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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Applied Water Science
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ISSN (Print) 2190-5487 - ISSN (Online) 2190-5495
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Evaluation of groundwater quality for agricultural under different
           conditions using water quality indices, partial least squares regression
           models, and GIS approaches

    • Abstract: Abstract Evaluating grouLindwater quality and associated hydrochemical properties is critical to manage groundwater resources in arid and semiarid environments. The current study examined groundwater quality and appropriateness for agriculture in the alluvial aquifer of Makkah Al-Mukarramah Province, Saudi Arabia, utilizing several irrigation water quality indices (IWQIs) such as irrigation water quality index (IWQI), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), potential salinity (PS), magnesium hazard (MH), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) assisted by multivariate modeling and GIS tools. One hundred fourteen groundwater wells were evaluated utilizing several physicochemical parameters, which indicating that the primary cation and anion concentrations were as follows: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, and Cl− > SO42˗ > HCO3˗ > NO3˗ > CO32˗, respectively, reflecting Ca–HCO3, Na–Cl, and mixed Ca–Mg–Cl–SO4 water facies under the stress of evaporation, saltwater intrusion, and reverse ion exchange processes. The IWQI, TDS, SAR, PS, MH, and RSC across two studied regions had mean values of 64.86, 2028.53, 4.98, 26.18, 38.70, and − 14.77, respectively. For example, the computed IWQI model indicated that approximately 31% of samples fell into the no restriction range, implying that salinity tolerance crops should be avoided, while approximately 33% of samples fell into the low to moderate restriction range, and approximately 36% of samples fell into the high to severe restriction range for irrigation, implying that moderate to high salt sensitivity crops should be irrigated in loose soil with no compacted layers. The partial least squares regression model (PLSR) produced a more accurate assessment of six IWQIs based on values of R2 and slope. In Val. datasets, the PLSR model generated strong estimates for six IWQIs with R2 varied from 0.72 to 1.00. There was a good slope value of the linear relationship between measured and predicted for each parameter and the highest slope value (1.00) was shown with RSC. In the PLSR models of six IWQIs, there were no overfitting or underfitting between the measuring, calibrating, and validating datasets. In conclusion, the combination of physicochemical characteristics, WQIs, PLSR, and GIS tools to assess groundwater suitability for irrigation and their regulating variables is beneficial and provides a clear picture of water quality.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
  • Spatial variations and trend analysis of groundwater salinity along
           coastal aquifers of Mundra-Kachchh over a decade—using thematic maps and
           GIS mapping

    • Abstract: Abstract Water is one of the most basic entities, especially in semiarid regions where low precipitation and limited surface water resources bring more emphasis on the use of groundwater leading to endangering and overexploitation. Therefore, quantity with monitoring of groundwater quality at regular intervals becomes of utmost importance for understanding its suitability for drinking and irrigation. This study aims in understanding spatial variations and their trend in terms of quality over a decade (2010–2020) using different hydrochemical parameters in the vicinity of the coastal tracts of the Mundra block. Samples were analyzed for TDS, pH, EC, TH, major cations, and anions. Drinking suitability was identified by correlating parameters with WHO, BIS standards and by preparing WQI maps. Irrigational suitability was found by SAR, RSC, KI, Na %, MH, and PI. Reduced water level (RWL) values represented a further increase in the reversal flow of groundwater in a decade leading to an increment in salinity and seawater intrusion. The study area in most of the analysis is possessing much higher values above safer limits when compared to 2010 and 2020, making the water very much unacceptable for drinking and irrigation. The major cause in the area is overexploitation and unconditional deeper drilling, resulting in an increase in coastal salinity and seawater intrusion. The use of such water tends to harm agriculture, soil condition as well as human health.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
  • Pseudo-stem banana fiber as a potential low-cost adsorbent to remove
           methylene blue from synthetic wastewater

    • Abstract: Abstract In this work, pseudo-stem banana (Musa acuminata) (PBF) fiber was utilized as a potential low-cost natural adsorbent to uptake methylene blue (MB) dye from synthetic wastewater by batch adsorption process. Different adsorption factors like contact time, pH, initial concentration, and adsorbent dosage were explored and found that the separation process is strongly pH dependent. Additionally, the adsorption data were fitted with various adsorption isotherms like Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin–Radhushkevich models to detect the adsorption equilibrium phenomena. Reaction kinetics was inspected using pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic models. Mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion analyses indicate the adsorption mechanism of the system described particularly in the context. Furthermore, scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were conducted to get the morphology and surface properties of the adsorbent, respectively. As a result, the as-prepared banana fiber can be proposed as a cheap suitable adsorbent to separate dyestuffs from industrial wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
  • Correction: Microplastic pollution in sediments in the urban section of
           the Qara Su River, Iran

    • PubDate: 2022-09-20
  • Evaluate the hydro-geochemical characteristics of Selamko farm reservoir
           water quality and its potential for multipurpose uses in Debre Tabor,
           Ethiopia using GIS-based water quality indices

    • Abstract: Abstract Surface water pollution is a global problem and has been evident for a long period of time. Hence, the aim of the study was to evaluate the hydro-geochemical characteristics of Selamko farm reservoir water quality and its suitability for multipurpose uses using GIS-based water quality indices. The water sampling sites and parameters were selected systematically based on the land use, land cover, and anthropogenic activities around Selamko reservoir watershed in Debre Tabor, Ethiopia. Water samples were collected from 11 sampling stations from July 2019 to March 2020 using the composite sampling method and examined using standard procedures. The suitability of the reservoir's water quality for multipurpose use was investigated using drinking and irrigation water quality indices, and other tools. The spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters were prepared using the kriging method in ArcGIS 10.5. The results of the geospatial analysis indicated that the reservoir water quality parameters had spatial variation, which was caused by industrial and household wastewater inflow across the reservoir's watershed. Based on WHO and ES standards, the computed drinking water quality index results revealed that 81.81% and 18.18% of the reservoir's water quality fall into the poor to very poor classes, which indicates that the water in the reservoir is not fit for drinking. However, a Wilcox diagram, irrigation indices, and USEPA regulations revealed that the reservoir water quality is found to be safe and suitable for irrigation, fishing, and livestock purposes. The study concluded that Selamko reservoir's water quality is suitable for irrigation, fishing, and livestock watering with proper management accordingly.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
  • GIS and fuzzy logic integration in land suitability assessment for surface
           irrigation: the case of Guder watershed, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract Before planning the use of existing land resources for irrigation, it is necessary to determine their availability. The primary goal of this research was to examine the Guder watershed's land resource potential for irrigation development and to create a geo-referenced map of these resources using a geographic information system coupled with fuzzy logic. Irrigation suitability criteria such as slope, land use, proximity to water body, rainfall deficit, soil texture class, soil depth, soil drainage classes, and proximity to road were considered when evaluating prospective irrigable properties. The criteria maps were divided into four suitability classes using a natural break interval range technique. According to the study's findings, 39.8% of the watershed area is Highly suitable, 34.5% is moderately acceptable, 24.5% is marginally suitable, and 1.2% is not suitable for the aforementioned reasons. According to the irrigation suitability study of these characteristics, 70.42% of the slope, 15.57% of the slope, 10.6% of the slope, and 3.95% of the slope are Highly, moderately, and marginally suitable for surface irrigation, respectively. In addition, 15% of the soil in the study Area is suitable for a surface irrigation system. In terms of land cover and use, 75% is highly favorable, whereas 0.3% is not suitable for irrigation development. GIS and remote sensing offer a straightforward and powerful framework for combining spatially complicated field variables for land suitability research. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the fuzzy logic technique combined with GIS as an effective model for finding prospective irrigable land on a continental scale.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
  • Characterization of the health and irrigation risks and hydrochemical
           properties of groundwater: a case study of the Selian coal mine area,
           Ordos, Inner Mongolia

    • Abstract: Abstract Groundwater (GW) is an important source of freshwater in arid and semiarid areas. Some important industrial activities, such as coal mining, also consume GW. There have been few studies evaluating GW quality in the Selian coal mining area of Inner Mongolia. This study aimed to identify the hydrochemical phases and the sources of main ions in the GW of the Selian coal mining area. Water quality analysis was performed on 20 shallow GW samples collected from the study area. Statistical correlation analysis was performed on these water quality data. The quality of irrigation water was evaluated based on water quality indices such as the sodium absorption rate and sodium percentage. The risk of nitrate pollution in the study area to human health was evaluated by GW nitrate content. The results show that the dominant GW chemistry types in the study area are the mixed and Ca–HCO3 types. Correlation analysis indicates that rock weathering and leaching are the main natural drivers of GW hydrochemistry in this area. The irrigation risk analysis shows that GW in this area can be used for irrigation, although some caution is needed. The human health risk assessment shows that GW nitrate pollution poses more risk to children than to adults by a factor of 1.168. It is recommended that centralized treatment of drinking water is the optimal approach to managing this risk. The results of this study can act as a reference for the rational use of GW and for control of nitrate pollution in this area.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
  • Identifying rainwater harvesting sites using integrated GIS and a
           multi-criteria evaluation approach in semi-arid areas of Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, East Africa has been suffering from severe droughts. The availability of water is crucial to socioeconomic development and ecosystem services in the region. In order to address the pressing issue of water scarcity in the Wag Himra zone, a study will identify viable rainwater harvesting (RWH) sites. Geographical Information System with a multi-criteria evaluation system was used to identify suitable RWH sites based on land use and cover, soil texture, runoff depth, slope, drainage density, and considering road and town constraints. The runoff depth was estimated using the soil conservation service curve number model, and the land use/cover image classification was undertaken using ArcGIS. By using weighted overlay analysis, sites that are potentially suitable for RWH were identified. Based on the hydrological and socioeconomic characteristics of the study area and available literature, the weight of the criteria was determined using the Analytical Hierarchical Process. The findings of the study indicate that only 0.02% of the study area is considered highly suitable, 2.59, 12.26, 61.76, and 21.1% are rated as moderately suitable, marginally suitable, less suitable, and not suitable for RWH, respectively, and 2.29% is labeled a constraint for RWH. It is possible to harvest and store rainwater in the study area to meet increasing water demand. These findings aim to assist decision-makers, planners, and managers to find sites, invest in water resources, and use RWH as an alternative water source.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
  • Comparison of HEC-HMS hydrologic model for estimation of runoff
           computation techniques as a design input: case of Middle Awash
           multi-purpose dam, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract Rainfall-runoff modeling requires a selection of a suitable hydrologic model for the determination of an accurate quantity from a given process. For this study, the HEC-HMS event-based hydrologic model of the Initial and constant, the Green and Ampt, and the SCS CN loss methods were selected as a modeling tool for estimation of the amount of runoff at the middle awash multi-purpose dam on the Awash River basin. The HEC-HMS model calibration of this study was done by using the meteorological and hydrological data for the years from 2004 to 2008. The model was validated by using the daily data for the years from 2009 to 2013. The results with the comparison of the observed and simulated hydrographs and the model performance showed that the initial and constant (Nash-Sutcliff NSE = 0.73, Correlation coefficient R2 = 0.75, and RMSE = 0.5) model is appropriate for hydrological simulations in the Middle Awash Catchment.
      PubDate: 2022-09-17
  • Impact of flooding on microbiological contamination of domestic water
           sources: a longitudinal study in northern Ghana

    • Abstract: Abstract Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard globally, but evidence of its impact on domestic water point contamination remains limited. This study aimed to assess dam-related flooding’s impact on microbiological contamination of rural water points and to evaluate agreement of satellite-derived flood maps with ground-based observations of water point flooding. Fieldwork took place in two Ghanaian districts frequently flooded following dam overspill. Fifty-seven water points were tested for bacterial parameters during and immediately after flooding. Forty water points were resampled in the dry season, with the remainder having run dry. Ground-based observations of flooding were compared with three satellite-derived flood maps. Boreholes were less contaminated than wells or surface waters (geometric mean E. coli = 20.2, 175.6, and 590.7 cfu/100 ml, respectively). Among groundwater points, a Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated significantly greater median E. coli and thermotolerant coliform contamination during flooding (p = 0.025 and p < 0.001, respectively), but Shigella, salmonella, and intestinal enterococci counts were not significantly different between seasons. In contrast, among surface water points, E. coli, Shigella, and Salmonella counts were significantly greater in dry season samples (p < 0.005 for all parameters), possibly reflecting a “concentration” effect. Satellite-derived flood maps had no or low agreement with ground-based observations of water point flooding. Although groundwater quality deteriorated during and after flooding, surface waters were the most microbiologically contaminated in both seasons. The greatest public health risk thus occurred where households switched to surface water collection during or following flood season. Flood risk should be assessed before borehole installation and existing flood-prone boreholes remediated to mitigate population exposure to contaminated water.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
  • Analysis of runoff variation and driving mechanism in Huangfuchuan River
           Basin in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China

    • Abstract: Abstract To address the prominent problem of declining runoff in many rivers around the world, studying the law of runoff change and attribution analysis is very important for the planning and management of watershed water resources and has practical significance for solving the imbalance between supply and demand of watershed water resources and maintaining the healthy development of rivers. Three commonly used coupled water-energy balance equations based on Budyko hypothesis are selected to estimate the elasticity coefficient of runoff change to each driving factor, and the contribution rate of different factors to runoff change in the study area is quantified by the total differential method and the complementary method, respectively. The results show that the runoff of Huangfuchuan River basin showed a significant decreasing trend from 1954 to 2015, and the runoff mutation points were 1979 and 1996; in the alteration period I (1979–1996), precipitation was the main factor leading to the runoff reduction in Huangfuchuan River basin, followed by the influence of underlying surface; the contribution rate of underlying surface to runoff alterations ranged from 63.7% to 65.46%; the impact of potential evapotranspiration was slightly smaller. In the alteration period II (1997–2015), the underlying surface played a dominant role in runoff reduction of Huangfuchuan River basin. The contribution rate of the underlying surface to runoff change ranged from 80.21% to 86.34%, followed by precipitation, and the potential evapotranspiration had the least impact. The impact of human activities on the whole watershed increased with the passage of time. The land use change, the overall increase of NDVI (vegetation cover) and the construction of water conservation projects are important reasons for the reduction of runoff in Huangfuchuan River basin.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
  • Correction to: Spring water quality assessment of Anantnag district of
           Kashmir Himalaya: towards understanding the looming threats to spring
           ecosystem services

    • PubDate: 2022-08-24
  • Improving the accuracy of satellite and reanalysis precipitation data by
           their ensemble usage

    • Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the outputs of five precipitation (PCP) datasets. These models are ECMWF reanalysis 5th generation (ERA5), precipitation estimation from remotely sensed information using artificial neural networks-climate data record (PERSIANN-CDR), Asian precipitation-highly resolved observational data integration toward evaluation (APHRODITE), The national centers for environmental prediction climate forecast system reanalysis (NCEP CFSR) and climatic research unit (CRU). The PCP outputs of these models were compared with data of nine synoptic stations in the Khuzestan province. The results indicated a better match between the APHRODITE outputs and the PCP data at most stations (R2 > 0.85, root-mean-square error (RMSE) < 17.049 mm and − 4.25 < Bias < 2.633 mm). However, CRU model has the highest critical success index (more than 0.711) and the lowest false alarm ratio (less than 0.2) and ERA5 has the highest probability of detection (more than 0.967) at most stations. Then, PCP outputs of five reanalysis (ERA5), interpolated (APHRODITE, NCEP CFSR and CRU) and satellite (PERSIANN-CDR) PCP datasets were combined to reduce the PCP estimation error. The multivariate adaptive regression splines models were employed for this purpose. The results show that the RMSE of all the stations, except Ahvaz station, decreased and the BIAS decreased too. Given the results, using ensemble data methods is a suitable way for reducing the error and increasing the accuracy of these models.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
  • Contamination from plastic pipes in small systems: migration and leaching

    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, extensive laboratory-scale research has focused on the biofilm formation, leaching, and migration of organic chemical compounds from plastic pipes into drinking water. This research has been conducted on an existing distribution network in three rural villages near the dead ends to study the small diameter pipes associated with stagnant or low flow conditions. The distribution network was constructed more than ten years ago using unplasticized polyvinyl chloride pipes. Samples of water, soil, and aged pipes have been collected and tested in the laboratory. Results showed a heavy biofilm formed on the inner surfaces of the uPVC pipes. The biofilm has resulted in high concentrations of trihalomethanes, total organic carbon, and PAHs in the drinking water. The predominant PAHs were the acenaphthylene followed by the naphthalene, while no PAHs have detected at the source. The SEM images showed deterioration of pipe walls, swelled parts, and pores. The EDX confirms the migration of some elements including O, Cl, Ca, Ti, Mg, Fe and K due to the biodegradation of the pipe material and the Ca/Zn stabilizers. However, PAHs released from the plastic pipes into the flowing water are caused by metabolic activities. In addition, results showed that the surrounding soil has classified as having low organic content. Hence, uPVC pipes need protection or change in the manufacturing processes to reduce their hazards in distribution networks over time.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
  • Evaluation of water quality and dam for sustaining the fish population

    • Abstract: Abstract Bhagirathi is a Himalayan River, which flows in Uttrakashi district in Uttarakhand state. It is one of the most important streams of the Ganga River. This river is famous for dam construction and fisheries development. The fishes of commercial importance in cold water are Mahaseer, Snow Trout. The fish production depends on the physical, chemical as well as biological qualities of water. In the present paper, water quality evaluation and dam in the sustaining fish population dynamics have been reviewed to make aware the fish culturist and environmentalist about the water quality factors which influence health of a pond and to increase the fish yields to meet the growing demands of present time scenario of the our country. The construction of dams causes many problems. Water quality and discharge of water from the dam wall systems also indirectly affect the fish populations. In this study, we also review some of the important impacts associated with dams and their recommended mitigation measures. There is a negative impact on fish population dynamics, especially for downstream habits due to dams. Water quality is measured like temperature, turbidity, carbon dioxide, pH, alkalinity, hardness, BOD, TDS, Turbidity. The maximum oxygen content of water was recorded in January 13.02 ± 0.166 mg l−1 and minimum 9.4 ± 0.05 mg l−1 in July in site I phase I (before the reservoir dam wall). While in site II and phase I (After the dam), the maximum DO was observed in the month of January of 12.1 mg l−1 and minimum in July of 8.93 mg l−1. This is because water level is minimized in site II almost dried in winter. The CO2 of the Maneri Bhali phase I -Site I (before dam) was recorded maximum in April 3.10 ± 0.012 mg l−1. In Maneri Bhali phase I -Site II (After dam), the CO2 was recorded maximum 3.01 ± 0.003 mg l−1 in the month July. The river of Garhwal Himalaya harbors a rich aquatic diversity, the most common endemic fish species that inhabit this fresh water is the Schizothorax species. The maximum no. of fish were observed in winter and minimum in monsoon. At present, the production of these fishes from the streams is very poor and is not well managed from recreational and conservation point of view. If such is developed properly, it can have revenue potential for our state government. Sports, fisheries, tourism should be promoted.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
  • New software to analyze hydraulic incidents in Algeria

    • Abstract: Abstract Fifteen percent of the total volume produced is lost, which has become a major problem for water resource management in Algeria. The number of high leakages reduces the performance of the drinking water supply network. The disturbance of the drinking water supply observed by the citizens resulted from several incidents occurring mainly on the axis of production or distribution (e.g., breakage, leakage, pollution, electrical problems, and drought). To manage these incidents and for water distribution monitoring in the high-level strategic plan, monitoring and control software was developed for the Algerian Water Company (ADE). This software is an essential tool that helps managers of water resources to monitor the water supply situation throughout the national territory to ameliorate water public services. This dynamic software has been in use since 2016.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
  • Laboratory evaluation of operating conditions for chloride removal from
           diethanolamine using ion exchange resin and introduction of optimal

    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, a strong anionic resin was used to remove the chloride ion in the diethanolamine of sweetening unit of gas refinery. A laboratory pilot has been investigated as a resin-filled bed to evaluate the reaction temperature, chloride ion concentration, resin saturation, resin recovery rate, optimal reaction temperature, diethanolamine flow rate, hydrogen strength and resin performance in this work. The resin saturation time, capacity of resin, optimal reaction temperature and changes in chloride concentration of the output stream from resin were determined in this research. Finally, the optimal amount of water to regulate the pH of the resin and the optimal amount of 4% sodium hydroxide solution to recycle the resin were calculated. It was found that one liter of resin is able to absorb 20.77 g of chloride. The temperature of 50 °C was considered as the optimal temperature of ion exchange reaction by comparing the amount of caustic and water consumption for resin recovery and regulation of neutral acidity, respectively. In this study, the amount of 4 wt.% caustic and water at a temperature of 50 °C for recovery of 134 g of resin obtained was equal to 8.5 and 5 L, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
  • Sulfate removal from chemical industries' wastewater using ettringite
           precipitation process with recovery of Al(OH)3

    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate a simple and less expensive process for the removal of sulfate from Iranian Chemical Industries Investment Company' wastewater using the ettringite (a calcium aluminum sulfate (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O)) precipitation process. The optimum experimental conditions for sulfate removal and Al(OH)3 recovery were determined using batch experiments. Using Ca(OH)2 allowed to achieve optimum pH (pH = 12–12.5) for ettringite precipitation. The final residual sulfate concentration is dependent upon the aging time and reagent dosage. Sulfate ions were entirely removed in the ettringite precipitation step using fresh (after heating aluminum hydroxide for 10 h at 350 °C) and recovered Al(OH)3 with a aging time of 61 and 46 h, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ions in the wastewater sample was also reduced to less than 20.04 mg/l after the carbonation step with 95% removal efficiency. This method with the recovery of Al(OH)3 through the decomposition of precipitated ettringite under low pH conditions is highly feasible and cost-effective for sulfate removal from sulfate-containing industries' wastewater.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
  • Analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of direct rainfall in
           Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract The Blue Nile’s source, Lake Tana, is the biggest lake in Ethiopia and offers multiple services to local, regional, and international communities. The first step to effectively, efficiently, and sustainably utilizing the services that the lake may provide is to understand its water balance using accurate estimations of its water balance parameters, including direct rainfall. Direct rainfall to Lake Tana is one of the most important water balance terms of the Lake that needs a precise estimate. This study tries to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of direct rainfall to the Lake and estimate the mean annual and mean monthly direct rainfall amount to the lake using sufficient data and appropriate methodologies. 30 years (1986–2015) monthly and mean annual data from 13 meteorological stations were collected and used to analyses the spatial and temporal variability. Spatial and statistical tools were used for data processing, analysis, and presentation. Five interpolation techniques:- Thiessen polygon, spline, isohyetal, inverse distance weighting, and Kriging were considered and their performances were assessed and compared using evaluation criteria. The results indicate that the Isohytal method is slightly better than the other four methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS) with Geostatic Analysis in ArcGIS. Further, the analysis has shown that the mean annual direct rainfall to Lake Tana is 1313.43 mm with a standard deviation of 259.01. Besides, it has been seen that there is a significant spatial and temporal variability of direct rainfall on Lake Tana. In terms of spatial variability, the Lake gets maximum direct rainfall in its southeastern part with an annual mean value of 1720 mm and a minimum value in its northwest parts with an annual mean value of 860 mm. In terms of Temporal variability, maximum direct rainfall is estimated in July as 374.11 mm in the Summer season and the minimum is less than 12.3 mm depth in December, January, February, and March in Winter.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
  • An experimental study to evaluate the efficiency of silicate drilling
           fluids on the stabilization of shale layers

    • Abstract: Abstract Regarding the increasing production from unconventional reservoirs, especially shale reservoirs, it is essential to determine appropriate drilling fluid in drilling operations to have maximum efficiency. Selective performance of drilling fluids may increase the formation penetration rate and increase the drilling efficiency. This paper compares the three types of drilling fluids to compare their rheological properties and provide the best drilling fluid composition for shale stabilization. This paper can bring reliable experimental results for petroleum industries, especially drilling operations, to reduce the formation damage and shale instabilities in subsurface formations. To perform the tests under the same conditions, the formulation of all samples is the same in terms of both utilized polymers to determine the effect of other compositions in selected drilling fluids. For the silicate drilling fluid, since silicates perform well at higher pH (potential of hydrogen), the pH of the silicate drilling fluid is increased to 11 by the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The lowest decrease in fluid viscosity is related to silicate fluids, indicating the more excellent thermal stability of these types of drilling fluid than glycol and potassium chloride (KCl). Plastic viscosity (PV) is about 20 cP for silicate drilling fluids, while it has the minimum value for glycol drilling fluids after heating. It is about 7.5 cP. Apparent viscosity (AV) is about 23 cP for silicate drilling fluids, while it has the minimum value for glycol drilling fluids after heating. It is about 11 cP. The yield point (YP) before heating is almost the same for different fluids, but after heating the drilling fluids, the reflux point for silicate and glycol drilling fluids is significantly reduced. The yield point is about 6.5 Ib/100ft2 for silicate drilling fluids, while it has the maximum value for glycol drilling fluids after heating. It is about 8 Ib/100ft2.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
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