A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
We no longer collect new content from this publisher because the publisher has forbidden systematic access to its RSS feeds.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Water
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.634
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-4441
Published by MDPI Homepage  [246 journals]
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3867: Stability of Braced Excavation Underneath
           Crossing Underground Large Pressurized Pipelines

    • Authors: Fangang Li, Panpan Guo, Ningning Geng, Lei Mao, Feng Lin, Yanlin Zhao, Hang Lin, Yixian Wang
      First page: 3867
      Abstract: The practice of deep-braced excavation in congested urban environments involves frequently buried pipelines, which can exert a significant effect on the performance of the excavation. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of a 12.5-m-deep-braced excavation spanned by two shallowly buried large-diameter pressurized pipelines. A suspension structure is installed within the excavation to protect the in situ pipelines during the construction. The excavation performance is investigated by performing a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The finite element method is verified based on the observations at the site. The results indicate that, as expected, the excavation support structures displace together with varying degrees of deformation toward the excavated area. The strut shear forces are found to be distributed axially in linear manners, while the strut bending moments are in symmetric manners. The benefit of using the proposed pipeline suspension structure is demonstrated. By using this structure, pipeline deformation can be well controlled, and the structural integrity and safety of the pipelines can be ensured. This benefit depends on the convenient operation in that the elevation of the cork base of the pipeline suspension structure is stably lowered during the construction process.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233867
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3868: Predicting Ground Surface Settlements Induced
           by Deep Excavation under Embankment Surcharge Load in Flood Detention Zone
           

    • Authors: Yixian Wang, Shi Chen, Jiye Ouyang, Jian Li, Yanlin Zhao, Hang Lin, Panpan Guo
      First page: 3868
      Abstract: In this paper, a simplified prediction formula of ground settlement induced by deep foundation pit excavation is proposed, especially suitable for ground overloading near a foundation pit, such as embankment surcharge load, which is carefully considered via the means of load equivalence. The ground settlement induced by foundation pit excavation and embankment surcharge load is determined by the modified skewness prediction formula and the simplified Boussinesq solution, respectively, and it is assumed that no coupling effect exists between the two settlement sources. In addition, this paper improves the determination of the maximum settlement location by combining calculus and curve fitting, replacing the existing prediction formula which relies heavily on engineering experience to determine the maximum settlement point. The predicted value obtained using this method comes close to the measured value, and the deviation of the maximum surface settlement value is controlled within about 5% in the three cases introduced, of which the accuracy is higher than the existing prediction formula.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233868
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3869: Assessing Coastal Flood Susceptibility in East
           Java, Indonesia: Comparison of Statistical Bivariate and Machine Learning
           Techniques

    • Authors: Entin Hidayah, Indarto, Wei-Koon Lee, Gusfan Halik, Biswajeet Pradhan
      First page: 3869
      Abstract: Floods in coastal areas occur yearly in Indonesia, resulting in socio-economic losses. The availability of flood susceptibility maps is essential for flood mitigation. This study aimed to explore four different types of models, namely, frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WofE), random forest (RF), and multi-layer perceptron (MLP), for coastal flood susceptibility assessment in Pasuruan and Probolinggo in the East Java region. Factors were selected based on multi-collinearity and the information gain ratio to build flood susceptibility maps in small watersheds. The comprehensive exploration result showed that seven of the eleven factors, namely, elevation, geology, soil type, land use, rainfall, RD, and TWI, influenced the coastal flood susceptibility. The MLP outperformed the other three models, with an accuracy of 0.977. Assessing flood susceptibility with those four methods can guide flood mitigation management.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233869
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3870: Relative Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
           and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Aquaponics with Different Types of
           Fish Food

    • Authors: George Vernon Byrd, Bibhuti Ranjan Jha
      First page: 3870
      Abstract: Aquaponics has the potential to contribute to food security in urban Nepal, where agricultural land near cities is rapidly being converted for other uses. This system’s use is expanding in Nepal, but the relatively high cost of commercial fish food is a hindrance. As a result, some aquaponics operators are resorting to alternative, less expensive fish foods. Since the primary input of nutrients to the plants grown in aquaponics comes from the fish food, an evaluation of the impact of fish foods on plant and fish growth is needed to help operators evaluate the costs and benefits of commercial compared to alternative fish diets. This study evaluated the growth of lettuce and common carp, the most common species of plant and fish used in aquaponics in Nepal, with three fish diets (commercial fish food, commercial chicken food, and a homemade diet with mustard oil cake and rice bran) at a commercial aquaponics farm with nine identical systems allowing for three replicates of the three fish food treatments. There were no significant differences in the measurements of lettuce growth (stem length, root length, and stem mass) and few differences in nutrient concentrations in leaf tissue. The specific growth rate of the carp fingerlings was lowest for the fish in the systems fed with the homemade diet (0.21) compared to those fed commercial fish food or commercial chicken food (0.31 and 0.28, respectively). These findings suggest that aquaponics operators who have been buying the more expensive commercial fish food with fish meal as its protein source can save 60–95% of the related costs by using commercial chicken food or the homemade diet defined in this study. This could potentially encourage the expansion of aquaponics systems in Nepal.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233870
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3871: Development of Novel Microcomposite Materials
           from Coal Fly Ash and Incense Sticks Ash Waste and Their Application for
           Remediation of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solutions

    • Authors: Virendra Kumar Yadav, Bijendra Singh, Amel Gacem, Krishna Kumar Yadav, Govindhan Gnanamoorthy, Taghreed Alsufyani, Hany S. Hussein, Nasser S. Awwad, Rajesh Verma, Gajendra Kumar Inwati, Krishna Swain, Nisha Choudhary
      First page: 3871
      Abstract: Coal fly ash (CFA) is one of the major pollutants around the whole world. At the same time, incense stick ash (ISA) is another waste that is generated in huge amounts in Southeast Asia. Both of these wastes are rich in different types of minerals; for instance, CFA is rich in alumina, silica, and ferrous, while incense sticks ash is rich in calcium and silica. ISA has intermediate to trace amounts of ferrous, alumina, and magnesium. The addition of alkali-rich materials with high Al and Si-containing CFA helps in the formation of zeolites or geopolymers. So, in the current research work, the authors have prepared a CFA: ISA mixture in the ratio of 1:1, followed by mixing them with NaOH, CaOH2, and KOH in a dry state in a crucible. Further, all these mixtures were then calcined at 600 °C for six hours in a muffle furnace. Further, the developed products were analyzed by various sophisticated instruments for detailed information. Finally, the developed material’s potential was assessed for the remediation of malachite green from the aqueous solution by batch adsorption study. The developed adsorbents efficiently removed the dye from the aqueous solutions within one hour. The kinetic study revealed that the dye removal followed a pseudo-second-order reaction. Finally, the developed material was also assessed for its suitability as an adsorbent by observing the effect of leaching of potassium, aluminum, and silica from the adsorbent surface into the water systems. Such approaches will solve the problem of solid waste disposal arising from both the ashes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233871
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3872: Evolution and Influencing Factors of Landscape
           

    • Authors: Haipeng Niu, Xiaoming Zhao, Dongyang Xiao, Mengmeng Liu, Ran An, Liangxin Fan
      First page: 3872
      Abstract: The temporal and spatial evolution of landscape pattern is the most intuitive form of land use transition. Analyzing the change of landscape pattern and its driving factors is of great significance to land use management and water quality protection in the basin. Based on the land use data obtained from the remote sensing image interpretation of the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, the landscape pattern evolution characteristics of the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) were quantitatively studied using the methods of multi-angle land use transfer matrix, land use information atlas, and landscape pattern index, and the influencing factors of landscape pattern evolution of the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) were revealed using the geographic detectors (a new statistical method to measure the explanatory power of independent variables to dependent variables mainly by analyzing the overall differences among various types of geographical spaces). The results show that: (1) From 1990 to 2020, the mutual transformation of land use types in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) was frequent, and the transformation tracks were diversified. Among them, the outflow behavior of land use types is mainly manifested in the transformation from cultivated land to construction land, and the inflow behavior of land use types is mainly manifested in the transformation from grassland and water to cultivated land. (2) In the information map of land use change in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) from 1990 to 2020, the stable type had the widest distribution range, accounting for 94.60% of the total area of the study area, with two main change patterns: “cultivated land-cultivated land-cultivated land-cultivated land” and “woodland-woodland-woodland-woodland”, which indicates that the landscape pattern of the basin dominated by cultivated land and woodland has not changed fundamentally. The four land use change structure types, repeated change, early change, intermediate change and continuous change, account for a relatively small proportion and are concentrated in the vicinity of the Yellow River. (3) At the landscape level, the watershed generally shows the trend of decreasing landscape fragmentation, increasing landscape heterogeneity and constantly balancing landscape patch types. At the level of patch type, the landscape dominance of cultivated land decreases, while that of construction land increases. The occupation of construction land is the main reason for the fragmentation and homogenization of cultivated land. (4) From the perspective of landscape scale and patch type scale, through the geographical exploration of various natural factors and socio-economic factors that potentially affect the landscape pattern evolution, it is found that the spatial differences of natural factors such as slope, elevation, temperature, and precipitation can better reflect the spatial heterogeneity of the landscape pattern in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) than those of socio-economic factors such as GDP and population density, and the interaction of any two driving factors has a greater influence on the spatial distribution characteristics of landscape pattern than any single factor, indicating that the formation of spatial heterogeneity in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) is the result of the interaction of various influencing factors. The results of this study can provide ideas for exploring the trend and influencing mechanism of landscape pattern change in the basin, and have important reference significance for ecological environment management, ecosystem protection, and land use planning in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section).
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233872
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3873: Flood Scenario Simulation, Based on the
           Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Model in the Puyang River Catchment

    • Authors: Hua Zhong, Bing Zhang, Ting Ma, Xinlong Qi, Xuying Wang, Hualing Shang, Simin Qu, Weihua Fang
      First page: 3873
      Abstract: The topography of the Puyang River catchment is complex and includes hills and plains. The Zhuji basin in the middle reaches a densely populated area facing serious flooding issues, due to the upstream flooding and downstream backwater. To address the problem, this study applies the Xin’anjiang hydrological model and IFMS 1D-2D hydrodynamic model, to simulate flood scenarios. The simulation results demonstrated that the hydrological model and the -hydrodynamic model together are a feasible tool to monitor the flooding process in the Puyang River catchment. In addition, different flood scenarios which consider disaster-inducing factors and flood control operations are simulated by the model. Reasonable solutions are analyzed for the local flood management.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233873
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3874: Comparison of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal
           between Two Typical Processes under Low Temperature in a Full-Scale
           Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    • Authors: Zhigang Liu, Ying Zhang, Wei Zhou, Wei Wang, Xiaohu Dai
      First page: 3874
      Abstract: Given its strict discharge standards for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), China focuses on improving the removal effect of nitrogen and phosphorus in biological treatment processes under low temperatures. The variations in nitrogen and phosphorus during the anaerobic–anoxic-oxic (AAO) and AAO-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes in a full-scale WWTP were compared by sampling. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in both processes exceeded 85% and 91%, respectively, when the water temperature was lower than 15 °C. The wastewater treatment potential capacity of the AAO process was larger than that of AAO-SBR, indicating that the AAO process could realize the subjective demand of nitrogen or phosphorus removal by adjusting its operation mode. The anaerobic phosphorus release of the AAO process was affected when part of the internal reflux entered the anaerobic tank. Thus, the biological phosphorus removal of the AAO process was worse than that of the AAO-SBR process. Since the nitrification and denitrification rates of the AAO process were all higher than that of the AAO-SBR process, the TN removal efficiency of AAO was higher than that of AAO-SBR. These results could provide some advice for the upgrade, operation optimization, and process selection of both processes in the future.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233874
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3875: Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Estimation
           Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques: A Case Study for Calcareous
           Alluvial Soils in a Semi-Arid Region

    • Authors: Sevim Seda Yamaç, Hamza Negiş, Cevdet Şeker, Azhar M. Memon, Bedri Kurtuluş, Mladen Todorovic, Gadir Alomair
      First page: 3875
      Abstract: The direct estimation of soil hydraulic conductivity (Ks) requires expensive laboratory measurement to present adequately soil properties in an area of interest. Moreover, the estimation process is labor and time-intensive due to the difficulties of collecting the soil samples from the field. Hence, innovative methods, such as machine learning techniques, can be an alternative to estimate Ks. This might facilitate agricultural water and nutrient management which has an impact on food and water security. In this spirit, the study presents neural-network-based models (artificial neural network (ANN), deep learning (DL)), tree-based (decision tree (DT), and random forest (RF)) to estimate Ks using eight combinations of soil data under calcareous alluvial soils in a semi-arid region. The combinations consisted of soil data such as clay, silt, sand, porosity, effective porosity, field capacity, permanent wilting point, bulk density, and organic carbon contents. The results compared with the well-established model showed that all the models had satisfactory results for the estimation of Ks, where ANN7 with soil inputs of sand, silt, clay, permanent wilting point, field capacity, and bulk density values showed the best performance with mean absolute error (MAE) of 2.401 mm h−1, root means square error (RMSE) of 3.096 mm h−1, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.940, and correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.970. Therefore, the ANN could be suggested among the neural-network-based models. Otherwise, RF could also be used for the estimation of Ks among the tree-based models.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233875
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3876: Comparative Analysis on the DMA Partitioning
           Methods Whether Trunk Mains Participated

    • Authors: Hua Zhou, Youfei Liu, Huaqi Yao, Tingchao Yu, Yu Shao
      First page: 3876
      Abstract: In recent years, the District Metered Area (DMA) of water distribution networks (WDNs) has become a major development trend in the water leakage control area. It has significant value in the active leakage control and pressure management of WDNs. This study comments on two DMA partitioning methods (Scheme A and B, previously introduced in another paper) and compares three aspects of their respective performances to elucidate their respective strengths and weaknesses. Scheme A partitions all the network nodes, whereas Scheme B only partitions the remaining network nodes, except the trunk mains. Whether the trunk mains participated in the partitioning process is the key distinction between the two approaches. There is little relevant research that compares and analyzes the effects of the above two methods. This paper applies these two types of partitioning methods to a case network. The respective performances in three aspects, namely economy, water quality, and leakage control, were evaluated and compared. For economy, Scheme A is more economical than Scheme B, saving about 15.34%. For water quality, Scheme B is the best partitioning method because it reduces water age better than Scheme A does. For leakage control, Scheme B has a drop of 19.46%, which is better than Scheme A (a decline of 15.12%) in comparison to the initial leakage.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233876
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3877: Hydrodynamical Assessment of the Recent
           Droughts at Gallinas River in San Luis Potosí México and Its
           Impact on the Waterfall Tamul

    • Authors: Clemente Rodriguez-Cuevas, Arturo Hernández-Antonio, Carlos Couder-Castañeda, Jorge Hernández, Diego Padilla-Perez
      First page: 3877
      Abstract: During the dry season of the years 2016–2020, the Gallinas River in San Luis Potosí State, Mexico, experienced a completeoss of its downstream flow. These events impacted the Tamul waterfall, a tourist attraction with economicosses for the region. To investigate the causes, this research focuses on identifying the flow variations in different river sections using the EFDC model under different scenarios to determine the causes of flowosses resulting in the disappearance of the waterfall. To set up the conditions, measurements of flow and speed, photogrammetry, bathymetry, and digital elevation modeling were necessary. The EFDC model was calibrated based on data acquired from measurement campaigns from 2017 to 2018. Five scenarios were established with different inflow boundary conditions: 1.5, 30, 60, and 1000 m3/s. According to the modeling results, it can be inferred that the mostikely reason for the flow variations in the river is the clandestine water extraction and the influence of the karst geomorphology of the river that would generate specific infiltrations.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233877
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3878: A Dam Construction Event Recorded by
           High-Resolution Sedimentary Grain Size in an Outflow-Controlled Lake
           (Hulun Lake, China)

    • Authors: Hongbin Gao, Rui Zhang, Gang Wang, Yanru Fan, Xinfeng Zhu, Junfeng Wu, Li Wu
      First page: 3878
      Abstract: The distribution of sediment grain size can record past environmental conditions and human activity. In this study, radioisotope of 210Pb and 137Cs and a grain size of a 41 cm core in Hulun Lake were applied to reconstruct the high-resolution sedimentation history. The profiles of the grain size of the lake sediments show that silt (4–63 µm) was the largest contribution with an average content of 84.05%, and the second largest contribution was sand (>63 µm) with an average content of 15.68%. The median grain size and the mean grain size in the whole sediment core was 22.39 μm and 36.85 μm, respectively. Correlations of the sedimentological variables with instrumental measurements were also analyzed. The peak–trough value of the mean grain size of the sediments in Hulun Lake can reflect the magnitude of rainfall intensity and river discharge. The clay and silt contents at a depth of approximately 32–38 cm was different from other depths throughout the core, which showed continuous maxima with an average content of 0.35% and 94.08%. These changes in grain size correspond to the period of dam construction in 1963–1970. Therefore, the sediment grain size of Hulun Lake effectively recorded the dam-building activity.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233878
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3879: Physical and Biological Features of the Waters
           in the Outer Patagonian Shelf and the Malvinas Current

    • Authors: Pavel A. Salyuk, Sergey A. Mosharov, Dmitry I. Frey, Valentina V. Kasyan, Vladimir I. Ponomarev, Olga Yu. Kalinina, Eugene G. Morozov, Alexander A. Latushkin, Philipp V. Sapozhnikov, Sofia A. Ostroumova, Nadezhda A. Lipinskaya, Maxim V. Budyansky, Pavel V. Chukmasov, Viktor A. Krechik, Michael Yu. Uleysky, Pavel A. Fayman, Alexander Yu. Mayor, Irina V. Mosharova, Anton D. Chernetsky, Svetlana P. Shkorba, Nikita A. Shved
      First page: 3879
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to trace how the fine-thermohaline and kinematic structure, formed over a section along 45.8° S in the interaction zone of the outer Patagonian Shelf (PS) and Malvinas (Falkland) Current (MC) System waters, affect the spatial distribution of bio-optical characteristics, phyto/zooplankton, birds, and marine mammals. For the first time, simultaneous multidisciplinary observations at high spatial resolution (~2.5 km) were performed in this region during the cruise of the R/V “Akademic Mstislav Keldysh” in February 2022. A fine structure of alternating upwelling and downwelling zones over the PS and slope was identified, which resulted from the interaction between the MC inshore branch (MCi), bottom topography, and wind. This interaction significantly affects all the physical, and optical characteristics analyzed in the work, as well as the biota of the region. It was found that the euphotic zone is larger in the downwelling zones than in the upwelling zones, and all spatially local maxima of phytoplankton photosynthetic efficiency are observed in the zones between upwelling and downwelling. Phytoplankton along the section were represented by 43 species. A total of 30 zooplankton species/taxa were identified. Three species of marine mammals and 11 species of birds were recorded in the study site. Most of the phytoplankton species list were formed by dinoflagellates, and picoplankton Prasinoderma colonial quantitatively dominated everywhere. Two floristic and three assemblage groups were distinguished among the analyzed phytoplankton communities. High phytoplankton biodiversity was observed above the PS and low above the PS edge and in the MCi core. Copepods mostly dominated in zooplankton. Subantarctic species/taxa of zooplankton concentrated in the nearshore waters of the PS, while Antarctic species/taxa were most abundant in the zone between the MCi and the MC offshore branch (MCo). The relative abundance of birds in the PS was several times higher than in the MCo. The minimum abundance of birds was in the MCi in the zone of the strongest upwelling identified above the PS edge.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233879
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3880: Study on Waterlogging Reduction Effect of LID
           Facilities in Collapsible Loess Area Based on Coupled 1D and 2D
           Hydrodynamic Model

    • Authors: Jie Mu, Miansong Huang, Xiaoli Hao, Xiaolan Chen, Haijun Yu, Binbin Wu
      First page: 3880
      Abstract: The accurate evaluation method of LID toward the attenuation of urban flood is still a hot issue. This paper focuses on a coupled 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model, investigating the model parameters set in a collapsible loess area, and the changes in the surface runoff, waterlogged area, and drainage network indicators under different rainfall patterns. The results show that the coupled model can effectively simulate the effect of LID facilities under unaltered and retrofitted conditions. It is found that the infiltration parameters in a collapsible loess area are higher than in other eastern cities by calibration and validation. After implementing the LID facilities, the total runoff, peak flood flow, waterlogged area, runoff coefficient, and drainage pressure under different rainfall patterns have all been reduced. With the increases in the rainfall return period, the waterlogging reduction effect of LID facilities would gradually weaken. The rainfall return period has a great impact on the indicators of surface runoff, waterlogged area, and drainage capacity. The coefficient of rainfall peak has a relatively big impact on indicators of pipelines, such as the proportion of overflow nodes, the proportion of fully loaded pipelines, and the average full-load duration. The rainfall duration has a major impact on the total runoff quantity, runoff coefficient, and average full-load duration.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233880
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3881: Understanding Hydrological Processes under
           Land Use Land Cover Change in the Upper Genale River Basin, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mehari Shigute, Tena Alamirew, Adane Abebe, Christopher E. Ndehedehe, Habtamu Tilahun Kassahun
      First page: 3881
      Abstract: The expansion of cultivated land in place of natural vegetation has a substantial influence on hydrologic characteristics of a watershed. However, due to basin characteristics and the nature and intensity of landscape modification, the response varies across basins. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model and its applicability in assessing the effects of land use land cover (LULC) changes on the hydrological processes of the upper Genale River basin. The results of satellite change detection over the past 30 years (between 1986 and 2016) revealed that the landscape of the basin has changed considerably. They showed that settlement, cultivated, and bare land areas had increased from 0.16% to 0.28%, 24.4% to 47.1%, and 0.16% to 0.62%, respectively. On the contrary, land cover units such as forest, shrubland, and grassland reduced from 29.6% to 13.5%, 23.9% to 19.5%, and 21.8% to 18.9%, respectively. Based on monthly measured flow data, the model was calibrated and validated in SWAT-CUP using the sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm. The result showed that the model performed well with coefficient of determination (R2) ≥ 0.74, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) ≥ 0.72, and percent bias (PBIAS) between −5% and 5% for the calibration and validation periods. The hydrological responses of LULC change for the 1986, 2001, and 2016 models showed that the average annual runoff increased by 13.7% and 7.9% and groundwater flow decreased by 2.85% and 2.1% between 1986 and 2001 and 2001 and 2016, respectively. Similarly, the total water yields increased from 324.42 mm to 339.63 mm and from 339.63 mm to 347.32 mm between 1986 and 2001 and 2001 and 2016, respectively. The change in hydrological processes, mainly the rise in runoff and total water yield as well as the reduction in lateral and groundwater flow in the watershed, resulted from LULC changes. This change has broader implications for the planning and management of the land use and water resource development.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233881
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3882: Overburden Failure Associated with Slicing
           Mining in a Super Thick Coal Seam under Special Weak Aquifers

    • Authors: Kai Chen, Ying Ge, Zhiqi Liu, Lifeng Chen, Quan Zhang
      First page: 3882
      Abstract: With the increasing improvement of national ecological standards, the eco-environmental problems caused by super thick coal seam mining in western China are becoming more and more serious. The failure law of weak overburden stratum is an important factor affecting the safe mining of coal. The failure characteristics of weakly cemented overburden under high-intensity mining in the mining area of western China were studied. For this purpose, a case study was conducted in the 1101 working face of the Baituyao Coal Mine in Ürümqi County. Based on the analysis of geological conditions in the study area, we combined empirical calculations with engineering analogy, physical simulation, and numerical simulation to comprehensively analyze the characteristics of mining-induced overburden failure. The study showed that the overburden in the study area had several unfavorable engineering geological characteristics, including ease of softening in the presence of water. The Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Formation is a directly recharged aquifer with a weak water-retaining property. Overburden failure mainly occurred at the two ends of the open-off cut. During the mining process, vertical fissures and bed-separated fissures were periodically developed and closed, and the fissures were interconnected. The overburden was fractured, and the fractured zone showed a trapezoidal shape, tapering off from bottom to top. The heights of the caving zone and the water-conducting fracture zone were 25 and 280 m, respectively, in the 1101 working face of the Baituyao Coal Mine, and the ratio of fracturing to mining height was 14.0. Due to the weakly cemented overburden and the presence of the Neogene weak aquifer, the risk of water and sand bursts still exists in this working face under high-intensity mining. Our findings shed light on the safe mining and environmental protection of the ground surface in coal mine shafts in western China.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233882
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3883: Simulation of Heat Flow in a Synthetic
           Watershed: The Role of the Unsaturated Zone

    • Authors: Eric D. Morway, Daniel T. Feinstein, Randall J. Hunt
      First page: 3883
      Abstract: Future climate forecasts suggest atmospheric warming, with expected effects on aquatic systems (e.g., cold-water fisheries). Here we apply a recently published and computationally efficient approach for simulating unsaturated/saturated heat transport with coupled flow (MODFLOW) and transport (MT3D-USGS) models via a synthetic three-dimensional (3D) representation of a temperate watershed. Key aspects needed for realistic representation at the watershed-scale include climate drivers, a layering scheme, consideration of surface-water groundwater interactions, and evaluation of transport parameters influencing heat flux. The unsaturated zone (UZ), which is typically neglected in heat transport simulations, is a primary focus of the analysis. Results from three model versions are compared—one that neglects UZ heat-transport processes and two that simulate heat transport through a (1) moderately-thick UZ and (2) a UZ of approximately double thickness. The watershed heat transport is evaluated in terms of temperature patterns and trends in the UZ, at the water table, below the water table (in the groundwater system), and along a stream network. Major findings are: (1) Climate forcing is the product of infiltration temperatures and infiltration rates; they combine into a single heat inflow forcing function. (2) The UZ acts as a low-pass filter on heat pulses migrating downward, markedly dampening the warming recharge signal. (3) The effect of warming on the watershed is also buffered by the mixing of temperatures at discharge points where shallow and deep flow converge. (4) The lateral extent of the riparian zone, defined as where the water table is near land surface (<1 m), plays an important role in determining the short-term dynamics of the stream baseflow response to heat forcing. Runoff generated from riparian areas is particularly important in periods when rejected infiltration during warm and wet periods generates extra runoff from low-lying areas to surface water.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233883
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3884: Numerical Simulation of Boulder
           Fluid–Solid Coupling in Debris Flow: A Case Study in Zhouqu County,
           Gansu Province, China

    • Authors: Fei Wang, Jiading Wang, Xiaoqing Chen, Shaoxiong Zhang, Haijun Qiu, Canyun Lou
      First page: 3884
      Abstract: Boulders mixed with debris flows roll downstream under interactions with debris flow slurry, which poses a great threat to the people, houses, bridges, and other infrastructure encountered during their movement. The catastrophic debris flow in Zhouqu County, which occurred on 7 August 2010, was used as an example to study the motion and accumulation characteristics of boulders in debris flows. In this study, a fluid–solid coupling model utilizing the general moving objects collision model and the renormalization group turbulent model was used in the FLOW-3D software, treating boulders with different shapes in the Zhouqu debris flow as rigid bodies and the debris flow as a viscous flow. Numerical simulation results show that this method can be used to determine the motion parameters of boulders submerged in debris flows at different times, such as the centroid velocity, angular velocity, kinetic energy, and motion coordinates. The research method employed herein can provide a reference for studying debris flow movement mechanisms, impact force calculations, and aid in designing engineering control structures.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233884
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3885: Adsorption of Cr(VI) by Mesoporous Pomegranate
           Peel Biowaste from Synthetic Wastewater under Dynamic Mode

    • Authors: Yassira Boutaleb, Radia Zerdoum, Nadia Bensid, Rasha A. Abumousa, Zhour Hattab, Mohamed Bououdina
      First page: 3885
      Abstract: This study aims to eliminate hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) ions from water using pomegranate peel (PGP) powder. Dynamic measurements are carried out to examine the influence of the operating factors on the adsorption efficiency and kinetics. The analyzed PGP is found to be amorphous with relatively high stability, contains hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups, a pH of zero charge of 3.9, and a specific surface-area of 40.38 m2/g. Adsorption tests indicate that PGP exhibits excellent removal effectiveness for Cr(VI) reaching 50.32 mg/g while the adsorption process obeys the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic study favors the exothermic physical adsorption process. The influence of operating parameters like the flow rate (1 to 3 mL/min), bed height (25 to 75 mm), concentration (10 to 30 mg/L), and temperature (298 to 318 K) on the adsorption process are investigated in column mode. To assess the performance characteristics of the column adsorption data, a non-linear regression has been used to fit and analyze four different kinetic and theoretical models, namely, Bohart-Adams, Thomas model, Clark, and Dose response. The obtained experimental results were found to obey the Dose Response model with a coefficient of regression R2 greater than 0.977. This study proved the excellent efficiency in the treatment of chemical industry effluents by using cost-effect abundant biowaste sorbent. This research demonstrated great efficacy in the treatment of chemical industrial effluents by using an abundant, cost-effective biowaste sorbent, thereby achieving the UN SDGs (UN Sustainable Development Goals) primary objective.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233885
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3886: A Comparison of Model Calculations of Ice
           Thickness with the Observations on Small Water Bodies in Katowice Upland
           (Southern Poland)

    • Authors: Maksymilian Solarski, Mariusz Rzetala
      First page: 3886
      Abstract: Small bodies of water in densely populated areas have not yet been thoroughly studied in terms of their ice cover. Filling the existing research gap related to ice cover occurrence is therefore important for identifying natural processes (e.g., response to climate warming and water oxygenation in winter), and also has socio-economic significance (e.g., reducing the risk of loss of health and life for potential ice cover users). This paper addresses the issue of determining the utility of two simple empirical models based on the accumulated freezing degree-days (AFDD) formula for predicting maximum ice thickness in water bodies. The study covered 11 small anthropogenic water bodies located in the Katowice Upland and consisted of comparing the values obtained from modelling with actual ice thicknesses observed during three winter seasons (2009/2010, 2010/2011, and 2011/2012). The best fit was obtained between the values observed and those calculated using Stefan’s formula with an empirical coefficient of 0.014. A poorer fit was obtained for Zubov’s formula (with the exception of the 2011/2012 season), which is primarily due to the fact that this model does not account for the thickness of the snow accumulated on the ice cover. Bengst’cise forecasting of the state of the ice cover and the provision of the relevant information to interested users will increase the safety of using such water bodies in climate warming conditions, reducing the number of accidents.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233886
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3887: Assessment of Agricultural Land Suitability
           for Surface Irrigation Using Geospatial Techniques in the Lower Omo Gibe
           Basin, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Yonas Gebresilasie Hagos, Tesfa Gebrie Andualem, Mesenbet Yibeltal, Demelash Ademe Malede, Assefa M. Melesse, Fitsum T. Teshome, Haimanote K. Bayabil, Endalkachew Abebe Kebede, Ermias Alemu Demissie, Addisalem Bitew Mitku, Mequanent Abathun Mengie
      First page: 3887
      Abstract: Land suitability assessment for irrigation is critical to inform as well as manage current and future irrigated agriculture production systems. Land suitability analysis determines whether a given land area could potentially be used for specific crop production. The objective of this study was to identify the availability of suitable land for surface irrigation systems for the production of millet, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat production in the Lower Omo Gibe plain, Southern Ethiopia. Land suitability analysis was performed by a parametric method using factors such as soil texture, effective soil depth, Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), soil electrical conductivity (ECe), drainage class, and slope. Five land suitability classes were identified that include highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), currently not suitable (N1), and permanently not suitable (N2). Results showed that 6.6, 7.5, 6.6, and 6.6% of the study area mostly located in the western part of the basin, were highly suitable (S1) for irrigated millets, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat crops production, respectively. However, the mountainous areas in the central part of the basin were classified as N2 due to the steep slope and shallow soil depth. Overall, the results of the study revealed that the use of various suitability analysis techniques could assist in identifying suitable land for irrigated agriculture.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233887
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3888: Quality Assessment of Groundwater Based on
           Geochemical Modelling and Water Quality Index (WQI)

    • Authors: Arifullah, Huang Changsheng, Waseem Akram, Abdur Rashid, Zahid Ullah, Muddaser Shah, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Mohamed Kamel, Lotfi Aleya, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim
      First page: 3888
      Abstract: Potable groundwater contamination through arsenic (As) is a common environmental problem in many developing countries, including Pakistan, with significant human health risk reports. The current research was conducted in District Nankana Sahib, which is a major industrial site in Punjab, Pakistan. According to the Punjab Directorate of Industries in Pakistan, there are more than a thousand industries in this area. These industries produce a lot of waste and effluent, which contaminate the environment with harmful and toxic materials. Continuous irrigation with industrial effluent and sewage sludge may make groundwater sources vulnerable. Therefore, this research was aimed as assessing the hydrochemical profile of groundwater concerning As contamination in the study area using sixty-seven groundwater samples. Multivariate statistical analysis, graphical plots, geochemical modeling, and the water quality index (WQI) were applied to investigate the hydrochemistry of the research area. The outcomes of the WQI revealed that 43% of the samples were of poor quality and not fit for human consumption. About 28% of the groundwater samples showed high arsenic contamination beyond the permitted limit of the World Health Organization (WHO). The piper plot identified three distinct types of water in the research area: calcium, chloride, and calcium-chloride types. The Gibbs diagram illustrated that rock–water interaction influenced the hydrochemistry. Terrigenous sedimentary rocks, such as stream deposits, flood plain deposits, and detrital sedimentary rocks, among other types of sedimentary rocks covered most part the study area. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) indicated that the arsenic in groundwater exhibited a significant positive correlation for pH, Fe and As. Health risk assessments indicated a hazard quotient (HQ) greater than 1, indicating a 28% contribution showing that groundwater ingestion is highly toxic to the local habitats. The results of this study further help in managing future sustainable groundwater management approaches in the Nankana District, Punjab, Pakistan.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233888
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3889: Application of Modified Biochar in the
           Treatment of Pesticide Wastewater by Constructed Wetland

    • Authors: Yong Hu, Rong Xiao, Bo Kuang, Yanping Hu, Yaping Wang, Junhong Bai, Chen Wang, Ling Zhang, Zhuoqun Wei, Kegang Zhang, Milko A. Jorquera, Jacqueliine J. Acuña, Wenbin Pan
      First page: 3889
      Abstract: To explore the synergistic effects of modified biochar in the purification of herbicide-containing wastewater, the effect of biochar addition on the removal effect of the herbicide atrazine in wastewater was verified by the addition of biochar bags in a small reed bed-constructed wetland in the laboratory. The results showed that the addition of sulfuric acid-modified biochar could increase the removal rate of atrazine in wastewater from 50% to 70%, and the COD elimination rate in wastewater was from 66.7% to 86.7%. The addition of biochar to the constructed reed bed wetland improved the removal efficiency of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the wastewater, and the outlet water from the constructed wetland reached the Class III level of China’s surface water quality standard (the inlet water was inferior to Class V). The experimental design met the requirements of low-cost, generalized atrazine-containing wastewater treatment and thus could have the potential for wide application. The results reflected the application potential of modified biochar as a synergist in the treatment of herbicide wastewater in constructed wetlands.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233889
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3890: Evaluation of Peroxyacetic Acid and Chlorine
           as Treatments for Surface Water for Post-Harvest Uses in the Produce
           Industry

    • Authors: Zilfa Irakoze, Londa Nwadike, Don Stoeckel, Manreet Bhullar, Patrick Byers, Sara E. Gragg
      First page: 3890
      Abstract: Nearly half of foodborne illnesses are linked to produce and nuts, and water used for produce post-harvest activities can contribute to contamination. Surface water serves as an economical source for agricultural activities; however, exposure to the environment increases microbial risks and impacts its physicochemical characteristics. In this study, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and chlorine (Cl) were evaluated as treatments for simulated surface water to determine their efficacy at achieving ‘no detectable generic Escherichia coli’ in 100 mL. Simulated surface water was prepared to turbidities of 2 and 100 NTU, adjusted to pH 6.5 or 8.4, equilibrated to 32 or 12 °C, inoculated with 5 logs per mL of non-pathogenic (generic) E. coli, and treated with Cl 25 ± 2 ppm, PAA 75 ± 5 ppm, or sterile water control (W). Dey-Engley neutralization was followed by enumeration on E. coli/Coliform Petrifilm at times (t) 0 to 2880 min (48 h) post-treatment. When not detected, treatments were further evaluated through enrichment in 2X Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. Enrichments were streaked on MacConkey agar (MAC) to confirm E. coli absence. All Cl and PAA treated samples were below the test limit of detection (<5 CFU/mL), and E. coli was not detected in 5 mL enrichments even at t = 0 (shortly after treatment). These data suggest that Cl and PAA interventions may be effective for treating surface water for post-harvest uses.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233890
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3891: Numerical Analysis of Wind Effect on Wave
           Overtopping on a Vertical Seawall

    • Authors: Angela Di Leo, Fabio Dentale, Mariano Buccino, Sara Tuozzo, Eugenio Pugliese Carratelli
      First page: 3891
      Abstract: Onshore wind significantly affects wave run-up and overtopping, thereby representing a major variable to account for in the design process. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of numerical models to properly reproduce the wind effect on the overtopping at vertical seawall and to use them to understand how the wind influences the overtopping process as well. We use the RANS model, FLOW-3D, and the NLSW model, SWASH; both model the action of wind through the shear stress that it exerts on the sea surface. Although a simplified modelling of wind has been adopted, the CFD model has led to physically consistent results. On the other hand, SWASH seems to be unsuitable for reproducing the enhancement of the overtopping rate due to wind. CFD numerical results show that the wind affects only the lower overtopping regime (i.e., q < 1 l/s/m); as the mean overtopping discharge decreases, the influence of wind increases. Specifically, wind plays a key role in pure “white overtopping”, where the advection of spray is the predominant mechanism of the overtopping process. The effects of wind thus seem to be important in the design of seawalls, but are difficult to quantify through hydraulic models because of the unknown scaling laws. Therefore, we have found that a full-scale numerical approach is suitable to study the influence of wind on wave overtopping and to evaluate the wind factor to take into account in the design process.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233891
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3892: Experimental Investigation of Mechanisms of
           Droplet Entrainment in Annular Gas-Liquid Flows: A Review

    • Authors: Andrey V. Cherdantsev
      First page: 3892
      Abstract: Entrainment of liquid from the film surface by high-velocity gas stream strongly affects mass, momentum and heat transfer in annular flow. The construction of basic assumptions for simplified physical models of the flow, as well as validation of numerical models, requires detailed experimental investigation of droplet entrainment process and the preceding stages of film surface evolution. The present paper analyzes the achievements and perspectives of application of various experimental approaches to qualitative and quantitative characterization of droplet entrainment. Optical visualization in at least two planes simultaneously may provide enough information on transitional liquid structures and detaching droplets, given that the side-view image is not obscured by the wall film. A planar LIF technique is not suitable for this purpose, since real objects are hidden by curved agitated interface and replaced by optical artifacts. To characterize the waves evolving into the transitional liquid structures, film thickness measurements in the plane of the wall are necessary. Such measurements can be achieved by intensity-based optical techniques, such as Brightness-Based LIF, near-infrared or X-ray attenuation techniques, combined with the side-view observations.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233892
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3893: Response of Algal–Bacterial Regrowth
           Characteristics to the Hypochlorite in Landscape Ponds Replenished with
           Reclaimed Water

    • Authors: Meng Li, Jiaheng Liu, Chao Zhang, Jinli Wang, Pengfeng Li, Jingmei Sun, Yongli Sun
      First page: 3893
      Abstract: Sodium hypochlorite was widely used as a supplementary disinfectant in reclaimed water (RW) production during the COVID-19 epidemic. It is well known that the chlorination of RW results in a relatively high bacterial regrowth potential in pipeline systems. However, the algal growth and algal–bacterial interactions would be another concern in RW-replenished surface water with light irradiation. In this study, microcosmic experiments were used to explore the impact of hypochlorite on the algae–bacteria community, including the influence of hypochlorite on algal–bacterial regrowth, microbial community structure, and the specific bacteria that can survive chlorination. Results demonstrated that algal growth potential could be promoted after chlorination of the RW, and bacteria abundance increased along with an increase in algal density, which is probably related to DOM decomposition by chlorine oxidation. Additionally, the characteristics of the bacterial community were altered. It is more likely that phytospheric bacteria will survive chlorination. It was discovered that the secondary risks of chlorine disinfection include the growth of algae in addition to bacterial regeneration, which is an extension of the common perception. As a consequence, when chlorinated reclaimed water is used as a supplement for urban landscape ponds, particular attention should be paid to controlling bio-available organic matter induced by reactive chlorine, as well as the algal bloom, to decrease the risk of pathogen transmission.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233893
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3894: Advances in the Study of Heavy Metal
           Adsorption from Water and Soil by Modified Biochar

    • Authors: Wang, Li, Lin
      First page: 3894
      Abstract: Heavy metal contamination in water and soil has gradually become a concern with the development of industry in recent years and may pose a serious threat to human health if left untreated. Biochar is commonly used as an adsorbent/immobilizer of heavy metals from water and substrates because of its wide—ranging raw materials, low production cost, and good adsorption performance. Based on the adsorption mechanism of biochar, this paper analyzes different modification methods of biochar, aiming to provide an effective material for the treatment of heavy metals from water and sediment and provide a certain reference for its application to practical projects.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233894
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3895: Protection of Water Distribution Networks
           against Cyber and Physical Threats: The STOP-IT Approach Demonstrated in a
           Case Study

    • Authors: Camillo Bosco, Gema Sakti Raspati, Kebebe Tefera, Harald Rishovd, Rita Ugarelli
      First page: 3895
      Abstract: Water critical infrastructures are undergoing a process of digital transformation that entails an increasing integration between the physical and cyber layers of the system. This integration brings efficiency and monitoring advantages, but it also exposes water systems to a new threat surface that includes cyberattacks. Formed in 2017, STOP-IT is Europe’s first project dedicated to developing cyber-physical security solutions tailored to the water sector. During the 4 years of collaboration, the STOP-IT team has codeveloped an extensive list of technologies that integrates cyber and physical layers of infrastructure, allowing water utilities to prevent, detect, assess, and treat risks, as well as simulate scenarios of attacks and explore how to react to increase preparedness. This article first introduces the overall aim and main outcomes of the STOP-IT project and then focuses on the risk management integrated framework composed of modeling solutions developed to help water utilities identify vulnerabilities and protect critical parts of their systems. The solutions are presented along with the results from the demonstration activities performed by a selected water utility concerning three risk scenarios that were assessed through the mentioned integrated framework.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233895
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3896: Prediction Model of Hydropower Generation and
           Its Economic Benefits Based on EEMD-ADAM-GRU Fusion Model

    • Authors: Jiechen Wang, Zhimei Gao, Yan Ma
      First page: 3896
      Abstract: As an important function of hydraulic engineering, power generation has made a great contribution to the growth of national economies worldwide. Therefore, it is of practical engineering significance to analyze and predict hydropower generation and its economic benefits. In order to predict the amount of hydropower generation in China and calculate the corresponding economic benefits with high precision, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Adaptive Moment Estimation (ADAM) and Gated Recent Unit (GRU) neural networks are integrated. Firstly, the monitoring data of hydropower generation is decomposed into several signals of different scales by the EEMD method to eliminate the non-stationary components of the data. Then, the ADAM optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the GRU neural network. The relatively stable component signals obtained from the decomposition are sent to the optimized GRU model for training and predicting. Finally, the hydropower generation prediction results are obtained by accumulating the prediction results of all components. This paper selects the time series of China’s monthly power generation as the analysis object and forecasts the economic benefits by constructing the fusion prediction model. The RMSE EEMD-ADAM-GRU model is reduced by 16.16%, 20.55%, 12.10%, 17.97% and 7.95%, respectively, of compared with the NARNET, EEMD-LSTM, AR, ARIMA and VAR models. The results show that the proposed model is more effective for forecasting the time series of hydropower generation and that it can estimate the economic benefits quantitatively.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233896
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3897: LENS-GRM Applicability Analysis and Evaluation

    • Authors: Sanghyup Lee, Yeonjeong Seong, Younghun Jung
      First page: 3897
      Abstract: Recently, there have been many abnormal natural phenomena caused by climate change. Anthropogenic factors associated with insufficient water resource management can be another cause. Among natural causes, rainfall intensity and volume often induce flooding. Therefore, accurate rainfall estimation and prediction can prevent and mitigate damage caused by these hazards. Sadly, uncertainties often hinder accurate rainfall forecasting. This study investigates the uncertainty of the Korean rainfall ensemble prediction data and runoff analysis model in order to enhance reliability and improve prediction. The objectives of this study include: (i) evaluating the spatial characteristics and applicability of limited area ensemble prediction system (LENS) data; (ii) understanding uncertainty using parameter correction and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and grid-based rainfall-runoff model (GRM); (iii) evaluating models before and after LENS-GRM correction. In this study, data from the Wicheon Basin was used. The informal likelihood (R2, NSE, PBIAS) and formal likelihood (log-normal) were used to evaluate model applicability. The results confirmed that uncertainty of the behavioral model exists using the likelihood threshold when applying the runoff model to rainfall forecasting data. Accordingly, this method is expected to enable more reliable flood prediction by reducing the uncertainties of the rainfall ensemble data and the runoff model when selecting the behavioral model for the user’s uncertainty analysis. It also provides a basis for flood prediction studies that apply rainfall and geographical characteristics for rainfall-runoff uncertainty analysis.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233897
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3898: An Automated Machine Learning Engine with
           Inverse Analysis for Seismic Design of Dams

    • Authors: Mohammad Amin Hariri-Ardebili, Farhad Pourkamali-Anaraki
      First page: 3898
      Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic approach for the seismic design of 2D concrete dams. As opposed to the traditional design method which does not optimize the dam cross-section, the proposed design engine offers the optimal one based on the predefined constraints. A large database of about 24,000 simulations is generated based on transient simulation of the dam-foundation-water system. The database includes over 150 various dam shapes, water levels, and material properties, as well as 160 different ground motion records. Automated machine learning (AutoML) is used to generate a surrogate model of dam response as a function of thirty variables. The accuracy of single- and multi-output surrogate models are compared, and the efficiency of the design engine for various settings is discussed. Next, a simple yet robust inverse analysis method is coupled with a multi-output surrogate model to design a hypothetical dam in the United States. Having the seismic hazard scenario, geological survey data, and also the concrete mix, the dam shape is estimated and compared to direct finite element simulation. The results show promising accuracy from the AutoML regression. Furthermore, the design shape from the inverse analysis is in good agreement with the design objectives and also the finite element simulations.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233898
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3899: Nanocomposite Zinc Oxide-Based Photocatalysts:
           Recent Developments in Their Use for the Treatment of Dye-Polluted
           Wastewater

    • Authors: Abayomi D. Folawewo, Muhammad D. Bala
      First page: 3899
      Abstract: This review highlights current developments in utilising zinc oxide (ZnO) composite materials as photocatalysts. Systematic analyses of the various synthetic methods for producing ZnO-based hetero-structured materials, the variety of methods for their characterisation, their mechanisms of action, and widespread applications for the degradation of pollutants are discussed. Structure/activity relationships and methods of improving on some of the recognised shortcomings of ZnO-based nanomaterial catalysts are also presented.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233899
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3900: Reconstruction of Urban Rainfall Measurements
           to Estimate the Spatiotemporal Variability of Extreme Rainfall

    • Authors: Risma Joseph, P. P. Mujumdar, Rajarshi Das Bhowmik
      First page: 3900
      Abstract: In recent decades, the impact of climate change on urban flooding has increased, along with an increase in urban population and urban areas. Hence, historical design storms require revisions based on robust intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) relationships. To this end, the development of an urban rain-gauge network is essential to yield the spatiotemporal attributes of rainfall. The present study addresses two objectives: (a) to reconstruct sub-daily rainfall time series for the historical period over an urban gauge network, and (b) to investigate the spatiotemporal variation in extreme rainfall distribution within a city. This study considers Bangalore, India, where rainfall has been historically monitored by two stations but a dense gauge network has recently been developed. The study applies random forest regression for rainfall reconstruction, finding that the performance of the model is better when the predictand and predictor stations are near to one another. Robust IDF relationships confirm significant spatial variations in extreme rainfall distribution at the station and the city-region levels. The areal reduction factor (ARF) is also estimated in order to understand the likely impact of the reconstructed time series on hydrological modeling. A significant decrease in the ARF is observed as the area grows beyond 450 km2, indicating a substantial reduction in the volume of the design floods.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233900
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3901: Anti-Clogging Performance Optimization for
           Shunt-Hedging Drip Irrigation Emitters Based on Water–Sand Motion
           Characteristics

    • Authors: Cheng Qin, Jinzhu Zhang, Zhenhua Wang, Desheng Lyu, Ningning Liu, Shaobo Xing, Fei Wang
      First page: 3901
      Abstract: To improve the irrigation quality and anti-clogging performance of the emitter, it is necessary to design and optimize its flow channel structure. The shunt-hedging drip irrigation emitter (SHDIE) flow channel is a new type of flow channel. Using computational fluid dynamics, by setting different conditions (such as particle size and injection position), the motion trajectory of sand particles and flow field distribution characteristics of the shunt-hedging flow channel were simulated. According to the simulation results, a new anti-clogging structural optimization scheme was proposed, and physical experiments verified its feasibility. The results showed that the flow index of the original flow channel (SHDIE1) and optimized flow channel (SHDIE2) were 0.479 and 0.486, respectively, which mainly relied on the shunting and hedging of water flow to energy dissipation. For sand particles with diameters of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mm, the average values of the velocity amplitude ratio, η, were 0.9998, 0.9994, and 0.9991, respectively; the average values of the velocity phase difference, β, were −0.143°, −0.320°, and −0.409°, respectively. A larger sand particle diameter led to worse followability and a higher risk of blocking the channel. When the sand particles collided with the sensitive region of the flow channel, their movement direction would suddenly change, entering the vortex area. After colliding with the sensitive region of edge A, the maximum probability of sand particles entering the vortex area was increased to 87.5%, and then they stayed in the vortex area under the effect of the sensitive regions of edges B and C. After the sensitive regions were removed, the motion trajectories of sand particles became regular and smooth. The optimized flow channel’s (SHDIE2) anti-clogging performance was greatly improved by 60%, with a 1.46% loss of hydraulic performance. This study can provide theoretical support for designing the high anti-clogging emitter.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233901
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3902: The Evolutionary Game Analysis of Public
           Opinion on Pollution Control in the Citizen Journalism Environment

    • Authors: Jing Dai, Yaohong Yang, Yi Zeng, Zhiyong Li, Peishu Yang, Ying Liu
      First page: 3902
      Abstract: In the context of the rapid development of new media such as network citizen journalism, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to use the online public opinion to supervise sewage discharge enterprises’ emission governance behaviors and improve the social opinion supervision mechanism. This paper considers the dynamic characteristics of the spread process of public opinion and the game process of social supervision on corporate pollution control; constructs a tripartite evolutionary game model of the local government, sewage discharge enterprises, and the public by coupling the susceptible–exposed–infected–removed (SEIR) model and the evolutionary game model; and discusses the influence laws of public opinion spread on the tripartite evolutionary game. The results show that (1) the public with higher influence or authority has a more significant restraint effect to restrain the pollution control behavior of the local government and pollutant companies by using online public opinion supervision. (2) Increasing the probability of transforming a latent person into a supervisor and the topic derivative rate or reducing the probability of a supervisor’s self-healing can increase the peak value of supervisors, expand the scope of social public opinion, and improve the effectiveness of public opinion supervision. (3) The relatively high authenticity of public opinion supervision makes public opinion supervision a substitute for local government supervision, but it has a relatively strong inhibitory effect on the over-standard pollutant discharge behavior of sewage discharge enterprises. These conclusions can provide a reference for improving the social supervision mechanism of pollution control in the era of network citizen journalism.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233902
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3903: Environmental Policy and Regulatory Framework
           for Managing Mangroves as a Carbon Sink in Cuba

    • Authors: Yanet Cruz Portorreal, Orlando Joel Reyes Dominguez, Celene B. Milanes, Carlos Mestanza-Ramón, Benjamin Cuker, Ofelia Pérez Montero
      First page: 3903
      Abstract: Carbon stored in mangroves is valuable for climate change mitigation. Managing the carbon stored in the mangrove requires an adequate legal framework and an environmental policy. In Cuba, there is little research on the capacity of mangroves to retain carbon and its articulation in environmental policy and management. In the present study, the following research question is raised: Is there a favorable context in the environmental policy to manage the mangrove as a carbon reservoir in Cuba' The aim of this research is to identify aspects of environmental policy, legal and administrative frameworks related to managing mangroves as a carbon sink in Cuba. The qualitative method of social research, the content analysis technique, and the modified Ibero-American Network for Integrated Coastal Management (IBERMAR) decalogue were used to compile, understand, and discuss the potential for effective management of mangroves for carbon storage. One hundred and twenty-one articles published in WOS and Scopus databases between 2019 and 2022, as well as books and material reviewed on the official websites, were checked. Present policy in Cuba manages mangroves for coastal protection and other ecosystem services but lacks a developed plan for considering the role of this marine forest system as a carbon sink. Managing mangroves as a carbon reservoir will require vigorous efforts to measure and monitor the system. It is necessary to build a robust national political agenda and strengthen institutional and regulatory capacities. This research provides a systematization of environmental policy as a baseline for the management of carbon reservoirs in mangroves in Cuba.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233903
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3904: Monitoring Lakes Water Using Multisource
           Remote Sensing and Novel Modeling Techniques

    • Authors: Xiaoping Wang, Fei Zhang, Ngai Weng Chan, Xinguo Li
      First page: 3904
      Abstract: Inland lakes are indicators of climate change and environmental deterioration [...]
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233904
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3905: Occurrence of microplastics in Fish from
           Mendoza River: First Insights into Plastic Pollution in the Central Andes,
           Argentina

    • Authors: Juan Manuel Ríos, Franco Teixeira de Mello, Bárbara De Feo, Evelyn Krojmal, Camila Vidal, Veronica Andrea Loza-Argote, Erica Elizabeth Scheibler
      First page: 3905
      Abstract: The widespread use of plastic products in our modern life represents a serious threat to aquatic environments and wild animals that are exposed to plastic waste. Although microplastics (MPs) have been reported in fish from several freshwater environments around the world, mountain environments have been little studied so far. The occurrence of MPs was assessed in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of non-native (rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta) and native (torrent catfish Hatcheria macraei) fish from the Mendoza River in the Central Andes, Argentina. Fibers (85%) were the main MPs type recovered from the fish here analyzed, followed by fragments (15%). Blue fibers were the main type of MPs in analyzed specimens: brown trout (50%), rainbow trout (71%), and torrent catfish (63%). Significant differences in the median total MPs’ abundance and median total fiber abundance were observed among fish species. The highest MPs’ abundance was found in the GITs of brown trout followed by rainbow trout, while the lowest was found in the GITs of torrent catfish. This study represents a baseline for the occurrence and characteristics in terms of shape and color of MPs in freshwater fish collected from a mountain river of the Central Andes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233905
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3906: Coupling Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes
           (δ2H, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) to Identify the Major Factors
           Affecting the Hydrochemical Process of Groundwater and Surface Water in
           the Lower Reaches of the Yarlung-Zangbo River, Southern Tibet,
           Southwestern China

    • Authors: Xiao Yu, Xingcheng Yuan, Hongyang Guo, Yunhui Zhang, Huawen Cao, Tongming Luo, Zhaocheng Gong, Haoqing Huang
      First page: 3906
      Abstract: In Tibet, water resource has been less studied due to remote and harsh conditions. In this study, hydrochemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) were employed to investigate the major factors affecting the hydrochemical process of groundwater and surface water in the lower reaches of the Yarlung-Zangbo River, southern Tibet. Groundwater and surface water were weakly alkaline and very soft to moderately hard water. The hydrochemical type of surface water is mainly Ca-HCO3 (mainstream) and Ca-SO4-HCO3 (tributary), while the hydrochemical type of groundwater was mainly Ca-SO4-HCO3. Multivariate statistical analysis and Gibbs analysis proposed hydrochemical components were dominated by water-rock interaction. Ion ratio, saturation index, and Sr isotope revealed calcite dissolution and silicate weathering with local sulfide oxidation were involved in water–rock interaction. D-O isotopes indicated the recharge source was mainly derived from atmosphere precipitation. The entropy-weighted water quality index indicated surface water and groundwater reach the standard of drinking purpose in the lower reaches of the Yarlung-Zangbo River. The hydrochemical type varied regularly along the Yarlung-Zangbo River. The dissolution of carbonate rocks and local silicate weather and evaporate dissolution are the primary hydrochemical process along the Yarlung-Zangbo River. This study would provide a preliminary insight for hydrochemical process in the Yarlung-Zangbo River.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233906
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3907: Correction: Vettori et al. On Escherichia coli
           Resistance to Fluid Shear Stress and Its Significance for Water
           Disinfection. Water 2022, 14, 2637

    • Authors: Davide Vettori, Costantino Manes, Davide Dalmazzo, Luca Ridolfi
      First page: 3907
      Abstract: In the original publication [...]
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233907
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3908: How Much Recurrent Outbreaks of the Moon
           Jellyfish May Impact the Dynamics of Bacterial Assemblages in Coastal
           Lagoons'

    • Authors: Loredana Stabili, Lucia Rizzo, Rosa Caprioli, Giorgio Alabiso, Stefano Piraino
      First page: 3908
      Abstract: The moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea (Scyphozoa) is one of the most common and largest jellyfish inhabiting coastal lagoons, confined bays, and marinas of temperate and subtropical coastal waters. The annual population dynamics of A. coerulea along with some bacterial parameters (bacterial size and biomass, total coliforms, faecal coliforms, intestinal enterococci, culturable Vibrio spp., and culturable bacteria at 37 °C), sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and an array of nutrients (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, silicates, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) were assessed in the Varano lagoon (Adriatic Sea) that is subject to anthropogenic pollution. Statistical analyses revealed that jellyfish outbreaks and their consequent biomass deposition significantly correlated to seawater temperature, total nitrogen, phosphates, and ammonia concentrations while negative correlations appeared with nitrite and nitrate concentrations. In addition, bacterial biomass and Vibrio abundance correlated with each other and temperature, jellyfish density, and total nitrogen. These findings suggest that environmental changes could trigger the occurrence of jellyfish bursts in the lagoon which, in turn, may act as one of the central drivers of processes regulating some bacterial components. The positive relationship between jellyfish flush-and-crash dynamics and SST suggests that ongoing global warming will seemingly increase jellyfish outbreaks.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233908
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3909: Microplastics in Freshwater: A Focus on the
           Russian Inland Waters

    • Authors: Yulia Frank, Alexandra Ershova, Svetlana Batasheva, Egor Vorobiev, Svetlana Rakhmatullina, Danil Vorobiev, Rawil Fakhrullin
      First page: 3909
      Abstract: The low production costs and useful properties of synthetic polymers have led to their ubiquitous use, from food packaging and household products to high-tech applications in medicine and electronics. Incomplete recycling of plastic materials results in an accumulation of plastic waste, which slowly degrades to produce tiny plastic particles, commonly known as “microplastics” (MPs). MPs can enter water bodies, but only recently the problem of MP pollution of sea and fresh waters has become clearly evident and received considerable attention. This paper critically reviews the accumulated data about the distribution of MPs in the freshwater ecosystems of Russia. The available data on MP abundance in the lakes and river systems of the Russian Federation are analyzed (including the large Lakes Baikal, Ladoga, Onego, Imandra and Teletskoe, and the Volga, Northern Dvina, Ob, and Yenisei Rivers within their tributaries) and compared with the data on freshwater MP contents in other countries. In Russia, the main sources of MP pollution for rivers and lakes are domestic wastewater, containing microfibers of synthetic textiles, fishing tackle, and plastic waste left on shores. Among the MPs detected in the surface waters and bottom sediments, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles predominate. The most common types of MPs in the surface freshwaters are fibers and fragments, with fibers prevailing in the bottom sediments. The reported average MP concentrations in the waters range from 0.007 items/m3 at the mouth of the Northern Dvina River to 11,000 items/m3 in the Altai lakes. However, the estimates obtained in different studies must be compared with great precaution because of significant differences in the methods used for MP quantification. The approaches to further improve the relevance of research into MP pollution of fresh waters are suggested.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233909
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3910: Spatial and Temporal Variations of Stable
           Isotopes in Precipitation in the Mountainous Region, North Hesse

    • Authors: Amani Mahindawansha, Marius Jost, Matthias Gassmann
      First page: 3910
      Abstract: Patterns of stable isotopes of water (18O and 2H) in precipitation have been used as tracers for analyzing environmental processes which can be changed by factors such as the topography or meteorological variables. In this study, we investigated the isotopic data in precipitation for one year in the low mountain range of North Hesse, Germany, and analyzed mainly for altitude, rainfall amount, and air temperature effects on a regional scale. The results indicate that the isotopic composition expressed an altitude effect with a gradient of −0.14‰/100 m for δ18O, −0.28‰/100 m for δ2H and 0.83‰/100 m for Deuterium excess. Patterns of enrichment during warmer months and depletion during colder months were detected. Seasonal correlations were not consistent because the altitude effect was superimposed by other processes such as amount and temperature effects, vapor origins, orographic rainout processes, moisture recycling, and sub-cloud secondary evaporation. Precipitation was mostly affected by secondary evaporation and mixing processes during the summer while depleted moisture-bearing fronts and condensation were more responsible for isotope depletion during winter. In autumn and spring, the amount effect was more prominent in combination with moisture recycling, and large-scale convective processes. The altitude effect was also detected in surface water. The investigated elevation transect with multiple stations provided unique insights into hydrological and climatic processes of North Hesse on a regional scale. The spatial heterogeneity and mixing of different processes suggest that multiple rainfall stations are required when rainfall isotopes serve as forcing data for hydrological applications such as transit time assessments in complex terrains.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233910
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3911: Spatial and Temporal Variation in Reference
           Evapotranspiration and Its Climatic Drivers in Northeast China

    • Authors: Xiaoshuang Liu, Chenxi Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Cheng Li, Linshan Cai, Manyu Dong
      First page: 3911
      Abstract: Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an important component of the global water cycle, and its long-term change directly influences the regional water supply and demand balance. Under the background of global change, investigating spatiotemporal trends in ET0 and its response to climate change is of great importance for the conservation and rational utilization of water resources. Based on daily climate data from 91 meteorological stations during 1960–2017 in Northeast China, this study calculated ET0 using the Penman-Monteith method and analyzed its spatiotemporal change trends and primary driving factors. The results show the following: (1) During 1960–2017, the annual ET0 in Northeast China showed a nonsignificant upward trend at a rate of 1.45 mm/10a. A mutation point of ET0 was detected in 1993. From 1960 to 1993, ET0 experienced a significant decrease (p < 0.1), while annual air temperature showed a significant upward trend (p < 0.01), which indicated the appearance of an evaporation paradox. This was because the remarkable drop in wind speed and sunshine duration played a great role in the reduction of ET0. From 1994 to 2017, the evaporation paradox disappeared. (2) ET0 trend in Northeast China was significantly and positively related to altitude. In the lower altitude regions (<500 m), ET0 generally decreased, while in the higher altitude areas (>500 m), ET0 displayed an upward trend. (3) Based on the results of multiple regression analysis, relative humidity was the primary driving factor for ET0 trends in Northeast China during 1960–2017. At diverse altitudes, the primary climatic factors influencing ET0 were different. In high-altitude areas (>500 m), the change in ET0 was mainly influenced by relative humidity, while wind speed was the primary driving factor at low altitudes (<500 m).
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233911
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3912: A Tariff Model for Reclaimed Water in
           Industrial Sectors: An Opportunity from the Circular Economy

    • Authors: Vicent Hernández-Chover, Lledó Castellet-Viciano, Francesc Hernández-Sancho
      First page: 3912
      Abstract: The growth of the world’s population is associated with an increase in demand for water. The consequences of this increase are twofold: On the one hand, it endangers the water balance of the ecosystem, and on the other hand, it considerably increases the volume of wastewater generated. In this sense, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a fundamental role since their objective is to guarantee the quality of the effluents discharged into the environment. Moreover, current treatment systems allow for the subsequent use of the effluent. Thus, the wastewater treatment sector can be seen as an unconventional source of water, acquiring a special importance in the framework of the circular economy. In this context, water reclamation and reuse are identified as key components of water resource management. However, the economic aspects, in terms of tariff design and cost recovery, represent a major barrier to incentivizing its use. In this paper, the authors analyze these aspects and propose a tariff that combines the cost recovery, an incentive to use reclaimed water and other relevant aspects that guarantee the success of water reuse projects. With this objective, three industrial sectors are evaluated. For the first sector, the user industries would achieve a saving of approximately 10% by changing the consumption of conventional water to reclaimed water; in the second sector, they would achieve a saving of 18% and in the third sector a saving of approximately 16%. In addition to guaranteeing sustainability in the consumption of reclaimed water in industry, the viability of the supplying company is ensured. This research offers valuable results that will be useful for establishing future strategies aimed at encouraging the use of reclaimed water in industrial environments.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233912
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3913: Exploring Key Determinants of the Periphytic
           Diatom Community in a Southern Brazilian Micro-Watershed

    • Authors: Gabriela Medeiros, André Andrian Padial, Mailor Wellinton Wedig Amaral, Ricardo Guicho, Maria Clara Pilatti, Silvio Cesar Sampaio, Thelma Alvim Veiga Ludwig, Norma Catarina Bueno, Ralpho Rinaldo dos Reis
      First page: 3913
      Abstract: Associating anthropogenic effects with variations in biodiversity is key to understanding how anthropogenic impacts are extrapolated in public supply micro-watersheds. The structure and dynamics of metacommunities in aquatic environments depend not only on the river network itself, but on a multitude of factors. Therefore, we associate the density and species richness of diatoms, assessed in a micro-watershed, with the following driver factors: local environmental variables, spatial variables, landscape characteristics, and the historical community, comparing their possible dispersal routes. Variance partitioning was performed using partial RDA models, with prior selection of predictor variables, to estimate the relative role of each predictor in the diatom community. The small scale of the micro-watershed resulted in a small spatial gradient, reflecting in the low variation in community richness across sampling stations. However, temporal heterogeneity associated with fluctuating precipitation throughout the year may cause temporal variation in the relative abundance of species. This pattern is a result of the supply of resources that increases biodiversity over time, as it allows the coexistence of species that alternate between dominance and persistence. Thus, even on a small scale and during one year of sampling, we demonstrated that predictors of different natures act together to explain diatom communities in micro-watersheds.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233913
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3914: Towards Establishing Empirical Rainfall
           

    • Authors: Rilang Deng, Huifen Liu, Xianchang Zheng, Qinghua Zhang, Wei Liu, Lingwei Chen
      First page: 3914
      Abstract: Empirical rainfall thresholds for predicting rainfall-triggered shallow landslides are proposed for Guangzhou city, which is prone to widespread geological hazards during the annual flood season due to the subtropical monsoon climate and frequent tropical storms and typhoons. In this study, the cumulated event rainfall (E, in mm), the duration of rainfall event (D, in day) (E–D) thresholds, normalized cumulated event rainfall, and the duration of rainfall event (EMAP–D) thresholds were defined. Thresholds based on five lithological units were obtained at 5%, 20%, and 50% probability levels using quantile regression methods. More than two-thirds of the landslides occurred within units of intrusive rock. The 20-day cumulative rainfall of 97 mm integrating cumulative event rainfall and the duration of rainfall events (CED) is introduced into the three-dimensional spatial threshold. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the CED threshold and E–D threshold were 0.944 and 0.914, respectively, and the true-positive rate of the CED threshold with the same probability level was slightly lower than that of the E–D threshold, but the CED threshold false-positive rate was much better than the E–D threshold, which can significantly reduce false alarm rate since many non-triggering rainfalls were filtered out.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233914
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3915: Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment and
           Paleoclimate of the Neogene Guantao Formation in the Liaodong Sub-Uplift
           of Bohai Bay Basin in China by Sedimentary Geochemistry Methods

    • Authors: Maolin Wang, Yuanhua Qing, Zheyuan Liao, Yuefeng Li, Sheng Li, Zhengxiang Lv, Shijun Ni, Jin Fang, Song Tang, Yawen Yang
      First page: 3915
      Abstract: The paleosedimentary environment and paleoclimate of the Neogene Guantao Formation in the Liaodong sub-uplift of Bohai Bay Basin in China, which is an important oil and gas exploration horizon, are not clear owing to the lack of quantitative analysis. The paleosedimentary environment and paleoclimate can be qualitatively or semi-quantitatively reconstructed by sedimentary geochemical indicators sensitive to the environment and climate. Based on the evaluation of whether the elements and isotopes can effectively record paleosedimentary environment and paleoclimate information or not, the paleoclimate (temperature and humidity), paleoenvironment (salinity, water depth, redox conditions), and evolution of the paleoenvironment and paleoclimate are studied by analyzing the trace elements, carbon and oxygen isotopes, strontium isotopes, whole-rock mineral compositions, and clay minerals of mudstones of the Guantao Formation in the Liaodong sub-uplift, Bohai Bay Basin. The study results show that (1) according to the trace element distribution patterns, high concentrations of continental elements (Ti, Zr, Th), clay minerals, and detrital content, the Guantao Formation is a product of proximal deposits, and the provenance mainly originates from the intermediate–acidic magmatic rocks near surrounding uplifts. (2) The paleoclimate during the sedimentation of the Guantao Formation was mainly semi-arid and semi-humid, as revealed by the Sr/Cu ratio. However, the high Rb/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios demonstrate that the paleoclimate is relatively warm and humid. (3) The paleosedimentary temperature calculated by the Sr content and δ18O is roughly 30 °C, indicating that the Guantao Formation was deposited in a subtropical to tropical climate. (4) The Guantao Formation was deposited in continental freshwater according to the Li, Ni, and Sr content, Sr/Ba ratios, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and salinity index Z. (5) The water depth of the paleoenvironment of the Guantao Formation is mainly in nearshore shallow water, reflected by the Mn/Ti ratio and calculated by the Co content, and the oxidizing condition of the paleoenvironment of the Guantao Formation, reflected by the U/Th, V/Cr, and Ni/Co ratios, is in a good coupling relationship with this environment. (6) As revealed by the variations in the geochemical data in the section, the temperature, humidity, and water depth of the Guantao Formation gradually increased from the early to late period, while the salinity gradually decreased, and the chemical weathering effect gradually increased.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233915
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3916: Multi-Sensor Data Analysis of an Intense
           Weather Event: The July 2021 Lake Como Case Study

    • Authors: Alessandra Mascitelli, Marco Petracca, Silvia Puca, Eugenio Realini, Andrea Gatti, Riccardo Biondi, Aikaterini Anesiadou, Luca Brocca, Gianfranco Vulpiani, Rosa Claudia Torcasio, Stefano Federico, Antonio Oriente, Stefano Dietrich
      First page: 3916
      Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of the July 2021 event that occurred on Lake Como (Italy), during which heavy hailstorms and floods affected the surroundings of Lake, is presented. The study provides a detailed analysis of the event using different observation sources currently available. The employed techniques include both conventional (rain gauges, radar, atmospheric sounding) and non-conventional (satellite-based Earth observation products, GNSS, and lightning detection network) observations for hydro-meteorological analysis. The study is split in three main topics: event description by satellite-based observations; long-term analysis by the ERA5 model and ASCAT soil water index; and short-term analysis by lightning data, GNSS delays and radar-VIL. The added value of the work is the near-real-time analysis of some of the datasets used, which opens up the potential for use in alerting systems, showing considerable application possibilities in NWP modeling, where it can also be useful for the implementation of early warning systems. The results highlight the validity of the different techniques and the consistency among the observations. This result, therefore, leads to the conclusion that a joint use of the innovative techniques with the operational ones can bring reliability in the description of events.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233916
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3917: Study on Water Quantity Allocation
           Optimization for Single Main Canal in Large-Scale Irrigation Area Based on
           DP Method

    • Authors: Yi Gong, Wenhao Zou, Xiuwei Yuan, Xiaoling Yang, Yongfeng Chen
      First page: 3917
      Abstract: The mathematical model of optimal water quantity allocation for a single main canal in a large-scale irrigation area was constructed that took the minimal sum of the squared deviation of water shortage for water receiving areas controlled by the single main canal in one given irrigation period as the study target, and the total irrigation quantity of the single main canal as a constraint condition. Taking the optimal allocation of water quantity of each branch canal as decision variables, and several branch canals under the irrigation sequence of the main canal as a state variable, this model was solved by the one-dimensional dynamic programming (DP) method, by which the minimal water shortage and corresponding optimal water quantity allocation of each branch canal was calculated. The proposed method could provide a decision-making reference for optimal water resources allocation of single main canal irrigation areas, and also provide the theoretical basis for optimal water quantity allocation of a main canal with rotation irrigation by strips or with segmented rotation irrigation mode in China’s large-scale irrigation areas. Taking Hengliu Main Canal of Zhouqiao Irrigation Area in Jiangsu Province as a study case, optimization results showed that in a medium drought year (p = 75%) and a special drought year (p = 95%), minimal water shortage for water receiving areas controlled by Hengliu Main Canal was respectively 2.57 × 104 m3 and 23.31 × 104 m3 during the ponding period of rice. The corresponding water quantity allocation for each branch canal has reflected a compellent model solution precision and efficiency.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233917
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3918: Environmental Contamination with Micro- and
           Nanoplastics Changes the Phototaxis of Euryhaline Zooplankton to Paired
           Photostimulation

    • Authors: Yuri Morgalev, Victor Dyomin, Sergey Morgalev, Alexandra Davydova, Tamara Morgaleva, Oksana Kondratova, Igor Polovtsev, Nikolay Kirillov, Alexey Olshukov
      First page: 3918
      Abstract: Our earlier studies showed that paired photostimulation allows the detection of pollutants in an aqueous medium according to the behavioral responses of freshwater Crustacea. The first stimulus initiated and stabilized the behavioral response. The increase in response to the second stimulus made it possible to assess the responsiveness of the zooplankton community. This paper studies the validity of this method for the detection of micro- and nanoplastic contamination of saltwater reservoirs according to the behavioral response of Artemia salina and Moina salina crustaceans. The studies were conducted in laboratory conditions using a submersible holographic camera developed by us, which ensures the in situ detection of the concentration and speed of crustaceans in a volume of up to 1 dm3, as well as makes it possible to change the intensity and duration of the attracting light. It was established that the phototropic response of crustaceans decreases in seawater at the cumulative dose of exposure to microplastics—0.15 mg∙dm−3∙h and nanoplastics—0.3 mg∙dm−3∙h. The paired photostimulation reveals the altering effect of micro- and nanoplastics in the saltwater medium no later than 3 h after their appearance, which indicates the promising potential of this method for the alarm response in monitoring the environmental well-being of water bodies.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233918
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3919: A Review of Recent Advances in Detection and
           Treatment Technology for Perfluorinated Compounds

    • Authors: Yong Wang, Jiaqi Guo, Sumita Sumita, Changjie Shi, Qijia Zhu, Cong Li, Weihai Pang
      First page: 3919
      Abstract: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a novel type of environmental pollutant with a specific structure. PFCs have become a global concern due to their environmental persistence and biotoxicity properties. In this paper, we review the hazardous effects, detection technologies, and treatment methods of PFCs. We present the current status of PFCs pollution in water, the atmosphere, soil, and organisms. Moreover, we show that PFCs have toxic effects, such as hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Six sample pretreatment techniques and four assays for PFCs are listed in this paper. This review focuses on the analysis of the treatment methods for PFCs, such as physical adsorption, microbial degradation, photochemical oxidation, electrochemical oxidation, acoustic oxidation, Fenton oxidation, and so on. We systematically analyze the treatment effects, removal mechanisms, and future directions of various technologies to provide support and suggestions for PFCs pollution control technologies.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233919
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3920: Mass Variations in Terrestrial Water Storage
           over the Nile River Basin and Mega Aquifer System as Deduced from GRACE-FO
           Level-2 Products and Precipitation Patterns from GPCP Data

    • Authors: Basem Elsaka, Karem Abdelmohsen, Fahad Alshehri, Ahmed Zaki, Mohamed El-Ashquer
      First page: 3920
      Abstract: Changes in the terrestrial total water storage (TWS) have been estimated at both global and river basin scales from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and are still being detected from its GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission. In this contribution, the sixth release of GRACE-FO (RL06) level-2 products applying DDK5 (decorrelation filter) were used to detect water mass variations for the Nile River Basin (NRB) in Africa and the Mega Aquifer System (MAS) in Asia. The following approach was implemented to detect the mass variation over the NRB and MAS: (1) TWS mass (June 2018–June 2021) was estimated by converting the spherical harmonic coefficients from the decorrelation filter DDK 5 of the GRACE-FO Level-2 RL06 products into equivalent water heights, where the TWS had been re-produced after removing the mean temporal signal (2) Precipitation data from Global Precipitation Climatology Project was used to investigate the pattern of change over the study area. Our findings include: (1) during the GRACE-FO period, the mass variations extracted from the RL06-DDK5 solutions from the three official centers—CSR, JPL, and GFZ—were found to be consistent with each other, (2) The NRB showed substantial temporal TWS variations, given a basin average of about 6 cm in 2019 and about 12 cm in 2020 between September and November and a lower basin average of about −9 cm in 2019 and −6 cm in 2020 in the wet seasons between March and May, while mass variations for the MAS had a relatively weaker temporal TWS magnitude, (3) the observed seasonal signal over the NRB was attributed to the high intensity of the precipitation events over the NRB (AAP: 1000–1800 mm yr−1), whereas the lack of the seasonal TWS signal over the MAS was due to the low intensity of the precipitation events over the MAS (AAP:180–500 mm yr−1).
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233920
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3921: Investigations and Prevention Strategies on
           the Fracturing Water Pollution Triggering Permeability and Production
           Decrease in Underground Gas Reservoirs

    • Authors: Faqi He, Ruifei Wang, Kui Chen
      First page: 3921
      Abstract: The fracturing water injected into the underground gas reservoirs for development purposes has polluted the reservoirs, triggering a decrease in reservoir permeability and gas production. Here, we quantitatively investigate and provide preventions for the fracturing water pollution in the underground gas reservoir. We study the effects of fracturing water pollution on reservoir permeability with core experiments. According to the core experiments, we constructed an area-divided two-phase porous flow model to study the production of the underground gas reservoir considering fracturing water pollution. The simulation results are in good agreement with the field development data. It reveals that in the early, mid-term and late development, respectively, the fracturing water pollution accounts for 88%, 80% and 45% of the decline in permeability and production of the underground gas reservoir. In terms of the prevention of fracturing water pollution, reservoirs with an initial permeability over 0.20 mD are preferably produced by natural energy rather than fracturing. Once using the fracturing water, we suggest applying the propping agent with a large particle radius to reduce the pollution from the solid solute and adding the clay stabilizer and the surfactant to the fracturing water to reduce the pollution from the water solvent.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233921
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3922: Climate Changes and Hydrological Processes

    • Authors: Wenchuan Wang, Zhongkai Feng, Mingwei Ma
      First page: 3922
      Abstract: Due to the influences of climate changes and human activities, extreme climate events have made obvious changes to the hydrological process and the temporal-spatial distribution of water resources over the past several decades [...]
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233922
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3923: Physiological Response of Two Typical Plant
           Species under Combined Pb and Cd Stress in Bioretention Facilities

    • Authors: Yongwei Gong, Xiaoxiao Lu, Zhihua Zhou, Zhuolun Li, Yanhong Li
      First page: 3923
      Abstract: Bioretention facilities reduce stormwater runoff and pollutants, but there is a concern that plants in bioretention facilities may absorb heavy metal pollutants from stormwater runoff, which might impair the growth of the plant species. To investigate this issue, stormwater runoff containing various amounts of Pb and Cd heavy metals was used as the irrigation water in a bioretention facility. The low concentrations of Pb and Cd were 0.08 and 0.04 mg/L, and the high values were 0.68 and 0.32 mg/L. The plant heavy metal content and physiological indicators were measured. The indicators were chlorophyll content (CC), net photosynthetic rate (NPR), and transpiration rate (TR). The results showed that the changes in plant chlorophyll content (CC) were highly correlated with changes in the plants’ Pb. Low concentrations of Pb and Cd slightly inhibited the Ginkgo biloba L. and Ligustrum × vicaryi NPRs, the effect was more obvious at high concentrations and the Ligustrum × vicaryi’s NPR decreased from the initial 8.97 μmol CO2/(m2s) to 5.77 μmol CO2/(m2s) under high concentration conditions. Pb and Cd increased the Ginkgo biloba L. and Ligustrum × vicaryi’s TRs, and the effect at low Pb and Cd concentrations was more significant. Under low concentrations of Pb and Cd stress, the Ginkgo biloba L.’s TRs reached 0.63 mmol H2O/(m2s), Ligustrum × vicaryi’s TRs reached 1.30 mmol H2O/(m2s). The TRs of the two plants in the experimental groups remained high throughout the experiment, and there was no significant inhibition. The study found that Pb and Cd in stormwater runoff did affect the physiological function of species to some extent. Different plant species behaved differently in bioretention facilities, but the stormwater runoff did not lead to the death of species. Our study may provide a better understanding of the development of typical plant species in bioretention facilities.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233923
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3924: Hydrodynamic Behaviors and Geochemical
           Evolution of Groundwater for Irrigation in Yaoba Oasis, China

    • Authors: Ting Lu, Aidi Huo, Jucui Wang, Yudong Lu, Weibo Zhou
      First page: 3924
      Abstract: The Yaoba Oasis is an irrigated cropland entirely dependent on groundwater; previous investigations (1980–2015) revealed an over-abstraction of groundwater and deteriorating groundwater quality. For further exploring the hydrodynamic behaviors and geochemical processes of groundwater during the irrigation season, groundwater samples were collected and analyzed using different techniques including classical statistics, correlation analysis, Piper diagrams, and Gibbs diagrams. The results indicated that Na+, K+, SO42− and Cl− were the main ions in groundwater, which were significantly correlated with TDS. The water–rock interaction is manifested by the precipitation of calcite and dolomite and the dissolution of rock salt and gypsum as an increase in TDS related to evaporation. In addition, the increasing complexity of hydrochemical type is caused by the rapid variation of hydrodynamic regime, irrigation and evaporation, which are subjected to the constraints of salty water intrusion from the desert salty lake and infiltration of irrigation return flow. Existing wells should limit overexploitation to halt the decline in groundwater levels and cut down irrigation water to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination and restore ecological balance in desert oasis.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233924
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3925: Long-Term Variations in Spring Water Mean
           Transit Time in a Forested Headwater Catchment in Japan

    • Authors: Isabela Silveira Baptista, Maki Tsujimura, Yuichi Onda
      First page: 3925
      Abstract: In this study, we applied a new methodology that utilized stable isotopic concentrations of water and SF6 concentrations of the air to investigate temporal variations in the spring water mean transit time (MTT) of a forested headwater catchment in Japan. We monitored the area from June 2010 to November 2021, including the forest thinning that occurred in October 2011. The SF6 concentrations were used to estimate the apparent age of the spring water, which was used to initiate a parameter calibration that determined the best possible MTT for each study period. The MTT was evaluated by estimating the d-excess variations of the spring water stable isotopes using the exponential piston flow model. The MTT ranged from 40 to 55 months and tended to increase soon after the forest was thinned. In contrast, the MTT was shorter by approximately 6 years after thinning occurred. The results indicate that the characteristics of the hydrological processes in the catchment underwent long-term changes after the forest was thinned. This study demonstrates that using combined tracer methods to investigate the hydrological response to forest management practices improved the results and can be used for better forest and subsurface water resource management.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233925
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3926: How to Create a Regional Diatom-Based Index:
           Demonstration from the Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed, China

    • Authors: Yufei Liu, Jing Fang, Pengyu Mei, Shuo Yang, Bo Zhang, Xueqiang Lu
      First page: 3926
      Abstract: Diatom-based indices derived from the percentage of diatom taxa groups can be used to assess water quality. As some diatoms are location-dependent, such diatom indices are correspondingly location-dependent and the regional classification of taxa group is thereby needed. This study aims to demonstrate how to create a regional diatom assemblage index (YRDAI) based on a case study from the Yuqiao Reservoir watershed, China. Herein, we proposed a simple taxa classification approach based on the correlation between pollutant concentration and diatom abundance, and compared it with the traditional approach based on the coexistence index. Using the two approaches, a total of 34 diatom taxa groups were reclassified for localization of the well-known DAIpo index. The YRDAI was then derived from the reclassified diatom taxa groups. The results in the Yuqiao Reservoir watershed showed that the correlation-based YRDAIcor scores could better reflect the pollution levels of COD and TP than the coexistence-based YRDAIco scores and the original DAIpo scores with the unreclassified taxa groups. It can be expected that the precision of YRDAI can be improved with the accumulation of the diatom data, and the above approaches can be applied to other watersheds for making their own regional indices.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233926
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3927: Aquatic Carbon Dynamics in a Time of Global
           Change

    • Authors: Soren Brothers
      First page: 3927
      Abstract: Inland waters are globally significant sites of carbon cycling [...]
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233927
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3928: Sand/Polyethyleneimine Composites with
           Enhanced Sorption/Desorption Properties toward Pollutants

    • Authors: Florin Bucatariu, Larisa-Maria Petrila, Marius-Mihai Zaharia, Frank Simon, Marcela Mihai
      First page: 3928
      Abstract: The direct deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI), a weak polycation with a large content of amino groups, onto sand fractions with different sizes (F70, F100, F200, and F355), resulted in versatile core-shell sorbents for water cleaning. Herein, PEI and the weak polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were directly precipitated as an nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex ([PEI]:[PAA] = 2:1) onto a sand surface followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA) at three molar ratios ([CHO]:[amine] = 1:10; 1:5; 1:1 = r). Non-crosslinked polyelectrolyte chains were washed out in strongly basic (pH 14) and acidic (pH 0) media. The sand/PEI-GA composites were evaluated to determine the organic shell stability using swelling experiments and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sorbed/desorbed amount of two model pollutants (copper ions and bromocresol green) in column experiments depended on the sand fraction size and cross-linking degree of the PEI shell. The maximum recorded values, after five loading/release cycles of pollutant species onto F70/PEI-GAr, F100/PEI-GAr, F200/PEI-GAr, and F355/PEI-GAr, were situated between the 0.7–5.5 mg Cu2+/mL column and 3.7–15 mg BCG/mL column. Sand/PEI-GAr composites could act as promising sorbents, low-cost and eco-friendly, which could be applied for water purification procedures.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233928
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3929: Hydrological Simulation in a Rift-Bounded Lake
           System and Implication of Water Abstraction: Central Rift Valley Lakes
           Basin, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Sisay Kebede Balcha, Adane Abebe Awass, Taye Alemayehu Hulluka, Gebiaw T. Ayele, Amare Bantider
      First page: 3929
      Abstract: The Katar and Meki subbasins play a significant role in supporting the livelihoods of people in the region. However, the subbasins are currently under heavy human pressures, mainly associated with the ever-increasing human population and the subsequent intensification of irrigated agricultural activities. The aims of this study are to quantify the water balance components of the Katar and Meki rivers using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and to assess the implication of water abstraction on river hydrology. The Katar and Meki subbasins were discretized into 107 and 87 micro-subbasins, which were then subdivided further into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) of 683 and 658, respectively. Hydro-meteorological data from 1997 to 2014 were used for model setup, calibration, and validation. Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and Percent Bias (PBIAS) were used for model performance evaluation. The results of the simulation revealed NSE = 0.68–0.83, R2 = 0.72–0.85, and PBIAS = 1.6–22.7 during calibration and validation. More than 65% of the simulated flow was bracketed with the 95PPU for both subbasins, with the thickness of the 95PPU in the range of 0.90 to 1.41 calibration and 1.15 to 1.31 validation, which indicates that the overall performance of the water balance model can be rated as “very good”. The results of the water balance show that evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff (Qs), and groundwater discharge (Qgw) were large in the Meki subbasin, while percolation (PERC) and water yield (WYLD) were large in the Katar subbasin. The model estimated 140 and 111 mm of average annual WYLD for the Katar and Meki subbasins, respectively, and the Katar subbasin is a major contributor of water to Lake Ziway. A total volume of 19.41 million cubic meters (MCM) of water is abstracted from Katar and Meki rivers for irrigation and domestic use, which significantly reduces Lake Ziway’s level by 4.5 cm (m). If the current trend of development continues, 149.92 MCM water will be abstracted each year from the lake environment and will reduce the lake level by 1.72 m. It is suspected that the Katar and Meki rivers are likely to cease to exist after a few decades and that Lake Ziway will also dry out.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233929
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3930: Enhanced Swine Wastewater Treatment by
           Constructed Wetland—Microbial Fuel Cell Systems

    • Authors: Yun Zhang, Feng Liu, Yidong Lin, Lei Sun, Xinru Guo, Shuai Yang, Jinlong He
      First page: 3930
      Abstract: This paper studies the effects of planting plants and coupled microbial fuel cells (MFCs) on the decontamination capacity and purification mechanism of constructed wetlands (CWs). Four systems were set, namely CW-without plants (A1), CW-with plants (A2), CW-MFC-without plants (A3) and CW-MFC-with plants (A4). The daily reductions per unit area of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 48.72 ± 5.42, 51.26 ± 4.10, 53.49 ± 5.44 and 58.54 ± 4.16 g·(d·m2)−1, respectively. The daily reductions per unit area of nitrogen (N) were 11.89 ± 0.73, 12.38 ± 0.76, 12.24 ± 0.79 and 13.61 ± 1.07 g·(d·m2)−1, respectively. After studying the pollutant removal efficiency, it was found that the unit area of A4 removes the highest number of pollutants, improving the area efficiency of the wetland system and fundamentally alleviating the disadvantage of the large land footprint of wetland processes. The average output voltages of A3 and A4 were 568.29 and 717.46 mV, respectively, and the maximum power densities were 4.59 and 15.87 mW/m3, respectively. In addition, after high-throughput analysis of microbial samples, anaerobic ammonia oxidising (anammox) bacteria were found to remove N from the system in the anaerobic anode region.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233930
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3931: Water Quality Indicators in Three Surface
           Hydraulic Connection Conditions in Tropical Floodplain Lakes

    • Authors: Miguel Ángel Salcedo, Allan Keith Cruz-Ramírez, Alberto J. Sánchez, Nicolás Álvarez-Pliego, Rosa Florido, Violeta Ruiz-Carrera, Sara Susana Morales-Cuetos
      First page: 3931
      Abstract: Water quality indicators have been tied to natural or man-made surface hydraulic connection (SHC) conditions. Among these, temporally connected lakes (TCL) are hydraulic intermediates between isolated (IL) and permanently connected lakes (PCL). Therefore, the aim of this study is to answer if water quality indicators can estimate the possible overlap between the two opposed conditions of SHC (IL and PCL) with the intermediate one (TCL) in lakes with similar modifications in the water level regulation at the basin level. Among nine water variables sampled in six lakes with the three SHC conditions mentioned, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), Secchi disk (SD), and total phosphorus (TP) were identified as quality water indicators through principal component analysis. Furthermore, said indicators were used to measure their overlap and trophic state index deviations. The Chl-a, SD, and TP values in TCL showed a 0.72 overlap of PCL and IL. TP surplus measured in all the lakes was meaningful in urbanized ILs and lessened in a rural lake (PCL6) with submerged rooted macrophytes. The estimated overlap of trophic indicators between TCL, IL, and PCL in this study must be verified at a global representative scale for predictive and preventive use in the conservation of tropical coastal plain lakes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233931
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3932: Daily Streamflow Time Series Modeling by Using
           a Periodic Autoregressive Model (ARMA) Based on Fuzzy Clustering

    • Authors: Khazaeiathar, Hadizadeh, Attar, Schmalz
      First page: 3932
      Abstract: The behavior of hydrological processes is periodic and stochastic due to the influence of climatic factors. Therefore, it is crucial to develop the models based on their periodicity and stochastic nature for prediction. Furthermore, forecasting the streamflow, as one of the main components of the hydrological cycle, is a primary subject. In this study, a statistical method, Fuzzy C-means clustering, was used to find the periodicity in the daily discharge time series, whereas autoregressive moving average, ARMA, was used in modeling every cluster. Dividing the daily stream flow time series into smaller groups based on their similar statistical behavior by using a statistical method for analyzing and a combination of Fuzzy C-means clustering and ARMA modeling is the innovation of this study. We draw on the daily discharge data of four different river stations in Hesse state in Germany. The collected data cover 18 years, from 2000 to 2017. Root mean square error (RMSE) was used to evaluate the accuracy. The results revealed that the performance of ARMA in four stations for predicting every cluster was reliable. In addition, it must be highlighted that by clustering the daily stream flow time series into smaller groups, forecasting different days of the year will be possible.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233932
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3933: Calibration and Validation of the FAO AquaCrop
           Water Productivity Model for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    • Authors: César Augusto Terán-Chaves, Alberto García-Prats, Sonia Mercedes Polo-Murcia
      First page: 3933
      Abstract: Crop models that can accurately estimate yield and final biomass have been used for major herbaceous crops and to a lesser extent in forage systems. The AquaCrop version 7.0 contains new modules that have been introduced to simulate the growth and production of perennial herbaceous forage crops. Simulated forage yields as a function of water consumption provide valuable information that allows farmers to make decisions for adapting to both climate variability and change. The study aimed to calibrate and validate the AquaCrop model for perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the high tropics of Colombia (South America). The experiments were conducted during two consecutive seasons, in which perennial ryegrass meadows were subjected to two irrigation regimes: full irrigation and no irrigation. The model was evaluated using precision, accuracy, and simulation error indices. The overall performance of AquaCrop in simulating canopy cover, biomass and soil water content showed a good match between measured and simulated data. The calibration results indicated an acceptable measurement of simulated canopy cover (CC) (R2 = 0.95, d-index = 0.41, RMSE = 9.4%, NRMSE = 12.2%, and FE = −21.72). The model satisfactorily simulated cumulative dry mass (R2 = 0.95, d-index = 0.98, RMSE = 2. 63 t ha−1, NRMSE = 11.8%, and FE = 0.94). Though the biomass values obtained in the end-of-season cuts were underestimated by the model, soil water content was simulated with reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.82, d-index = 0.84, RMSE = 6.10 mm, NRMSE = 4.80%, and FE = 0.32). During validation, CC simulations were good, except under water deficit conditions, where model performance was poor (R2 = 0.42, d-index = 0.01, RMSE = 40.60%, NRMSE = 40.90%, and FE = −25.71); biomass and soil water content simulations were reasonably good. The above results confirmed AquaCrop’s (v 7.0) suitability for simulating responses to water for perennial ryegrass. A single crop file was developed for managing a full season and can be confidently applied to direct future research to improve the understanding of the necessary processes and interactions for the development of perennial herbaceous forage crops.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233933
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3934: Model and Experimental Studies of the Seepage
           Failure of Damaged Geotextile at the Joint between Tubes in a Geotextile
           Tube Dam

    • Authors: Wenlong Mao, Tianwen Wang, Yiming Shu
      First page: 3934
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the impact of geotextile tube damage at the joints between tubes on dam structures subjected to seepage. First, a seepage-induced failure critical gradient model for damaged geotextile tubes was developed. Tests were conducted using geotextile specimens with precut O-shaped holes to simulate the seepage erosion process. Various overburden loads (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 kPa) and hole radii (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 cm) were examined. Based on the test phenomena and the changes in pore-water pressure and seepage flow, four progression stages (seepage stability, sand particle wash-out, preferential flow formation and development, and complete failure) were identified. The experimental critical gradients obtained under different conditions agreed well with the model results. The critical gradient is positively correlated with the overburden load and negatively correlated with the hole radius. Critical gradient growth gradually slows with increasing overburden load. The critical gradient difference caused by the hole size decreases rapidly. When the overburden load increases to 20 kPa, this difference is essentially unchanged. These findings can provide a better understanding of the performance of damaged geotextile tubes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233934
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3935: Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Dissolved
           Nutrients in the Yenisei River

    • Authors: Irina V. Tokareva, Anatoly S. Prokushkin
      First page: 3935
      Abstract: The accelerated rates of warming in high latitudes lead to permafrost degradation, enhance nutrient cycling and intensify the transport of terrestrial materials to the Arctic rivers. The quantitative estimation of riverine nutrient flux on seasonal and spatial scales is important to clarify the ongoing changes in land–ocean connectivity in the Arctic domain. This study is focused on a multiyear (2015–2021) analysis of concentrations of dissolved nutrients in the Yenisei River. Applying stationary water sampling, we studied seasonal variations in concentrations of phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia ions in the Yenisei River in the upper (56.0° N), middle (60.9° N) and lower (67.4° N) sections of the river. The waters of the upper river section demonstrated significant and steady nutrient enrichment throughout the hydrological year, reflecting the influence of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir. The downstream reaches of the Yenisei River had more apparent seasonal patterns of nutrient concentrations. Particularly, winter-season nutrient levels in the middle and lower river sections were the highest during the hydrological year and close to the upper section. At snowmelt, and especially the summer–fall seasons, all inorganic nutrient concentrations dropped dramatically after the inflow of the Angara River. On the other hand, the peak nitrite content observed during the early spring flood was most pronounced in the lower section of the river basin, reflecting the specific characteristics of the nitrogen cycle in permafrost soils. The spring flood plays the major role in the annual nutrient fluxes, except for nitrates, for which the maximum occurred in the winter season. The summer–fall season, despite its duration and considerable water runoff, demonstrated the lowest fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen in comparison to other periods of the hydrological year, suggesting strong biological uptake and chemostasis.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233935
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3936: The Effect of Flood Protection Works on Flood
           Risk

    • Authors: Georgios Mitsopoulos, Michalis Diakakis, Aristeides Bloutsos, Efthymios Lekkas, Evangelos Baltas, Anastasios Stamou
      First page: 3936
      Abstract: We pose the following research question: “what is the effect of flood protection works on flood risk'” To answer this question, we developed a flood risk assessment method that combines the typical hazard assessment via integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic calculations using HEC-HMS and 1D/2D HEC-RAS, respectively, and an original procedure for vulnerability assessment at the building level, which we applied in the town of Mandra in Attica, Greece. We performed calculations for 15 scenarios—combinations of return periods (T = 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 y) and rain durations (t = 6, 12, and 18 h)—for the conditions of the year 2017, when there were no flood protection works, and today with these works in place. We identified the regions with high flood risk and concluded that the presence of the works caused a decrease in the inundation areas by 53–89%, along with reductions in the maximum water depths, the maximum flow velocities, and the average flood risk in Koropouli Street—the main street of Mandra, which suffered severe damage during the 2017 flood—by 38–62%, 18–52%, and 27–74%, respectively. The effect of the flood protection works increased with the increases in the return period and rain duration, while for the same return period the effect of the rain duration was more pronounced for the smaller return periods.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233936
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3937: Dynamic Response Characteristics of Shallow
           Groundwater Level to Hydro-Meteorological Factors and Well Irrigation
           Water Withdrawals under Different Conditions of Groundwater Buried Depth

    • Authors: Cai, Huang, Xu, Xing, Yi
      First page: 3937
      Abstract: Many irrigation districts along the Yellow River have been suffering shallow groundwater depression and agriculture-use water shortage. For comprehending response relationships of shallow groundwater level and various factors under different conditions of groundwater buried depth, the hydro-meteorological time series and the agricultural production data in Puyang area of Henan Province, China during 2006–2018 were collected for performing wavelet analysis of the relationship between the groundwater level and the four different factors, such as precipitation, air temperature, water stage of the Yellow River, and well irrigation water amount. It is shown that when the burial depth of groundwater varied from 0–10 m to over 10 m, the groundwater level was related with both the precipitation and air temperature from moderately to weakly and the delayed response times of the groundwater level to them extended from 2–4 months to more than 5 months. The groundwater level maintained a medium correlation with the well irrigation water amount as the burial depth increased, but the lag response time of groundwater level to well irrigation dramatically decreased when the burial depth exceeded 10 m. The dynamic response relationship between the groundwater and the water stage of the Yellow River was mainly affected by the distance away from the Yellow River rather than the burial depth and the influence of the river stage on the groundwater level was limited within the distance approximate to 20 km away from the Yellow River. The findings are expected to provide the reference for groundwater level prediction and groundwater resources protection.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233937
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3938: Mathematical Modeling of Microalgal Growth
           during Anaerobic Digestion Effluent Bioremediation

    • Authors: Georgios Manthos, Eleni Koutra, Savvas Giannis Mastropetros, Dimitris Zagklis, Michael Kornaros
      First page: 3938
      Abstract: The development of kinetic models aims at predicting the behavior of a system or analyzing the underlying mechanisms. This process is essential for understanding microalgal growth and optimizing culture conditions. In the case of microalgal cultivation in wastewater, the analysis becomes even more difficult as growth is often inhibited by several factors, such as nutrient limitation and light inadequacy. In this context, a mathematical model was developed to describe the microbial growth of the species Parachlorella kessleri in different reactor setups using either sterile or non-sterile anaerobic digestion effluent as a substrate. Three different mass balances were taken into consideration to describe biomass growth, phosphorus, and nitrogen consumption. Concerning biomass growth, the logistic model was applied to evaluate the inhibition in biomass formation due to lack of illumination. The maximum optical density under which these species could grow was quantified with an ODmax parameter, which was estimated at 4.07 AU/cm for the Erlenmeyer flask and 2.79 AU/cm for cylindrical photobioreactors. Regarding the nitrogen mass balance, two different terms concerning microalgal assimilation and ammonia stripping were implemented into the equation. The proposed model predicted biomass growth with high accuracy in model training (R2 = 0.90) and validation (R2 = 0.89).
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233938
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3939: A Comparison Study on Defluoridation
           Capabilities Using Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava: Process
           Optimization, Isotherm, Kinetic, Reusability Studies

    • Authors: Qazi, Jamali, Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Nasr, Kamyab Rudsari, Ghanbari
      First page: 3939
      Abstract: For the first time, this work conducted a comparison of two indigenous plants in Iran, namely, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava, which were prepared as low-cost adsorbents to remove fluoride contamination from aqueous solution. The results revealed the nonlinearity of the interactive effects and showed that the pH and adsorbent dosage were the most influential factors during fluoride adsorption. The results of characterization exhibited a mesoporous structure of prepared biosorbents; therefore, the adsorption process may involve multiple functional groups, resulting in electrostatic attraction and hydrogen binding between fluoride ions and the biosorbents. In the case of Syzygium cumini, the maximum removal efficiency of 72.5% was obtained under optimum experimental conditions (Co = 6 mg/L, pH = 5, adsorbent dose = 8 g/L, and contact time = 75 min). For the Psidium guajava, the maximum removal efficiency of 88.3% was achieved at a Co of 6 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 6 g/L, initial pH of 5.1, and a contact time of 90 min. Moreover, four consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles with the chemical agent of NaOH solution (0.1 mol/L) showed excellent reusability of the biosorbents. The adsorption isotherm fitted better to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data best accorded with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for both biosorbents, expressing a monolayer chemisorption process with recorded maximum adsorption capacities of 1.14 and 1.50 mg/g for Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava, respectively. Therefore, given their removal capacity and potential utility, the prepared biomass could be effective reusable biosorbents to treat water contaminated with fluoride.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233939
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3940: Dynamic Effects of Climate and Land Use
           Policies on Water Yield in Drylands—A Case Study in the Middle West
           of China

    • Authors: Li An, Shuai Zhong, Lei Shen
      First page: 3940
      Abstract: Water yield as an important ecosystem service for mitigating water scarcity in drylands, is quite sensitive to land use and climate change. Evaluating the response of water yield to land use policies in drylands under climate change is conducive to sustainable water resource management. Taking the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordous-Yulin region in the middle west of China as an example, this study used the methods of the InVEST model, trend analysis, comparative experiment, PLUS model to explore the spatial-temporal trends and driving factors of water yield variation, as well as to simulate the future water yield under different land use policy scenarios. The results showed that (1) water yield in the study area fluctuated and increased from 14.14 mm to 46.59 mm during 2000 to 2020, the places with a significant increasing trend of water yield were mainly distributed in the southeast loess hilly area; (2) climate change is the major driving factor of water yield variation with a contribution rate of 85.8–99.6%, but land use change played an increasingly important role in affecting water yield; (3) the Grain-Security-Dominated (GSD) land use policy scenario would generate the highest water yield in 2030 under climate conditions of SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, SSP5-8.5, while the Regional-Greening-Dominated (RGD) land use policy scenario has the lowest water yield in the future. The results could provide reference for the decision-making process of ecological restoration and land use planning in drylands.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233940
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3941: Develop a Smart Microclimate Control System
           for Greenhouses through System Dynamics and Machine Learning Techniques

    • Authors: Ting-Hsuan Chen, Meng-Hsin Lee, I-Wen Hsia, Chia-Hui Hsu, Ming-Hwi Yao, Fi-John Chang
      First page: 3941
      Abstract: Agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Greenhouse farming is recognized as a promising measure against climate change. Nevertheless, greenhouse farming frequently encounters environmental adversity, especially greenhouses built to protect against typhoons. Short-term microclimate prediction is challenging because meteorological variables are strongly interconnected and change rapidly. Therefore, this study proposes a water-centric smart microclimate-control system (SMCS) that fuses system dynamics and machine-learning techniques in consideration of the internal hydro-meteorological process to regulate the greenhouse micro-environment within the canopy for environmental cooling with improved resource-use efficiency. SMCS was assessed by in situ data collected from a tomato greenhouse in Taiwan. The results demonstrate that the proposed SMCS could save 66.8% of water and energy (electricity) used for early spraying during the entire cultivation period compared to the traditional greenhouse-spraying system based mainly on operators’ experiences. The proposed SMCS suggests a practicability niche in machine-learning-enabled greenhouse automation with improved crop productivity and resource-use efficiency. This will increase agricultural resilience to hydro-climate uncertainty and promote resource preservation, which offers a pathway towards carbon-emission mitigation and a sustainable water–energy–food nexus.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233941
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3942: Occurrence Characteristics and Ecological Risk
           Assessment of Organophosphorus Compounds in a Wastewater Treatment Plant
           and Upstream Enterprises

    • Authors: Aimin Li, Guochen Zheng, Ning Chen, Weiyi Xu, Yuzhi Li, Fei Shen, Shuo Wang, Guangli Cao, Ji Li
      First page: 3942
      Abstract: Organophosphorus compounds have toxic effects on organisms and the ecosystem. Therefore, it is vital to monitor and control the effluent organophosphorus levels of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study analyzed the composition and concentration of organophosphorus compounds from the upstream enterprises of a WWTP and conducted ecological risk and toxicity assessments using ECOSAR (ecological structure activity relationship model), T.E.S.T (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool), and risk quotient (RQ) methods. A total of 14 organic phosphorus pollutants were detected in the effluent of the upstream enterprises and WWTP. The concentration of influent total organic phosphorus from the WWTP was 39.5 mg/L, and the effluent total organic phosphorus was merely 0.301 mg/L, indicating that good phosphorus removal was achieved in the WWTP. According to the acute and chronic toxicity analysis, the ECOSAR ecotoxicity assessment showed that 11 kinds of organophosphorus compounds were hazardous to fish, daphnia, and algae in different degrees. Among them, triphenyl phosphine (TPP) had a 96 hr LC50 of 1.00 mg/L for fish and is a substance with high acute toxicity. T.E.S.T evaluates the acute toxicity of each organophosphorus component and the bioconcentration factor (BCF). The evaluation results showed that the LC50 of TPP and octicizer were 0.39 and 0.098 mg/L, respectively, and the concentrations of these two organophosphorus compounds from the effluent of an environmental protection enterprise were as high as 30.4 mg/L and 0.735 mg/L, which exceeded the acute toxicity values and has led to serious hazards to aquatic organisms. The BCF values of each organophosphorus component in the upstream enterprises and the effluent of the WWTP were less than 2000, implying that there was no bioaccumulation effect on aquatic organisms. The developmental toxicity assessment demonstrated that there were nine types of organophosphorus compounds belonging to developmental toxicants, that the presence of developmental toxicants was found in the effluent of each upstream enterprise, and that triethyl phosphate (TEP) was the most common organophosphorus compound. Comparing the RQ of the effluent from various enterprises, it was found that the effluent from the environmental protection enterprise presented the highest degree of environmental hazard, mainly due to the higher toxicity of TEP and octicizer.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233942
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3943: Effect of Using Trichoderma spp. on Turfgrass
           Quality under Different Levels of Salinity

    • Authors: Nour S. Abu-Shanab, Kholoud M. Alananbeh, Yahia A. Othman, Malik G. Al-Ajlouni
      First page: 3943
      Abstract: Lawns achieve environmental, functional, and aesthetical roles in urban environments. The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of different salinity levels on Trichoderma isolates and to study the effect of Trichoderma spp. on perennial ryegrass under different levels of salinity. T. harzianum (ThLem2017-01) and T. atroviride (TaDP2019-01) isolates had a higher mycelium growth rate than T. atroviride (TaDP2019-02) when salinity levels were low. In contrast, the mycelium growth rate of T. atroviride (TaDP2019-02) isolate at high salinity levels had superior results. Turfgrass seeds that were inoculated with (TaDP2019-02) isolate maintained high radicle length, coleoptile length, and leaf length under high salinity levels. Increasing salinity level decreased clippings’ fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), and shoot and root dry weight of perennial ryegrass. Interestingly, perennial ryegrass pots that were treated with (TaDP2019-02) isolate had increased FW and DW by 16 to 114% and 24 to 76%, respectively. Soils that were inoculated with Trichoderma (TaDP2019-02) had higher CO2 respiration (75%) than the control. Therefore, using T. atroviride (TaDP2019-02) isolate revealed promising results in increasing plant biomass and as an environmentally friendly alternative factor to overcome salinity stress.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233943
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3944: Comparison of Rain Gauge Network and Weather
           Radar Data: Case Study in Angra dos Reis, Brazil

    • Authors: Elton John Robaina da Silva, Camila Nascimento Alves, Priscila Celebrini de Oliveira Campos, Raquel Aparecida Abrahão Costa e Oliveira, Maria Esther Soares Marques, José Carlos Cesar Amorim, Igor Paz
      First page: 3944
      Abstract: This paper presents a comparison between rain gauge network and weather radar data in Angra dos Reis city, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil. The city has a high incidence of natural disasters, especially associated with heavy rains in densely populated areas. In this work, weather radar data with a spatial resolution of 1 km were obtained from dual-polarimetric S-band radar operated by the Environmental State Institute of Rio de Janeiro (INEA), located in the Guaratiba neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil; the rain gauge measurements were provided by the National Center for Monitoring and Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN), which is composed of a network with 30 rain gauges covering the studied area. The comparison between the two datasets enables the analysis of which radar products better fit the rain gauge network’s accumulated rainfall by quantifying the uncertainties in precipitation estimates at radar pixels where rain gauges are located. The results indicated that radar products generated with the help of regression techniques obtained from the relation between radar reflectivities and rain gauge measurements were a better fit, constituting essential information while dealing with efficient regulation for rainfall monitoring and forecasting to minimize the risks associated with extreme events.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233944
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3945: Waved-Shape Accumulation of Ice
           Jam—Analysis and Experimental Study

    • Authors: Pangpang Chen, Jueyi Sui, Guangxue Cao, Tiejie Cheng
      First page: 3945
      Abstract: Ice jam is a unique hydrological phenomenon in rivers in cold regions. The appearance of an ice jam in a river results in an increase in the wetted perimeter of the flow cross-section, and thus an increase in flow resistance as well as water level. It may cause ice flooding sometimes. Similar to the “sand wave” phenomenon in riverbed, it has been observed in laboratory experiments that the waved-shape accumulation of ice particles (termed as “ice wave”) under an ice jam occurred. In this study, an Equation for describing the relationship between the approaching flow Froude number (Fr) and the ratio of ice jam thickness to flow depth (t/H) has been proposed. Taking the inflection point value of the equation under different flow depths, a characteristic curve has been developed to judge whether ice waves under an ice jam occurs. When the flow Froude number in front of an ice jam is below the value at the inflection point of the curve, the ice jam can maintain a mechanical stability within the ice jam thickness in a range from the lower limiting value to the upper limiting value, which were close to the ice wave trough thickness and the ice wave crest thickness, respectively. An Equation for calculating the ice wavelength has been derived and verified by using results of laboratory experiments. The relationship between the migration speed of ice wave and the ratio of ice discharge to water flow rate (Qi/Q) has been also analyzed. At last, case studies have been conducted with respect to ice accumulation in the St. Lawrence River, the Beauharnois Canal and the La Grande River. Results of case studies show that the shoving and ice dam have been dominated by mechanical factors, which would be accompanied by the ice wave phenomenon during the ice jam accumulation process. Results of case studies about ice accumulation in natural rivers also show that the relative thickness of an ice jam (t/H) of 0.4 is the criterion for assessing whether an ice jam in a river belongs to an ice dam.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233945
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3946: Evaluation and Prediction of Groundwater
           Quality in the Source Region of the Yellow River

    • Authors: Jianhua Si, Jianming Li, Ying Yang, Xuejiao Qi, Jiajun Li, Zenghui Liu, Mengyuan Li, Sujin Lu, Yue Qi, Cheng Jin, Lijuan Qi, Bingyu Yi, Yujing Wang
      First page: 3946
      Abstract: With the disturbance of human factors, the groundwater resources in the source region of the Yellow River have gradually depleted and the water quality has become worse, which has seriously affected the development of high-altitude areas. The groundwater quality of the source region of the Yellow River from 2016 to 2020 was evaluated using single-component and comprehensive evaluation methods, following by a prediction of the groundwater quality from 2021 to 2100 based on the RCPS (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5) scenarios coupled with the SWAT hydrological model under the CMIP5 global climate model. The results indicated that the groundwater temperature had an increasing trend, pH showed an obvious decreasing trend, and total hardness (Th), sulfate, and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) contents exhibited no obvious increasing or decreasing trend in the source region of the Yellow River during 2016–2020. The increase rate of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the future climate scenario followed the order of RCP 8.5 > RCP 4.5 > RCP 2.6, and the groundwater contents of TN and TP in the source region of the Yellow River gradually increased. This result is of great significance, as it can help clarify the current situation of groundwater in high-altitude and cold regions, showing the influence of groundwater on global climate change. It provides a reference for the development and utilization planning of groundwater resources in the source region of the Yellow River in the future.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233946
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3947: System Simulation and Prediction of the Green
           Development Level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group

    • Authors: Yuxin Liang, Liping Zhang, Mengsi Leng, Yi Xiao, Jun Xia
      First page: 3947
      Abstract: Green development is a low-carbon, sustainable model for the achievement of the harmonious development of the economy and nature. Nowadays, the problems of resource scarcity and environmental pollution in the process of economic development are pressing, and the promotion of green development is the general trend. As one of the three growth poles of China’s Yangtze River economic belt, the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group is an important platform to lead toward green development in the western region of China. Based on the understanding of the connotation of green development, this study established a green development-level evaluation system, including 19 indicators in three dimensions: target level, criterion level, and indicator level, and used the entropy weight method to measure the green development level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group. In view of the dynamic nature of the green development process, this study constructed a system dynamics model of the green development level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group and simulated and compared it between 2022 and 2050 under five shared socio-economic pathway (SSP) scenarios so as to provide a reference basis for future development. The results show that the overall green development level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group is on an upward trend, with the highest green development level under the SSP1 path and the lowest under the SSP3 path, and the lagging distance tends to increase further. In the next 30 years, the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group should initially follow SSP2 as the basis for development and then gradually perform a transition to SSP1 by 2035 to achieve real sustainable development, after which it should continue to develop according to the SSP1 path until 2050.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233947
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3948: Feeding of the Amphipod Gammarus aequicauda in
           the Presence of the Planktonic Cladoceran Moina salina and the Benthic
           Chironomid Larvae Baeotendipes noctivagus

    • Authors: Nickolai Shadrin, Vladimir Yakovenko, Elena Anufriieva
      First page: 3948
      Abstract: The energy balance approach helps to understand the limits within which the ‘predator–prey’ relationship can form, but cannot explain the formation of trophic links in natural multispecies systems. A time balance approach to the study of feeding has been developed to complement it. In the hypersaline Lake Moynaki (Crimea) which has a simple food web, there is one omnivorous species, Gammarus aequicauda, and two abundant prey, planktonic Moina salina and benthic Baeotendipes noctivagus. The size of M. salina ranges from 1.0 to 1.2 mm, and the size of B. noctivagus larvae from 9.0 to 10.0 mm. In experiments, elements of time balance were evaluated during feeding of G. aequicauda in the presence of both prey species, i.e., the duration of time spent searching before capture, handling prey, and resting between attempts to eat a chironomid larva. In all experiments, G. aequicauda consumed both kinds of prey. The maximum predation rate of G. aequicauda on the smaller sized M. salina was limited by searching and handling time, but on the larger B. noctivagus it was limited by digestion time. Feeding solely on chironomid larvae may well satisfy the energy needs of G. aequicauda. However, the food ration of G. aequicauda may be 50% higher if it feeds in the presence of both prey species than if feeding only on chironomid larvae. The presence of chironomid larvae more than halved the consumption of M. salina, compared to when cladocerans were the only prey.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233948
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3949: Design and Field Monitoring of a
           Pile–Anchor–Brace Supporting System in a Soft Soil Area

    • Authors: Lin Sun, Ke Mao, Zhengzhen Wang, Shuaihua Ye, Tiantao Su, Guoliang Dai, Guangxiang Xu, Jilong Sun
      First page: 3949
      Abstract: With the continuous development of urbanization and the rapid development of science and technology, the requirements for foundation pit engineering are getting higher and higher. Foundation pit engineering is gradually developing in the direction of larger area and deeper excavation. In engineering examples, the combined supporting structure of a pile–brace and pile–anchor for foundation pits is widely used, while the engineering examples supported by a pile–anchor–brace supporting system are less frequently used. Based on a super-large deep foundation pit project in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, China, according to the surrounding environmental conditions, the foundation pit support scheme, and on-site construction situation, the design and on-site monitoring of the pile–anchor–brace supporting system were introduced and analyzed. The results show that: (1) the deformation of the pile–anchor–brace supporting system shows an obvious spatial effect, and the horizontal displacement of the pile and soil of the long side direction is greater than the short side direction; (2) in the initial state, the deep horizontal displacement of the soil is in the form of a ‘cantilever’, but in the later stage it changed to the form of a ‘drum belly’, and both the brace and anchor cable can limit the displacement of the soil effectively; (3) the axial force of the brace develops rapidly in the initial stage, but its development tends to be gentle after the completion of the first anchor cable construction. Through on-site monitoring, it was found that the axial force of the ring brace was larger than that of the corner brace, which was larger than the opposite brace; and (4) the development trend of the axial force for the two rows of anchor cables is quite different. The average axial force of the first row of anchor cables is greater than the second row of anchor cables, and the development trend of the first row of anchor cables is steep first and then gentle, while the change trend of the second row of anchor cables is just the opposite.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233949
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3950: Impacts of Different Socioeconomic Development
           Levels on Extremely Wet/Dry Events in Mainland China

    • Authors: Qingfeng Zhang, Yi Li, Qiaoyu Hu, Ning Yao, Xiaoyan Song, Fenggui Liu, Bakhtiyor Pulatov, Qingtao Meng, Puyu Feng
      First page: 3950
      Abstract: The impacts of human activity (denoted by population), economic, and social development (denoted by gross domestic product–GDP) on extremely wet/dry (or drought) events are important for humans to tackle extreme hazards. This research aims to investigate the variations in maximum values (SPEI_MAX) and minimum values (SPEI_MIN) of a 12 month standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI12-month) for the selected 525 sites at different socioeconomic development levels (SDLs) (classified by population and GDP) in China between 2000–2018, and to analyze the impacts of increased population/GDP/SDLs on extremely wet/dry events. The linear correlations between SPEI12-month/SPEI_MAX/SPEI_MIN and population/GDP were conducted for all the sites. The relationship between linear slopes of population (PopuLS)/GDP(GDPLS) and SPEI_MAX (SPEI_MAXLS)/SPEI_MIN (SPEI_MINLS) were further studied. The results show that the extremely wet events denoted by SPEI_MAX become worse and the extreme drought events denoted by SPEI_MIN tend to be milder over time. The years 2016 and 2011 were extremely wet and extremely dry in China. There were general increasing trends in SPEI_MAX and decreasing trends in SPEI_MIN as the SDL increased from 1 to 6. This gradual, continuous increase/decrease potentially affected levels 5 and 6. Moreover, extremely wet events were more severe in developed big municipal cities of higher SDLs and extreme drought events were more severe for lower SDLs. This research can supply references for policy makers to prevent extreme disasters.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233950
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3951: Large Eddy Simulation of Compound Open Channel
           Flows with Floodplain Vegetation

    • Authors: Cheng Zeng, Yimo Bai, Jie Zhou, Fei Qiu, Shaowei Ding, Yudie Hu, Lingling Wang
      First page: 3951
      Abstract: Floodplain vegetation is of great importance in velocity distribution and turbulent coherent structure within compound open channel flows. As the large eddy simulation (LES) technique can provide detailed instantaneous flow dynamics and coherent turbulent structure predictions, it is of great importance to perform LES simulations of compound open channel flows with floodplain vegetation. In the present study, a wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) method was employed to simulate the compound open channel flows with floodplain vegetation. The vegetation-induced resistance effect was modeled with the drag force method. The WMLES model, incorporating the drag force method, was verified against flume measurements and an analytical solution of vegetated open channel flows. Numerical simulations were conducted with a depth ratio of 0.5 and four different floodplain vegetation densities (frk = 0, 0.28 m−1, 1.13 m−1 and 2.26 m−1). The main flow velocity, secondary flow, bed shear stress and vortex coherent structure, based on the Q criterion, were obtained and analyzed. Based on the numerical results, the influences of floodplain vegetation density on the flow field and turbulent structure of compound open channel flows were summarized and discussed. Compared to the case without floodplain vegetation, the streamwise velocity in the main channel increased by 10.8%, 19.9% and 24.4% with the frk = 0.28 m−1, 1.13 m−1 and 2.26 m−1, respectively. The results also indicated that, when the floodplain vegetation density increased, the following occurred: the velocity increased in the main channel, while the velocity decreased in the floodplain; the transverse momentum exchange was enhanced; and the strip structures were more concentrated near the junction area of compound open channel flows.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233951
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3952: Hydrodynamic Impacts on the Fate of
           Polychlorinated Biphenyl 153 in the Marine Environment

    • Authors: Elena Mikheeva, Johannes Bieser, Corinna Schrum
      First page: 3952
      Abstract: Due to their long half-life, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) tend to contaminate not only coastal areas, but they travel over long distances, eventually reaching remote areas such the Arctic. The physical and biogeochemical features of every coastal area govern the main distribution patterns of freshly introduced PCBs into the marine system. Some of these processes are determined by chemical properties of the individual PCB congener. Thus, atmospheric influx along with ad/absorption on non-living organic material, photolytical and biological degradation processes vary from one PCB congener to another. For a detailed fate analysis of individual congeners, we developed a new chemical model, based on the GOTM-ECOSMO-FABM model framework. Here, we exemplarily present results for PCB153 based on 1D simulations of four regions in the North-Baltic Sea. The study area is characterized by different hydrodynamic and biogeochemical conditions. We investigate the impact of resuspension, mixing and the biological pump, sea ice and tides on the final phasal distribution of PCB153. Different combinations of these factors lead to the development of different areas of PCB153 accumulation, with the formation of hotspot areas, and influence the total uptake and concentration of PCB153 in the water column. As a result, two major dynamics determine the fate of PCB153 in the coastal ocean: (i) Primary production leads to PCB153 being adsorbed by organic material. Partitioning to organic material and sedimentation of organic particles removes dissolved PCB153 from the surface ocean and increases atmospheric influx. (ii) Tidal-induced resuspension and mixing control the benthic–pelagic exchange of PCB153 and its distribution in the water column. Depending on the resuspension regime and stratification, sediments can become a permanent (Gotland Deep, the Baltic Sea) or seasonal sink for PCB153. In regions with seasonal stratification and high near bottom turbulence (Northern North Sea), resuspension events can lead to pronounced peaks in PCB153 concentrations and can therefore have a major impact on bioaccumulation. Under the conditions of permanent mixing and high bottom turbulence (Southern North Sea, Bothnian Bay), pollutants are hardly accumulating in sediments.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233952
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3953: Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater
           Biodiversity

    • Authors: Antonella Carosi
      First page: 3953
      Abstract: This Special Issue intended to collect articles focusing on the assessment of the possible effects of climate changes on aquatic species inhabiting inland waters all over the world, including the possible synergistic effects in combination with other anthropogenic stressors. A total of six original articles were published that report on investigations of different freshwater ecosystems across the world, including the mountain streams of the Western United States and Northwest Italy, river basins of Northwest China and Central Italy, a larger lowland river in north Italy, and a high-elevation temporary pond in Central Italy. In most of these papers, special attention was devoted to the repercussions of the climate change and its effects on three important components of the biotic community: the fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton. According to the aims of this Special Issue, three of the articles offer new insight into the synergistic effects of global warming together with other anthropogenic stressors, including water exploitation and alien species invasions. In light of the studies’ aim to highlight the effects of climate change, three papers provided analyses of environmental data collected through long-term monitoring. The scientific findings provided by these studies could help to create sound management strategies for freshwater biodiversity conservation.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233953
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3954: Sediment Source Fingerprinting and Its Control
           Strategies of the Lakes in Jiuzhaigou World Natural Heritage Site

    • Authors: Xiaoxue Shen, Ruili Li, Jie Du, Xianchenghao Jiang, Guoyu Qiu
      First page: 3954
      Abstract: Reliable quantitative information regarding sediment sources is essential for target mitigation, particularly in settings with a large number of loose provenances caused by earth disasters. The lakes in the Jiuzhaigou World Natural Heritage Site (WNHS) are facing serious environmental problems of silting and swamping, which threaten the sustainability of the area, especially after the earthquake on 8 August 2017 (the “8.8 earthquake”). Therefore, a field investigation was conducted after the “8.8 earthquake” (June 2020), and the Arrow Bamboo and Rhino Lakes, which were affected by the earthquakes to different degrees, were selected as the research objects. Based on the data of 27 environmental indicators from 31 surface sediment and soil samples in and around the lakes, the spatial distribution characteristics of the lake sediment sources were quantified using composite fingerprint recognition technology. Furthermore, a high protection standard of a WHNS and a process treatment scheme for reducing the siltation of the Jiuzhaigou lakes were proposed. The results showed that the contribution ratio of loose matter sources entering the lake on the road-side of the Arrow Bamboo and Rhino Lakes (16.5% and 21.8%, respectively) was lower than that on the forest-side (83.5% and 78.2%, respectively), indicating that physical barriers such as roads can effectively reduce the sediment input, while the lake forest side contributes a large number of loose matter sources, which has not attracted attention in the past and requires protection. High protection standards for the Jiuzhaigou WHNS are suggested. Accordingly, the entire control scheme of Jiuzhaigou lake sediment reduction including “monitoring–control–interception–buffer–cleaning” is provided. Source erosion monitoring is the first step in blocking the sediment source. Vegetation restoration and surface coverage should be conducted in areas where water and soil losses have occurred. Necessary engineering measures should be implemented to intercept loose material sources at points where geological disasters occur frequently. A buffer zone should be established between the lake and the mountain to intercept the sediment. Sediment caused by geological disasters with low interference must also be cleaned from the lake. The level of nutrients in the lake must be controlled by the regular cleaning of plant debris from the lake and lakeside.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233954
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3955: Effects of Hypoxia and Hypomagnetic Field on
           Morphometric and Life-History Traits in Freshwater Cladoceran Daphnia
           magna

    • Authors: Viacheslav V. Krylov, Anastasia A. Sizova, Daniil A. Sizov
      First page: 3955
      Abstract: The intensity of climatic changes and human activities is increasing every year. The general consequence of these processes for freshwater ecosystems can be a dissolved oxygen decrease. There is also a possibility of a reduction in geomagnetic field intensity due to a reversal of the Earth’s magnetic poles. It is assumed that the magnetic poles’ reversal may proceed relatively quickly and coincide with global climatic changes. To evaluate the influence of these processes on aquatic organisms, we studied the effects of different dissolved oxygen levels (2 mg/L, 5 mg/L, and 8 mg/L) under the geomagnetic field (51.7 ± 0.2 μT) and hypomagnetic field (0 ± 0.2 μT) on the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna Straus. It was found that reduced oxygen levels and the hypomagnetic field led to a decrease in the sizes of parental females, a reduction in the number of produced offspring, and an increase in the period between broods. The newborns from the first brood in the hypomagnetic field were larger than that from the geomagnetic field. The dissolved oxygen level and magnetic environment affected the age of the first brood release and caudal spine length. The results imply that the probable coincidence of the geomagnetic pole reversal and the decrease in the dissolved oxygen level due to global climatic and geophysical processes will have a more negative impact on freshwater crustaceans than the occurrence of these processes at different times.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233955
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3956: Groundwater Modeling with Process-Based and
           Data-Driven Approaches in the Context of Climate Change

    • Authors: Matia Menichini, Linda Franceschi, Brunella Raco, Giulio Masetti, Andrea Scozzari, Marco Doveri
      First page: 3956
      Abstract: In the context of climate change, the correct management of groundwater, which is strategic for meeting water needs, becomes essential. Groundwater modeling is particularly crucial for the sustainable and efficient management of groundwater. This manuscript provides different types of modeling according to data availability and features of three porous aquifer systems in Italy (Empoli, Magra, and Brenta systems). The models calibrated on robust time series enabled the performing of forecast simulations capable of representing the quantitative and qualitative response to expected climate regimes. For the Empoli aquifer, the process-based models highlighted the system’s ability to mitigate the effects of dry climate conditions thanks to its storage capability. The data-driven models concerning the Brenta foothill aquifer pointed out the high sensitivity of the system to climate extremes, thus suggesting the need for specific water management actions. The integrated data-driven/process-based approach developed for the Magra Valley aquifer remarked that the water quantity and quality effects are tied to certain boundary conditions over dry climate periods. This work shows that, for groundwater modeling, the choice of the suitable approach is mandatory, and it mainly depends on the specific aquifer features that result in different ways to be sensitive to climate. This manuscript also provides a novel outcome involving the integrated approach wherein it is a very efficient tool for forecasting modeling when boundary conditions, which significantly affect the behavior of such systems, are subjected to evolve under expected climate scenarios.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233956
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3957: Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Urban Water
           Security: A Case Study in Dongguan, China

    • Authors: Jianye Cao, Zhicheng Yan, Jinquan Wan, Yan Wang, Gang Ye, Yingping Long, Quanmo Xie
      First page: 3957
      Abstract: Water security plays a critical role in the development and stability of a region. Constructing an objective and reasonable evaluation indicator system is beneficial to quantitatively evaluating the regional water security status and improving water resource management. In this paper, an urban water security indicator system was established based on the Driving–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR) framework with Dongguan City as a case study. By introducing the projection pursuit (PP) algorithm, a DPSIR–PP model was developed to quantitatively evaluate urban water security. The evaluation results show that Dongguan City’s water security index had an overall upward trend during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, with the evaluation grade rising from IV to III. The indicators with the top five weights are: river water quality condition, ecological index, the leakage rate of water supply network, the value added by industry, and the Dongjiang water resources development and utilization rate. The evaluation results are essentially in line with the reality of Dongguan City. On this basis, the internal links of water security and future trends were further analyzed. Through the evaluation results and policy analysis, it is shown that the water security-related measures implemented during the 13th Five-Year Plan period have been effective. Overall, the methodology proposed in this study is beneficial for gaining an in-depth understanding of urban water security impact factors and provides some theoretical basis and reference for future water resources management.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233957
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3958: Evaluation and Optimization of Hydrological
           Connectivity Based on Graph Theory: A Case Study in Dongliao River Basin,
           China

    • Authors: Naixu Tian, Yue Zhang, Jianwei Li, Walian Du, Xingpeng Liu, Haibo Jiang, Hongfeng Bian
      First page: 3958
      Abstract: Hydrological connectivity affects the material cycling and energy transfer of ecosystems and is an important indicator for assessing the function of aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, clarification of hydrologic connectivity and its optimization methods is essential for basin water resources management and other problems; however, most of the current research is focused on intermittently flooded areas, especially in terms of optimization, and on hydrological regulation within mature water structures, while research on hydrological connectivity in dry, low rainfall plain areas remains scarce. Based on the graph and binary water cycle theories, this study assessed and hierarchically optimized the structural hydrological connectivity of the Dongliao River Basin (DRB), integrating artificial and natural connectivity, and explored the hydrological connectivity optimization method in the arid plain region at the basin scale to increase connectivity pathways. The spatial analysis and evaluation of hydrological connectivity was also carried out based on the results of the hierarchical optimization, and provided three scenarios for the construction of hydrological connectivity projects in the basin. The hierarchical optimization yielded a total of 230 new water connectivity paths, and the overall hydrological connectivity increased from 5.07 to 7.64. Our results suggest a large spatial correlation in hydrological flow obstruction in the DRB. The center of gravity of circulation obstruction shifted to the south after optimization for different levels of connectivity. With the increase in the optimization level of hydrological connectivity, the national Moran index rose and then fell. The magnitude of the increase in hydrological connectivity effects varied at different optimization levels, and there were sudden points’ increase points. From an application point of view, Scenario 1 is necessary and the most cost effective is Scenario 2, which provides a scientific basis for guiding the construction of future ecological projects in the DRB.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233958
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3959: Nonstationary Annual Maximum Flood Frequency
           

    • Authors: Ling Zeng, Hongwei Bi, Yu Li, Xiulin Liu, Shuai Li, Jinfeng Chen
      First page: 3959
      Abstract: Recent evidence of the impact of watershed underlying conditions on hydrological processes have made the assumption of stationarity widely questioned. In this study, the temporal variations of frequency distributions of the annual maximum flood were investigated by continuous hydrological simulation considering nonstationarity for Weihe River Basin (WRB) in northwestern China. To this end, two nonstationary versions of the GR4J model were introduced, where the production storage capacity parameter was regarded as a function of time and watershed conditions (e.g., reservoir storage and soil-water conservation land area), respectively. Then the models were used to generate long-term runoff series to derive flood frequency distributions, with synthetic rainfall series generated by a stochastic rainfall model as input. The results show a better performance of the nonstationary GR4J model in runoff simulation than the stationary version, especially for the annual maximum flow series, with the corresponding NSE metric increasing from 0.721 to 0.808. The application of the nonstationary flood frequency analysis indicates the presence of significant nonstationarity in the flood quantiles and magnitudes, where the flood quantiles for an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 range from 4187 m3/s to 8335 m3/s for the past decades. This study can serve as a reference for flood risk management in WRB and possibly for other basins undergoing drastic changes caused by intense human activities.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233959
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3960: Optimization of Irrigation Scheduling for
           Improved Irrigation Water Management in Bilate Watershed, Rift Valley,
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Kedrala Wabela, Ali Hammani, Taky Abdelilah, Sirak Tekleab, Moha El-Ayachi
      First page: 3960
      Abstract: The availability of water for agricultural production is under threat from climate change and rising demands from various sectors. In this paper, a simulation-optimization model for optimizing the irrigation schedule in the Bilate watershed was developed, to save irrigation water and maximize the yield of deficit irrigation. The model integrated the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and an irrigation-scheduling optimization model. The SWAT model was used to simulate crop yield and evapotranspiration. The Jensen crop-water-production function was applied to solve potato and wheat irrigation-scheduling-optimization problems. Results showed that the model can be applied to manage the complicated simulation-optimization irrigation-scheduling problems for potato and wheat. The optimization result indicated that optimizing irrigation-scheduling based on moisture-stress-sensitivity levels can save up to 25.6% of irrigation water in the study area, with insignificant yield-reduction. Furthermore, optimizing deficit-irrigation-scheduling based on moisture-stress-sensitivity levels can maximize the yield of potato and wheat by up to 25% and 34%, respectively. The model developed in this study can provide technical support for effective irrigation-scheduling to save irrigation water and maximize yield production.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233960
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3961: Numerical Investigation on EOR in Porous Media
           by Cyclic Water Injection with Vibration Frequency

    • Authors: Hongen Yang, Junming Lao, Delin Tong, Hongqing Song
      First page: 3961
      Abstract: Water injection with an oscillatory pressure boundary is a promising technology, which can achieve a more economical and environment-friendly EOR (enhanced oil recovery). However, due to the unclear critical injection frequency, its oil production performance has been unstable and is far from reaching the optimal level. Here, a numerical model is established for oil recovery by the water injection with the oscillatory boundary condition to find out the critical frequency for the optimal EOR. The correlations between the water injection frequency and the EOR level at diverse oil–water surface tensions and oil viscosities are integrated into the model. Our numerical model reveals that an optimal EOR of roughly 10% is achieved at the critical water injection frequency compared with water injection without an oscillatory boundary. The EOR mechanism is revealed showing that upon water injection with the optimum frequency, the formation of the preferential pathways is inhibited and the pressure transmits to the wall sides to displace the oil. Moreover, it is indicated that the required critical frequency increases with higher surface tension and larger oil viscosity. In addition, the difference between the residual oil saturation at the optimal frequency increases with the increase in surface tension compared with water injection without an oscillatory boundary. Last but not least, it is elucidated that at a constant injection frequency, a higher EOR is achieved when the water–oil surface tension is lower but the oil viscosity is larger. Our work promises economic, eco-friendly and controllable enhanced oil recovery.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233961
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3962: Modeling the Effectiveness of Sustainable
           Agricultural Practices in Reducing Sediments and Nutrient Export from a
           River Basin

    • Authors: José Pedro Ramião, Cláudia Carvalho-Santos, Rute Pinto, Cláudia Pascoal
      First page: 3962
      Abstract: Water pollution from unsustainable agricultural practices is a global problem that undermines human health and economic development. Sustainable agricultural practices have been considered to maintain global food production without compromising water quality and ecosystem health. However, the effectiveness of sustainable agricultural practices in reducing sediments and nutrient export and the combination of practices that will best achieve water quality objectives is still under-explored. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of sustainable agricultural practices in reducing sediments and nutrients export to rivers and determine the combination of practices that would allow the highest reductions of sediments and nutrients, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a Portuguese river basin highly affected by agricultural pollution. SWAT was calibrated and validated for river discharge, sediments, phosphorous, and nitrate loads at the outlet of the basin, with a good agreement between simulated and observed values. The effects of filter strips, fertilizer incorporation, and conservation tillage were analyzed considering both individual and combined effects. Our study shows that sustainable agricultural practices can substantially reduce sediments and nutrients export from a river basin, with the highest average combined depletion of sediments, phosphorus, and nitrate export (25%) achieved when fertilizer incorporation, conservation tillage, and filter strips were implemented simultaneously. Additional studies exploring the effect of sustainable agricultural practices across a range of climate and watershed characteristics, as well as their capacity to deal with challenges related to climate change, will further improve our understanding of the effectiveness of sustainable agricultural practices.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233962
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3963: Assessment of Implementing Land Use/Land Cover
           LULC 2020-ESRI Global Maps in 2D Flood Modeling Application

    • Authors: Mohamed Soliman, Mohamed M. Morsy, Hany G. Radwan
      First page: 3963
      Abstract: Floods are one of the most dangerous water-related risks. Numerous sources of uncertainty affect flood modeling. High-resolution land-cover maps along with appropriate Manning’s roughness values are the most significant parameters for building an accurate 2D flood model. Two land-cover datasets are available: the National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2019) and the Land Use/Land Cover for Environmental Systems Research Institute (LULC 2020-ESRI). The NLCD 2019 dataset has national coverage but includes references to Manning’s roughness values for each class obtained from earlier studies, in contrast to the LULC 2020-ESRI dataset, which has global coverage but without an identified reference to Manning’s roughness values yet. The main objectives of this study are to assess the accuracy of using the LULC 2020-ESRI dataset compared with the NLCD 2019 dataset and propose a standard reference to Manning’s roughness values for the classes in the LULC 2020-ESRI dataset. To achieve the research objectives, a confusion matrix using 548,117 test points in the conterminous United States was prepared to assess the accuracy by quantifying the cross-correspondence between the two datasets. Then statistical analyses were applied to the global maps to detect the appropriate Manning’s roughness values associated with the LULC 2020-ESRI map. Compared to the NLCD 2019 dataset, the proposed Manning’s roughness values for the LULC 2020-ESRI dataset were calibrated and validated using 2D flood modeling software (HEC-RAS V6.2) on nine randomly chosen catchments in the conterminous United States. This research’s main results show that the LULC 2020-ESRI dataset achieves an overall accuracy of 72% compared to the NLCD 2019 dataset. The findings demonstrate that, when determining the appropriate Manning’s roughness values for the LULC 2020-ESRI dataset, the weighted average technique performs better than the average method. The calibration and validation results of the proposed Manning’s roughness values show that the overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in depth was 2.7 cm, and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) in depth was 5.32 cm. The accuracy of the computed peak flow value using LULC 2020-ESRI was with an average error of 5.22% (2.0% min. to 8.8% max.) compared to the computed peak flow values using the NLCD 2019 dataset. Finally, a reference to Manning’s roughness values for the LULC 2020-ESRI dataset was developed to help use the globally available land-use/land-cover dataset to build 2D flood models with an acceptable accuracy worldwide.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233963
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3964: Degradation of Carbamazepine by
           HF-Free-Synthesized MIL-101(Cr)@Anatase TiO2 Composite under UV-A
           Irradiation: Degradation Mechanism, Wastewater Matrix Effect, and
           Degradation Pathway

    • Authors: J. W. Goh, Y. Xiong, W. Wu, Z. Huang, S. L. Ong, J. Y. Hu
      First page: 3964
      Abstract: TiO2 has been hampered by drawbacks such as rapid photoelectron and hole recombination and a wide energy band gap of 3.2 eV. In this study, MIL-101(Cr)@TiO2 was synthesised without any mineraliser (HF) as part of material modification approach to overcome those pitfalls. The composite was well characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, XPS, BET, TGA, and Raman spectroscopy. Under optimal synthesis conditions, the 9.17% MIL-101(Cr)@TiO2 composite exhibited 99.9% CBZ degradation after 60 min under UV-A irradiation. This can be attributed to the delayed recombination of photo-generated h+ and e− and a reduced band gap energy of 2.9 eV. A Type II heterojunction structure was proposed for the composite using the Mulligan function of electronegativity with the calculated Ecb and Evb. Besides, trapping experiments and ESR spectroscopy confirmed O2•− as the main ROS for CBZ degradation. The effects of the operating parameters such as pH, UV intensity, composite dosage, and initial pollutant concentration were also evaluated. The scavenging effects of inorganic and organic constituents of pharmaceutical wastewater on the process were also evaluated, with HCO3−, CO32−, and THF having more significant inhibition on the overall CBZ degradation. The degradation pathways of CBZ were also proposed based on detected intermediates with the aid of LC/MS/MS. The composite illustrated reusability and stability without considerable loss in the degradation performance after repeated runs. This work builds on the development of more effective photocatalysts and provides a glimpse into applications for similar MOF heterojunction photocatalysts.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233964
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3965: Smart Water Solutions for the Operation and
           Management of a Water Supply System in Aracatuba, Brazil

    • Authors: Kyudae Shim, Eduardo Berrettini, Yong-Gyun Park
      First page: 3965
      Abstract: Because of population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change, many water supply utilities globally struggle to provide water that is safe to drink. A particular problem is the aging of the water supply facilities, which is exacerbated by their inefficient operation and maintenance (O&M). For this reason, many water utilities have recently been actively adopting intelligent and integrated water supply O&M solutions that utilize information and communication technology, the Internet of Things, big data, and artificial intelligence to solve water supply system problems. In this study, smart water solutions (GSWaterS) were implemented to enhance the efficiency of the water supply system in the city of Aracatuba, Brazil. They were used to monitor and analyze the operating conditions of the water supply system in real time, thus allowing for the effective management of water supply assets. GSWaterS also supports the design and optimization of district metered areas, the reduction and management of water losses, real-time water network analysis, and big data analysis using artificial intelligence. Economic analysis revealed that GSWaterS produces various direct and indirect benefits for the water supply system.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233965
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 3967: Ensemble Evaluation and Member Selection of
           Regional Climate Models for Impact Models Assessment

    • Authors: Amin Minaei, Sara Todeschini, Robert Sitzenfrei, Enrico Creaco
      First page: 3967
      Abstract: Climate change increasingly is affecting every aspect of human life on the earth. Many regional climate models (RCMs) have so far been developed to carefully assess this important phenomenon on specific regions. In this study, ten RCMs captured from the European Coordinated Downscaling Experiment (EURO CORDEX) platform are evaluated on the river Chiese catchment located in the northeast of Italy. The models’ ensembles are assessed in terms of the uncertainty and error calculated through different statistical and error indices. The uncertainties are investigated in terms of signal (increase, decrease, or neutral changes in the variables) and value uncertainties. Together with the spatial analysis of the data over the catchment, the weighted averaged values are used for the models’ evaluations and data projections. Using weighted catchment variables, climate change impacts are assessed on 10 different hydro-climatological variables showing the changes in the temperature, precipitation, rainfall events’ features, and the hydrological variables of the Chiese catchment between historical (1991–2000) and future (2071–2080) decades under RCP (Representative Concentration Path for increasing greenhouse gas emissions) scenario 4.5. The results show that, even though the multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM) could cover the outputs’ uncertainty of the models, it increases the error of the outputs. On the other hand, the RCM with the least error could cause high signal and value uncertainties for the results. Hence, different multi-model subsets of ensembles (MMEM-s) of 10 RCMs are obtained through a proposed algorithm for different impact models’ calculations and projections, making tradeoffs between two important shortcomings of model outputs, which are error and uncertainty. The single model (SM) and multi-model (MM) outputs imply that catchment warming is obvious in all cases and, therefore, evapotranspiration will be intensified in the future where there are about 1.28% and 6% value uncertainties for monthly temperature increase and the decadal relative balance of evapotranspiration, respectively. While rainfall events feature higher intensity and shorter duration in the SM, there are no significant differences for the mentioned features in the MM, showing high signal uncertainties in this regard. The unchanged catchment rainfall events’ depth can be observed in two SM and MM approaches, implying good signal certainty for the depth feature trend; there is still high uncertainty about the depth values. As a result of climate change, the percolation component change is negligible, with low signal and value uncertainties, while decadal evapotranspiration and discharge uncertainties show the same signal and value. While extreme events and their anomalous outcomes direct the uncertainties in rainfall events’ features’ values towards zero, they remain critical for yearly maximum catchment discharge in 2071–2080 as the highest value uncertainty is observed for this variable.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/w14233967
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 23 (2022)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.210.85.190
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-