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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.227
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1898-6196 - ISSN (Online) 2084-4549
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Trend Analysis of Water Quality Parameters in the Middle Part of the
           Danube Flow in Serbia

    • Abstract: The Danube River plays significant role not only for preserving natural ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to examine the Middle Danube water quality in the part flowing through Serbia in section Bezdan -Banatska Palanka. Water quality data were examined for seven control points for period 2004-2018, for seven parameters: suspended solids (SS), dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), nitrates (NO3–-N), total phosphorus (Ptot), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data analyses included the application of ANOVA, linear regression analysis and Mann-Kendall trend test. The Mann-Kendall tests in most (32/49) cases, i.e. in 65 %, confirmed the non-existence of a significant trend. Significant downward trends were confirmed in 17 cases. Water quality improvement was confirmed at following control points: Bezdan for NO3–-N, Ptot and BOD5; Bogojevo for NO3–-N, Ptot, COD and BOD5; Novi Sad for Ptot, BOD5 and COD; Slankamen for BOD5 and COD; Smederevo for NO3–-N and COD; Banatska Palanka for NO3–-N. Slight deterioration of water quality was confirmed only in two cases, at the Zemun and Smederevo where DO was decreasing. Water quality for the examined period was stable and can be characterised as excellent and/or very good (class I or class II). Results emphasise fact that water quality trends monitoring reveals river sectors where the process of water quality degradation is ongoing. Timely detected critical river sectors can draw the attention of decision-makers, who can improve the existing legislation that would lead to water quality improvement.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Study on the Rate of O Consumption and Purification of Tail Biogas with a
           Biofilter in the Composting Process

    • Abstract: For aerobic static composting, fresh cow, pig, and chicken manures were used as feedstock and mixed with 10 % corn straws, which was considered as the bulking agent. In the composting process of different livestock and poultry manures, the changing trends of temperature, pH, conductivity, density, and other parameters were intensively studied. The results were as follows: (1) after the tail biogases of composting systems - using cattle manure, pig manure, and chicken manure - were introduced into the biofilter, the concentration of O2 decreased slightly, but the concentration of CO2 increased. The odour in these tail biogases declined significantly, and thus the biodegradation of tail biogas was obvious. (2) The oxygen consumption in the different periods of the composting process of these three manures was almost the same, and the average oxygen consumption for the three manures was 0.928, 0.937, and 0.945 m3/kg, respectively. Under standard conditions, the density of oxygen is 1.429 g/L, and the average oxygen consumption in the composting processes of these three manures was 1.326, 1.338, and 1.350 kg/kg, respectively.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Role of Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase in NaCl Tolerance in
           Eelgrass ( L.)

    • Abstract: Nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) play important roles in nitrate assimilation in plants. Previous studies have indicated that NR and NiR in eelgrass may contribute to its NaCl tolerance. This study investigated the expression characteristics and the biological functions of NR and NiR in eelgrass (Zostera marina), named as ZmNR and ZmNiR, were cloned, characterised and overexpressed in both bacteria and tobacco. The open reading frames of ZmNR and ZmNiR contain 2628 and 1773 nucleotides that encode 875 and 590 amino acids respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that the purported ZmNR and ZmNiR proteins presented low homology with other plant NR and NiR sequences. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the expression of ZmNR and ZmNiR was supressed when exposed to low salinity and induced by high salinity. Further physiological analyses demonstrated that blocking nitrate assimilation by adding Na2WO4 in eelgrass reduced its tolerance to NaCl stress. The heterologous expression of the ZmNR and ZmNiR genes in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana benthamiana could confer tolerance to NaCl stress. Physiological and growth analyses suggested that ZmNR and ZmNiR in plants could resist NaCl stress by regulating various physiological pathways and biochemical processes triggered by nitric oxide (NO). Taken together, these results suggested that NR-dependent NO synthesis may play an important role in NaCl tolerance in eelgrass.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Leaf Extract Based Synthesis of Nanoiron and Nanoiron+Au Particles for
           Degradation of Methylene Blue

    • Abstract: In this study, nanoiron and nanoiron+Au particles were synthesised using aqueous Aegle marmelos extract using a facile and one-pot approach. Lower size non-magnetic nanoiron (~34 nm) and nanoiron (~34 nm) +Au particles (1 to 1.5 µm) were produced from the same medium individually. Nanoparticles suspension behaviour and structural characterisations were carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction techniques. Primarily, for synthesis, a simple bioreduction approach generated amorphous nanoiron particles, which on annealing produced magnetic maghemite, γ-Fe2O3 type nanoparticles with sizes 100 to 1000 nm. Posteriorly, the bioreduction process also produces nanoiron+Au particles and can be used for multifunctional applications. As a model application, catalytic application of the as-prepared nanoiron and nanoiron+Au particles towards methylene blue, a thiazine dye degradation is investigated and found to be effective within 20 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model was exploited to know the degradation behaviour, and the model was found to be fit based on R2 values with the observed experimental data. We suggest that the formed highly stable nanoiron particles with in situ stabilisation offer benefits like consistency, environmental friendliness and suits well for large-scale applicability.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Effect of Maintenance Works to Physical and Chemical Conditions of
           Small Rivers in Agricultural Areas

    • Abstract: Abiotic and biotic bounty of riparian waters may be affected by inadequate maintenance works. Improper planning and execution of maintenance works cause changes to hydrological and hydrochemical condition of water in small rivers, affecting biocenose of riverbeds by modifying the taxonomic composition of organisms inhabiting the regulated river section. Five (5) rivers were subject to studies - Plonia, Mysla, Tywa, Rurzyca, and Wardynka (Odra river basin), which were monitored before and after maintenance works consisting in desilting, mowing and removal of aquatic plants. This study examined hydrological (mean depth and width of small rivers, speed and flow), physical and chemical parameter of water (temperature, pH, O2, N-NO3, N-NH4, P-PO4) before and after dredging of selected rivers. Obtained results and resulting statistical analysis demonstrated increase in hydrological indices - depth, width, speed and flow. Among other physical and chemical properties that significantly increased following completion of maintenance works, were O2 and NH4. NO3 concentration and temperature dropped, but not statistically significant. Changes in hydrological and hydrochemical properties of waters caused by maintenance works may affect biodiversity of the regulated river sections, including changes in composition of ichthyofauna species.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessing Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Relations to Environmental
           Variables and Revitalisation Works

    • Abstract: Macroinvertebrates of two ex-manor ponds located in Chroscina, Opole Region (Poland) were studied from 2015 to 2018 to investigate their community composition and diversity and evaluate the heterogeneity of communities on spatial and temporal scale referring to environmental variables and revitalisation work. A total of 32 taxa were recorded (at the family level, except Oligochaeta), 13 of which were Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Trichoptera, recognised as sensitive groups in lentic ecosystems. Macroinvertebrate richness and diversity varied considerably, especially in spring and summer. It was found that habitat heterogeneity influenced benthic invertebrates more than basic water parameters. However, the environmental variables together accounted for only 38 % of the observed variations. Thus, other factors, such as fish predation, may have played a leading role in community shaping. The distinct differences between pond communities, four years after the revitalisation works, resulted more from different habitat features than from the previous sediment removal.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Investigation the Effect of the Main Land-Based Pollutants in Xiangshan
           Bay

    • Abstract: This paper analyses and discusses the monthly and annual changes of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations from main sewage discharge ports in Xiangshan Bay. Using monitoring data obtained from 2010 to 2019, it systematically examines the monthly variation characteristics of the sewage discharge ports and the interannual changes in the fluxes of major pollutants into the sea. The concentrations of COD, TN, and TP, which were relatively high in November and January-March, generally declined. The annual and monthly changes fluctuated, but the flux into the sea generally decreased. The ecological environment of the nearby sea area is adversely affected, chiefly by land-based pollutants. During the five-year period, COD mainly came from soil erosion and domestic pollution, while TN and TP mainly came from agricultural activities and soil erosion. Hence, it is both necessary and urgent to improve the management of the sewage outfalls from land sources into the sea.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Clogging in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Causes for Clogging and
           Influence of Decontamination

    • Abstract: With the continuous operation of constructed wetlands, substrate clogging is issue. In order to solve the problem, there is practical significance to understand the causes for clogging in constructed wetlands. Two pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands were established, namely, CW-B and CW-C. By studying the relationship between the accumulation of different substances and the banked-up water area, it was found that the accumulation of non-filter substances and total solids was an important reason for the clogging of the substrate, and the accumulation degree of non-filter inorganic substances was more obvious than that of non-filter organic substances, and the blockage was mainly located in the 10-20 cm layer. In the vertical flow constructed wetland with river sand as the main substrate, water accumulation will occur when the content of total solid and non-filter substances exceeds 67.233 g and 101.228 g per cubic meter of substrate, respectively. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the substrate particle size matching of 0-20 cm layer to reduce the clogging in the vertical flow constructed wetland. The clogging has little effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, but great effect on total phosphorus (TP) removal. Compared with the control wetland (CW-C), the biomass content in the CW-B with biochar increased by 334.26 nmol P/g, which can improve the removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but also increase the risk of clogging in the vertical flow constructed wetland. Future research should try to combine the anti-blocking research results of biochar constructed wetlands to improve the purification effect, which is of great significance to promote the sustainable development of constructed wetlands.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Optimisation of Biochar Yield from Sorted Wood Wastes as Sustainable
           Alternatives to Burning to Ash

    • Abstract: Wood wastes are one of the leading contributors of greenhouse gases cum climate change. While the burning of wood wastes results in CO2 emission, decomposition generates methane. In place of these emissions, wood wastes can be converted into biochars which have a lot of novel applications. However, low biochar yield was the common limitation of wood wastes, essentially, due to a mixture of different classifications of trees that pyrolyse at different conditions. In this study, biochar yield from sorted wood wastes was optimised by varying pyrolysis temperature and time. Power consumption, cost, and carbon footprint of the optimised biochar and ash were compared for both hydropower grid and diesel generator scenarios. Optimal pyrolysis yields were 33.6 % (400 °C), 29.4 % (350 °C) and 18.5 % (400 °C) respectively for hardwood sawdust char (HSC), softwood sawdust char (SSC), and mixed sawdust char (MSC) at 2 hours duration for all materials. The CO2 emissions from ash were 2.49 kg and 19.0 kg respectively for grid and diesel power supply. The diesel generator power was 17 times more expensive than grid power for wood wastes pyrolysis. Wood wastes have better biochar yield when charred homogenously; they have a smaller carbon footprint and are cheaper when produced with power from the grid. Wood wastes in place of being burnt can be processed as inexpensive and environment-friendly biochar.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessment of High Salinity Wastewater Treatment with Dewatered Alum
           Sludge-Aerobic Membrane Reactor

    • Abstract: The discharge of wastewater containing both high salinity and high organic content without prior treatment is detrimental to aquatic life and water hygiene. In order to integrate the advantages of membrane treatment and biological treatment, and exert the phosphorus removal efficiency of dewatered alum sludge, in this study, an aerobic membrane reactor based on dehydrated alum sludge was used to treat mustard tuber wastewater with salinity of 6.8-7.3 % under the conditions of 30 °C, 20 kPa trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3300-3900 mg/L. Three replicate reactors were applied to assess the operational performance under different organic loading rate (OLR). The results showed that all reactors were effective in removing COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and soluble phosphate (SP) under the conditions of 30 °C and 20 kPa of TMP. Meanwhile, the effluent concentration of COD, NH4+-N and SP all increased while OLR was changed from 1.0 to 3.0 kg COD/m3/day, and the effluent COD and NH4+-N concentration except for SP could reach the B-level of Chinese “Wastewater quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers” when OLR was less than 3.0 kg COD/m3/day. This indicates that dewatered alum sludge-based aerobic membrane reactor is a promising bio-measure for treating high salinity wastewater.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Analysis of the importance of art elements in the construction of
           ecological environment in the new era

    • Abstract: With the development of economy, people have higher and higher requirements for living art. A good ecological environment is the guarantee of creating an aesthetic environment. Taking the ecological environment construction of ecological town as an example, this paper analyses the importance of integrating artistic elements into the ecological environment construction in the new era from the perspective of environmental aesthetics. Based on the concept of "three life integration" and "garden city theory", this paper creatively puts forward the construction methods and models of ecological environment in contemporary small towns. Based on the height of environmental aesthetics, this paper analyses the planning and construction process of characteristic town and the evaluation and acceptance criteria of ecological environment design, summarises its successful experience and main problems, and makes a retrospective summary and reflection. This paper analyses the importance of the integration of art elements into the ecological town in the new era. The results show that in the new era of ecological environment construction, the integration of art elements can not only improve the quality of ecological environment construction, but also improve the common people's cognition of ecological beauty.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The cognition of the spatial art forms of tourist villages based on
           ecological engineering and sustainable development

    • Abstract: With the development of information technology, the improvement of production processes and lifestyles, and the transformation of commercial economic models, the traditional agricultural industry cannot meet the increasing material and cultural needs of villagers. Therefore, the development of traditional tourist villages has transformed into being based on ecological engineering and sustainable development. The starting point of the existence of such tourist villages will be the protection and development of traditional villages. At the same time, the village space is the material carrier for the development of rural tourism, and the construction of a spatial form that is compatible with the tourism resource utilization model can effectively promote the development of rural tourism. Based on SWOT analysis, this article carefully analyses and summarises the domestic research on the sustainable development of tourist villages. The results show that such sustainable development effectively avoids the excessive development of resource elements during rural construction, which can lead to waste, and promotes the optimal use of resources. Since rural tourism has taken a sustainable development path, the average annual compound growth rate has reached as high as 31.2 %, which is considered very rapid growth. Tourist operating income has reached more than 30 %. It is expected that the national rural tourism income in 2021 will exceed 10,000 trillion yuan. Tourism villages will continue to consider ecological engineering and sustainable development as the starting point for promoting the development of rural tourism in China, popularising consumption, standardising services, diversifying benefits, and making products unique.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sustainable development of antarctic krill environmental resources based
           on system dynamics

    • Abstract: Antarctic krill mainly inhabit the Antarctic Ocean, not far from Antarctica, especially the Weddell Sea, where krill is dense. Marine fisheries have reached new levels, but the topic of sustainable use of marine fishery resources is far from reaching the required levels. In order to study the sustainable development of the Antarctic krill environment, this paper studies the living environment and applicability of Antarctic krill based on system dynamics, and provides some references for the sustainable development of marine resources. Mentioned the use of case analysis method, literature analysis method and other methods to collect data, build a Model, and read and analyse a large number of related literatures through the literature survey method. The experimental results proved that the salinity has a significant effect on the survival rate of Antarctic krill (p < 0.05). When the salinity is 34, the molting frequency reaches its maximum value, which is 70 %. It is concluded that the ability of Antarctic krill to adapt to gradual changes in salinity is stronger than that of sudden changes in salinity, and the suitable salinity for survival is 30-42. With 34 as the basic salinity, when the salinity rises within a certain range, the molting rate of krill will increase, and as the salinity decreases, the molting rate will gradually decrease. This shows that improving the environmental resources of Antarctic krill is an effective method for improving salinity.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Analysis of the main body behaviour of non-point source pollution control
           based on multimodal game model

    • Abstract: The issue of agricultural non-point source pollution has attracted the attention of the state and the masse. In the non-point source pollution control organizations which composed of the governments, farmers and fertiliser sellers, due to the characteristics of rational economic body, the phenomenon of ”market failure” and ”government failure” may occur in the process of non-point source pollution control. In this paper, the author applies game theory to analyse the main behaviour characteristics of the three main bodies, and constructs the incomplete information dynamic game model that the government, farmers and fertiliser sellers participate in. According to the results of the equilibrium solution of the Haysani Axiom model, it is found that the decisions made by the three bodies of the government, the fertiliser seller and the farmer in the behaviour choice stage have a great influence on the behaviour choice of the other two bodies, and the process of each strategy choice by the three bodies is a dynamic game process of the three bodies. Finally, according to the main influencing factors reflected in the equilibrium solution, proposed the related non-point source pollution control countermeasure suggestion to the government main body.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Experimental study on the working and mechanical properties of high
           performance cementitious structural grouts

    • Abstract: By using the experimental study method, the working properties and mechanical properties of grouting materials were determined by changing the cement-sand ratio, water-cement ratio, and cement admixtures. The main factors affecting the properties of grouting materials and the mutual influence rules of various factors are analysed and determined, and the best value range is obtained. Finally, the compressive strength of 28-day ordinary Portland cement structure grouting is optimised to 50-80 MPa. Based on the grouting ratio of ordinary Portland cement, an experimental study on the early strength structure paste of sulphate aluminate cement was carried out. The paste with one day strength as high as 70 MPa and good compatibility was prepared, and the early strength change law of the optimum ratio was deduced.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Research on low carbon financial support strategies from the perspective
           of eco-environmental protection

    • Abstract: This paper provides an in-depth analysis and research on low carbon financial support strategies from the perspective of ecological environmental protection. The understanding and analysis of the development status of ecological environmental protection inspectors, the analysis of the current rule of law construction, organizational structure, operation mechanism and capacity of the current ecological environmental protection inspectors, the understanding of the defects and problems in the work of the inspectors, to provide a basis for improving the inspection function. Through financial instruments It is of great theoretical value and practical significance to realise the full utilization of resources, the optimization of industrial structure and the low-carbon cycle development of agricultural economy. Combining the current situation and constraints of financial support for low-carbon agriculture, we propose targeted financial policy recommendations such as credit innovation for agricultural green projects rich in characteristics and conducive to the development of low-carbon agriculture, broadening private financing channels for low-carbon agriculture, and exploring low-carbon agricultural insurance. The entropy value method is used to determine the index weights, and the comprehensive evaluation method is used to calculate the comprehensive development evaluation value of the two subsystems; finally, the coupling coordination degree model is used to analyse the coupling degree and coupling coordination degree of the carbon finance and low-carbon agriculture composite systems, and the factors affecting the coupling coordination degree are analysed on this basis. Although the coupling level between them is at a low level of coupling, it is in transition to a medium coupling; the coupling coordination degree is at a mild disorder, and gradually in transition to a near disorder.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The government-business relationship and eco-innovation: evidence from
           chinese automobile industry

    • Abstract: This study used 2017-2019 Chinese A-share-listed automobile manufacturing companies as research samples to analyse the impact of the government-business relationship on eco-innovation. We found that a healthy government-business relationship had a positive impact on enterprise eco-innovation. The mediating effects test verified that a healthy government-business relationship affected enterprise eco-innovation through financing constraints. In addition, managerial ownership significantly increased the positive impact of a healthy government-business relationship on enterprise eco-innovation. We also found that a healthy government-business relationship had a more substantial impact on enterprise eco-innovation in non-state-owned enterprises when considering corporate property rights. The study results provide empirical evidence for the influence of the government-business relationship on enterprise eco-innovation and deepen our understanding of eco-innovation in China’s automobile manufacturing industry.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Model of environmental management science based on circular economy theory

    • Abstract: The resources of a country are limited, and people must consider the important issue of how to make use of these limited material resources to create major economic value for humans. The theory of the circular economy has been proposed, which relies on scientific model research to create economic development that is more in line with people’s concept of environmental management. The circular economy is characterised by resource conservation, recycling, coordination, low development, high utilization and low emissions. All material and energy use is reasonable, and sustainable land use minimises the influence of economic activities on the natural environment. Based on the theory of the circular economy, this paper studies the model of environmental management science. This paper analyses the mining development mode, the mechanism of the circular economy, and green logistics research based on circular economy theory and then applies statistical analyses to the two models. It summarises the development mode and the mechanism of the mining circular economy based on the current mineral resource development and utilization situation and the environmental problems in China. An innovative mode mechanism for mining circular economy development is proposed that can provide a value evaluation standard for social development. Through the above research, it is found that the use of circular economy theory can not only help make effective use of resources but also provide a new way to improve the gross national product.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Performance evaluation model and algorithm of green supply chain
           management based on sustainable computing

    • Abstract: How to facilitate collaborative development between the enterprise and the environment under the dual constraints of resources and the environment is the focus of today's green supply chain management system research. Through the performance evaluation of the green supply chain, we can understand the operation of the whole supply chain and its shortcomings, provide a basis for improving related processes, and have important practical significance for improving the competitiveness and protection of its products. First of all, by summarising and analysing the research status of sustainable supply chain management in different countries, the research idea and overall background of this paper are proposed. It discusses the theory of sustainable supply chain management and the performance evaluation system and calculation types of sustainable supply chain management. Finally, the relative weight of each index is determined based on the sustainability calculation method, and then the decentralisation degree of the index is constructed. During this period, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate the performance of sustainable supply chain, conduct case analysis and summary, and evaluate the performance of green supply chain component in economic, social, environmental and other aspects. In this paper, representative companies are selected as examples to evaluate their green supply chain management performance, and the evaluation algorithm is studied based on sustainable calculation method. The results show that a reasonable and effective evaluation of the enterprise performance of green supply chain management and a sustainable algorithm study can effectively identify potential problems in the operation of the company and improve the overall operation of the company at this stage.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Assessment of High Salinity Wastewater Treatment with Dewatered Alum
           Sludge-Aerobic Membrane Reactor

    • Abstract: The discharge of wastewater containing both high salinity and high organic content without prior treatment is detrimental to aquatic life and water hygiene. In order to integrate the advantages of membrane treatment and biological treatment, and exert the phosphorus removal efficiency of dewatered alum sludge, in this study, an aerobic membrane reactor based on dehydrated alum sludge was used to treat mustard tuber wastewater with salinity of 6.8-7.3 % under the conditions of 30 °C, 20 kPa trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3300-3900 mg/L. Three replicate reactors were applied to assess the operational performance under different organic loading rate (OLR). The results showed that all reactors were effective in removing COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and soluble phosphate (SP) under the conditions of 30 °C and 20 kPa of TMP. Meanwhile, the effluent concentration of COD, NH4+-N and SP all increased while OLR was changed from 1.0 to 3.0 kg COD/m3/day, and the effluent COD and NH4+-N concentration except for SP could reach the B-level of Chinese “Wastewater quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers” when OLR was less than 3.0 kg COD/m3/day. This indicates that dewatered alum sludge-based aerobic membrane reactor is a promising bio-measure for treating high salinity wastewater.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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