability of water supply from different sources is reuse of wastewater. For this aim, it is crucial to optimize wastewater systems. This research paper aims to describe different modelling possibilities and optimization methods for various components of integrated urban wastewater systems. The main conclusion of this research paper is the lack of study of optimum design and operation of urban wastewater systems in a holistic method. Moreover, most of previous studies on integrated wastewater management have been conducted on combined sewer systems.
  • Investigating temporal and spatial changes in the quality of underground
           water in Marvast plain

    • Abstract: This research was conducted with the aim of investigating temporal and spatial changes in the quality of underground water in Marvast plain in order to be used in planning for these resources. For this reason, the underground water quality data of Marvast Plain was prepared and selected for the research through the review and test of Run Test and Makos for the statistical period of 21 years (2001 to 2021). By performing trend analysis, the presence of trend in all data was determined and during the implementation of geostatistical methods, the trend was removed. Also, for the implementation of geostatistical methods, half-variable and half-variable cross-plot were chosen and due to the higher R2, lower RSS and stronger spatial structure, the best model was selected, and the exponential model was found to be suitable for most of the parameters. Then RBF, IDW with powers of 1 and 2, normal kriging and normal cokriging were used to perform interpolation. The most accurate method was selected for each parameter with the mutual evaluation method and three error estimation indices MAE, MBE and RMSE. The results showed that the normal cokriging method is the best method for most parameters (cation, anion, Ec, Cl, Ca, K, Mg, Na and TH). For the SAR, So4 and pH parameters, the normal kriging method and for the Na percentage parameter, the radial basis function was found to be the most suitable method. The results showed that the concentration of most parameters has an upward trend from west to east and south to north. Also, with the passage of time, the trend of reducing the quality of underground water was observed.
  • Changes in water quality parameters along Thika river sub-catchment, Upper
           Tana, Kenya

    • Abstract: Surface water pollution is a challenge due to effluent discharge from land-based factors like agro-based sectors, settlements, and poor sanitation. The research investigated the spatial and seasonal variation of physico-chemical and biological water quality due to land use changes along the Thika River sub-catchment, Upper Tana, Kenya. The study applied purposive sampling technique from the different zones within the catchment during the dry and wet season of 2021. The samples were tested for physico-chemical and microbial contaminants. R-studio was used to calculate the mean values and t-test performed at a 95% confidence interval to determine variation of the parameters in the two seasons and mean levels compared to the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) 2010 and the World Health Organization (WHO) acceptable quality for drinking water. There was significant variation in sulphate and nitrate concentration, total coliform and fecal coliform and no significant variations in physical parameters throughout the seasons. The total coliform and fecal coliform exceeded KEBS and WHO limits.
  • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) coated with fatty acids and
           surfactants and their application in demulsification of crude oil and
           water emulsions

    • Abstract: Crude oil is released into the water sources during exploration, extraction or displacement operations due to the partial dissolution, and it can remain as a layer on the surface of the water or become emulsive. Crude oil emulsion is very stable due to the presence of asphaltene and cannot be removed by the common methods. In this research, iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with oleic acid (OA), stearic acid (SA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyoxyethylene (POE), by using the same method. After synthesizing iron oxide nanoparticles and coating their surface with fatty acids and surfactants, we have tried to break the crude oil emulsion in water and remove the crude oil from the environment by adsorption via these nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential devices were used to identify nanoparticles and their characteristics. Demulsification of crude oil in water (O/W) with nanoparticles coated with fatty acids and surfactants was studied. UV-Vis spectrophotometery was used to determine the amount of crude oil adsorption by nanoparticles. From the results, the nanoparticles coated with the fatty acids with smaller chains could more absorb the crude oil. The highest adsorption (98.03 %) was recorded for iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polyoxyethylene (Fe3O4@POE) and the lowest percentage (46.69 %) is related to the nanoparticles coated with palmitic acid in an alkaline medium. Alkalinization of the medium while coating the nanoparticles with fatty acid has increased only the efficiency in the case of oleic acid while led to a significant decrease in the efficiency for palmitic and stearic acids compared to the neutral state.
  • Improvement of COD removal and electricity generation in a MFC through
           embedding sulfonated reduced graphene oxide in a SPEEK proton exchange

    • Abstract: Graphene oxide has attracted many interests in the recent decade due to its unique mechanical and chemical properties. This study focuses on the modification of graphene oxide and preparation proton exchange membrane (PEM) by sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) as base polymer for using in MFC as a modified membrane to remove COD and electricity generation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and contact angle measurements were used to verify hydrophilic properties of the synthesized membranes. First, preparation procedures and properties of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide are briefly described. Subsequently, modification of proton exchange membrane from SPEEK polymer with prepared nano particle of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide 0.5 wt. % and its operation in MFC was considered. COD removal, power density, current density and coulombic efficiency were monitored during the process operation to evaluate the MFC performance. During the process operation, COD removal, power density, current density, and coulombic efficiency were tracked to assess the MFC performance. The power density and current density, 39.43 mW/m2 and 161 mA/m2 and the columbic efficiency 48.9 % was obtained, respectively. The COD removal of 89.5 % was obtained.
  • Effect of structure lifespan on scour countermeasure design using a
           probabilistic method

    • Abstract: In this study, a probabilistic method was proposed to determine the stable riprap as a scour control measure downstream of a stilling basin, using the Monte Carlo Simulation Technique. The Kan diversion dam in Iran was selected as a case study, and various uncertainties in the model, including hydraulic parameters for different design flood events, were taken into account during the analysis. Moreover, the relationship between the probability of failure, structure lifespan, and riprap sizing was also investigated. The results indicated that the estimates for riprap data followed a normal distribution. By utilizing the characteristics of this distribution, such as the mean and coefficient of variation, the stable riprap sizes were calculated based on the desired probability of failure and the structure lifespan. For instance, when considering a 5% probability of failure, the riprap size was determined to be 0.203 m for a 50-year design flood. Similarly, for larger floods, such as a 200-year design flood, the riprap size needed to be increased by 65%. Furthermore, as the structure lifespan increased from 25 years to 200 years, the riprap stone size saw an approximate 25% increase for a 200-year design flood.
  • Aquifer vulnerability assessment in a semi-arid zone of Iran

    • Abstract: The importance of water shortage in arid and semi-arid regions is more evident due to the limitation of water resources, and the preparation of water resources is necessary to protect and reduce the vulnerability of these resources. Therefore, in this study, considering the vulnerability of water and soil resources in arid and semi-arid regions and the geographical structure of Zagros inland basins, the Izadkhast plain from the south of Fars province was selected to investigate the vulnerability of water resources. For this purpose, six parameters of water depth, net feed, aquifer environment, soil texture, topography, and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer were analyzed using the DRASTIC model. The results showed that almost 50% of the plains were in the high vulnerability class, and 28% were in the very high vulnerability class. In the east and center of the plain, places with high vulnerability to pollutants and contaminated water were found. The effect of the formations in the east of the basin can be seen because, at the outlet of the rivers in the east of the basin, the amount of sulfate has increased dramatically, which indicates the presence of evaporate formations with gypsum. In the center of the basin, the heavy texture of the soil, the low slope, and the accumulation of most of the water entering the basin, some of which have a lot of salts, have increased the vulnerability of this part. Another result of this study is that the DRASTIC model has high efficiency in evaluating vulnerabilities similar to this research.
  • Prediction of groundwater level fluctuation using methods based on machine
           learning and numerical model

    • Abstract: During the recent few decades, the use of various models has been regarded as a promising option to predict groundwater level (GWL) in any given region using a wide variety of data and relevant equations. The lack of trustworthy and comprehensive data is, nevertheless, one of the most significant obstacles that must be overcome in order to analyze and anticipate the depletion of groundwater in the context of water management. Because of this, the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) models that are able to predict the GWL with high accuracy using a reduced amount of data is unavoidable. In this work, the GWL variations of Lur plain were simulated using GMS model by utilizing the available data and maps. The accuracy of model was assessed at both phases i.e. validation and calibration. Following that, GA-ANN and ICA-ANN approaches, together with ELM, ORELM, and GMDH models, were used in order to fulfill the demand for too smaller volumes by AI procedures. According to the results, the ORELM output had the highest correlation with the observed information, which indicates that it is the most accurate model in this regard. The correlation coefficient for this model was 0.976. Because of this, instead of utilizing a complicated GMS model that needs a significant amount of data for the simulation, an ORELM model can be used to reliably forecast the GWL in the Lur plain. This simple model allows the researchers to accurately predict changes in GWL during rainy and non-rainy years compared to other complicated and time-consuming numerical models.
  • An assessment of the economic effects of drought in the Hirmand basin in
           the east of Iran: The application of the decision support system (DSS)

    • Abstract: The issue of water resource management has become extremely complicated due to the droughts of the last two decades and the competition among the drinking sector, agricultural sector, and international Hamoun wetland to use water. To analyze the status and help managers in policy analysis and decision-making, this research adopted an integrated water resource model (WEAP) with a decision support system (DSS) approach to study the effect of drought on rural and agricultural development and its economic impacts in the region. So, the Iranian government’s water development projects were simulated within 11 scenarios for a medium-term period (up to the 2030 horizon) and the implications of their implementation for the development of the rural and agricultural sectors were assessed. According to the results, if Afghanistan observes Iran’s water rights, there will still be a great amount of unmet water demand (314.53 million m3) for the agricultural and wetland sectors. However, if this scenario is realized, the unmet demand will decrease by about 196 million m3 versus the status quo and the agricultural sector’s profit will increase by about 314 billion IRR, which will be very helpful for rural development. So, relevant officials should put their best effort into realizing the water right. It is suggested to strengthen water diplomacy between the two main stakeholders in the region in order to reduce the persistence of drought.
  • Electro-enhanced membrane separation technology for fouling mitigation in
           wastewater treatment: A review

    • Abstract: The research on membrane-based filtration technology for water treatment has expanded in recent years. Membrane fouling is a major challenge that decreases the permeability and decreases the lifetime and selectivity of the membrane. Recently, it was found that fouling mitigation and better control of membrane fouling can be attained under the application of the electric field. This paper provides an overview of the application of the electric field to the filtration process and its antifouling mechanism. Utilization of conductive polymeric membranes and application of electric field in membrane bioreactors are reviewed as well. The presented review demonstrates that the introduction of negative charge into the membrane surface via preparing conductive membranes or applying an external electric field onto the membrane surface suggests several advantages. These are fouling alleviation, better control of membrane fouling, an increase of membrane resistance to cake deposition on the membrane surface, and superior possible applications such as better salt rejection and antibacterial activity.
  • Evaluation of Golin river quality in Kermanshah province using the
           standard surface water resources quality index of Iran (IRWQISC)

    • Abstract: Surface water quality management is very important. Qualitative indicators of water pollution can indicate the trend of quality changes over time and place. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of Golin river using IRWQISC index. For this purpose, the Golin river water was sampled twice a month in a period of one year from May 2019 to April 2020 in Najar village station located in downstream of river. Different parameters which evaluated in this study were DO, pH, BOD5, COD, nitrate, phosphate, electrical conductivity, total hardness and turbidity. The results of the study using the IRWQISC index showed that the range of the index values in the warm months of the year was "between" 30.57 to 32.17 with relatively poor-quality category. While in the cold months of the year the index values obtained "between" 27.36 to 27.83 with poor quality category. In general, according to the results from the annual average of the IRWQISC index, the numerical value was obtained as equal to 29.62, which showed Golin river in poor quality category. The results which presented in this study can be useful for different organization decision to perform their water related projects on Golin river.
  • Assessing the suitability of river water quality using water quality
           indices: A Case study on Balikhlou river in northwest of Iran

    • Abstract: Rivers are valuable sources of water supply for various purposes. These sources are seriously exposed to quality degradation due to the entry of various contaminants. Therefore, proper monitoring and quality management of these resources could be very important. In the present study, the quality of the Balikhlou river in Ardabil province, northwest of Iran, was investigated by surveying the trend of changes in river quality parameters, as well as water quality indices. In this study, after collecting the available data, by determining the trend of changes in quality parameters, the suitability of the studied river water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes was determined. The results indicated that there is an inverse relationship between changes in river discharge rate and the concentration of qualitative parameters. Therefore, it was found that salinity-containing pollution sources enter the river upstream of the desired station. Besides, the results of water quality indices showed that the water quality of the studied river is very poor for drinking (WQI>75). In addition, the results of water quality assessment for irrigation use based on SAR, KI, and SSP indices were generally considered inappropriate (SAR>26, KI>1, SSP>50), EC was often permissible (750<EC<2250), and MH was appropriate (MH<50). Our study highlights the importance of river water quality studies over time and thus can lead to better management of these valuable resources.
  • Color removal and antifouling capability of prepared fumarate-alumoxane
           nanoparticles blended PES nanofiltration membrane

    • Abstract: Fumarate-Alumoxane nanoparticles (Fum-ANPs) incorporated PES nanofiltration membrane was fabricated via phase inversion to achieve favorable performance as an antifouling nanofiltration membrane for dye removal. To investigate the effect of the Fum-ANPs on nanofiltration performance, pure water flux and water contact angle measurements were carried out. FTIR spectra of the Fum-ANPs revealed that the carboxylate and hydroxyl functional groups were created on the surface of Fum-ANPs. The strong affinity of Fum-ANPs functionalities with water molecules made the membrane surface more hydrophilic. Hence, this membrane sample had a higher pure water flux than the bare one. Zeta potential data showed that the Fum-ANPs blended PES membrane was negatively charged at a pH value of 6, which is favorable for negatively charged solute rejection. For investigating the antifouling behavior of the membranes, powder milk solution (8 g/l) were analyzed using a dead-end filtration apparatus. The results obtained from fouling analysis clearly demonstrated that the introduction of Fum-ANPs in the membrane matrix ameliorated the antifouling behavior of the resulting membrane. To study the performance of the Fum-ANPs incorporated PES membrane rejection of Direct red 16 dye was tested. The Direct red 16 rejection with the Fum-ANPs blended PES membrane was 99% while it was 88.2% for the bare membrane sample
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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