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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1898-6196 - ISSN (Online) 2084-4549
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • How Can Hybrid Materials Enable a Circular Economy'

    • Abstract: Climate change, critical material shortages and environmental degradation pose an existential threat to the entire world. Immediate action is needed to transform the global economy towards a more circular economy with less intensive use of fossil energy and limited resources and more use of recyclable materials. Recyclable materials and manufacturing techniques will play a critical role in this transformation. Substantial advancements will be needed to achieve a more intelligent materials design to enhance both functionality and enhanced sustainability. The development of hybrid materials combining functionality at macro and nano scales based on organic and inorganic compounds, that are entirely recyclable could be used for tremendous applications. In this mini-review, we provide the reader with recent innovations on hybrid materials for application in water, energy and raw materials sectors. The topic is very modern and after its deep study we propose a creation an international research centre, that would combine the development of hybrid materials with green manufacturing. We have highlighted a framework that would comprise critical themes of the initial research needed. Such a centre would promote sustainable production of materials through intelligent hybridisation and eco-efficient, digital manufacturing and enable a circular economy in the long term. Such activities are strongly supported by current environmental and economical initiatives, like the Green Deal, REPower EU and digital EU initiatives.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of Bomaplex Blue CR-L Removal by Adsorption Using Raw and
           Activated Pumpkin Seed Shells

    • Abstract: In this study, removal of colour from wastewaters prepared synthetically using Bomaplex Blue CR-L was investigated using raw and activated pumpkin seed shells by adsorption in a batch system. The effects of stirring speed, adsorbent concentration, dye concentration, temperature and pH on colour removal were investigated, and adsorption capacities of raw and activated pumpkin seed shells were determined. In addition, adsorption kinetics, isotherm coefficients, activation energies and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The optimal adsorption conditions were determined as pH = 2, stirring speed of 200 rpm, adsorbent concentration of 10 g L−1 and 30 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the maximum removal efficiency of Bomaplex Blue CR-L using raw pumpkin seed shells was 73.01 %. This value rose to 79.71 % after activation processing was applied. Experimental adsorption data show that the adsorption is more suited to the Langmuir adsorption model and works in accordance with the pseudo-first-order kinetics model. As a result of thermodynamic research, ΔH° and ΔS° were 31.515 kJ mol−1 and 109.952 kJ mol−1 K−1 for the raw adsorbent, respectively. For the activated adsorbent, ΔH° and ΔS° were 43.118 kJ mol−1 and 152.237 kJ mol−1 K−1, respectively. The activation energy of adsorption was calculated as 10.918 kJ mol−1 for the raw adsorbent and 9.882 kJ mol−1 for the activated adsorbent.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Physicochemical Changes and Abundance of Freshwater Snails in Anambra
           River (Nigeria) During the Rainy Season

    • Abstract: Rapid diversification is a way of responding to environmental change for freshwater organisms. This work examined the physicochemical changes and abundance of freshwater snails in Anambra River (Nigeria) during the rainy season. Field studies were conducted fortnightly from June to August 2019 at three stations of the river namely: Otuocha (station I), Otunsugbe (station II), and Ukwubili (station III) about 8.35 kilometers apart from each other. A scoop net of 2 cm mesh size and handpicking was used to sample freshwater snails randomly and water samples were taken to the laboratory for physicochemical analysis. A total of 896 freshwater snails belonging to 6 species (Afropomus balanoidea, Pomacea maculata, Lymnea stagnalis, Lanistes ovum, Pila wernei, and Saulea vitrea) were collected. Pomacea maculata was the most dominant species with a relative abundance of 45.87 %, while Saulea vitrea was the least dominant species with a relative abundance of 2.34 %. There was a significant negative correlation between dissolved oxygen and Pomacea maculate (r = –0.877, p = 0.002) and a positive correlation between dissolved oxygen and Stagnalis lymnea (r = 0.840, p = 0.005). The diversity of species was highest at Otuocha (1.171) followed by Ukwubili (1.133) and Otunsugbe (0.856) with average mean temperatures of (23.1 ±0.1) °C, (27.30 ±0.00) °C, and (26.80 ±0.03) °C respectively. The distribution of freshwater snails was influenced by the physicochemical variability of Anambra River during the rainy season. Therefore, further studies for a longer time and different seasons to examine the impact of physicochemical changes on the snail distribution are encouraged.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study in Azerbaijan Based on Moss
           Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    • Abstract: The results of this investigation show that Azerbaijan industries and agricultural sector provide considerable anthropogenic impact on the environment of Caucasus. The use of moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a first attempt to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition in Azerbaijan, a country different relief and climate. The study was undertaken in the summer of 2015 of atmospheric deposition of man-made heavy metal pollutants in the area of mining and processing plant in Gadabay and Dashkasan mininig district. At the same time samples were collected from the Goygol State Reserve in the Lesser Caucasus not far from the city of Ganja. A total 85 moss samples (predominantly Pleurozium schreberi) collected in both environmentally contrast area. Elemental determination was carried out by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at the reactor IBR-2 of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR). For the first time 44 elemental concentrations were determined (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U). Multivariate statistical analysis of the analytical results obtained will make it possible to identify the main sources of pollution and to assess the role of long-range transport of pollutants.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of Air Pollution on Maize and Wheat Production

    • Abstract: To determine the effects of air pollution on crop yields, weather, air pollution, and maize and winter wheat yield data from 331 cities in China from 2014 to 2016 were collected and analysed. Furthermore, support vector regression and the crop growth model were applied to extrapolate the air pollution data of Beijing and Hetian and verify the relationship between air pollution and yield. Precisely, heavy air pollution usually occurred in North China, but less than moderate air pollution levels affected crop yields statistically insignificantly. Moreover, both the winter wheat and maize yields increased in moderate air pollution periods but decreased in heavy air pollution periods in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Importantly, a threshold value was necessary for the heavy air pollution periods to trigger a yield decrease. The threshold values of maize in 2015 and 2016 were 7 days and 5 days, respectively, while that of winter wheat was 10 days in both 2015 and 2016. Once the heavy air pollution periods exceeded the threshold value, both the winter wheat and maize yields decreased linearly with the periods. PM2.5 was the main air pollutant in Beijing in 2014, while PM2.5 and PM10 were the main air pollutants in Hetian in both 2015 and 2016. Regardless of whether the main air pollutant was PM2.5 or PM10, the simulated potential winter wheat yields by the crop growth model with moderate air pollution for the whole growth period were all higher than the yields under observed and heavy air pollution conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • An Assessment of Environmental Risk of Bt-Maize on Rove Beetle Communities

    • Abstract: An environmental risk assessment related to the genetically modified crops still needs to be studied. In the non-target organisms, rove beetles seem to be well-chosen arthropods for this purpose. Rove beetle abundance and species diversity were studied in the first large-scale Bt-maize experiment in the south part of Poland for over two years to determine the impact of Bt-maize in comparison to conventional varieties. A genetically engineered Bt-maize variety (DKC 3421 Yield Gard®, event MON 810) and its near-isogenic DKC 3420 were cultivated at two locations. Additionally, two non-Bt varieties sprayed with a lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide were also included for comparative analysis. The results show no significant effects on rove beetle abundance and diversity patterns of the Bt-maize and the nearby isolines. In one locality the mean number of individuals and Simpson dominance was even higher in Bt-maize compared to one reference variety. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed rather variety-dependent effects of the rove beetle community. To conclude, considering the abundance and diversity of studied insects, there is no environmental risk arising from Bt-maize cultivation.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Research on the Effects of Rare Earth Combined Contamination on Soil
           Microbial Diversity and Enzyme Activity

    • Abstract: Soil microorganisms and soil enzyme activities are important indexes to evaluate soil status. The soil pollution status was evaluated by measuring the physical and chemical properties and heavy metal content of rare earth combined contaminated soil around the Maoniuping old mining area and tailings ponds in different seasons, and measuring the number and diversity of microorganisms and the soil enzyme activities of the arable soil microecology. This research shows that the physical and chemical properties of farmland soil in old mining areas and tailings ponds in different seasons are significantly different, the concentration of rare earth combined contamination in old mines is greater than that in the tailings area, and the changes in the concentration of rare earth combined contamination cause significant changes in soil microecology. Rare earth combined contamination inhibits fungal and bacterial vital activities and promotes the growth of actinomycetes; reduces the sensitivity of sucrase to heavy metal contamination, promotes the activity of phosphatase, and the effect on urease is that of “promotion at low concentration and inhibition at high concentration”; and reduces the community’s ability to use carbon sources and, as a result, the community species are rare and distributed unevenly and the community structure is simple. These results indicate that rare earth combined contamination is potentially harmful to soil microorganisms, which can provide a theoretical basis for the ecological restoration of farmland soil in mining areas.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Fractionation and Bioavailability of Phosphorus and Its Relation to
           Chlorophyll- at the Coastal Area of Semarang City

    • Abstract: We investigate the distribution of various fractions phosphorus (P) in sediments at the coastal area of Semarang City. Samples were collected from thirteen locations at the Banjir Kanal Barat, port and Banjir Kanal Timur. Sedimentary parameters such as sand, silt, clay, and organic carbon were analysed in order to find out their relation with various P fractions. The sediment types are predominantly sandy and silty with low clay content. Among all fractions (loosely bound/Ads-P), bound calcium/Ca-P), iron bound/Fe-P), and organic fraction/OP), Ca-P fractions constitute the largest portion (71.2 %) followed by iron-bound (17.0 %), organic fraction (10.4 %) and loosely bound (1.4 %). The bioavailable P fractions range from 20.2 % to 42.0 % of the total P (TP) content with average 28.8 %. Relatively high Ads-P content is observed in offshore locations with comparatively high mud percentage as compared with the near-shore locations. The order of abundance of the main forms of P in the Semarang coastal surface sediments is as follows: Ca-P > Fe-P > OP > Ads-P. The concentration of this fraction causes the abundance of chlorophyll-a from 9.09 to 21.09 mg/m3.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Thiabendazole Fungicide Adsorption Onto Four Agricultural Soils Collected
           from the Loukkos Area of Northwestern Morocco

    • Abstract: A serious environmental problem can arise from the presence of pesticides in soils and waters. Hence, in this study we have carried out the adsorption of the Thiabendazole fungicide onto four soils collected from several areas in Morocco as Larache, Laouamra, Ksar kebir and Tlata drissana. Physicochemical properties, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) were investigated to characterise the four selected soils. The experimental equilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich models. The equilibrium data were best described by a Langmuir model for all adsorbents. The maximum estimated adsorption capacity was 0.747 mg∙g−1, 0.751 mg∙g−1, 0.473 mg∙g−1 and 1.083 mg∙g−1, for Larache, Laouamra, Ksar kebir and Tlata drissana soils, respectively.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biological Monitoring Using Lichens as a Source of Information About
           Contamination of Mountain with Heavy Metals

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was passive biomonitoring of the mountains of southern Poland. Lichens Hypogymnia physodes were used for the study. Concentrations of the heavy metals Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were determined in these lichens. The concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The analysis of the concentrations of the determined heavy metals in the lichen thallus allowed to determine the places with the highest and the lowest contamination with a given heavy metal in the study area. It was shown that the area of Great Czantoria and Big Soszow is the most contaminated with heavy metals among the investigated areas. The study shows that the transport of analytes with the wind from distant emission sources, low-level emission (coal burning), and traffic have the greatest influence on the level of atmospheric aerosol pollution in the study area.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Trend Analysis of Water Quality Parameters in the Middle Part of the
           Danube Flow in Serbia

    • Abstract: The Danube River plays significant role not only for preserving natural ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to examine the Middle Danube water quality in the part flowing through Serbia in section Bezdan -Banatska Palanka. Water quality data were examined for seven control points for period 2004-2018, for seven parameters: suspended solids (SS), dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), nitrates (NO3–-N), total phosphorus (Ptot), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data analyses included the application of ANOVA, linear regression analysis and Mann-Kendall trend test. The Mann-Kendall tests in most (32/49) cases, i.e. in 65 %, confirmed the non-existence of a significant trend. Significant downward trends were confirmed in 17 cases. Water quality improvement was confirmed at following control points: Bezdan for NO3–-N, Ptot and BOD5; Bogojevo for NO3–-N, Ptot, COD and BOD5; Novi Sad for Ptot, BOD5 and COD; Slankamen for BOD5 and COD; Smederevo for NO3–-N and COD; Banatska Palanka for NO3–-N. Slight deterioration of water quality was confirmed only in two cases, at the Zemun and Smederevo where DO was decreasing. Water quality for the examined period was stable and can be characterised as excellent and/or very good (class I or class II). Results emphasise fact that water quality trends monitoring reveals river sectors where the process of water quality degradation is ongoing. Timely detected critical river sectors can draw the attention of decision-makers, who can improve the existing legislation that would lead to water quality improvement.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Study on the Rate of O Consumption and Purification of Tail Biogas with a
           Biofilter in the Composting Process

    • Abstract: For aerobic static composting, fresh cow, pig, and chicken manures were used as feedstock and mixed with 10 % corn straws, which was considered as the bulking agent. In the composting process of different livestock and poultry manures, the changing trends of temperature, pH, conductivity, density, and other parameters were intensively studied. The results were as follows: (1) after the tail biogases of composting systems - using cattle manure, pig manure, and chicken manure - were introduced into the biofilter, the concentration of O2 decreased slightly, but the concentration of CO2 increased. The odour in these tail biogases declined significantly, and thus the biodegradation of tail biogas was obvious. (2) The oxygen consumption in the different periods of the composting process of these three manures was almost the same, and the average oxygen consumption for the three manures was 0.928, 0.937, and 0.945 m3/kg, respectively. Under standard conditions, the density of oxygen is 1.429 g/L, and the average oxygen consumption in the composting processes of these three manures was 1.326, 1.338, and 1.350 kg/kg, respectively.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Role of Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase in NaCl Tolerance in
           Eelgrass ( L.)

    • Abstract: Nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) play important roles in nitrate assimilation in plants. Previous studies have indicated that NR and NiR in eelgrass may contribute to its NaCl tolerance. This study investigated the expression characteristics and the biological functions of NR and NiR in eelgrass (Zostera marina), named as ZmNR and ZmNiR, were cloned, characterised and overexpressed in both bacteria and tobacco. The open reading frames of ZmNR and ZmNiR contain 2628 and 1773 nucleotides that encode 875 and 590 amino acids respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that the purported ZmNR and ZmNiR proteins presented low homology with other plant NR and NiR sequences. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the expression of ZmNR and ZmNiR was supressed when exposed to low salinity and induced by high salinity. Further physiological analyses demonstrated that blocking nitrate assimilation by adding Na2WO4 in eelgrass reduced its tolerance to NaCl stress. The heterologous expression of the ZmNR and ZmNiR genes in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana benthamiana could confer tolerance to NaCl stress. Physiological and growth analyses suggested that ZmNR and ZmNiR in plants could resist NaCl stress by regulating various physiological pathways and biochemical processes triggered by nitric oxide (NO). Taken together, these results suggested that NR-dependent NO synthesis may play an important role in NaCl tolerance in eelgrass.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Leaf Extract Based Synthesis of Nanoiron and Nanoiron+Au Particles for
           Degradation of Methylene Blue

    • Abstract: In this study, nanoiron and nanoiron+Au particles were synthesised using aqueous Aegle marmelos extract using a facile and one-pot approach. Lower size non-magnetic nanoiron (~34 nm) and nanoiron (~34 nm) +Au particles (1 to 1.5 µm) were produced from the same medium individually. Nanoparticles suspension behaviour and structural characterisations were carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction techniques. Primarily, for synthesis, a simple bioreduction approach generated amorphous nanoiron particles, which on annealing produced magnetic maghemite, γ-Fe2O3 type nanoparticles with sizes 100 to 1000 nm. Posteriorly, the bioreduction process also produces nanoiron+Au particles and can be used for multifunctional applications. As a model application, catalytic application of the as-prepared nanoiron and nanoiron+Au particles towards methylene blue, a thiazine dye degradation is investigated and found to be effective within 20 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model was exploited to know the degradation behaviour, and the model was found to be fit based on R2 values with the observed experimental data. We suggest that the formed highly stable nanoiron particles with in situ stabilisation offer benefits like consistency, environmental friendliness and suits well for large-scale applicability.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Effect of Maintenance Works to Physical and Chemical Conditions of
           Small Rivers in Agricultural Areas

    • Abstract: Abiotic and biotic bounty of riparian waters may be affected by inadequate maintenance works. Improper planning and execution of maintenance works cause changes to hydrological and hydrochemical condition of water in small rivers, affecting biocenose of riverbeds by modifying the taxonomic composition of organisms inhabiting the regulated river section. Five (5) rivers were subject to studies - Plonia, Mysla, Tywa, Rurzyca, and Wardynka (Odra river basin), which were monitored before and after maintenance works consisting in desilting, mowing and removal of aquatic plants. This study examined hydrological (mean depth and width of small rivers, speed and flow), physical and chemical parameter of water (temperature, pH, O2, N-NO3, N-NH4, P-PO4) before and after dredging of selected rivers. Obtained results and resulting statistical analysis demonstrated increase in hydrological indices - depth, width, speed and flow. Among other physical and chemical properties that significantly increased following completion of maintenance works, were O2 and NH4. NO3 concentration and temperature dropped, but not statistically significant. Changes in hydrological and hydrochemical properties of waters caused by maintenance works may affect biodiversity of the regulated river sections, including changes in composition of ichthyofauna species.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessing Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Relations to Environmental
           Variables and Revitalisation Works

    • Abstract: Macroinvertebrates of two ex-manor ponds located in Chroscina, Opole Region (Poland) were studied from 2015 to 2018 to investigate their community composition and diversity and evaluate the heterogeneity of communities on spatial and temporal scale referring to environmental variables and revitalisation work. A total of 32 taxa were recorded (at the family level, except Oligochaeta), 13 of which were Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Trichoptera, recognised as sensitive groups in lentic ecosystems. Macroinvertebrate richness and diversity varied considerably, especially in spring and summer. It was found that habitat heterogeneity influenced benthic invertebrates more than basic water parameters. However, the environmental variables together accounted for only 38 % of the observed variations. Thus, other factors, such as fish predation, may have played a leading role in community shaping. The distinct differences between pond communities, four years after the revitalisation works, resulted more from different habitat features than from the previous sediment removal.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Investigation the Effect of the Main Land-Based Pollutants in Xiangshan
           Bay

    • Abstract: This paper analyses and discusses the monthly and annual changes of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations from main sewage discharge ports in Xiangshan Bay. Using monitoring data obtained from 2010 to 2019, it systematically examines the monthly variation characteristics of the sewage discharge ports and the interannual changes in the fluxes of major pollutants into the sea. The concentrations of COD, TN, and TP, which were relatively high in November and January-March, generally declined. The annual and monthly changes fluctuated, but the flux into the sea generally decreased. The ecological environment of the nearby sea area is adversely affected, chiefly by land-based pollutants. During the five-year period, COD mainly came from soil erosion and domestic pollution, while TN and TP mainly came from agricultural activities and soil erosion. Hence, it is both necessary and urgent to improve the management of the sewage outfalls from land sources into the sea.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Clogging in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Causes for Clogging and
           Influence of Decontamination

    • Abstract: With the continuous operation of constructed wetlands, substrate clogging is issue. In order to solve the problem, there is practical significance to understand the causes for clogging in constructed wetlands. Two pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands were established, namely, CW-B and CW-C. By studying the relationship between the accumulation of different substances and the banked-up water area, it was found that the accumulation of non-filter substances and total solids was an important reason for the clogging of the substrate, and the accumulation degree of non-filter inorganic substances was more obvious than that of non-filter organic substances, and the blockage was mainly located in the 10-20 cm layer. In the vertical flow constructed wetland with river sand as the main substrate, water accumulation will occur when the content of total solid and non-filter substances exceeds 67.233 g and 101.228 g per cubic meter of substrate, respectively. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the substrate particle size matching of 0-20 cm layer to reduce the clogging in the vertical flow constructed wetland. The clogging has little effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, but great effect on total phosphorus (TP) removal. Compared with the control wetland (CW-C), the biomass content in the CW-B with biochar increased by 334.26 nmol P/g, which can improve the removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but also increase the risk of clogging in the vertical flow constructed wetland. Future research should try to combine the anti-blocking research results of biochar constructed wetlands to improve the purification effect, which is of great significance to promote the sustainable development of constructed wetlands.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimisation of Biochar Yield from Sorted Wood Wastes as Sustainable
           Alternatives to Burning to Ash

    • Abstract: Wood wastes are one of the leading contributors of greenhouse gases cum climate change. While the burning of wood wastes results in CO2 emission, decomposition generates methane. In place of these emissions, wood wastes can be converted into biochars which have a lot of novel applications. However, low biochar yield was the common limitation of wood wastes, essentially, due to a mixture of different classifications of trees that pyrolyse at different conditions. In this study, biochar yield from sorted wood wastes was optimised by varying pyrolysis temperature and time. Power consumption, cost, and carbon footprint of the optimised biochar and ash were compared for both hydropower grid and diesel generator scenarios. Optimal pyrolysis yields were 33.6 % (400 °C), 29.4 % (350 °C) and 18.5 % (400 °C) respectively for hardwood sawdust char (HSC), softwood sawdust char (SSC), and mixed sawdust char (MSC) at 2 hours duration for all materials. The CO2 emissions from ash were 2.49 kg and 19.0 kg respectively for grid and diesel power supply. The diesel generator power was 17 times more expensive than grid power for wood wastes pyrolysis. Wood wastes have better biochar yield when charred homogenously; they have a smaller carbon footprint and are cheaper when produced with power from the grid. Wood wastes in place of being burnt can be processed as inexpensive and environment-friendly biochar.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessment of High Salinity Wastewater Treatment with Dewatered Alum
           Sludge-Aerobic Membrane Reactor

    • Abstract: The discharge of wastewater containing both high salinity and high organic content without prior treatment is detrimental to aquatic life and water hygiene. In order to integrate the advantages of membrane treatment and biological treatment, and exert the phosphorus removal efficiency of dewatered alum sludge, in this study, an aerobic membrane reactor based on dehydrated alum sludge was used to treat mustard tuber wastewater with salinity of 6.8-7.3 % under the conditions of 30 °C, 20 kPa trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3300-3900 mg/L. Three replicate reactors were applied to assess the operational performance under different organic loading rate (OLR). The results showed that all reactors were effective in removing COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and soluble phosphate (SP) under the conditions of 30 °C and 20 kPa of TMP. Meanwhile, the effluent concentration of COD, NH4+-N and SP all increased while OLR was changed from 1.0 to 3.0 kg COD/m3/day, and the effluent COD and NH4+-N concentration except for SP could reach the B-level of Chinese “Wastewater quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers” when OLR was less than 3.0 kg COD/m3/day. This indicates that dewatered alum sludge-based aerobic membrane reactor is a promising bio-measure for treating high salinity wastewater.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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