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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Civil and Environmental Research
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2224-5790 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0514
Published by IISTE Homepage  [37 journals]
  • Journal coverpage

    • Authors: Journal Editor
      Abstract: Journal coverpage
      Issue No: Vol. 14
       
  • Impact of Sand Drifts on Jordanian Railway Infrastructures: Alternatives
           and Mitigation Measures

    • Authors: Hussein Saraireh, Abdelmajeed Adam Lagum, Shameem Jauffur, Taiseer Rawashdeh, Sajeda Al-Ghananeem
      Abstract: Railways play a critical role in connecting urban and rural regions, thereby promoting the economic sectors of a country. Nevertheless, railway tracks may suffer from several infrastructural problems and deficiencies including sand drifts, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. This research aims to provide an analytical review of sand-laden drifts and winds, and the measures that can alleviate their impacts on the Aqaba railway tracks, Jordan. It also studies the influence of phosphate deposition as a result of trucks’ passage on the railway tracks. General and practical recommendations from a socio-geographical context are also highlighted in view of proposing tactical solutions and identifying prospects for upcoming research to advance the technical and economical efficiency of the Jordanian railway network. Keywords: Sand drifts, wind, railway network, railway infrastructures, mitigation measures.
      DOI : 10.7176/CER/14-5-01 Publication date:August 31st 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 14
       
  • Occurrence of Microorganisms in Treated Wastewater Effluent and Their
           Impact on the Surface and Groundwater Resources

    • Authors: Hussein Saraireh, Abdelmajeed Adam Lagum, Ayat Oudat
      Abstract: Microorganisms are typically present in all media and they pose a greater threat to environmental sources and general health. The most significant part that has been affected by microorganisms is water since it plays a major role in all vital bodily functions. A sufficient water supply is a basic need for humanity. Yet, many nations around the world do not have access to safe and potable water, and many people die because of waterborne pathogens. For this reason, the immediate actions that many countries have adopted are the construction of water and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to reduce dangers related to these pathogens. Nevertheless, pathogens can escape when the processing of wastewater is not applied correctly. Therefore, pathogens can find their way into sludge, effluent, agricultural land, and ultimately water bodies. Considering all points mentioned above, this review briefly discusses the effects of microorganisms in water resources and displays dangers related to human health, and subsequently focuses on the survival and transport of microorganisms. Conventional and advanced processes for pathogen removal from wastewater are also discussed. Keywords:Water resources, WWTPs, microorganisms, wastewater, effluents, human health, surviving, transport.
      DOI : 10.7176/CER/14-5-02 Publication date:August 31st 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 14
       
  • Application of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) using Analytical
           Hierarchy Process (AHP) Technique for the Selection of a more Sustainable
           Waste Management Technique

    • Authors: Aibangbe; O, Ehiorobo, J.O, Ilaboya, I.R, Ihimekpen, N.I
      Abstract: Indiscriminate disposal of solid waste has been described as one of the most challenging environmental problems facing cities in most developing countries because of the risks to human health and the general environment. Ineffective solid waste management is a problem plaguing the environments of urban dwellings in Nigeria including Benin City. The focus of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of MCDA using AHP technique for the selection of a more sustainable solid waste management practice.The study took a comprehensive evaluation of the solid waste composition in seven major communities in Benin City; Edo State Nigeria. The communities include; Evbuotubu, Ekenwan, Ikpoba- Hill, Ogbebuya, New Benin Oko-Central and Ugbowo. Solid waste survey/ collection using the stratified random sampling approach was done on a daily bases for a period of eight (8) weeks in order to generate enough data for specific analysis. To study the presence of variability in the composition of solid waste from community to community, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was employed while the Partial Eta Square of the Pillai’s trace statistics was used to determine the magnitude of variability. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was employed to select the best solid waste disposal method taking into account the prevailing factors of influenced such as; economic factors, technical factors, social factors and environmental factors.Result of multivariate analysis of variance revealed that; about 98.9% of variability exists in the composition of solid waste from Ikpoba-Hill and New Benin while 82.60% variability exists in the composition of solid waste from Evbuotubu and Ekenwan. With an index of coherence (IC) of less than 10 (IC < 10), it was concluded that the comparison tables generated by evaluator A, B, C, D and E are valid. From the computation, mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) method with a total score of 74.21, 70.66, 74.30, 74.13 and 71.69 according to Evaluator A, B, C, D and E was acclaimed the best solid waste disposal option followed by recycling with a total score of 50.25, 49.61, 47.40, 48.05 and 46.52 according to Evaluator A, B, C, D and E respectively. Keywords: Waste Characterization, Multivariate Analysis, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Sustainable Waste Management.
      DOI : 10.7176/CER/14-5-03 Publication date:August 31st 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 14
       
  • Development of a Simple to use Regression Model for Estimating the Energy
           Value of Municipal Solid Waste

    • Authors: Aibangbe; O, Ehiorobo, J.O, Ilaboya, I.R, Ihimekpen, N.I
      Abstract: In Nigeria and many other African countries, the volume of solid waste generated continues to increase coupled with lack of infrastructure for adequate waste treatment. Nigeria with a population growth rate of about 2.8% per annum and an urban growth rate of about 5.5 % per annum generates about 0.58 kg solid waste per person per day. The focus of this study is to develop a simple regression model for estimating the energy value of municipal solid waste components.The study took a comprehensive evaluation of the solid waste composition in seven major communities in Benin City; Edo State Nigeria. The communities include; Evbuotubu, Ekenwan, Ikpoba- Hill, Ogbebuya, New Benin Oko-Central and Ugbowo. Solid waste survey/ collection using the stratified random sampling approach was done on a daily bases for a period of eight (8) weeks in order to generate enough data for specific analysis. In addition to the stratified random sampling approach 400 survey questionnaires were administered to 400 households (400) per community in order to acquire information about residents’ attitudes towards waste, socio-economic characterization including waste management behaviour etc. To determine the economic value of the waste, analytical method for energy value estimation was employed while the least square regression approach was used to develop the mathematical model for predicting the energy value of solid waste. To validate the reliability of the regression model, selected goodness of fit statistics, namely; coefficient of determination (R2), correlation coefficient (r), Adjusted Coefficient of Determination (Adj. R2) and error sum of square (SSE) were employed.From the energy value estimation, it was observed that 99,693.86KJ/kg of energy was obtain for waste collected from Evbuotubu, 65,599.30 KJ/kg for waste collected from Ekenwan, 68,638.31 KJ/kg for waste collected from Ikpoba Hill, 110,904.98 KJ/kg for waste collected from New Benin, 90,301.96 KJ/kg for waste collected from Ogbebuya, 89,513.86 KJ/kg for waste collected from Oko Central and 79,861.51 KJ/kg for waste collected from Ugbowo. With a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.992832 and Adjusted R-Squared value of 0.990784, it was concluded that the regression model developed for predicting the energy value is valid. Keywords: Waste characterization, Energy value, Least square regression, Dependent variables, Independent variables and Sustainable Waste Management
      DOI : 10.7176/CER/14-5-04 Publication date:August 31st 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 14
       
 
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