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Journal of Water Security
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2345-0363
Published by Aleksandras Stulginskis University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • The presence of above standard levels of commonly tested contaminants in
           communities on Long Island, New York: the impact of income on untreated
           water quality

    • Authors: Amy Catalano, Michael Marino
      Abstract: Water quality is a pressing issue in many communities. Long Island (LI), New York, rests on a system of aquifers created by prehistoric glacial activity. These aquifer systems are the only source of drinking water for LI. Water quality issues are pervasive in the region due to nitrate pollution, caused by antiquated septic systems in much of the Island, as well as the prevalence of environmental clean-up sites. Using the Watertraq database, we searched for levels of select compounds that were present in wells above acceptable levels on LI. We then collected demographic data from the U.S. Census, including income, ethnicities, poverty levels, number of children, senior citizens and renters for towns in parts of two counties on LI to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of above standard levels of compounds and income. Using an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression we found a statistically significant negative impact (at the p < 0.01 level) of income on the presence of contaminants in untreated water. In other words, the lower the income of the region, the greater the chance that above standard levels of volatile organic compounds were present.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.15544/jws.2019.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2020)
  • Water front advance under variable border width and initial soil moisture
           contents under wheat (Triticum aestuivium L.) crop – I: hydraulics and
           irrigation efficiencies

    • Authors: Singh Birpal, Anil Kumar Mishra, Rama Kant Sharma
      Abstract: Border irrigation experiments were conducted on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop at Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) New Delhi in winter season (October-April) of 2013-2014 to study the border hydraulics (cutoff ratio, border width and stream discharge), irrigation efficiencies, grain and biomass yields for 4 border sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 m widths) to economize the water use. Optimizing the border width under varying soil moisture contents prior to irrigation was attempted. The border of length 25 m required 30.2 minutes (min) to 78.1 min for irrigation for a fixed cutoff length of 15 m. The water front advance time up to cutoff length was 10 min and 27.3 min for border widths varying from 2 to 5 m; respectively corresponding to the selected stream discharge of 1.5 l/s. The water front advance time was inversely proportional to the initial soil moisture contents. The travel time to cutoff point of 15 m for three soil moisture contents namely q1:14.2, q2:16.5 and q3:17.2%; varied from 10.0-11.7 min for the border size (width) of 2.0 m, 14.0-15.6 min for the border size of 3 m; 20.0-23.4 min for the border size of 4 m whereas, it took 24.5- 27.3 min for 5 m border size. The best border size was identified as 4 m without any yield penalty. The effect of the stream discharge was not pronounced based on yields. Due to uniform cutoff ratio there was no significant difference in the amount of water use. Hence, the border size of 4 m was rated the best.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.15544/jws.2019.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2020)
  • Post-earthquake water quality in Bhaktapur district, Nepal

    • Authors: Bhoj Raj Pant, Deepa Shree Rawal, Kanchan Thapa, Sujen Man Shrestha, Rashmi Koju, Dhurba Raj Pandey
      Abstract: Drinking water quality of Bhaktapur district was analyzed after massive earthquake of 2015. Water samples were randomly collected from the groundwater and surface water sources across the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity), chemical (hardness, chloride, ammonia, and nitrate), and microbiological (E. coli and total coliform bacteria) parameters using standard methods. The results demonstrated that the water samples were contaminated mostly with E. coli and total coliform (TC) bacteria. The bacterial population enumerated for E. coli (100 CFU/100 ml) and TC (300 CFU/100 ml) exceeded the National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS). Physical and chemical parameters analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, chloride, ammonia, and nitrate were within the acceptable limit of the NDWQS. However, the turbidity and ammonia was 34.6 NTU and 3.6 mg/l, were within the maximum values recommended by the NDWQS. This study exhibits that the groundwater and surface water quality of Bhaktapur district is contaminated with E. coli and TC bacteria hence, is vulnerable to drink. The water contaminated with bacteria (E. coli and TC), presence of ammonia and turbidity more than the limit of NDWQS may pose health risks and cannot be accepted for drinking purpose without purification following appropriate scientific methods.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.15544/jws.2019.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2020)
  • 2D hydrodynamic modelling for identification of dewatered or flooded
           stream channel areas downstream large hydropower plant

    • Authors: Linas Šilinis, Egidijus Kasiulis, Petras Punys
      Abstract: Hydropower is oldest available source for renewable energy generation in Lithuania and the world. However, because of unequal demand of electricity during the day large hydropower plants are adapted to work in hydropeaking regime, which causes rapid water level and discharge fluctuations and has impact on the environment. To assess the e x- tent of this impact in this study 2D numerical hydrodynamic modelling was carried out to reveal the dewatered or flooded stream channel areas at the Nemunas R iver downstrea m Kaunas H ydropower P lant. Such estimation of dewatered or flooded areas, considering different operating modes of hydropower plant, was carried out for the first time in Lithuania. It was revealed that largest areas are flooded when Kaunas hydropower plan t starts its operation with two and four tur bine s and accordingly are dewatered when the plant stops such operations . During this study the impact of water level and discharge fluctuations on river ecosystems was not analysed, however the obtained results will be the initial data for more detailed assessment of fish habitats quality under impact of hydropeaking
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.15544/jws.2019.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2020)
  • The treatment and handling systems of de/anti-icing contaminants which
           generated and discharged into surface runoff from airports territories

    • Authors: Rasa Stankevičienė, Oksana Survilė, Valentinas Šaulys, Lina Bagdžiūnaitė-Litvinaitienė, Andrius Litvinaitis
      Abstract: It is essential to evaluate the fact that our living environment day by day faces with the damage caused by contaminants that are appearing within the surface runoff from airports. Even though, airports are not always being assumed as industrialized components, works, that are being carried out in everyday life in airports, including simple tasks such cleaning or washing vehicles or aircraft, procedures such repair works, fundamentally everything, that takes place on the airport area grounds, still do discharge contaminants into the environment. This sort of activities that are being carried out in everyday life, in fact create severe natural surroundings issues, pollution is not always are being controlled. Therefore, regarding these issues and in order to be able to control them, it is extremely important to observe a degree of contaminants discharged within the environment and to maintain their sorting and adequate processing. An industry as airlines manage numbers of threats and restrictions regarding the area of airline fields, taking into consideration anti-icing and de-icing processes. Regulations of the treatment processes of surface wastewater that are polluted by the drainage approaches in cold weather temperatures are essential for many airports that operate within north climate. The paper summarizes information of certain airports located in foreign countries, techniques and appropriate methods that are used in order to slow down or decrease contaminants that are being discharged within the surface runoff and backwaters. Taking into account international practice this paper introduces proposed surface runoff treatment technology at Vilnius International Airport in Lithuania.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.15544/jws.2019.005
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2020)
  • Adapted subsurface water solutions across continents

    • Authors: Anika Christiane Conrad, Maike März, Ronjon Chakrabarti
      Abstract: Temporary water scarcity and saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers are problems which are common in various parts of the world and can be addressed by subsurface water solutions (SWS). SWS comprise of various intelligent well and sensor configurations for different hydrogeological aquifer conditions. They can be combined for aquifer storage, (treatment), and recovery (AS(T)R), managed aquifer recharge (MAR), and various water reuse options including rainwater harvesting or treated waste water usage. To date, pilot SWS are implemented in the Netherlands, where they demonstrate highly beneficial applications for the above-mentioned purposes. This report presents the technology transfer to other coastal regions by utilising a participatory co-design approach with key stakeholders and institutions. The methodology developed mainly consists of two missions, which were applied to four target regions: Brazil, Mexico, Vietnam, and Cyprus. In these regions stakeholders were identified, framework conditions were assessed, and public events and project development workshops were conducted aiming to adapt the technology and implementation approach to the specific local requirements. General drivers and barriers were identified for institutional, political, legal, and socio-economic aspects. The report provides an outline of general implementation concepts, region-specific prerequisites, and ideas for follow-up projects.
      PubDate: 2020-06-19
      DOI: 10.15544/jws.2019.006
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2020)
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