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Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1828-454X - ISSN (Online) 2280-6458
Published by PAGEPress Homepage  [52 journals]
  • Parametric and numerical modeling tools to forecast hydrogeological
           impacts of a tunnel

    • Authors: Valentina Vincenzi; Leonardo Piccinini, Alessandro Gargini, Michele Sapigni
      Abstract: The project of interest involving a hydroelectrical diversion tunnel through a crystalline rock massif in the Alps required a detailed hydrogeological study to forecast the magnitude of water inflows within the tunnel and possible effects on groundwater flow. The tunnel exhibits a length of 9.5 km and is located on the right side of the Toce River in Crevoladossola (Verbania Province, Piedmont region, northern Italy). Under the geological framework of the Alps, the tunnel is located within the Lower Penninic Nappes in the footwall of the Simplon Normal Fault, and the geological succession is mostly represented by Antigorio gneiss (meta-granites) and Baceno metasediments (metacarbonates). Due to the presence of important mineralized springs for commercial mineral water purposes, the abovementioned hydrogeological study focused on both quantity and quality aspects via rainfall data analysis, monitoring of major spring flow rates, monitoring of hydraulic heads and pumping rates of existing wells/boreholes, hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of springs and boreholes and hydraulic tests (Lefranc and Lugeon). The resulting conceptual model indicated dominant low-permeability (aquitard) behavior of the gneissic rock masses, except under conditions of intense fracturing due to tectonization, and aquifer behavior of the metasedimentary rocks, particularly when interested by dissolution. Groundwater flow systems are mainly controlled by gravity. The springs located near the Toce River were characterized by high mineralization and isotopic ratios, indicating long groundwater flow paths. Based on all the data collected and analyzed, two parametric methods were applied: 1) the Dematteis method, slightly adapted to the case study and the available data, which allows assessment of both potential inflows within the tunnel and potential impacts on springs (codified as the drawdown hazard index; DHI); 2) the Cesano method, which only allows assessment of potential inflows within the tunnel, thereby discriminating between major and minor inflows. Contemporarily, a groundwater flow model was implemented with the equivalent porous medium (EPM) approach in MODFLOW-2000. This model was calibrated under steady-state conditions against the available data (groundwater levels inside wells/piezometers and elevation and flow rate of springs). The Dematteis method was demonstrated to be more reliable and suitable for the site than was the Cesano method. This method was validated considering a tunnel through gneissic rock masses, and this approach considered intrinsic parameters of rock masses more notably than morphological and geomorphological factors were considered. The Cesano method relatively overestimated tunnel inflows, considering variations in the topography and overburden above the tunnel. Sensitivity analysis revealed a low sensitivity of these parametric methods to parameter values, except for the rock quality designation (RQD) employed to represent the fracturing degree. The numerical model was calibrated under ante-operam conditions, and sensitivity analysis evaluated the influence of uncertainties in the hydraulic conductivity (K) values of the different hydrogeological units. The hydraulic head distribution after tunnel excavation was forecasted considering three scenarios, namely, a draining tunnel, tunnel as a water loss source, and tunnel sealed along its aquifer sectors, considering 3 levels of K reduction. Tunnel impermeabilization was very effective, thus lowering the drainage rate and impact on springs. The model quantitatively defined tunnel inflows and the effects on spring flow at the surface in terms of flow rate decrease. The Dematteis method and numerical model were combined to obtain a final risk of impact on the springs. This study likely overestimated the risk because all the values assigned to the parameters were chosen in a conservative way, and the steady-state numerical simulations were also very conservative (the transient state in this hydrogeological setting supposedly lasts 1–3 years). Monitoring of the tunnel and springs during tunnel boring could facilitate the feedback process.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • [Ground Heat Exchange: closed-loop geothermal heat-pump systems,
           legislation and regulation, needs and opportunities]

    • Authors: Paolo Cerutti
      Abstract: Not available
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • [Data, information, knowledge, plans and emergencies: from Law 464/1984 to
           the PNRR and back]

    • Authors: Paolo Cerutti
      Abstract: Not available
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • [Nice to see you again! Italian ECH back in action at national and
           international congresses]

    • Authors: Elena Egidio; Giovanna De Filippis, Stefano Viarolu, Chiara Zanotti
      Abstract: Not available
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • [A wish for a restarting of the Hydrogeological Map of Italy within the
           recent recovery stage of the Geological and Geothematic Mapping Project of
           Italy (CARG Project, 1:50.000 scale)]

    • Authors: Rossella Maria Gafà; Francesco La Vigna, Lucio Martarelli, Gennaro Maria Monti, Angelantonio Silvi
      Abstract: Not available
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • [The groundwater compliance point in contaminated sites between avulsed
           application practices and difficulties of interpretation]

    • Authors: Andrea Sottani; Angelo Merlin
      Abstract: [The groundwater Point of Compliance (POC) in contaminated sites represents a strategic tool for directing environmental actions and resource protection criteria, as well as for achieving the ultimate goals of restoration. In this paper, an integrated legal and technical study is proposed, in order to highlight some critical issues relating to the interpretative practice of the national legislation in force, which has become customary in administrative procedures. The specific regulatory system is contextualized by making explicit use of those hydrogeological elements, which govern the development of fate and transport problems in the aquifers. To facilitate understanding of the case, it is considered the international regulatory framework, noting the availability of interesting perspectives, useful at clarifying many of the methodological and operational implications in the environmental remediation process, especially for the compliance point location]. [In Italian]
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • [Procedures for the environmental remediation of contaminated sites in
           Italy: food for thought from the Roundtable at Flowpath 2021 in Naples]

    • Authors: Diego Di Curzio; Marco Rotiroti, Elisabetta Preziosi
      Abstract: [This technical note follows the discussion that took place during the Roundtable on “Experiences and perspectives on groundwater contamination: from characterization to legal implications”, held during the National Conference Flowpath 2021, which was attended by experts in the field of contaminated sites from the academic, professional, and public sectors. This contribution aims at summarizing and discussing the critical points emerged during the Roundtable, starting from the description of the technical-administrative procedure currently required by the Italian legislation and the measures suggested for each phase of the environmental remediation process.] [In Italian]
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Opportunities and critical issues related to the use of amendments as
           sustainable remediation techniques

    • Authors: Mara Dal Santo; Giuseppe Alberto Prosperi
      Abstract: This study aims to analyse the opportunities and critical issues related to the use of amendments as remediation techniques. The performance of amendments (Aerobic Bioremediation, In Situ Chemical Oxidation and Surfactants) was compared with the performance of other groundwater remediation technologies (Air Sparging, Pump&Treat, Multi-Phase Extraction, Pump&Reinjection, Monitoring Natural Attenuation) based on a dataset of 180 contaminated sites. The considered factors are: effectiveness of the remediation; cost to remediate; operational time; environmental sustainability. The occurrence and types of amendment-related issues analyzed were studied on the 40 sites where the amendments had been applied. Issues occurred in 20% of the 40 analyzed cases and consisted of: a) partial or total occlusion of the monitoring wells and by-product formation, for example heavy metals (5%); b) uncontrolled increase in contaminant concentrations and potential downstream migration (8%); c) byproduct formation without well obstruction (7%). For each critical event, a detailed analysis was conducted to understand the processes (pH-Eh equilibria, contaminant desorption, hydraulic conductivity reduction), to highlight the design and procedural gaps (surplus of amendment, injection method selection, contaminant removal by purge). However, it has been observed that the issues can be avoided or mitigated with an accurate design, pilot tests performance, with the application of delivery and monitoring protocols, and at least with a prompt response adopting a corrective action plan, if necessary. The use of amendments turns out to be an effective solution: in 64% of the analyzed sites, it led to a significative reduction of the contamination within one year from the application. The cost is about one third if compared to the average of the other technologies. The operational time is about half the average operational time of the other technologies. Based on the results of sustainability analysis, amendments technologies reduce the production of waste, energy and water consumption, and they minimize air emissions. Considering the sustainability in its broadest sense (environmental, economic, and temporal), it is possible to state that the remediation by amendments is the most sustainable and would meet the interest of all the stakeholders.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Estimating moisture content and hydraulic properties of unsaturated sandy
           soils of Tiber River (Central Italy): integrating data from calibrated
           PR2/6 probe and hydraulic property estimator

    • Authors: Sofia Ortenzi; Martina Mangoni, Lucio Di Matteo
      Abstract: The correct estimation of soil moisture data is essential in soil-water management and estimating the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. The increased use of Multi-Sensor Capacitance Probes (MCAPs) requires careful calibration. Without accurate calibration, the use of MCAPs leads to incorrect water content estimation, making them of no practical use. This work presents the specific calibration equations for the correct use of the PR2/6 profile probe on sands of different nature. As the iron oxides content of the Tiber River basin sands increases, the calibration lines slope increases, allowing the understanding of the different electromagnetic responses. As for other sands worldwide, sands with high iron oxides content show a relative high specific surface than quartz or calcareous sands, responsible for more adhesive water (e.g., high permittivity values). The water content data are integrated with a hydraulic property estimator allowing the estimation of the hydraulic conductivity of soils. Applying the manufacturer equation of the PR2/6 profile probe instead of the specific equation leads to an overestimation of the hydraulic conductivity values up to two orders of magnitude, making therefore rather incorrect the understanding of the phenomena occurring in the unsaturated zone.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • New hydrogeological results on the Groundwater Dependent Ecosystem of the
           Pilato Lake (Sibillini Mts, Central Italy)

    • Authors: Lucio Martarelli; Rossella Maria Gafà, Francesco La Vigna, Gennaro Maria Monti, Angelantonio Silvi
      Abstract: Located at an altitude of about 1950 m a.s.l. in a glacial cirque of Mount Vettore (Monti Sibillini National Park - Central Italy), Pilato Lake is one of the few glacial lakes existing in the Apennines. Due to the endemic presence of the crustaceous Chirocephalus marchesonii, the Pilato Lake was in the past mainly studied from the biological viewpoint, but hydrogeological information on this groundwater dependent ecosystem is scarce. Furthermore, for investigating the lake drying in the recent 2017, 2019 and 2020 summers, the seasonal lowering of lake levels during 2010, 2012 and 2014-2020 was reconstructed. It resulted that in the preseismic years, the lake emptying was slower than in the post-seismic time. It is then supposed that seismic quaking induced an increase in permeability and, consequently, increased infiltration velocity through the lake sustaining surficial (detrital and glacial) and/or bedrock deposits towards the subsurface. More frequent summer dryings of the lake are then supposed for the next future. The hydrogeological conceptual model of the study area showed that the refilling process of the lake is driven by snow and rain precipitations. The air temperatures during 2017-2020 and their effects on evaporation from lake and on actual evapotranspiration were estimated. The infiltration through sustaining sediments was calculated and the estimation with time of lake wet surface and lake volume variations, and then bulk permeability of sustaining sediments, were evaluated as well.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Multidisciplinary investigations of a karst reservoir for managed aquifer
           recharge applications on the island of Vis (Croatia)

    • Authors: Matko Patekar; Mihaela Bašić, Marco Pola, Ivan Kosović, Josip Terzić, Alessio Lucca, Silvia Mittempergher, Luigi Riccardo Berio, Staša Borović
      Abstract: Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) refers to a suite of methods by which excess surface water or non-conventional water is stored underground for subsequent recovery or environmental purposes. MAR solutions have been largely used in unconsolidated aquifers, while their application in karst aquifers is rare. This research presents the first results of a MAR viability study on the island of Vis, a small karstic island in the Adriatic Sea. Favorable geological and hydrogeological conditions enable the formation of karst aquifers, making the island autonomous in terms of water supply. The island’s main aquifer, exploited in the Korita well field, is protected from seawater intrusion by several hydrogeological barriers. However, climate change and high seasonal pressures related to tourism pose a threat to the future availability of freshwater. Multidisciplinary field and laboratory investigations were carried out to detail the geological and hydrogeological setting of the island and its groundwater resource. Field analyses consisted of groundwater monitoring and sampling, geophysical investigations (i.e., electrical resistivity tomography), and structural measurements. Laboratory analyses included measurements of principal cations and anions and tritium activity. Despite low precipitation during the observation period (September 2019 - December 2020), the groundwater resource at the Korita site showed stable trends of physico-chemical parameters with a good storage potential and a long-term reserve. Geophysical investigations evidenced a relatively homogeneous sequence of the rock mass at a larger scale, while structural analyses indicated the occurrence of E-W karstified and open fractures that could represent a preferential flow path in the carbonate aquifer. A MAR solution for the Vis island was proposed combining an infiltration pond scheme with the direct injection of the accumulated waters into the aquifer using available wells. The potential water source could be represented by the runoff collected in an old artificial channel and the associated pond system in Korita.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • [Groundwater in the areas Est and South of Napoli]

    • Authors: Vincenzo Allocca; Silvio Coda, Alfonso Corniello, Pantaleone De Vita, Daniela Ducci, Silvia Fabbrocino, Giovanni Forte, Paola Petrosino
      Abstract: Not available
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
  • Making the invisible, visible! Our daily mission!

    • Authors: Francesco La Vigna
      Abstract: This year, World Water Day celebrated Groundwater with the motto “Making the invisible, visible”.
      Regardless of this particular recurrence, the one expressed by the motto represents the daily mission of every scholar or professional dedicated to groundwater. What is done through hydrogeological maps, through numerical models, through the development and interpretation of data series, tests in boreholes, wells and springs, what else is it, if not a way of visualizing this invisible underground resource' [...]
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +000
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