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Water
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.634
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-4441
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1991: Effectiveness of New Rock-Ramp Fishway at
           Miyanaka Intake Dam Compared with Existing Large and Small Stair-Type
           Fishways

    • Authors: Taku Masumoto, Masahiko Nakai, Takashi Asaeda, Mizanur Rahman
      First page: 1991
      Abstract: The migration of fish is influenced by the unique environmental characteristics of the destination and migratory habitat preferences. There are three fishways in Miyanaka Intake Dam. The rock-ramp fishway was newly established in 2012, creating an environment with different flow velocities and water depths. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the new rock-ramp fishway for native fish through two surveys. In the first survey, traps were installed during the survey period in all three fishways and all fish were caught. The run-up environment was quantified by measuring the flow velocity. In the second survey, fish were caught by spectrum methods upstream and downstream from the dam. It was found that bottom-dwelling fish and swimming fish not bound to the bottom with low migration abilities used the rock-ramp fishway for migration and as a habitat. After the new rock-ramp fishway was built, catches increased upstream from the dam. Further, the rock-ramp fishway is a potential habitat for certain species, such as Cottus pollux. As this is the first study to demonstrate the effectiveness of rock-ramp fishways, the research results are expected to be valuable to fishery managers and those planning river engineering projects.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131991
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1993: Numerical Modeling and Simulation of the
           Effectiveness of Groundwater Source Protection Management Plans: Riverbank
           Filtration Case Study in Serbia

    • Authors: Dušan Polomčić, Dragoljub Bajić, Bojan Hajdin, Dragan Pamučar
      First page: 1993
      Abstract: The paper describes the establishment and testing of an algorithm for developing sustainable management plans associated with groundwater source protection against potential pollutants and discusses the effectiveness of individual systems. The applied methodology pertains to groundwater resource management, particularly those cases that involve riverbank filtration. Namely, groundwater (numerical) modeling is employed to examine the groundwater regime and balance, as well as to create protection systems and illustrate their effectiveness. Particle tracking analysis is used to study pollutants’ travel and residence time. On the other hand, PEST with regularization is employed to estimate the numerical model parameters. The proposed method is used in a real case study, which examines the application of the developed algorithm to the protection of a drinking water supply source from an industrial zone, which is a potential source of pollution. The research presented in the paper opens new avenues for future studies involving mathematical multicriteria optimization and decision making about optimal groundwater source protection management plans.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131993
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1994: Temperature Modeling, a Key to Assessing
           Impact on Rivers Due to Urbanization and Climate Change

    • Authors: Edward McBean, Munir Bhatti, Amanjot Singh, Logan Mattern, Lorna Murison, Patrick Delaney
      First page: 1994
      Abstract: With widespread ongoing urbanization and as climate change continues, the importance of protecting the water quality of streams and lakes is intensifying. However, while many water quality constituents in lakes and rivers are of overall interest, water temperature is a ‘key’ variable as temperature influences mixing within a waterbody, influences the acceptability of the habitat for flora and fauna, and serves as a guide to the general health of a stream. To enable the assessment, a physics-based, deterministic hydraulic and heat-balance modeling procedure using the combination of MIKE SHE, MIKE HYDRO and ECO Lab is described to assess heat transfer magnitudes in portions of the Credit River, Ontario. Changes in instream temperature regimes are examined, including both frequency and spatial extent, providing insights into the impacts of urbanization in terms of seasonal temperature shifts arising from land use changes. For flow and temperature regimes, Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE) values of 0.49 and 0.955 were achieved, respectively, for current threshold conditions. Durations of temperature increases from threshold levels indicate that land use changes from current agriculture conditions to urbanization may change stream water temperatures for 9% of the time by 1 °C, and 2% of the time by 2 °C for distances of 1000 m downstream, because of land use change from agriculture to low-density urbanization, and for 20% of the time by 1 °C, and 4% of the time by 2 °C at distances of 1000 m downstream with land use change to high-density urbanization. With climate change RCP 4.5 Scenario in 2050 (Base, for a Wet Year—2017), the continuous amount of time the stream water temperature remains at elevated temperatures of more than 3 °C (from 5000 m to 25,607 m from the most upstream point of Fletchers Creek) for a distance of 20,000 m is more than 13 h. These elevations in temperature may have serious implications for flora and fauna in the creek, particularly impacting the cold-water and mixed-water fish species.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131994
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1995: Pore-Scale Wetting Process of Capillary-Driven
           Flow in Unsaturated Porous Media under Micro- and Earth-Gravities

    • Authors: Yuichi Maruo, Naoto Sato, Kento Nogawa, Shinsuke Aoki, Kosuke Noborio
      First page: 1995
      Abstract: Microgravity hinders capillary-driven water flow in unsaturated porous media. Previous studies proposed pore-scale phenomena such as “air entrapment”, “particle separation”, and “interruption on widening void space” to explain gravity-dependent capillary-driven flows. Our objectives were: (1) to measure the water flux densities of the pore-scale capillary-driven flow in micro- and Earth-gravities and (2) to reveal that what makes water flow slower under microgravity than under 1 G. We found that average macroscopic water flux densities had no significant difference under micro- and Earth-gravities (p = 0.30). We did not observe “air entrapment” in the pore spaces of porous media. “Widening on a single particle” and “capillary widening” disturbed capillary-driven flow; however, “widening on a single particle” had no significant gravity dependency. “Capillary widening” may be independent of gravity, since it was observed both under microgravity and under 1 G. Water flux densities in unsaturated porous media may have gravity dependency induced by “particle separation” only when porosity is large enough to allow particles to move.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131995
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1996: The Influence of the Recording Time in
           Modelling the Swimming Behaviour of the Freshwater Inbenthic Copepod
           Bryocamptus pygmaeus

    • Authors: Mattia Di Cicco, Marco Uttieri, Tiziana Di Lorenzo, Barbara Fiasca, Ilaria Vaccarelli, Agostina Tabilio Di Camillo, Diana Maria Paola Galassi
      First page: 1996
      Abstract: The analysis of copepod behaviour gained an increasing impetus over the past decade thanks to the advent of computer-assisted video analysis tools. Since the automated tracking consists in detecting the animal’s position frame by frame and improving signals corrupted by strong background noise, a crucial role is played by the length of the video recording. The aim of this study is to: (i) assess whether the recording time influences the analysis of a suite of movement descriptive parameters; (ii) understand if the recording time influences the outcome of the statistical analyses when hypotheses on the effect of toxicants/chemicals on the freshwater invertebrate behaviour are tested. We investigated trajectory parameters commonly used in behavioural studies—swimming speed, percentage of activity and trajectory convex hull—derived from the trajectories described by the inbenthic–interstitial freshwater copepod Bryocamptus pygmaeus exposed to a sub-lethal concentration of diclofenac. The analyses presented in this work indicate that the recording time did not influence the outcome of the results for the swimming speed and the percentage of activity. For the trajectory convex hull area, our results showed that a recording session lasting at least 3 min provided robust results. However, further investigations are needed to disentangle the role of concurrent factors, such as the behavioural analysis of multiple individuals simultaneously, whether they are of the same or opposite sex and the implications on sexual behaviour, competition for resources and predation.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131996
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1997: Development of Rainfall-Runoff Models for
           Sustainable Stormwater Management in Urbanized Catchments

    • Authors: Bartosz Szeląg, Grzegorz Łagód, Anna Musz-Pomorska, Marcin K. Widomski, David Stránský, Marek Sokáč, Jozefína Pokrývková, Roman Babko
      First page: 1997
      Abstract: Modelling of stormwater networks and the related object (combined sewer overflows, diversion chambers, retention tanks) is a complex task requiring colleting of data with appropriate time and spatial resolution as well as application of adequate models. Often there is a need to find balance between the costs of conducting measurement (period, resolution) and the uncertainty of the model results. This paper presents an overview of simulation tools for sewerage networks modelling, related objects, as well as low-impact development (LID) systems in relation to the hydrodynamic and statistical models. Consecutive stages of data collection, sources of data uncertainty, limitations resulting from the adopted measurement methodology, as well as their influence on the simulation results and possible decision-making using the developed hydrodynamic or statistical model, are discussed. Attention is drawn to the optimization methods enabling reduction in the uncertainty of statistical models. The methods enabling the analysis of model uncertainty, as well as evaluation of its influence on the calculation results pertaining to stormwater hydrographs, retention tank capacity and combined sewers overflows, are also discussed. This is a very important aspect in terms of optimizing construction works in the sewerage network and designing their appropriate dimensions to achieve the assumed hydraulic effects.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131997
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1998: In Situ Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated
           Groundwater by Injecting an Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Adsorption
           Barrier

    • Authors: Sadjad Mohammadian, Hadi Tabani, Zahra Boosalik, Amir Asadi Rad, Beate Krok, Andreas Fritzsche, Kamal Khodaei, Rainer U. Meckenstock
      First page: 1998
      Abstract: Arsenic contamination of groundwater occurs due to both geogenic and anthropogenic processes. Conventional arsenic remediation techniques require extraction of groundwater into pump-and-treat systems, which are expensive and require long operational times. Hence, there is a need for cost-effective remediation. In this study, we assessed and validated the in situ remediation of arsenic contamination in groundwater resources using permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) made of injectable, colloidal iron oxide nanoparticles in the laboratory and in field-scale pilot tests. Sand-packed, flow-through column studies were used in order to assess the sorption behavior of the iron oxide nanoparticles using field materials (sand, groundwater) in the laboratory. The breakthrough curves were analyzed using a reactive transport model considering linear and nonlinear adsorption isotherms and were fitted best with a chemical nonequilibrium consideration. The results were used to design a pilot-scale field test. The injected 28 m3 of nanoparticles (ca. 280 kg dry weight of iron oxide) were successfully delivered to the aquifer via an injection well. No mobile iron was detected downstream, confirming that a stable in situ barrier was formed that did not move with the groundwater flow. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater were reduced to the aimed 50% of the background value, despite the relatively short contact time between arsenic and the iron oxide in the barrier, due to the high flow velocity of 1.21 m/day. We compared the results of the laboratory and field tests and concluded that the single-parameter models based on retardation factor and/or adsorption capacity fail to predict the longevity of the barrier and the evolution of arsenic breakthrough with time, most likely because they do not consider the chemical nonequilibrium effects. Therefore, we propose that upscaling the laboratory findings to field design must be carried out with care and be coupled with detailed reactive transport models.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131998
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 1999: Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of
           Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Sediments of North Canal,
           China

    • Authors: Shasha Pei, Binghua Li, Boxin Wang, Jingchao Liu, Xuanying Song
      First page: 1999
      Abstract: The pollution of water bodies by pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has attracted widespread concern due to their widespread use and pseudo-persistence, but their effects on sediments are less known. In this study, solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MSMS) was used to investigate the occurrence and ecological risks of five typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in thirteen key reservoirs, sluices, dams, and estuaries in the Haihe River Basin. At the same time, the PPCP exchanges of surface water, groundwater, and sediments in three typical sections were studied. Finally, the PPCP’s environmental risk is evaluated through the environmental risk quotient. The results showed that the five PPCPs were tri-methoprazine (TMP), sinolamine (SMX), ibuprofen (IBU), triclosan (TCS), and caffeine (CAF). The average concentration of these PPCPs ranged from 0 to 481.19 μg/kg, with relatively high concentrations of TCS and CAF. The relationship between PPCPs in the surface sediments was analyzed to reveal correlations between SMX and TMP, CAF and IBU, CAF and TCS. The risk quotients (RQ) method was used to evaluate the ecological risk of the five detected PPCPs. The major contributors of potential environmental risks were IBU, TCS and CAF, among which all the potential environmental risks at the TCS samples were high risk. This study supplemented the research on the ecological risk of PPCPs in sediments of important reaches of the North Canal to reveal the importance of PPCP control in the North Canal and provided a scientific basis for pollution control and risk prevention of PPCPs.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14131999
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2000: An Integrated Approach for Urban Pluvial Flood
           Risk Assessment at Catchment Level

    • Authors: Man Qi, Huabing Huang, Lin Liu, Xi Chen
      First page: 2000
      Abstract: With the rapid development of urbanization and global climate change, urban pluvial floods have occurred more frequently in urban areas. Despite of the increasing urban pluvial flood risk, there is still a lack of comprehensive understanding of the physical and social influencing factors on the process. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper proposes a novel approach to calculate the comprehensive urban pluvial flooding risk index (PFRI) and investigates the interplay impacts from different components at catchment level. To be more specific, PFRI is determined by two components, Exposure Index (EI) and Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). EI is evaluated based on two indicators, the depression-based Topographic Control Index (TCI) and impervious area ratio. SoVI is measured based on a set of demographic and socio-economic indicators. Our results demonstrated the spatial heterogeneity of urban pluvial flood exposure and social vulnerability, as well as the composite flooding risk across the study area. Our catchment-based urban pluvial flooding risk assessment method can provide a comprehensive understanding of urban flooding and promote the formulation of effective flood mitigation strategies from the catchment perspective.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132000
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2001: Water Balance Calculation Based on
           Hydrodynamics in Reservoir Operation

    • Authors: Sipeng Zhu, Shuo Ouyang, Jianzhong Zhou, Hongya Qiu, Hui Qin, Jingwei Huang, Xinqiang Niu
      First page: 2001
      Abstract: Reservoir operation plays an important role in reservoir management. In reservoir operation, water balance calculation is a very important step. At present, one of the main challenges is that reservoir inflow cannot be calculated accurately due to jacking of the reservoir, which is produced by a downstream reservoir after the original course of the river has changed. Another reason that reservoir capacity cannot be calculated accurately is due to the influence of dynamic storage capacity. In order to overcome these problems, this report shows that the land zone in front of the dam can be used to calculate reservoir capacity, since it can serve as the boundary for a hydrodynamic model, which can then be used to calculate reservoir inflow to improve accuracy. The Three Gorges Dam was selected as a case study. The results show that compared with the measured data, the RMSE (root mean square error) of the proposed model was 8.5%, whereas the RMSE of the traditional model was 25.9%. The contributions and novelty of this paper are: (a) the proposed model combines a hydrodynamic model with a water balance calculation model to make the calculation of inflow more accurate; (b) the land zone in front of the dam can be used to make the calculation of reservoir capacity more accurate; (c) the proposed method provides a new way to calculate water balance, which can be used for short-term reservoir operation. The application results indicate that this study can provide technical support for the fine operation of reservoirs.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132001
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2002: Assessment of Algorithm Performance on
           Predicting Total Dissolved Solids Using Artificial Neural Network and
           Multiple Linear Regression for the Groundwater Data

    • Authors: Muhammad Umar Farooq, Abdul Mannan Zafar, Warda Raheem, Muhammad Irfan Jalees, Ashraf Aly Hassan
      First page: 2002
      Abstract: Estimating groundwater quality parameters through conventional methods is time-consuming through laboratory measurements for megacities. There is a need to develop models that can help decision-makers make policies for sustainable groundwater reserves. The current study compared the efficiency of multivariate linear regressions (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in the prediction of groundwater parameters for total dissolved solids (TDS) for three sub-divisions in Lahore, Pakistan. The data for this study were collected every quarter of a year for six years. ANN was applied to investigate the feasibility of feedforward, backpropagation neural networks with three training functions T-BR (Bayesian regularization backpropagation), T-LM (Levenberg–Marquardt backpropagation), and T-SCG (scaled conjugate backpropagation). Two activation functions were used to analyze the performance of algorithmic training functions, i.e., Logsig and Tanh. Input parameters of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl−), and sulfate (SO42−) was used to predict TDS as an output parameter. The computed values of TDS by ANN and MLR were in close agreement with their respective measured values. Comparative analysis of ANN and MLR showed that TDS root means square error (RMSE) for city sub-division and Pearson’s coefficient of correlation (r) for ANN and MLR were 2.9% and 0.981 and 4.5% and 0.978, respectively. Similarly, for the Farrukhabad sub-division, RMSE and r for ANN were 4.9% and 0.952, while RMSE and r for MLR were 5.5% and 0.941, respectively. For the Shahadra sub-division, RMSE was 10.8%, r was 0.869 for ANN, RMSE was 11.3%, and r was 0.860 for MLR. The results exhibited that the ANN model showed less error in results than MLR. Therefore, ANN can be employed successfully as a groundwater quality prediction tool for TDS assessment.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132002
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2003: Mercury Accumulation in a Stream Ecosystem:
           Linking Labile Mercury in Sediment Porewaters to Bioaccumulative Mercury
           in Trophic Webs

    • Authors: Xiaoyu Xu, Albert L. Bryan, Jasmine R. Parks, Kara N. Gibson
      First page: 2003
      Abstract: Mercury (Hg) deposition and accumulation in the abiotic and biotic environments of a stream ecosystem were studied. This study aimed to link labile Hg in porewater to bioaccumulative Hg in biota. Sediment cores, porewaters, and biota were sampled from four sites along the Fourmile Branch (SC, USA) and measured for total Hg (THg) and methyl-Hg (MHg) concentrations. Water quality parameters were also measured at the sediment–water interface (SWI) to model the Hg speciation. In general, Hg concentrations in porewaters and bulk sediment were relatively high, and most of the sediment Hg was in the solid phase as non-labile species. Surface sediment presented higher Hg concentrations than the medium and bottom layers. Mercury methylation and MHg production in the sediment was primarily influenced by sulfate levels, since positive correlations were observed between sulfate and Hg in the porewaters. The majority of Hg species at the SWI were in non-labile form, and the dominant labile Hg species was complexed with dissolved organic carbon. MHg concentrations in the aquatic food web biomagnified with trophic levels (biofilm, invertebrates, and fish), increasing by 3.31 times per trophic level. Based on the derived data, a modified MHg magnification model was established to estimate the Hg bioaccumulation at any trophic level using Hg concentrations in the abiotic environment (i.e., porewater).
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132003
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2004: Removal of Iron(II) from Effluents of Steel
           Mills Using Chemically Modified Pteris vittata Plant Leaves Utilizing the
           Idea of Phytoremediation

    • Authors: Qaiser Khan, Muhammad Zahoor, Syed Muhammad Salman, Muhammad Wahab, Farhat Ali Khan, Naila Gulfam, Ivar Zekker
      First page: 2004
      Abstract: Dargai District Malakand, Pakistan, is a tax-free zone that attracts many industrialists to install their plants in this area. Along with other industries, a number of steel mills are polluting the natural environment of this locality. This study aimed to evaluate heavy metals levels in steel mills effluents and fabricate an efficient adsorbent from the leaves of plants growing on the banks of the drainage lines of the industries and having high phytoremediation capabilities, through chemical modifications. Initially, the effluents were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations, then the leaves of a plant (Pteris vittata) with better phytoremediation capability were chemically modified. The leaves of Pteris vittata were crushed into a fine powder, followed by chemical modification with HNO3, then washed with distilled water, neutralized with NaOH and finally activated through calcium chloride to enhance its biosorption ability, abbreviated as CMPVL. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface area analyzer, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the CMPVL. The modified leaves in the powdered form were then used for the reclamation of Fe(II) present in the effluents of the mentioned industries. Batch biosorption tests were performed under varied physicochemical conditions of pH (2–9), contact time (10–140 min), temperature (293–333 K), biosorbent dose (0.01–0.13 g), and initial metal concentration (20–300 mg L−1) to optimize the removal of the selected metal. Langmuir, Jovanovic, Freundlich, Temkin, and Harkins–Jura isotherm models were used to assess the equilibrium data. With a high R2 value of 0.977, the Langmuir model offered an excellent match to the equilibrium data. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, power function, intraparticle diffusion, and Natarajan–Khalaf models were applied to experimental kinetics data. With R2 values of 0.999, the pseudo-second order model well fitted the obtained data. The Van’t Hoff equation was used to calculate ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° of Fe(II) sorption on CMPVL. The ∆H° and ∆G° were negative, whereas ΔS° was positive, suggesting that the biosorption process was exothermic, favorable, and spontaneous. The selected plant leaves were found to be efficient in the reclamation of iron from the industrial effluents (as the plant has a high natural capability for remediating the selected metal ion) after chemical modification and may be used as an alternative to activated carbon as being a low-cost material and a high phytoremediator of iron metal. Such natural phenomena of phytoremediation should be utilized in obtaining efficient adsorbents for other metals as well.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132004
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2005: INV-FLOW: New Possibilities to Evaluate the
           Technical Condition and Function of Extraction Wells

    • Authors: Jan Kukačka, Pavel Pech, Václav Ficaj, Daniel Kahuda
      First page: 2005
      Abstract: The declining supply of available groundwater resources is increasing the importance of extraction wells. To maximize the yield of extraction wells, the operators do not always respect the sustainable use of groundwater resources. These efforts can affect water quality and impact the service life of an extraction well, mainly through the clogging process. As part of the INV-FLOW project, an apparatus for evaluating the functionality of an extraction well by measuring the vertical water flow through its screen and filter was designed and tested. The apparatus consists of two electromagnetic induction flowmeters, two pneumatic seals, and a pump with the possibility of regulation. After an initial laboratory verification of the fundamental concept, the apparatus was successfully tested in real conditions. Two extraction wells, HJ-3 and HJ-4, intended for water supply to an agricultural production plant, were measured at a pilot site in the Czech Republic using the INV-FLOW apparatus. Although the HJ-3 extraction well is at the end of its service life, the HJ-4 extraction well is a newly installed well. In the new extraction well, HJ-4, a high proportion of water flowing through the gravel pack relative to the total pumping flow (93–97%) was measured using the INV-FLOW apparatus at different pumping rates. In the case of the HJ-3 extraction well, screen and filter clogging contributed significantly to the limited water flow through the gravel pack. In the most affected parts of the extraction well (15–20 m b.g.l.), the proportion of water flowing through the gravel pack relative to the total pumping flow ranged from 10 to 20%. The pilot tests confirmed the functionality of the apparatus and the possibility of using it to evaluate the degree of clogging and incrustation of an extraction well. The pilot tests thus demonstrated the usability of the INV-FLOW apparatus. The extraction well operator can assess the level of clogging or incrustation of the extraction well and decide on the need for the rehabilitation of an extraction well, or the termination of its operation.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132005
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2006: Projection of Future Water Resources Carrying
           Capacity in the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin under the Impacts of Climate
           Change and Human Activities

    • Authors: Mingming Xie, Chengfeng Zhang, Jianyun Zhang, Guoqing Wang, Junliang Jin, Cuishan Liu, Ruimin He, Zhenxin Bao
      First page: 2006
      Abstract: Water resources are essential for human beings. It is of significance to project future water resources carrying capacity for water resources planning and management. In this study, the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin (HHHRB), where the contradiction between humans and water is prominent in China, is selected as the study area. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of regional water resources carrying capacity is constructed, the variation characteristics of water resources affected by climate change are analyzed based on the Budyko-Fu model, and considering the influence of transit water resources and water diversion projects, the future water resources carrying capacity in HHHRB under four future climate scenarios in CMIP6 is projected. The results indicate that: (1) On the whole, the carrying capacity of water resources in HHHRB is weak, and the spatial difference is great. (2) Under the background of climate change in the future, precipitation, temperature, and water resources in HHHRB all show increasing trends with changes of 0.90–12.59%, 1.22–1.80 °C, and 13.12–34.29%. (3) Under the background of global change, the water resources carrying capacity of most prefecture-level cities in HHHRB will be greatly improved in the future, and the spatial distributions of change rates among different climate scenarios are relatively consistent. (4) The construction of water diversion projects such as the South-to-North Water Diversion Project has played an obvious role in improving the carrying capacity of water resources. The research results can provide important scientific and technological support for the rational allocation of water resources in the basin under the background of global change.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132006
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2007: Quantifying the UDS Hydraulic and Social
           Resilience to Flooding: An Index-Based Approach vs. a Parameter-Based MCDM
           Method

    • Authors: Negin Binesh, Amin Sarang, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, Wolfgang Rauch, Giuseppe T. Aronica
      First page: 2007
      Abstract: Various approaches to quantifying resilience have sparked debate in past years. This study measures the social and hydraulic resilience of an Urban Drainage System (UDS) using two methodologies, i.e., a proposed index-based framework and a parametric-based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method. The former positions flexibility as a key property of the resilience concept, and after quantifying four characteristics of a flexible system, measures the flood resilience based on quantifying the two resilience components, i.e., flexibility and resistance; while. The latter calculates the resilience through a linear combination of the actual values and relative weights for different UDS sub-characteristics which best describe the resiliency of the system. The methodologies were applied to a basin, focusing on flooding as a disaster, to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of UDS under both single-event and long-term precipitation. The results of both methods were indicative of a relatively low level of flood resiliency for the UDS in the studied area. Among different scenarios examined for the studied region, using Best Management Practices (BMPs) was turned out to be an effective adaptive measure to enhance the UDS resilience to a higher level.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132007
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2008: Time-Series Analysis of Isotope Composition of
           Precipitation in Zagreb, Croatia

    • Authors: Damir Borković, Zoran Kovač, Ines Krajcar Bronić
      First page: 2008
      Abstract: Air temperature and precipitation data (1976–2021), stable isotope composition (δ18O, δ2H) data, and deuterium excess (1980–2021) data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), Fourier analysis (FA), and wavelet analysis (WA). The PCA represented each month by a single dot in the diagram, and month 1 and month 7 were clearly distinguished. The FA and WA gave the 12-month period for all parameters, but the strongest power was for temperature, then δ18O and δ2H, and finally for the precipitation amount and deuterium excess. Both Pearson’s r and Spearman’s ρ correlation coefficients gave similar values for δ2H—δ18O and temperature—δ2H, δ18O correlations.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132008
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2009: Governance and Practices for Achieving
           Sustainable and Resilient Urban Water Services

    • Authors: Jyrki Laitinen, Tapio S. Katko, Jarmo J. Hukka, Petri Juuti, Riikka Juuti
      First page: 2009
      Abstract: Urban water services can be considered a part of municipal services, including the technical solution from water source to water treatment and distribution, and also wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge back to natural waters. The main aspect is how comprehensive water services concerning the whole society should be considered in urban development. This article emphasizes the necessary role of water services in community technical services and analyzes its critical functions. To keep urban water services on a sound environmental and health level even in externally or internally changing situations is considered sustainable and resilient. In our study, we used sequential PESTEL SWOT analysis to review the results of previous studies. The conclusions and recommendations are based on practices and governance of urban water services in Finland. Furthermore, the significance of water services for the economic development of a community cannot be ignored.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132009
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2010: Simple ETo-Based Rules for Irrigation
           Scheduling by Smallholder Vegetable Farmers in Laos and Cambodia

    • Authors: John McPhee, Jochen Eberhard, Alice Melland, Jasim Uddin, Lucinda Dunn, Sarith Hin, Vanndy Lim, Veasna Touch, Phimmasone Sisouvanh, Inthong Somphou, Tounglien Vilayphone, Phaythoune Mounsena, Stephen Ives
      First page: 2010
      Abstract: Hand-held hoses and watering cans are widely used by smallholder farmers to irrigate vegetables in Cambodia and Laos. Overwatering is common. Technology change (e.g., low-pressure drip irrigation) has been used to improve irrigation efficiency but can be unaffordable for many smallholder farmers. The purpose of this study was to identify an appropriate method of predicting crop water demand, develop and field-test improved irrigation schedules for smallholder leafy vegetable farming based on that method, and then develop extension tools to communicate the schedules to smallholder farmers. Improved irrigation schedules for leafy vegetables were developed based on a crop water use prediction technique that is well established (the Penman–Monteith method) but beyond the capacity of smallholder farmers to implement without access to simple aids. Compared to conventional practice, the method approximately halved water and labour use and improved irrigation water productivity 2–3 fold in field research and demonstration trials. Simplified extension tools to assist smallholder farmers with practice change were developed. This work showed that significant efficiencies could be gained through improved irrigation scheduling without changing application technology.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132010
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2011: Prediction of the Discharge Flow in a Small
           Hydropower Station without Hydrological Data Based on SWAT Model

    • Authors: Shenghuo Xie, Yun Zhu
      First page: 2011
      Abstract: The availability of hydrological data for small hydropower plants is an important prerequisite for reservoir scheduling, reservoir flood control and integrated water resources. To address the problem of a lack of hydrological data in small hydropower plants, this paper proposes a method to predict the power generation flow of small hydropower stations without hydrological data using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model (SWAT) when the traditional data-driven methods cannot study the problem of power generation flow prediction in small hydropower stations well. The method can use gridded meteorological data as the input of the model to solve the problem of small hydropower stations without meteorological data. The problem that small hydropower plants without hydrological data cannot calibrate the hydrological model is solved by calculating the generation flow through the output of small hydropower station and by using the similarity analysis method to migrate the generation flow of similar small hydropower stations. The model was tested in a watershed in southwest China to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the coefficient of determination between the predicted and measured values of small hydropower stations without information is about 0.84, which achieves a better prediction.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132011
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2012: Water Exchanges in Mediterranean Microtidal
           Harbours

    • Authors: Yaiza Samper, María Liste, Marc Mestres, Manuel Espino, Agustín Sánchez-Arcilla, Joaquim Sospedra, Daniel González-Marco, María Isabel Ruiz, Enrique Álvarez Fanjul
      First page: 2012
      Abstract: Mediterranean ports feature complex layouts and exert important environmental pressures in squeezed coastal zones. They experience mild meteo-oceanographic conditions during part of the year, leading to water velocities that are close to the resolution limits of observation equipment. The paper addresses the challenge of characterising summer port hydrodynamics by designing intensive field campaigns, focused on hydrodynamic variables, such as harbour entrance fluxes. The approach was developed for three Spanish microtidal harbours with different domain sizes and one or two entrances. These elements play a key role in harbour exchanges through the entrance and the subsequent water renovation. The paper will present and discuss the meteocean data and inferred variables, such as renovation times, which is a key indicator of water quality. From this basis, the paper will discuss the changing estuarine circulation patterns and the role of upwelling and downwelling on observed water temperature peaks. The conclusions will address the role of harbour hydrodynamics in integrated coastal water quality and port engineering, particularly for ports’ environmental impacts on adjacent beaches. To assess the full hydrodynamic domain, forecasting models are helpful. The continuous observations presented in this work would also help in the implementation and validation of these models.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132012
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2013: Seasonal Variation of Drinking Water Quality
           and Human Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study in Rural Village of the
           Eastern Cape, South Africa

    • Authors: Wendy Zimkhitha Mandindi, Luthando Nyaba, Nomvano Mketo, Philiswa Nosizo Nomngongo
      First page: 2013
      Abstract: Contamination of drinking water by metals remains a global threat to living organisms. Therefore, the current study describes variations of metal occurrence, water quality and human health risk assessment between the dry and wet seasons of a rural village located in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The concentrations of major and trace metals were determined in drinking water samples using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The physicochemical parameters, water quality index (WQI), total water hardness (TWH) and health risk assessment (hazard quotient: HQ and chronic daily intake: CDI) were evaluated seasonally. The TWH results showed that the water was very hard with water hardness values ranging between 415 and 442. The water also contained several metals and metalloids such as Al (2.18–3.36 mg L−1), As (0.17–0. 53 mg L−1), Cd (0.0068–0.0134 mg L−1), Cr (0.2481–0.2601 mg L−1), Mn (0.387–1.582 mg L−1), Pb (0.064–0.0802 mg L−1), Sb (0.0496–0.1391 mg L−1) and Se (0.075–0.148 mg L−1) that exceeded the SANS and WHO permissible limits in drinking water. The health risk assessment revealed that the water may cause noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects due to the presence of As, Cr, Sb, Tl and V in water samples, while the water quality index revealed that the water was of very poor quality.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132013
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2014: Water Ecotourism Route Recommendation Model
           Based on an Improved Cockroach Optimization Algorithm

    • Authors: Xiao Zhou, Lingyu Chen, Mingzhan Su, Jiangpeng Tian
      First page: 2014
      Abstract: Aiming to address the problems of the current research on water ecotourism routes, a water ecotourism route recommendation model based on an improved cockroach optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim is to recommend the tour routes with the lowest exhaust emissions. Firstly, depending on tourists’ once-visited water scenic spots, a scenic spot recommendation model based on the improved item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is set up. Then, by combining the recommended scenic spots and integrating the random transportation modes selected by tourists, a tour route recommendation model based on an improved cockroach optimization algorithm is constructed, which can output the tour route that produces the lowest exhaust emissions. Finally, The sample experiment shows that, on the basis of combining with the multivariate random transportation modes, the proposed algorithm has greater advantages than the tour routes planned by the traditional electronic maps, as it can output the tour routes with the lowest exhaust emissions, reduce the damage exhaust emissions cause in the urban water environments and to water resources, and effectively protect the urban water ecological environments.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132014
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2015: A Comparison Study of the Nutrient Fluxes in a
           Newly Impounded Riverine Lake (Longjing Lake): Model Calculation and
           Sediment Incubation

    • Authors: Cheng Du, Yan’an Pan, Wenzhong Tang, Qiansheng Yue, Hong Zhang
      First page: 2015
      Abstract: Diffusion flux is an essential tool to estimate the contribution of internal nitrogen and phosphorus in eutrophic lakes. There are mainly two methods, i.e., model calculation based on in-situ porewater sampling and water quality monitoring in laboratory incubation. The results obtained by the two methods are rarely compared, decreasing the validity of internal contribution and following management strategies. In this study, sediment samples were collected from a lake in China, then the fluxes were estimated by model calculation and laboratory incubation. The results show that there is an order of magnitude difference in the fluxes measured by these two methods. The mean values of ammonia (NH4+-N) and soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) obtained from the model calculations were 24.4 and 1.30, respectively. The mean values of NH4+-N and SRP obtained in the undisturbed group of sediment incubation were 7.84 and 5.47, respectively, and in the disturbed group of sediment incubation were 16.2 and 4.06, respectively. Sediment incubation is a combination of multiple influencing factors to obtain fluxes, while porewater model is based on molecular diffusion as the theoretical basis for obtaining fluxes. According to the different approaches of the two methods, sediment incubation is recommended as a research tool in lake autochthonous release management when the main objective is to remove pollution, while the porewater model is recommended as a research tool when the main objective is to control pollution. When assessing the diffusive flux of nitrogen, it is recommended to choose the stable form of total dissolved nitrogen to discuss the flux results.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132015
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2016: The Role of Sea State to the Morphological
           Changes of Prasonisi Tombolo, Rhodes Island, Greece

    • Authors: Dimitra I. Malliouri, Stelios Petrakis, Dimitrios Vandarakis, Katerina Kikaki, Georgios-Angelos Hatiris, Fragkiska-Karmela Gad, Ioannis P. Panagiotopoulos, Vasilios Kapsimalis
      First page: 2016
      Abstract: Wave-induced morphodynamic processes that cause formation, preservation, and destruction of the Prasonisi tombolo in Rhodes Island are investigated, based on satellite image analysis and numerical modeling. A new method is developed for extracting wave events that consist of successive wave data of similar characteristics. The wave events refer either to wind seas or swell seas. This process combined with the satellite image analysis is then utilized for the derivation of the most representative wave scenarios that affect tombolo and salient formation. In particular, the main factors that play a significant role in tombolo and salient evolution are the offshore wave conditions, the location and width of the surf zone, the maximum value of the wave breaking index in the study area, and the initial bottom bathymetry before the study area is exposed to a new sea state. In general, the proposed method provides a realistic insight into tombolo morphodynamics and can be used to provide a cost-effective approach and a wave data-reduction technique for coastal engineering studies.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132016
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2017: Analysis on the Disaster Mechanism of
           “8.12” Flash Flood in Liulin River Basin

    • Authors: Sijia Hao, Wenchuan Wang, Qiang Ma, Changzhi Li, Lei Wen, Jiyang Tian, Changjun Liu
      First page: 2017
      Abstract: Hubei province is located in the center of China with 56% total area characterized with mountainous area. Thus, flash flood caused by extreme rainfall has become one of the significant obstacles that highly affect the social and economic development of the province. In order to scientifically understand the mechanism of flash flood disasters and provide technological support to the local flood prevention and control work, the IWHR designed and developed a new distributed hydrological model named China-FFMS that can simulate the evolution of natural disasters and make an assessment by setting the flood water sources in line with the flow discharge. The FFMS was further applied to simulate the 8.12 flash flood disaster that occurred in the Liulin county of Hubei province on 12 August (“8.12”) and fed by the data collected from the national flash flood disaster investigation and assessment. The calculated peak flow was 666.22 m3/s with an error of +13% compared with postdisaster investigation data (589 m3/s). The results showed that using a multisourced modelling approach, e.g., mixing spatiotemporal variables and sources, to simulate the flash flood process was able to accurately reproduce the flood process and the consistence of the flow discharge, thereby explaining the underlying reason of the disaster formation and evolution. Regarding the case of the Liulin county, the main factor leading to the disaster was the overlapped peak flow where the Dunne flood peak of three different tributaries from the upper reach met together at the same time. Moreover, the peak flow of the Lianhua river at the downstream of Liulin County also arrived at the same time as the upstream peak, which obstructed the flood progress and increased the damage of the disaster. According to the analysis, several suggestions and recommendations are proposed such as the improvement of the forecast and early warning system of the upstream areas, the optimization of the current flood defense plan, and the enhancement of the residents’ awareness of flash flood disasters.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132017
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2018: Prediction of Glacially Derived Runoff in the
           Muzati River Watershed Based on the PSO-LSTM Model

    • Authors: Xiazi Yang, Balati Maihemuti, Zibibula Simayi, Muattar Saydi, Lu Na
      First page: 2018
      Abstract: The simulation and prediction of glacially derived runoff are significant for water resource management and sustainable development in water-stressed arid regions. However, the application of a hydrological model in such regions is typically limited by the intricate runoff production mechanism, which is associated with snow and ice melting, and sparse monitoring data over glacierized headwaters. To address these limitations, this study develops a set of mathematical models with a certain physical significance and an efficient particle swarm optimization algorithm by applying long- and short-term memory networks on the glacierized Muzati River basin. First, the trends in the runoff, precipitation, and air temperature are analyzed from 1990 to 2015, and differences in their correlations in this period are exposed. Then, Particle Swarm Optimization–Long Short-Term Memory (PSO-LSTM) and Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) models are combined and applied to the precipitation and air temperature data to predict the glacially derived runoff. The prediction accuracy is validated by the observed runoff at the river outlet at the Pochengzi hydrological station. Finally, two other types of models, the RF (Random Forest) and LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) models, are constructed to verify the prediction results. The results indicate that the glacially derived runoff is strongly correlated with air temperature and precipitation. However, in the study region over the past 26 years, the air temperature was not obviously increasing, and the precipitation and glacially derived runoff were significantly decreasing. The test results show that the PSO-LSTM and BiLSTM runoff prediction models perform better than the RF and LSTM models in the glacierized Muzati River basin. In the validation period, among all models, the PSO-LSTM model has the smallest mean absolute error and root-mean-square error and the largest coefficient of determination of 6.082, 8.034, and 0.973, respectively. It is followed by the BiLSTM model having a mean absolute error, root-mean-square error, and coefficient of determination of 6.751, 9.083, and 0.972, respectively. These results imply that both the particle swarm optimization algorithm and the bi-directional structure can effectively enhance the prediction accuracy of the baseline LSTM model. The results presented in this study can provide a deeper understanding and a more appropriate method of predicting the glacially derived runoff in glacier-fed river basins.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132018
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2019: Climate Drivers Contribute in Vegetation
           Greening Stalls of Arid Xinjiang, China: An Atmospheric Water Drying
           Effect

    • Authors: Moyan Li, Jingyun Guan, Jianghua Zheng
      First page: 2019
      Abstract: Xinjiang, an arid region of China, has experienced a substantial warming–wetting trend over the past five decades. However, climate change has affected vegetation growth/greening in arid Central Asia in unexpected ways due to complex ecological effects. We found a significant greening trend (consistent increase in the normalized difference vegetation index or NDVI) from 1982 to 1996, during the growing season; however, the NDVI consequently decreased and plateaued from 1997 to 2015, especially in naturally vegetated regions. Atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is a critical driver of vegetation growth, is a direct measure of atmospheric aridity, and has increased sharply in recent decades. A partial correlation analysis indicated a significant relationship between growing season NDVI and VPD from 1997 to 2015. This implies that decreased VPD corresponds to increasing NDVI, and increasing VPD corresponds to a decrease and plateauing in the NDVI trend. Using the partial derivative equation method, our results suggest that the trend in growing season NDVI was affected primarily by increasing VPD (contributing 87.57%) from 1997 to 2015, especially in the grassland and desert biomes. Rising temperatures lead to a greater VPD, resulting in exacerbated evaporative water loss. Soil drought and atmospheric aridity limit plant stomatal conductance and could effectively lead to a decrease in the greening trend and increased vegetation mortality in arid Xinjiang. Our results emphasize the importance of VPD as a limiting factor of greening trends in arid regions. The influence of VPD on vegetation growth should be considered when evaluating arid ecosystem functioning under global warming.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132019
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2020: A Review on SARS-CoV-2 Genome in the Aquatic
           Environment of Africa: Prevalence, Persistence and the Future Prospects

    • Authors: Kingsley Ehi Ebomah, Luyanda Msolo, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
      First page: 2020
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic (Coronavirus disease 2019) remains problematic in all its manifestations on the global stage where countless events of human-to-human exposure have led to fatal cases; thus, the aftermath being an unprecedented public health concern, with inaccessible health care and the instability of economies and financial institutions. These pose massive obstacles that can insatiably devour existing human resources causing negative impacts, especially in developing countries. Tracking the origin, dissemination and mutating strains of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on population-wide scales is a somewhat overwhelming task, with the urgent need to map the dissemination and magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 in near real-time. This review paper focuses on the poor sanitation of some waterbodies and wastewater management policies in low-income African countries, highlighting how these contribute to the COVID-19 pandemic on the continent. Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus pandemic, there has been an upsurge in scientific literature and studies concerning SARS-CoV-2 with different opinions and findings. The current paper highlights the challenges and also summarizes the environmental aspects related to the monitoring and fate of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes in the aquatic milieu of Sub-Saharan Africa.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132020
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2021: Development and Comparison of Water Quality
           Network Model and Data Analytics Model for Monochloramine Decay Prediction
           

    • Authors: Sharif Hossain, Guna A. Hewa, Christopher W. K. Chow, David Cook
      First page: 2021
      Abstract: The conventional drinking water treatment process involves disinfecting water at the final stage of treatment to ensure water is microbiologically safe at customer taps. Monochloramine is a popular disinfectant used in many water distribution systems (WDSs) worldwide. Understanding the factors that impact monochloramine decay in the WDS is critical for maintaining disinfection at the customer tap. While monochloramine residue moves through a WDS, it decays via several pathways including chemical, microbiological, and wall decay processes. The decay profile in these pathways is often site-specific and depends on various factors including treated water characteristics. In a water quality network model, the decay of a chemical species is often modelled using two parameters that represent bulk and wall decay kinetics. Typical bulk decay characteristics of monochloramine for a specific WDS can be easily established in the laboratory using grab sample tests, while in a real situation, wall decay is difficult to quantify. In this study, we compared two different approaches to model monochloramine decay in a WDS. In the first approach, the wall decay parameter was quantified using a parameter optimisation technique with monochloramine concentrations at different network locations simulated using a water quality network model. In the second approach, a data analytics model was developed using a machine learning algorithm. For both approaches, the model predicted monochloramine concentrations closely matched the observed data. Our study suggests that the data analytics model has a relatively higher accuracy in predicting monochloramine residual concentrations in a WDS.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132021
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2022: Groundwater Quality Affected by the Pyrite Ash
           Waste and Fertilizers in Valea Calugareasca, Romania

    • Authors: Nicoleta Vasilache, Elena Diacu, Cristina Modrogan, Florentina Laura Chiriac, Iuliana Claudia Paun, Anda Gabriela Tenea, Florinela Pirvu, Gabriela Geanina Vasile
      First page: 2022
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the groundwater quality in a rural area affected by the abandoned pyrite ash waste dumps. The abundance of major ions in groundwater depends largely on the nature of the rocks, climatic conditions, and mobility. To evaluate geochemical processes, 30 groundwater samples collected from Valea Calugareasca, Prahova County, Romania, were analyzed for the major anions (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, HCO3−, and F−) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), which are naturally highly variable due to climatic and geographical location conditions. Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, and K+ varied between 118 and 275 mg/L, 32 and 160 mg/L, 12.2 and 78.4 mg/L, and 0.21 and 4.48 mg/L, respectively. NO3− levels exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) limit of 50 mg/L were identified in 17% of the groundwater samples, mainly as result of fertilizers applied to agricultural activities. The hydrogeochemical study identified dolomite dissolution and halite precipitation as natural sources of ions as well as the presence of pyrite as a source of SO42− ions in 60% of the samples. The sulfate content varied between 125 and 262 mg/L. Bicarbonate and chloride concentrations varied between 202 and 530 mg/L and 21 and 212 mg/L. The saturation index indicates the contribution of Ca2+ ions in the groundwater samples came from some processes of dissolving rocks such as aragonites (values between 1.27 and 2.69) and calcites (values between 1.43 and 2.82). Negative halite values indicated that salt accumulation results from precipitation processes. Only 10% of the analyzed groundwater samples were suitable for human consumption, the samples being situated on the hill, far away from the pyrite ash waste dumps and agricultural land.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132022
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2023: The Effects of Climate Change on the
           Tagus–Segura Transfer: Diagnosis of the Water Balance in the Vega
           Baja del Segura (Alicante, Spain)

    • Authors: Antonio Oliva Cañizares, Jorge Olcina Cantos, Carlos J. Baños Castiñeira
      First page: 2023
      Abstract: Climate change is one of the most important problems facing society in the 21st century. Despite the uncertainty about the behaviour of rainfall due to climate change, what is clear is that average rainfall has been reduced in the inland areas and headwaters of Spain’s river basins. The Tagus basin is one of the most affected, with implications for the Jucar and Segura basins. The working hypothesis is to corroborate with the data collected on the effects of climate change on the TTS. To this end, the following methodology has been applied: (a) analysis in the headwaters of the Tagus, using data on precipitation, surface runoff and reservoir water; (b) analysis of the resources of the Segura basin (supply and demand), based on the basin organisation’s own data; (c) construction of a water balance adjusted to the Bajo Segura district (Alicante), a user of the water transferred for agricultural use. Likewise, the data provided by the basin organisation have made it possible to corroborate the data on consumption and allocation of the corresponding volumes of water. The results obtained make it possible to put forward a novel proposal in the scientific field related to hydrological planning based on the principles of sustainability.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132023
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2024: Roughness Effects of Subaquaeous Ripples and
           Dunes

    • Authors: Ulrich Zanke, Aron Roland, Andreas Wurpts
      First page: 2024
      Abstract: Numerous questions and problems on Earth and questions with respect to other planets arise from morphodynamic processes caused by sediment movements driven by flows of fluids, such as water, air and other gases. A sediment surface opposes the current with a resistance that is determined by its skin or grain roughness. As soon as sand waves, such as ripples and/or dunes, are formed, these bedforms cause a further resistance to the flow, the so-called form roughness. Dependent on the dimensions of the ripples and dunes, the form roughness can be much more pronounced than the skin roughness. The relevant literature provides a large number of solution approaches based on different basic ideas and different result quality. The aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of solution approaches from the literature. For this purpose, 14 approaches to bedform-related friction in the subaqueous case are evaluated using 637 measurements from laboratory and natural settings. We found that all approaches were significantly more accurate for ripples than for dunes. Since this was equally the case for all approaches tested, it is reasonable to assume that this is caused by measurement inaccuracies for dunes in the natural case rather than due to the approaches themselves. The approach of Engelund 1977 proved to be most accurate among all approaches investigated here. It is based on the Borda–Carnot formulation and an additional empirical term. An analytical derivation and justification is provided for this additional term.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132024
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2025: Potential of Using Dual-Media Biofilm Reactors
           as a Real Coffee Industrial Effluent Pre-Treatment

    • Authors: Hassimi Abu Hasan, Dheenesh Sai Annanda Shanmugam, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Mohd Hafizuddin Muhamad, Setyo Budi Kurniawan
      First page: 2025
      Abstract: The coffee processing industry produces toxic and low biodegradable effluent, which can pollute water bodies. A pre-treatment study on coffee effluent using a dual-media biofilm reactor (DM-BR) containing sand and Hexafilter (HEX) was conducted alongside a control biofilm reactor (C-BR) containing sand media. The novelty of this study lies in the use of dual media in biofilm reactor (DM-BR) for real coffee effluent treatment, where these processes were used individually in previous studies. The performance of DM-BR and C-BR in treating coffee effluent were investigated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), 24, 48 and 72 h, and the degrading bacteria were identified. Both biofilm reactors were inoculated with a recycled paper mill-activated sludge and acclimatised for 97 days. The DM-BR displayed the highest removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4+-N at 47% and 38%, respectively, within 48 h of HRT, whereas colour and tannin–lignin reached maximum average removal of 21% and 29%, respectively, at 24 h of HRT. The combination of sand and HEX media in a system showed COD and NH4+-N removal improvement at 48 h of HRT and encouraged a variety of bacterial species growth. Bacterial characterisation analysis revealed Proteobacteria to be dominant.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132025
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2026: In Search of Periodicity in the Annual
           Precipitation in Europe (1881–2020)

    • Authors: Adam Walanus, Robert Twardosz, Marta Cebulska, Arkadiusz Płachta
      First page: 2026
      Abstract: A new method of searching for periodicity has been developed on the basis of extensive spatio-temporal data. The result, however, produces little more than doubts. The standard Fourier analysis indicates some periods, namely 3.7-, 7.0-, 8.8-, and 17.5-year periods, and these periodic signals are distributed relatively consistently over some regions of Europe. However, the expectations that the exact harmonic 8.8 years of 17.5 years, and not so exact 3.7 years of 7.0 years will be present at the same or close stations are not fulfilled.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132026
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2027: Artificial Neural Networks for the Prediction
           of the Reference Evapotranspiration of the Peloponnese Peninsula, Greece

    • Authors: Stavroula Dimitriadou, Konstantinos G. Nikolakopoulos
      First page: 2027
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) on the Peloponnese Peninsula in Greece for two representative months of wintertime and summertime during 2016–2019 and to test if using fewer inputs could lead to satisfactory predictions. Datasets from sixty-two meteorological stations were employed. The available inputs were mean temperature (Tmean), sunshine (N), solar radiation (Rs), net radiation (Rn), vapour pressure deficit (es-ea), wind speed (u2) and altitude (Z). Nineteen Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) models were tested and compared against the corresponding FAO-56 Penman Monteith (FAO PM) estimates of a previous study, via statistical indices. The MLP1 7-2 model with all the variables as inputs outperformed the rest of the models (RMSE = 0.290 mm d−1, R2 = 98%). The results indicate that even ANNs with simple architecture can be very good predictive models of ETo for the Peloponnese, based on the literature standards. The MLP1 model determined Tmean, followed by u2, as the two most influential factors for ETo. Moreover, when one input was used (Tmean, Rn), RBFs slightly outperformed MLPs (RMSE < 0.385 mm d−1, R2 ≥ 96%), which means that even a sole-input ANN resulted in satisfactory predictions of ETo.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132027
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2028: Direct and Activated Chlorine Dioxide
           Oxidation for Micropollutant Abatement: A Review on Kinetics, Reactive
           Sites, and Degradation Pathway

    • Authors: Xiaohong Ma, Huan Chen, Ruihuan Chen, Xiaojun Hu
      First page: 2028
      Abstract: Recently, ClO2-based oxidation has attracted increasing attention to micropollutant abatement, due to high oxidation potential, low disinfection byproduct (DBPs) formation, and easy technical implementation. However, the kinetics, reactive sites, activation methods, and degradation pathways involved are not fully understood. Therefore, we reviewed current literature on ClO2-based oxidation in micropollutant abatement. In direct ClO2 oxidation, the reactions of micropollutants with ClO2 followed second-order reaction kinetics (kapp = 10−3–106 M−1 s−1 at neutral pH). The kapp depends significantly on the molecular structures of the micropollutant and solution pH. The reactive sites of micropollutants start with certain functional groups with the highest electron densities including piperazine, sulfonyl amido, amino, aniline, pyrazolone, phenol groups, urea group, etc. The one-electron transfer was the dominant micropollutant degradation pathway, followed by indirect oxidation by superoxide anion radical (O2•−) or hydroxyl radical (•OH). In UV-activated ClO2 oxidation, the reactions of micropollutants followed the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics with the rates of 1.3 × 10−4–12.9 s−1 at pH 7.0. Their degradation pathways include direct ClO2 oxidation, direct UV photolysis, ozonation, •OH-involved reaction, and reactive chlorine species (RCS)-involved reaction. Finally, we identified the research gaps and provided recommendations for further research. Therefore, this review gives a critical evaluation of ClO2-based oxidation in micropollutant abatement, and provides recommendations for further research.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132028
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2029: Earth Dam Design for Drinking Water Management
           and Flood Control: A Case Study

    • Authors: Bethy Merchán-Sanmartín, Joselyn Aucapeña-Parrales, Ricardo Alcívar-Redrován, Paúl Carrión-Mero, María Jaya-Montalvo, Mijail Arias-Hidalgo
      First page: 2029
      Abstract: Water management for natural channels is a frequent challenge due to the inefficient usage of water resources. The 2030 Agenda of the United Nations (SDG 6 of sustainable development) focuses its attention on water and sanitation. The Sara Guerrero site, located in the Mocache municipality in Los Ríos province (Ecuador), has issues related to access to drinking water, flood control, and crop irrigation that affect 4300 people and 24,000 hectares. The river overflows throughout the rainy season (late December to early May), whereas there is a noticeable water shortage during the dry season. This project aims to design a multiple-use earth dam on the Vinces River, simulating the resulting flow in extreme cases due to its possible failure. Such a study implies the development of a contingency plan for the preservation of life. It considers (i) dam breach analysis and design, and (ii) hydraulic model development using the ArcMap and HEC-RAS software packages. The design includes a waterproofing system that controls possible leaks and a cymbal spillway, mainly for raw water collection. The generated model showed that the shorter the failure time, the higher the maximum output flow. Modelling revealed that four towns would be affected for a maximum of 31 h in extreme cases. This approach offers comprehensive management for this community with regards to the earth dam and flood control.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132029
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2030: Multi-Location Emulation of a Process-Based
           Salinity Model Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: Siyu Qi, Minxue He, Zhaojun Bai, Zhi Ding, Prabhjot Sandhu, Yu Zhou, Peyman Namadi, Bradley Tom, Raymond Hoang, Jamie Anderson
      First page: 2030
      Abstract: Advances in machine-learning techniques can serve practical water management needs such as salinity level estimation. This study explores machine learning, particularly deep-learning techniques in developing computer emulators for a commonly used process model, the Delta Simulation Model II (DSM2), used for salinity estimation in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta). We apply historical daily input data to DSM2 and corresponding salinity simulations at 28 study locations from 1990 to 2019 to train two machine-learning models: a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks in a multi-task learning framework. We assess sensitivity of both networks to the amount of antecedent input information (memory) and training data to determine appropriate memory size and training data length. We evaluate network performance according to several statistical metrics as well as visual inspection. The study further investigates two additional networks, the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and Residual Network (ResNet) in salinity modeling, and compares their efficacy against MLP and LSTM. Our results demonstrate strong performance of the four neural network models over the study period, achieving absolute bias below 4%, plus near-perfect correlation coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients. The high complexity LSTM shows slight performance edge. We further show that deeper and wider versions of MLP and LSTM yield only marginal benefit over their baseline counterparts. We also examined issues related to potential overfitting by the proposed models, training data selection strategies, and analytical and practical implications. Overall, this new study indicates that machine-learning-based emulators can efficiently emulate DSM2 in salinity simulation. They exhibit strong potential to supplement DSM2 in salinity modeling and help guide water resource planning and management practices for the Delta region.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132030
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2031: Modeling of Nitrification Kinetics in a
           Respirometric Biosensor under Suboptimal Conditions

    • Authors: Andrzej Woznica, Jerzy Karczewski, Czesław Klis, Jacek Długosz, Przemysław Ziemski, Agnieszka Nowak, Tytus Bernas
      First page: 2031
      Abstract: Sensitive detection with cell biosensors requires optimization of their working conditions and standardization of the response in variable physicochemical conditions. The introduction of an analyte to a sensor, which contributes to this variability, may account for the modeling of microbial metabolism. We constructed a multiparameter model of a water toxicity sensor of Automatic Biodetector for Water Toxicity (ABTOW), developed by our group and based on nitrifying bacteria. The model describes the kinetics of nitrification as a function of four orthogonal parameters: temperature, pH, oxygen and ammonium concentration. Furthermore, we characterized the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the ABTOW readout as a function of these parameters. Thus, a region of parameter space corresponding to optimal ABTOW operation is identified and its sensitivity quantified. We applied the model to describe the ABTOW performance in non-equilibrium conditions produced by rapid changes in pH and temperature. In sum, the model based on four physicochemical parameters describes changes in the biosensor's activity, the biological element of which are nitrifying bacteria characterized by simple chemolithoautotrophic metabolism. The description of reaction kinetics through multiparameter modeling in combination with stability analysis can find application in process control in biotechnology, biodetection and environmental research.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132031
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2032: Effects of Weather Extremes on the Nutrient
           Dynamics of a Shallow Eutrophic Lake as Observed during a Three-Year
           Monitoring Study

    • Authors: Sebastian Zeman-Kuhnert, Volker Thiel, Christine Heim
      First page: 2032
      Abstract: The formation of algal and cyanobacterial blooms caused by the eutrophication of water bodies is a growing global concern. To examine the impact of extreme weather events on blooms, eutrophication-related parameters (e.g., water temperature, nitrate, ammonium, nitrite, and soluble reactive phosphate (SRP)) were quantitatively assessed monthly over three years (2017–2019) at Lake Seeburg (Central Germany), a shallow eutrophic lake with regular cyanobacterial blooms. In addition, SRP concentrations in sediment pore water were assessed monthly for one year (2018). The monitoring period included a three-day extremely heavy rain event in 2017 as well as a severe drought in summer 2018. No such extreme weather conditions occurred in 2019. After the heavy rain event in 2017, anoxic water containing high levels of ammonium and SRP entered the lake from flooded upstream wetlands. This external nutrient spike resulted in a heavy but short (3 weeks) and monospecific cyanobacterial bloom. A different situation occurred during the exceptionally hot and dry summer of 2018. Especially favored by high water temperatures, SRP concentrations in sediment pore waters gradually increased to extreme levels (34.4 mg/L). This resulted in a strong and sustained internal SRP delivery into the water column (69 mg/m2·d−1), which supported the longest-lasting cyanobacterial bloom (3 months) within the three-year monitoring period. Subsequent biomass decay led to oxygen-depleted conditions in the bottom waters, elevated ammonium, and, later, nitrate concentrations. Our observations demonstrate the particular effects of extreme weather events on nutrient dynamics and the phytoplankton composition in the lake. As the frequency and intensity of such events will likely increase due to climate change, their impacts need to be increasingly considered, e.g., in future remediation strategies.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132032
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2033: Climate–Streamflow Relationship and
           Consequences of Its Instability in Large Rivers of Pakistan: An Elasticity
           Perspective

    • Authors: Zahoor Khan, Fayaz Ahmad Khan, Afed Ullah Khan, Irshad Hussain, Asif Khan, Liaqat Ali Shah, Jehanzeb Khan, Yasir Irfan Badrashi, Paweł Kamiński, Artur Dyczko, Kazimierz Różkowski
      First page: 2033
      Abstract: Precipitation elasticity provides a basic estimate of the sensitivity of long-term streamflow to changes in long-term precipitation, and it is especially useful as the first assessment of climate change impact in land and water resource projects. This study estimated and compared the precipitation elasticity (εp) of streamflow in 86 catchments within Pakistan over 50 major rivers using three widely used analytical models: bivariate nonparametric (NP) estimator, multivariate NP analysis, and multivariate double logarithm (DL) model. All the three models gave similar values of elasticity in the range of 0.1–3.5 for over 70–75% of the catchments. This signifies that a 1% change in the annual mean precipitation compared to the long-term historic mean annual precipitation will amplify the streamflow by 0.1–3.5%. In addition, the results suggested that elasticity estimation of streamflow sensitivity using the multivariate DL model is more reliable and realistic. Precipitation elasticity of streamflow is observed high at altitudes ranging between 250 m and 1000 m while the longitudinal and latitudinal pattern of εp shows higher values in the range of 70–75 and 32–36 decimal degrees, respectively. The εp values were found to have a direct relationship with the mean annual precipitation and an inverse relationship with the catchment areas. Likewise, high εp values were noticed in areas where the mean annual temperature ranges between 15 and 24 °C.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132033
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2034: Scour at a Submerged Square Pile in Various
           Flow Depths under Steady Flow

    • Authors: Shengtao Du, Guoxiang Wu, Bingchen Liang, David Z. Zhu, Risheng Wang
      First page: 2034
      Abstract: Local scour around submerged piles in currents are common in coastal and offshore engineering. This paper studies the influences of the submergence ratio (flow depth to pile height) on local scour around a square pile in steady flow. Submergence ratio ranging from 1–4, as well as two unsubmerged tests, were tested with a 10 × 10 square pile of 20 cm height. The three-dimensional profiles were measured to study the scour and deposition characteristics. Results show that the maximum scour depth was always at the upstream corner points rather than at the symmetry center point of the pile. The temporal maximum scour depth achieved its equilibrium sate in less than 4 h for each test. The equilibrium scour depths at the upstream corner points were independent of the submergence ratio when the latter was larger than 1.5. These findings give meaningful reference to the numerical simulations and local scour depth protections in the submerged pile cases deeper than which the flow depth does not affect the equilibrium scour depth.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132034
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2035: Application of Nanofiltration and Reverse
           Osmosis Membranes for Tannery Wastewater Reuse

    • Authors: Vilma Fernández-Medrano, Beatriz Cuartas-Uribe, María-Amparo Bes-Piá, José-Antonio Mendoza-Roca
      First page: 2035
      Abstract: Tanneries produce large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of suspended solids, organic matter, and salts. Treatment and reuse of these effluents are of great importance to preserve water resources and save costs. Although suspended solids and high percentages of organic matter can be eliminated by physico-chemical and biological processes, refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salts will remain in the wastewater after these processes. In particular, chloride and sulphate ion concentrations may hinder the treated wastewater from being reused or even discharged according to legal standards. In this work, two nanofiltration membranes and two reverse osmosis membranes are tested to assess these technologies as regeneration processes for biologically treated tannery wastewater. Permeate flux and rejection of organic matter and ions were measured at different operating conditions (transmembrane pressure and cross-flow velocities) at both total recycle and concentration modes. Results showed that the difference between permeate fluxes of nanofiltration (NF) membranes and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was very high. Thus, at 20 bar and 1.77 m·s−1, the permeate flux of the two tested NF membranes in the total recycle mode experiments were 106 and 67 L·m−2·h−1, while the obtained permeate fluxes for the RO membranes were 25 and 18 L·m−2·h−1. Concerning rejections, RO membranes rejected almost 100% of the salts, whereas NF membranes reduced their rejection when faced with increasing concentration factors (salt rejection between 50–60% at the highest concentration factor). In addition, the fouling of RO membranes was lower than that of NF membranes, recovering more than 90% of initial permeability by only water rinsing. In contrast, chemical cleaning was necessary to increase the permeability recovery of the NF membranes above 90%. The considerably lower rejections and the higher membrane fouling of the NF membranes lead us to conclude that reverse osmosis could be the most feasible technique for water reuse in the tannery industry, though the permeate fluxes are lower than those achieved with NF membranes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132035
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2036: Interaction of Irregular Distribution of
           Submerged Rigid Vegetation and Flow within a Straight Pool

    • Authors: Kourosh Nosrati, Hossein Afzalimehr, Jueyi Sui
      First page: 2036
      Abstract: The interaction of bedform and vegetation cover significantly affects the turbulent flow parameters. To investigate this interaction, experiments were carried out in both a gravel-bed river and a laboratory flume. The purpose of field investigations was to find the slopes for both the entrance section and exit section of pools, the grain size of the bed material, and the flow condition. Based on field data, without considering any scaling analysis, a straight pool was constructed in a laboratory flume that was 0.9 m wide, 0.6 m deep, and 14 m long. The entry and exit slopes of the straight pool were 7.4° and 4°, respectively. The straight pool had vertical side walls and a gravel bed with a median grain size of d50 = 23.3 mm. Plastic cylinders planted in an irregular pattern in the channel beds were used to model rigid submerged vegetation. The velocity components were recorded by using an ADV at 200 Hz. In this study, the distributions of velocity, Reynolds stress, and TKE were investigated for flows in the presence of submerged rigid vegetation in channel beds with various area densities of vegetation. Results show that the shape of Reynolds stress distribution depends on the entrance and exit slopes of the pool, as well as the irregular distribution pattern of vegetated elements. Inside the pool with the presence of submerged vegetation in the channel bed, the maximum TKE appears above the bed surface with a larger distance depending on the area density of vegetation in the channel bed. However, the momentum exchange and turbulent energy are likely influenced by the secondary circulation of the flows associated with the irregular distribution of vegetated elements in the channel bed. Results of the quadrant analysis show that the momentum between the flow, bedform, and vegetated elements is mostly transferred by sweep and ejection events. The outward event tends to grow toward the water surface, reaching the highest amount near the water surface. At the pool entrance section where the flow is decelerating, the ejection event is dominant near the bed while the sweep event is strong near the water surface. With the decrease in the vegetation density in the pool bed, both the ejection and outward events become dominant.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132036
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2037: Bioretention Systems Optimization and Design
           Characterization Model Using Fuzzy Rough Set Theory

    • Authors: Fredelino A. Galleto, Melvin K. Cabatuan, Aaron Don M. Africa, Marla C. Maniquiz-Redillas, Jay M. Navaluna, John Christian Q. Herrera, Aristotle T. Ubando, Alvin B. Culaba, Mark Christian Felipe R. Redillas
      First page: 2037
      Abstract: Urban stormwater has become a persistent concern on a global scale due to its adverse environmental implications. It is the prime vector of aquatic contaminants worldwide that causes pollutants when water bodies drain. Bioretention systems are increasingly used to alleviate setbacks associated with stormwater run-off in urban locales. It has played a substantial role in the implementation of low impact development (LID), a concept that addresses urban stormwater problems caused by land changes and development. The use of LID technologies is an innovative approach. However, it is beset with challenges, such as the insufficiency of data on rainfall distribution and difficulty in interpreting data. To address these research gaps, the present study developed a fuzzy rough set data algorithm for bioretention systems. Event mean concentration calculations and fuzzification of rainfall were performed to produce a rough set-based decision rule. Using the Weibull probability distribution, fuzzification of rainfall and parameter data, rule induction, and Preece testing, bioretention design considerations were determined. The bioretention characterizations generated evident pollutants present in the catch basin before and after filtration. In addition, the bioretention characterization conducted in this study was able to reduce the number of tests needed for rainfall identification based on the different attributes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132037
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2038: Geochemical and Seasonal Characteristics of
           Dissolved Iron Isotopes in the Mun River, Northeast Thailand

    • Authors: Xuhuan Xiao, Guilin Han, Jie Zeng, Man Liu, Xiaoqiang Li
      First page: 2038
      Abstract: Dissolved iron (Fe) isotopes in river water have a pivotal role in understanding the Fe cycle in the surficial environment. A total of 13 samples of river water were collected from the Mun River to analyze the Fe isotopes and their controlling factors in river water, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and different supply sources. The results showed that dissolved Fe (DFe) concentrations ranged from 21.49 μg/L to 232.34 μg/L in the dry season and ranged from 10.48 μg/L to 135.27 μg/L in the wet season, which might be ascribed to the dilution effect. The δ56Fe of the dry season (−0.34 to 0.57‰, with an average 0.09‰) was lower than that of the wet season (−0.15 to 0.48‰, with an average 0.14‰). Combined with the δ56Fe and DFe/DAl ratios, the end-members of DFe were identified, including rock weathering (high δ56Fe and low DFe/DAl ratio), anthropogenic inputs (high δ56Fe and high DFe/DAl ratio) and groundwater inputs (low δ56Fe and low DFe/DAl ratio). The relationship between δ56Fe and DOC concentrations suggested that the chelation of organic matter with heavy Fe isotopes was one of the important sources of heavy Fe isotopes in river water.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132038
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2039: Experimental and Numerical Study on Vortical
           Structures and Their Dynamics in a Pump Sump

    • Authors: Václav Uruba, Pavel Procházka, Milan Sedlář, Martin Komárek, Daniel Duda
      First page: 2039
      Abstract: Research on water flow in a pump inlet sump is presented. The main effort has been devoted to the study of the vortical structures’ appearance and their behavior. The study was conducted in a dedicated model of the pump sump consisting of a rectangular tank 1272 × 542 × 550 mm3 with a vertical bellmouth inlet 240 mm in diameter and a close-circuit water loop. Both Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experimental research methods have been applied. The advanced unsteady approach has been used for mathematical modeling to capture the flow-field dynamics. For experiments, the time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method has been utilized. The mathematical modeling has been validated against the obtained experimental data; the main vortex core circulation is captured within 3%, while the overall flow topology is validated qualitatively. Three types of vortical structures have been detected: surface vortices, wall-attached vortices and bottom vortex. The most intense and stable is the bottom vortex; the surface and wall-attached vortices are found to be of random nature, both in their appearance and topology; they appear intermittently in time with various topologies. The dominant bottom vortex is relatively steady with weak, low-frequency dynamics; typical frequencies are up to 1 Hz. The origin of the vorticity of all large vortical structures is identified in the pump propeller rotation.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132039
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2040: A Mesoporous Faujasite Prepared by
           Space-Confined Method for Highly Effective Selectivity of Copper Ions

    • Authors: Chen, Wei, Dong, Gu, Jiang
      First page: 2040
      Abstract: The discharge of copper ion (Cu(II)) into natural waters can lead to serious environmental and health problems; however, an abundantly porous hierarchical adsorbent, such as faujasite (FAU), can rapidly remove unwanted Cu(II). In this research, a hierarchically structured, abundantly mesoporous faujasite (FAU) was fabricated from industrial-waste lithium-silicon powder (LSP), with the addition of biochar and graphene oxide (GO) via hydrothermal synthesis without high-temperature calcination. The results demonstrated that just a small amount of biochar or GO can significantly improve the mesopore volume (0.14 cm³/g) and the Cu(II) adsorption capacity (115.65 mg/g) of composite FAU. In particular, careful examination of the properties of the composite FAU showed that the biochar and GO had favorably affected the growth of the zeolite crystals, thus promoting the formation of the FAU skeleton structure, ion-exchange sites and Si-OH. The composite FAU exhibited superior adsorption capacities and highly effective Cu(II) selectivity. Thus, the findings of this study provide a novel and cost-effective avenue for the synthesis of composite FAU with high copper-selective removal capacity.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132040
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2041: Site-Specific Evaluation of Canopy Resistance
           Models for Estimating Evapotranspiration over a Drip-Irrigated Potato Crop
           in Southern Chile under Water-Limited Conditions

    • Authors: Rafael López-Olivari, Sigfredo Fuentes, Carlos Poblete-Echeverría, Valeria Quintulen-Ancapi, Leovijildo Medina
      First page: 2041
      Abstract: The evapotranspiration () process is an essential component in many agricultural water management systems, and its estimation is even more determinant when crops are grown under water-limited environments. The traditional canopy resistance () approaches were evaluated to simulate potato evapotranspiration () using the original Penman–Monteith equation under different irrigation levels. A field study was carried out on a drip-irrigated potato crop (var. Puyehue INIA) located in the Research Center Carillanca (INIA), La Araucanía Region, Chile (38°41′ S, 72°24′ W, 188 m above sea level) during the 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 growing seasons. The different irrigation levels were full irrigation (), 75% of (), and 60% of (). The soil water content, morphological, physiological, meteorological, and micrometeorological variables were measured to calculate the different approaches and estimate ET for both growing evaluated seasons. The final values of estimated were compared to the soil water balance method (). The use of amphistomatous (LA) and hypostomatous (LH) approaches are the best alternative to estimate the on potato crops. The best estimation of ET was found for with an overestimation of 0.6% for , 7.0% for , and 13.0% for , while for with underestimations of 12.0, 11.0 and 31.0% for , , and , respectively. The lowest average values of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and index of agreement (d) were observed for in both and conditions, with values of 4.4 and 3.2 mm, 3.2 and 2.5 mm, and 0.82 and 0.87, respectively. More investigation is necessary on the plasticity of the morphological features of potato leaves and canopy geometry, as the stomatal water vapor flowing on the canopy surface could be affected, which is a key factor in the canopy resistance model for accurate estimation under soil-water-limited conditions.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132041
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2042: Economic Assessment of Energy Consumption in
           Wastewater Treatment Plants: Applicability of Alternative Nature-Based
           Technologies in Portugal

    • Authors: Eleonora Santos, António Albuquerque, Inês Lisboa, Patrick Murray, Hande Ermis
      First page: 2042
      Abstract: Understanding how to address today’s global challenges is critical to improving corporate performance in terms of economic and environmental sustainability. In wastewater treatment systems, such an approach implies integrating efficient treatment technologies with aspects of the circular economy. In this business field, energy costs represent a large share of operating costs. This work discusses technological and management aspects leading to greater energy savings in Portuguese wastewater treatment companies. A mixed methodology, involving qualitative and quantitative aspects, for collecting and analysing data from wastewater treatment plants was used. The qualitative aspects consisted of a narrative analysis of the information available on reports and websites for 11 wastewater management companies in Portugal (e.g., technologies, treated wastewater volumes and operating costs) followed by a review of several international studies. The quantitative approach involved calculating the specific energy consumption (kWh/m3), energy operating costs (EUR/m3) and energy operating costs per population equivalent (EUR/inhabitants) using data from the literature and from Portuguese companies collected from the SABI database. The results suggested that the most environmentally and economically sustainable solution is algae-based technology which might allow a reduction in energy operating costs between 0.05–0.41 EUR/m3 and 15.4-180.8 EUR/inhabitants compared to activated sludge and other conventional methods. This technology, in addition to being financially advantageous, provides the ability to eliminate the carbon footprint and the valorisation of algae biomass, suggesting that this biotechnology is starting to position itself as a mandatory future solution in the wastewater treatment sector.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132042
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2043: Water Management in Woody Crops: Challenges
           and Opportunities

    • Authors: José Manuel Mirás-Avalos, Juan Miguel Ramírez-Cuesta
      First page: 2043
      Abstract: Water is an essential resource for agriculture, accounting for 40–60% of total water consumption in Europe, mostly used for irrigation [...]
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132043
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2044: Modelling and Evaluation of Potato Water
           Production Functions in a Cold and Arid Environment

    • Authors: Fuqiang Li, Hengjia Zhang, Xuan Li, Haoliang Deng, Xietian Chen, Lintao Liu
      First page: 2044
      Abstract: This study was conducted at the Yimin Irrigation Experiment Station, Minle County, Zhangye City, Gansu Province, from April to October in 2019 and 2020. The relationship between water consumption and yield of potato at different stages of fertility under deficit-regulated irrigation was analyzed in a field trial study over two growing seasons. The results showed that the average annual water consumption in the tuber bulking stage was the largest, reaching 185.35~239.52 mm, followed by the average annual water consumption in the tuber initiation stage and starch accumulation stage, which were 100.02~132.30 mm and 82.48~112.36 mm, respectively, and the average annual water consumption in the seedling stage was the least, at 49.32~69.81 mm. Simultaneously, the average annual yield of potatoes in the treatment of WD1 was the highest, reaching 47,766.96 kg·hm−2, followed by CK, which was 43,707.6 kg·hm−2, and the yield of WD6 was the smallest in the treatment of moderate water deficit during tuber initiation, which was only 35,721.25 kg·hm−2. Combining the four moisture production function models of Jensen, Minhas, Blank and Stewart, the Jensen and Stewart models were identified as suitable for the potato moisture production function in a cold and arid environment. The water production function model was used to investigate the relationship between water consumption and yield in each growth period of potato, and to provide a theoretical basis for the optimization of the irrigation system under deficit-regulating irrigation conditions for potato in this irrigation area.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132044
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2045: Quality of Bottom Sediments of Sołtmany
           Lake (Masurian Lake District, Poland) in the Light of Geochemical and
           Ecotoxicological Criteria—Case Study

    • Authors: Anna Świercz, Ilona Tomczyk-Wydrych, Łukasz Bąk
      First page: 2045
      Abstract: The quality of bottom sediment is important for the condition of aquatic environments. High levels of potentially harmful components in sediments negatively affect the quality of surface water environments. Lake bottom sediments are commonly used to control the quality of the environment in terms of both heavy metals and harmful organic compounds. This paper presents new data on the compositions of bottom sediments from Sołtmany Lake, located in the Masurian Lake District (Poland). The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of bottom sediments and to assess their quality based on geochemical and ecotoxicological criteria. The field study was conducted in July 2021. Thirty sediment samples were collected for analysis from six study sites located in the upper central and lower part of the reservoir. Contamination of the bottom sediments with trace metals was determined on the basis of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), while an ecological risk assessment was carried out on the basis of calculated values of TEC (Threshold Effect Concentration) and PEC (Probable Effect Concentration) indices. The study shows that the concentration of trace metals in sediments was characterised by slight variation and that the maximum values did not exceed: 1.1 mg·kg−1 for Cd, 8.7 mg·kg−1 for Cr, 10.9 mg·kg−1 for Cu, 7.7 mg·kg−1 for Ni, 12.9 mg·kg−1 for Pb and 52.3 mg·kg−1 for Zn. The analyses further showed that the concentration of trace elements in the sediment surface layer increased in the following order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd. The maximum pH value of H2O was 7.1, while that of KCl was 7.0. The maximum values of Corg, Ntot, P2O5, K2O and Mg were, respectively: 6.1 g·kg−1, 1.4 g·kg−1, 40.2 mg·100 g−1, 31.2 mg·100 g−1 and 35.1 mg·100 g−1. The assessment of the degree of lake pollution is essential for the conservation of biodiversity and the organisation of environmental management activities.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132045
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2046: Annual Evaluation of 17 Oestrogenic Endocrine
           Disruptors and Hazard Indexes in the Douro River Estuary—The
           Atlantic Discharge of the Highest-Flow River of Southwestern Europe

    • Authors: Maria João Rocha, Frederico Silva, Eduardo Rocha
      First page: 2046
      Abstract: The concentrations of seventeen endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) that included oestrogens, phytoestrogens, sitosterol, and banned industrial pollutants were investigated at ten sites of the Douro River estuary. Surface waters were collected during 2019. After evaluating the physicochemical data (ammonia, nitrates, nitrites and phosphates), the waters were filtrated and submitted to solid-phase extraction (SPE) to extract and pre-concentrate (4000-fold) the EDCs. The extracts were derivatized with BSTFA + 1% TMS and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All EDCs showed a high detection rate (97%, on average), exhibiting ubiquity in this estuary. The finding of biologically relevant amounts of oestrogens (up to 8.5 ng/L for oestradiol, E2), phytoestrogens (up to 827 ng/L for biochanin A, BIO-A) and industrial pollutants (up to 2.7 µg/L for nonylphenol di-ethoxylated, NP2EO) strongly support ongoing risks of endocrine disruption for the local aquatic wildlife. Globally, there was an E2-equivalents (E2-EQs) concentration of 25 ng/L and a hazard index (HI) of 26, which further indicates considerable potential for adverse effects on local biota. Moreover, the physicochemical data suggest direct sewage discharges. Beyond possible toxicological effects on fauna, the detected contaminants may pose risks to humans via direct contact (bathing at local fluvial beaches) or by ingestion (local fish).
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132046
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2047: Carbamazepine Removal by Clay-Based Materials
           Using Adsorption and Photodegradation

    • Authors: Ilil Levakov, Yuval Shahar, Giora Rytwo
      First page: 2047
      Abstract: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, CBZ is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal of CBZ through two different clay-based purification techniques: adsorption of relatively large concentrations (20–500 μmol L−1) and photocatalysis of lower concentrations (<20 μmol L−1). The sorption mechanism was examined by FTIR measurements, exchangeable cations released, and colloidal charge of the adsorbing clay materials. Photocatalysis was performed in batch experiments under various conditions. Despite the neutral charge of carbamazepine, the highest adsorption was observed on negatively charged montmorillonite-based clays. Desorption tests indicate that adsorbed CBZ is not released by washing. The adsorption/desorption processes were confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis of the clay-CBZ particles. A combination of synthetic montmorillonite or hectorite with low H2O2 concentrations under UVC irradiation exhibits efficient homo-heterogeneous photodegradation at μM CBZ levels. The two techniques presented in this study suggest solutions for both industrial and municipal wastewater, possibly enabling water reuse.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132047
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2048: Horizontal Distribution and Carbon Biomass of
           Planktonic Foraminifera in the Eastern Indian Ocean

    • Authors: Sonia Munir, Jun Sun, Steve L. Morton, Xiaodong Zhang, Changling Ding
      First page: 2048
      Abstract: Distribution and carbon biomass of planktonic foraminifera were investigated from the euphotic zone of the Eastern Indian Ocean during a two-month cruise, ‘Shiyan I’ (10 April–13 May 2014). Foraminifera species were collected through plankton net sampling at 44 locations (80.00°–96.10° E, 10.08° N–6.00° S). The temperature (°C) ranged between 12.82 and 31.8 °C, the salinity ranged between 32.5 and 35.5, and chlorophyll-a concentrations ranged between 0.005 µg/L and 0.89 µg/L. A total of 20 taxa were identified based on the spherical chamber shell, spines, and a final whorl which were examined under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Dominant species that were characterized by the high dominant index Y > 0.14–0.46 were Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides ruber white, Globigerinella siphonifera, Turborotalita quinqueloba, and Globigerinella calida, contributing to the community up to 86%. The shell size of collected taxa was from 51 to 508 μm and the total carbon biomass was estimated to be between 0.062 µg C m–3 and 26.52 µg C m–3. The high carbon biomass was recorded at two stations in the equator zone. Due to its large size, Globorotalia menardii had total carbon biomass of 3.9 µg C m–3, followed by G. calida 0.68 µg C m−3, Trilobatus sacculifer 0.38 µg C m–3, Orbulina universa 0.56 µg C m–3, and G. ruber white 0.22 µg C m–3, respectively. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that the temperature and chlorophyll-a were two explanatory environmental variables that were found to be highly significant (p < 0.05) and that triggered the distribution and abundance of dominant foraminifera species in the study region. Overall, high abundances and carbon biomass were derived from the euphotic zone and equatorial region of the Eastern Indian Ocean.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132048
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2049: Monitoring of Multi-Aspect Drought Severity
           and Socio-Economic Status in the Semi-Arid Regions of Eastern Tamil Nadu,
           India

    • Authors: Venkatesh Ravichandran, Komali Kantamaneni, Thilagaraj Periasamy, Priyadarsi D. Roy, Jothiramalingam Killivalavan, Sajimol Sundar, Lakshumanan Chokkalingam, Masilamani Palanisamy
      First page: 2049
      Abstract: A framework was set up to monitor drought in the semi-arid regions of eastern Tamil Nadu, southern India, for the period of 2014–2018 CE with the application of the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the scaled drought-condition index (SDCI), and the standardized water-level index (SWI). The results emphasized that this region had a negative precipitation anomaly and vegetative stress, both of which triggered meteorological and agricultural droughts and caused significant losses in the farming sector. The distributions of extreme and high-level hydrological droughts were at their maximum in 2017 CE. The multi-drought severity index (MDSI), implemented to assess the combined impact and highlighting the gradient of affected areas, illustrated that the eastern region (i.e., Jayankondam block) was the most extremely affected, followed by the northern and southern regions (i.e., T.Palur and Andimadam), which were moderately affected by droughts. The extremely affected eastern region has less of an ability to overcome droughts due to its socio-economic vulnerability, with its greater population and household density leading to the over-exploitation of potential resources. Therefore, the focus of this study is on the monitoring of drought severity in micro-administrative units to suggest an appropriate management plan. Hence, the extreme-drought-prone block (Jayankondam) should be given high priority in monitoring and implementing long-term management practices for its conservation and resilience against the effects of severe droughts.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132049
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2050: A New Turbulence Model for Breaking Wave
           Simulations

    • Authors: Benedetta Iele, Federica Palleschi, Giovanni Cannata, Francesco Gallerano
      First page: 2050
      Abstract: In this paper, the hydrodynamic and free surface elevation fields in breaking waves are simulated by solving the integral and contravariant forms of the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations that are expressed in a generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinate system, in which the vertical coordinate moves by following the free surface. A new k−l turbulence model in contravariant form is proposed; in this model, the mixing length, l, is defined as a function of the maximum water surface elevation variation. A new original numerical scheme is proposed. The main element of originality of the numerical scheme consists of the proposal of a new fifth-order reconstruction technique for the point values of the conserved variables on the cell face. This technique, named in the paper as WTENO, allows the choice procedure of the reconstruction polynomials for the point values to be modified in a dynamic way.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132050
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2051: The Effects of Different Geological Conditions
           on Landslide-Triggering Rainfall Conditions in South Korea

    • Authors: Jae-Uk Lee, Yong-Chan Cho, Minseok Kim, Su-Jin Jang, Jongmyoung Lee, Sukwoo Kim
      First page: 2051
      Abstract: How landslide-triggering rainfall conditions vary with geology is unclear. The effects of three different geological conditions (gneiss, GN; granite, GR; sedimentary rock, SR) on variations in intensity–duration (I-D) conditions and rainfall characteristics responsible for initiating shallow landslides were examined using data from 476 landslides in South Korea from 1963 to 2018 and detailed statistical analyses. Results from quantile regression and one-way analysis of variance analyses clearly showed that impermeable SR slopes result in smaller critical rainfall than permeable GN and GR slopes do, indicating a relatively high occurrence exceedance probability and susceptibility to landslides in SR slope. These findings suggest that geological conditions, particularly the relatively high susceptibility of SR slopes, should be considered when establishing rainfall information-based landslide warning criteria for South Korea. Our findings can contribute to the assessment of landslide susceptibility and probability based on geological conditions; however, they should be further investigated through in situ observations.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132051
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2052: Searching for Sustainable-Irrigation Issues of
           Clementine Orchards in the Syrian Akkar Plain: Effects of Irrigation
           Method and Canopy Size on Crop Coefficients, Transpiration, and Water Use
           with SIMDualKc Model

    • Authors: Hanaa Darouich, Razan Karfoul, Tiago B. Ramos, Ali Moustafa, Luis S. Pereira
      First page: 2052
      Abstract: Citrus is one of the most valuable crops in Syria, with the largest production areas in the Tartus and Latakia provinces. Water-saving policies have been adopted to modernize the irrigation systems and increase water productivity. Following dedicated research, this study aimed to evaluate the water balance in clementine trees irrigated with diverse methods and schedules using the SIMDualKc software model. Two experiments are reported: one with 10–14 years old trees irrigated with different methods (2007−2011) and the other with the same trees but now 18−20 years old, irrigated with different schedules (2015−2019). The SIMDualKc model successfully simulated the soil water contents measured in the various field plots, with root mean square error values lower than 0.004 m3 m−3 and modeling efficiencies up to 0.83. The model-calibrated standard basal crop coefficients (Kcb) were approximately constant throughout all growing stages, assuming values of 0.54−0.55 for the mature trees having smaller height (h) and fraction of ground cover (fc), and 0.64 for older trees with larger canopies, i.e., larger h and fc. With drip irrigation, single Kc had a higher value (1.14) at the end, non-growing, and initial stages, and a lower value (0.75–0.76) during mid-season (Kc mid), because precipitation was lesser then, contributing less to soil evaporation. On the other hand, Kc values were nearly constant with micro-sprinkler and surface irrigation techniques because the ground was fully wetted. The Kcb values derived from the fraction of ground cover and height (A&P approach) were similar to those obtained from the model, thus showing that the A&P approach represents a practical alternative to estimate Kcb in the practice of irrigation management. The soil water balance further revealed a large weight of the terms corresponding to the non-beneficial water consumption and non-consumptive water use when the fraction wetted was large and the application efficiencies were low. These terms were reduced, namely, evaporation losses when drip irrigation was used. This study, thus, provides a valuable tool for improving the irrigation management, water saving, and water productivity of Syrian citrus production systems.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132052
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2053: Random Forest Model Has the Potential for
           Runoff Simulation and Attribution

    • Authors: Xia Liu, Xiaolong Zhang, Xiaole Kong, Yan-Jun Shen
      First page: 2053
      Abstract: Quantifying the impact of climate change and human activities on runoff changes is beneficial for developing sustainable water-management strategies within the local ecosystem. Machine-learning models were widely used in scientific research; yet, whether it is applicable for quantifying the contribution of climate change and human activities to runoff changes is not well understood. To provide a new pathway, we quantified the contribution of climate change and human activities to runoff changes using a machine-learning method (random forest model) in two semi-humid basins in this study. Results show that the random forest model provides good performances for runoff simulation; the contributions of climate change and human activities to runoff changes from 1982 to 2014 were found between 6–9% and 91–94% in the Zijinguan basin, and 31–44% and 56–69% in the Daomaguan basin, respectively. Furthermore, the model performances were also compared with those of well-known elasticity-based and double-mass curve methods, and the results of these models are approximate in the investigated basins, which implies that the random forest model has the potential for runoff simulation and for quantifying the impact of climate change and human activities on runoff changes. This study provides a new methodology for studying the impact of climate change and human activities on runoff changes, and the limited numbers of parameters make this methodology important for further applications to other basins elsewhere. Nevertheless, the physical interpretation should be made with caution and more comprehensive comparison work must be performed to assess the model’s applicability.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132053
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2054: Enhanced Degradation of Rhodamine B through
           Peroxymonosulfate Activated by a Metal Oxide/Carbon Nitride Composite

    • Authors: Yuanmin Mo, Wei Xu, Xiaoping Zhang, Shaoqi Zhou
      First page: 2054
      Abstract: The development of high catalytic performance heterogeneous catalysts such as peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activators is important for the practical remediation of organic pollution caused by Rhodamine B (RhB). An economical and facile synthesized composite of copper–magnesium oxide and carbon nitride (CM/g-C3N4) was prepared by the sol-gel/high-temperature pyrolysis method to activate PMS for RhB degradation. CM/g-C3N4 exhibited a splendid structure for PMS activation, and the aggregation of copper–magnesium oxide was decreased when it was combined with carbon nitride. The introduction of magnesium oxide and carbon nitride increased the specific surface area and pore volume of CM/g-C3N4, providing more reaction sites. The low usage of CM/g-C3N4 (0.3 g/L) and PMS (1.0 mM) could rapidly degrade 99.88% of 10 mg/L RhB, and the RhB removal efficiency maintained 99.30% after five cycles, showing the superior catalytic performance and reusability of CM/g-C3N4. The synergistic effect of copper and g-C3N4 improved the PMS activation. According to the analyses of EPR and quenching experiments, SO4•−, •OH and O2•− radicals and 1O2 were generated in the activation of PMS, of which SO4•− and 1O2 were important for RhB removal. The toxicity of RhB was alleviated after being degraded by the CM/g-C3N4/PMS system. This study provides an efficient and promising strategy for removing dyes in water due to the hybrid reaction pathways in the CM/g-C3N4/PMS system.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132054
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2055: Assessment of Nutrient Loads into the Ryck
           River and Options for Their Reduction

    • Authors: Mridul Trehan, Wendelin Wichtmann, Mateusz Grygoruk
      First page: 2055
      Abstract: A massive shift in agricultural practices over the past decades, to support exceptionally high yields and productivities involving intensive agriculture, have led to unsustainable agriculture practices across the globe. Sustenance of such high yields and productivities demand high use of organic and industrial fertilizers. This acts as a negative pressure on the environment. Excessive use of fertilizers leads to nutrient surplus in the fields, which, as a part of catchment runoff, flows into the water bodies as diffuse pollution. These nutrients through rivers are eventually passed into seas. High nutrients ending up into water bodies cause eutrophication. The situation is worsened when such unsustainable agricultural activities are carried out on drained peatlands. As a result, the nutrients that were not part of the nutrient cycle in the landscape for years begin to leach out due to mineralization of peatlands, thereby putting an additional load of nutrients on the environment, that was already under the negative impact of nutrient surplus. In view of the above, a small lowland catchment of the Ryck river in northeast Germany was assessed for its nitrogen losses from agricultural lands through empirical modelling. Initial empirical modelling resulted in an average annual total nitrogen loss of 14.7 kg ha−1 year−1. After a comparative analysis of these results with procured data, the empirical equation was modified to suit the catchment, yielding more accurate results. The study showed that 75.6% of peatlands in the catchment are under agricultural use. Subsequently, a proposal was made for potential wetland buffer zones in the Ryck catchment. Altogether, 13 peatland sites across 8 sub-catchments were recommended for mitigation of high nutrient runoff. In the end, nutrient efficiency of proposed WBZs in one of the sub-catchments of Ryck has been discussed. The results show that (i) the modified empirical equation can act as a key tool in application-based future strategies for nitrogen reduction in the Ryck catchment, (ii) restoration of peatlands and introduction of WBZs can help in mitigating the nutrient runoff for improved water quality of Ryck, and subsequently (ii) contribute to efficient reduction of riverine loads of nutrients into the Baltic Sea.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132055
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2056: Impact of Water Saving Policy on Water
           Resource and Economy for Hebei, China Based on an Improved Computable
           General Equilibrium Model

    • Authors: Xichen Lin, Genfa Chen, Hongzhen Ni, Ying Wang, Pinzeng Rao
      First page: 2056
      Abstract: Hebei Province of China is facing a severe water resource shortage, making it urgent to formulate economical and effective water conservation policies. However, few studies have focused on analyzing the resource and economic impacts of a water policy. This study developed an improved computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with an extended water resources module as a policy analysis tool. The extended water resources module includes different water resources as commodities and water sectors, and introduces a substitution mechanism among the water resources. Policy scenarios containing different policy types and policy objects were established, including water price, technology (tech) improvement, structure adjustment, and water reuse policies in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. The impact on the water resource and economy of the scenarios was analyzed using the CGE model. The recommended policies include: an agricultural technology improvement policy that decreases groundwater usage by 240 hm3; an industrial technology improvement policy under which water usage per 10,000 CNY of industrial added value decreases by 13%; an industrial water reuse policy that increases unconventional water usage by 20%; and a structure adjustment policy to increase the proportion of the tertiary sector. The study provides an analysis tool for simulating and evaluating a water resource policy.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132056
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2057: Phytoplankton and Bacterial Communities’
           Patterns in a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem (Central Mediterranean Sea)

    • Authors: Carmela Caroppo, Filippo Azzaro, Alessandro Bergamasco, Gabriella Caruso, Franco Decembrini
      First page: 2057
      Abstract: The Straits of Messina (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea) are a very complex area: they connect two basins (Tyrrhenian and Ionian) with different hydrographic features and is characterised by upwelling and mixing phenomena. The aim of the study was to evaluate if and how the physical and chemical water conditions and hydrodynamics influenced the phytoplankton and bacterial patterns and the functioning of this ecosystem. During a late winter survey, size-fractionated phytoplankton (from 0.2 to 200 μm) biomass (chlorophyll a), cell densities and species composition as well as total picoplankton abundances, morphotype composition, and activity levels of the enzymes leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, and alkaline phosphatase were investigated. The obtained results showed a marked diversification among the water masses identified within the Straits area. The analyses of the phytoplankton diversity indices, particularly those based on phylogenetic relationships between species (indices of taxonomic diversity and distinctness), confirmed our findings. In conclusion, the patterns of phytoplankton and bacterial communities provide a suitable approach to evaluate how microbial communities respond to changing environmental scenarios. This tool could be applied to other temperate Mediterranean ecosystems.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132057
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2058: Impact of Moringa oleifera Seed-Derived
           Coagulants Processing Steps on Physicochemical, Residual Organic, and
           Cytotoxicity Properties of Treated Water

    • Authors: Geane Garcia Chales, Beatriz Siqueira Tihameri, Noala Vicensoto Moreira Milhan, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito, Maria Lúcia Pereira Antunes, Adriano Gonçalves dos Reis
      First page: 2058
      Abstract: This study explored the application of whole and defatted Moringa oleifera seed-derived coagulants in powder (P-MOS and DP-MOS), aqueous extraction (AEP-MOS and AEDP-MOS), and saline extraction (SEP-MOS and SEDP-MOS) in the treatment of a synthetic turbid water by coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation in a jar test apparatus. The performance of M. oleifera seed-derived coagulants was quantified and compared with alum in terms of the ability to neutralize and restabilize the suspension charge, turbidity removal, effect on pH and electrical conductivity, residual organic matter, as well as cytotoxicity in the treated water. All evaluated forms of M. oleifera seed-derived coagulants were able to neutralize and restabilize (in overdose) the particles charges in the suspension. Saline extractions obtained the best turbidity removal results (90%) between the M. oleifera seed-derived coagulants, while alum removed 98% of turbidity. Differently from alum, increased dosage of M. oleifera seed-derived coagulants did not change pH value. Saline extractions and, to a lesser extent, alum increased the electrical conductivity with increasing coagulant dosage. M. oleifera seed-derived coagulants increased residual organic matter (DOC), unlike alum, which did not change this property with increasing dosage. Saline extractions at high dosages enhanced the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. On the other hand, defatted seeds reduced water cytotoxicity when compared to whole seeds. Despite not being able to reduce the residual organic matter, the previous oil extraction proved to be an important step in the processing of M. oleifera seed-derived coagulants, not changing the turbidity removal capacity and reducing the cytotoxicity of the treated water in addition to generating a significant by-product (Ben oil). Although saline extractions have shown the best turbidity removal results, they should be used with caution due to increased electrical conductivity and cytotoxicity of the treated water at high dosages.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132058
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2059: Behavioral Response in Toxicity Assessment of
           the Insecticide Decis® 2.5 EC toward Freshwater Zooplankton

    • Authors: Łukasz Sikorski, Agnieszka Bęś
      First page: 2059
      Abstract: Chemical crop protection agents are widely applied in modern agricultural practice. As a result of surface runoff, these insecticides penetrate into rivers, ponds, and lakes, where they become a serious threat to aquatic organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the toxicity of increasing concentrations of the insecticide Decis® 2.5 EC to Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens, which are components of freshwater zooplankton. The observed effect was immobilization of organisms, which were not able to swim after gentle agitation of the liquid for 15 sec. It was found that up to 135 min, increasing Decis® 2.5 EC concentrations inhibited the swimming of tested organisms. Initially, up to 135 min, Heterocypris incongruens was more sensitive to the tested insecticide. After 135 min of the experiment, ostracods acclimatized to the tested xenobiotic. However, after 360 min, the immobilization of organisms increased proportionally to the concentrations of Decis® 2.5 EC. The most toxic concentrations were 15 × 10−3% and 30 × 10−3%. The lowest observed effect concentration of Decis® 2.5 EC that reduced the swimming of daphnia and ostracod by more than 20% was >0.91 × 10−3% (0.23 mg L−1 of deltamethrin). This experiment demonstrated that Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens are good bioindicators of freshwaters polluted with Decis® 2.5 EC.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132059
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2060: Study on Supply–Demand Balance Analysis
           and Service Flow of Water Resources in Dongjiang River Basin

    • Authors: Xinyi Wang, Zhengdong Zhang, Fangrui Liu, Songjia Chen, Jianbin Dong, Yuanyuan Mao, Jun Cao
      First page: 2060
      Abstract: The distribution of water resources is usually characterized by spatial heterogeneity, resulting in different water supply and demand pressures within the basin. Therefore, the analysis of water resources supply and demand balance and the mapping of water resources spatial flow can be an effective suggestion for the regional water resources allocation to relieve the regional water pressure. The uneven distribution of water resources in the Dongjiang River Basin is significant, and how to effectively allocate water resources in the Dongjiang River Basin has become a major focus of research. Based on the multi-source data of the Dongjiang River Basin from 2005 to 2020, this paper uses the SWAT model and water demand model to establish the spatial flow model of water resources supply and demand, and uses the subbasin-scale to explore the spatial distribution and flow of water resources supply and demand, obtaining the spatial scope and flow of water resources supply and beneficiary areas in the basin. The results show that (1) the water supply in the Dongjiang River Basin has been decreasing year by year, and the water demand has been increasing from 2005 to 2015, leading to an increase in the imbalance between supply and demand, and there is a significant reduction in industrial water use from 2015 to 2020, resulting in a reduction in the imbalance between water supply and demand; (2) the supply and demand pressure of water resources in the Dongjiang River Basin has obvious spatial heterogeneity, showing that the pressure of water use in the middle and upper reaches is small, while the pressure of water use in the lower reaches is large; (3) under the framework of spatial service flows of water resources supply and demand, this paper obtains three main beneficiary area ranges, which are Dongyuan County of Heyuan City, Yuancheng District of Heyuan City, and the main urban area of Shenzhen Dongguan Huizhou, and specifies the flow of service flows. This study can not only provide reasonable suggestions for water resources allocation in the Dongjiang River Basin but it also provides references for water resources management in other basins.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132060
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2061: Preparation of Micron-Scale Activated
           Carbon-Immobilized Bacteria for the Adsorption–Biodegradation of
           Diesel Oil

    • Authors: Wei Zhang, Xiangke Kong, Zhantao Han, Ping Wang, Lisha Ma, Yanyan Wang, Hongkun Chen
      First page: 2061
      Abstract: This paper investigated the micron-scale activated carbon (MAC) immobilized diesel-oil-degrading bacteria (bio-MAC) used as remediation materials for the removal of diesel-oil-contaminated water. The high-efficiency indigenous diesel-oil-degrading bacteria were firstly screened and enriched, then the MAC was used as a diesel oil sorbent and biocarrier for the immobilization of degrading bacteria to prepare the bio-MAC material. The removal performance of the bio-MAC was evaluated via a comparison with the freely degrading bacteria and MAC. The SEM results demonstrated that the diesel-oil-degrading bacteria were effectively immobilized and grew well on the surfaces of MAC particles. The concentration of MAC significantly influenced the growth and activity (DHA and LPS) of immobilized bacteria, and the MAC addition of 3.0 g/L was proven to be an optimum amount for the preparation of bio-MAC. The high-throughput sequencing analysis further indicated that the bacteria immobilized on MAC showed higher abundance levels and diversities index values compared to freely suspended bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Microbacterium. The FTIR spectroscopy results showed that the bio-MAC could effectively degrade the aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkenes and aromatic compounds of diesel oil to carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and other metabolites. When the concentration of diesel oil was 1 g/L, the removal efficiency for the diesel oil of bio-MAC reached 86.35% after 15 days, while only 23.82% and 70.97% of the diesel oil was removed using the same amount of free bacteria and MAC, respectively. The prepared bio-MAC showed a synergic effect of adsorption and biodegradation and efficiently removed diesel oil from wastewater.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132061
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2062: Mapping the Complex Journey of Swimming Pool
           Contaminants: A Multi-Method Systems Approach

    • Authors: Simone Heilgeist, Oz Sahin, Ryo Sekine, Rodney A. Stewart
      First page: 2062
      Abstract: Swimming pool owners worldwide face the challenging task of keeping their pool water balanced and free from contaminants. However, swimming pool water (SPW) quality management is complex with the countless processes and interactions of interlinked system variables. For example, contamination with sunscreen residues is inevitable as users apply sunscreen to protect their skin from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is one such residues that have received criticism due to potential human health and environmental risks. Despite ongoing research studies, management strategies of nano-TiO2 in swimming pools are still limited. Therefore, this paper focuses on developing a multi-method approach for identifying and understanding interdependencies between TiO2 particles and an aquatic environment such as a swimming pool. Given the complexity of the system to be assessed, the authors utilise a systems approach by integrating cross-matrix multiplication (MICMAC) and Systems Thinking techniques. The developed conceptual model visually depicts the complex system, which provides users with a basic understanding of swimming pool chemistry, displaying the numerous cause-and-effect relationships and enabling users to identify leverage points that can effectively change the dynamics of the system. Such systems-level understanding, and actions will help to manage nano-TiO2 levels in an efficient manner. The novelty of this paper is the proposed methodology, which uses a systems approach to conceptualise the complex interactions of contaminants in swimming pools and important pathways to elevated contaminant levels.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132062
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2063: Biological Degradation of the Azo Dye Basic
           Orange 2 by Escherichia coli: A Sustainable and Ecofriendly Approach for
           the Treatment of Textile Wastewater

    • Authors: Muhammad Ikram, Mohammad Naeem, Muhammad Zahoor, Marlia Mohd Hanafiah, Adeleke Abdulrahman Oyekanmi, Riaz Ullah, Dunia A. Al Farraj, Mohamed S. Elshikh, Ivar Zekker, Naila Gulfam
      First page: 2063
      Abstract: In this study, initially 11 different bacterial strains were tested for the degradation capabilities against Basic Orange 2 dye. In initial screening with 78.90% degradation activity, Escherichia coli emerged as the most promising strain to degrade the selected dye, and was then employed in subsequent experiments. For further enhancing the degradation capability of selected bacteria, the effects of various physicochemical parameters were also evaluated. Among the tested parameters, 20 ppm dye concentration, 1666 mg/L glucose concentration, a temperature of 40 °C, 666 mg/L sodium chloride concentration, pH 7, 1000 mg/L urea concentration, a 3-day incubation period and the use of sodium benzoate as a redox mediator (666 mg/L) were found to be ideal conditions to get the highest decolorization/degradation activities. Finally, all the mentioned parameters were combined in a single set of experiments, and the decolorization capacity of the bacteria was enhanced to 89.88%. The effect of pH, dye concentration, incubation time and temperature were found to be responsible for the optimum degradation of dye (p < 0.05), as predicted from the ANOVA (analysis of variance) of the response surface methodology. The metabolites were collected after completion of the process and characterized through Fourier transform irradiation (FTIR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). From the data obtained, a proposed mechanism was deduced where it was assumed that the azo bond of the dye was broken by the azoreductase enzyme of the bacteria, resulting in the formation of aniline and 3, 4-diaminobezeminium chloride. The aniline was then further converted to benzene by deamination by the action of the bacterial deaminase enzyme. The benzene ring, after subsequent methylation, was transformed into o-xylene, while 3, 4-diaminobezeminium chloride was converted to p-xylene by enzymatic action. These findings suggest that Escherichia coli is a capable strain to be used in the bioremediation of textile effluents containing azo dyes. However, the selected bacterial strain may need to be further investigated for other dyes as well.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132063
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2064: Multi-Isotope Characterization of Water in the
           Water Supply System of the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia

    • Authors: Klara Nagode, Tjaša Kanduč, Branka Bračič Železnik, Brigita Jamnik, Polona Vreča
      First page: 2064
      Abstract: Urban water supply systems (WSS) are complex and challenging to manage since the properties of water in the WSS change from source to the end user over time. However, understanding these changes requires a more profound knowledge of the WSS. This study describes the urban water cycle within the WSS of Ljubljana, Slovenia, where different water parameters such as temperature, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, δ2H, δ18O, and δ13CDIC were monitored from September to November 2018. Altogether 108 samples were collected, including from the source (3) and at different levels of the WSS: wells (41), joint exits from water pumping stations (7), reservoirs (22), water treatment locations (2), drinking fountains (13), taps (19) and wastewater system (1). The data show that although the ranges of δ2H and δ18O values were small, each well is represented by a unique fingerprint when considering additional parameters. A statistically significant difference was observed between sampling months, and temperature and most parameters showed higher variability within the wells than across the WSS, suggesting a more unified WSS. Finally, based on δ13CDIC values, a distinction could be made between river/groundwater interactions within the WSS and between shallower and deeper wells and their distance from the river bank.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132064
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2065: Macroscopic Lattice Boltzmann Method for
           Shallow Water Equations

    • Authors: Jian Guo Zhou
      First page: 2065
      Abstract: The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is characterised by its simplicity, parallel processing and easy treatment of boundary conditions. It has become an alternative powerful numerical method in computational physics, playing a more and more important role in solving challenging problems in science and engineering. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann method with the single relaxation time (SLBM) is the simplest and most popular form of the LBM that is used in research and applications. However, there are two long-term unresolved problems that prevent the SLBM from being an automatic simulator for any flows: (1) stability problem associated with the single relaxation time and (2) no method of direct implementation of physical variables as boundary conditions. Recently, the author has proposed the macroscopic lattice Boltzmann method (MacLAB) to solve the Navier–Stokes equations for fluid flows, resolving the aforementioned problems; it is unconditionally stable and uses physical variables as boundary conditions at lower computational cost compared to conventional LBMs. The MacLAB relies on one fundamental parameter of lattice size δx, and is a minimal version of the lattice Boltzmann method. In this paper, the idea of the MacLAB is further developed to formulate a macroscopic lattice Boltzmann method for shallow water equations (MacLABSWE). It inherits all the advantages from both the MacLAB and the conventional LBM. The MacLABSWE is developed regardless of the single relaxation time τ. Physical variables such as water depth and velocity can directly be used as boundary conditions, retaining their initial values for Dirichlet’s boundary conditions without updating them at each time step. This makes not only the model to achieve the exact no-slip boundary condition but also the model’s efficiency superior to the most efficient bounce-back scheme for approximate no-slip boundary condition in the LBMs, although the scheme can similarly be implemented in the proposed model when it is necessary. The MacLABSWE is applied to simulate a 1D unsteady tidal flow, a 2D steady wind-driven flow in a dish-shaped lake and a 2D steady complex flow over a bump. The results are compared with available analytical solutions and other numerical studies, demonstrating the potential and accuracy of the model.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132065
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2066: Role of Grain Size Distribution and Pier
           Aspect Ratio in Scouring and Sorting around Bridge Piers

    • Authors: Takeyoshi Chibana, Rose Quiocho, Kenji Watanabe
      First page: 2066
      Abstract: Several bridge piers were visited, and their scour hole was characterized into three zones: scour, transition, and mound zones. The observed onsite sorting and scouring patterns were recreated through flume experiments with varying pier aspect ratio (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6) and sediment geometric standard deviation (σg). The experiments showed that maximum scour depth decreased with non-uniformity; 52.7 mm, 20.2 mm, and 16.6 mm are the respective maximum scour depth of beds with σg = 1.4, 2.5, and 5.2. While aspect ratio has minimal effect on maximum scour depth values, it has noticeable effects on scour shape and asymmetry. The location of the lowest point of the scour shifted further downstream as σg increased. The number of occurrences where the location of the lowest point is outside the upstream cylindrical hemisphere is zero (0) for σg = 1.4, three (3) for σg = 2.5, and five (5) for σg = 5.2. The observed processes of upstream-to-downstream propagation of scour may explain the gradual decrease in fines on the surface, as well as the asymmetry of the scour, confirming the role of combined effects of grading of the bed material and piers’ aspect ratio in the scour-forming process.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132066
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2067: A Field Experiment Verification of Theoretical
           Exponent N1 for FAVAD Method in Defining the Relationship of Pressure and
           Water Losses

    • Authors: Igor Dundović, Lidija Tadić
      First page: 2067
      Abstract: The current problem of managing water losses in water supply systems relies on engineering predictions of expected outcomes based on pressure manipulations using hydraulic models or other computational methods. The objective of this experiment was to conduct a field test to validate the theoretical N1 exponent of the fixed and variable area discharges (FAVAD) method. By knowing the pipe material and measuring the pressure and minimum night flow (MNF), the N1 exponent can be defined and compared to recommendations in the literature. Field measurements and experiments were performed in a small settlement in Croatia consisting of 278 house connections and 7.4 km of PVC material pipe network. Pressure manipulation was performed on a pressure-reducing valve (PRV). The resulting value of N1 = 1.76 from the experiment agrees with the literature graphs, which indicate a value of N1 between 1.5 and 2.0. Considering the difference between the studied values and the theoretically calculated MNF of 4%, it can be concluded that the implementation of the presented methodology to determine the N1 exponent can be used in practice. This type of field testing is important because such tests are difficult to perform due to the extensive pressure manipulations during the tests, which can affect the consumers and cause disturbances in the water distribution.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132067
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2068: Impacts and Implications of Land Use Land
           Cover Dynamics on Groundwater Recharge and Surface Runoff in East African
           Watershed

    • Authors: Tarekegn Dejen Mengistu, Il-Moon Chung, Min-Gyu Kim, Sun Woo Chang, Jeong Eun Lee
      First page: 2068
      Abstract: Assessing the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use land cover (LULC) change on water resources is vital for watershed sustainability and developing proper management strategies. Evaluating LULC scenarios synergistically with hydrologic modeling affords substantial evidence of factors that govern hydrologic processes. Hence, this study assessed the spatiotemporal effects and implications of LULC dynamics on groundwater recharge and surface runoff in Gilgel Gibe, an East African watershed, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three different LULC maps (2000, 2010, and 2020) were derived from Landsat images, and the comparisons pointed out that the land-use pattern had changed significantly. The agricultural land and grassland cover increased by 3.76% and 1.36%, respectively, from 2000 to 2020. The implications acquired for 2000 show that forested land covers decreased by 5.49% in 2020. The SWAT simulation process was executed using a digital elevation model, soil, LULC, and weather data. The model was calibrated and validated using streamflow data to understand the surface runoff and groundwater recharge responses of each HRU on reference simulation periods using the Calibration and Uncertainty Program (SWAT-CUP), Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm. The observed and simulated streamflows were checked for performance indices of coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) on monthly time steps. The results show that there is good agreement for all LULC simulations, both calibration and validation periods (R2 & NSE ≥ 0.84, −15 < PBIAS < +15). This reveals that for the LULC assessment of any hydrological modeling, the simulation of each reference period should be calibrated to have reasonable outputs. The study indicated that surface runoff has increased while groundwater decreased over the last two decades. The temporal variation revealed that the highest recharge and runoff occurred during the wet seasons. Thus, the study can support maximizing water management strategies and reducing adverse driving environmental forces.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132068
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2069: Improving Environmental DNA Sensitivity for
           Dreissenid Mussels by Targeting Tandem Repeat Regions of the Mitochondrial
           Genome

    • Authors: Nathaniel T. Marshall, Henry A. Vanderploeg, Subba Rao Chaganti
      First page: 2069
      Abstract: The recent genetic revolution through the analysis of aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a powerful tool for improving the detection of rare and/or invasive species. For the majority of eDNA studies, genetic assays are designed to target mitochondrial genes commonly referred to as “barcode” regions. However, unlike the typical structure of an animal mitochondrial genome, those for the invasive zebra and quagga mussels are greatly expanded with large extended tandem repeat regions. These sections of repeated DNA can appear hundreds of times within the genome compared to a single copy for the mitochondrial barcode genes. This higher number of target copies per mitochondrial genome presents an opportunity to increase eDNA assay sensitivity for these species. Therefore, we designed and evaluated new eDNA assays to target the extended repeat sections for both zebra and quagga mussels. These assays lower the limit of detection of genomic DNA by 100-fold for zebra mussels and 10-fold for quagga mussels. Additionally, these newly developed assays provided longer durations of detection during degradation mesocosm experiments and greater sensitivity for eDNA detection from water samples collected across western Lake Erie compared to standard assays targeting mitochondrial genes. This work illustrates how understanding the complete genomic structure of an organism can improve eDNA analysis.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132069
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2070: Real-Time Water Level Prediction in Open
           Channel Water Transfer Projects Based on Time Series Similarity

    • Authors: Luyan Zhou, Zhao Zhang, Weijie Zhang, Kaijun An, Xiaohui Lei, Ming He
      First page: 2070
      Abstract: Changes in the opening of gates in open channel water transfer projects will cause fluctuations in the water level and flow of adjacent open channels and thus bring great challenges for real-time water level prediction. In this paper, a novel slope-similar shape method is proposed for real-time water level prediction when the change of gate opening at the next moment is known. The water level data points of three consecutive moments constitute the query. The slope similarity is used to find the historical water level datasets with similar change trend to the query, and then the best slope similarity dataset is determined according to the similarity index and the gate opening change. The water level difference of the next moment of the best similar data point is the water level difference of the predicted moment, and thus the water level at the next moment can be obtained. A case study is performed with the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China. The results show that 87.5% of datasets with a water level variation of less than 0.06 m have an error less than 0.03 m, 71.4% of which have an error less than 0.02 m. In conclusion, the proposed method is feasible, effective, and interpretable, and the study provides valuable insights into the development of scheduling schemes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132070
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2071: Analyzing the Benefit-Cost Ratio of Sediment
           Resources by Remote Sensing Data in the Ping River Basin, Thailand

    • Authors: Prem Rangsiwanichpong, Assefa M. Melesse
      First page: 2071
      Abstract: Sediment is one of the important natural resources on the Earth. Information on sediment resources is key to making decisions regarding soil resources management and mitigation during sediment hazard events. Thus, this research analyzed and mapped the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of sediment in the Ping River using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Furthermore, the benefit of sediment was analyzed using a new application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The results reveal that the potential of annual soil loss and sediment deposition in the Ping River Basin (PRB) were approximately 825 and 530 m3/km2·y, respectively. In addition, the results indicated that there was a higher BCR in the upstream area of the PRB where there was greater sediment deposition. The average benefit of sediment in the PRB is USD 4280/km2·y. It is expected that the BCR of the sediment resources map analyzed in this research will help policy-makers for decision-making on the benefits of sediment resources in Thailand.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132071
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2072: Water-Saving Potential of Different
           Agricultural Management Practices in an Arid River Basin

    • Authors: Wang Zhang, Yong Tian, Yu Feng, Jie Liu, Chunmiao Zheng
      First page: 2072
      Abstract: Water scarcity threatens food security in arid areas, highlighting the importance of water-saving agriculture for food production. Agricultural management practices are developed to improve water-use efficiency, and their water-saving effects are generally evaluated at the field scale rather than the regional scale. To figure out the regional water-saving potential of irrigation methods and mulching practices, the FAO AquaCrop model was first calibrated and validated at the three experimental stations. With aggregating spatial information, a distributed model was constructed and validated in a typical arid river basin of northwest China. Twelve combinations of soil mulching (plastic and straw) and irrigation methods (basin, furrow, drip, and subsurface drip) were simulated using the model to evaluate the effect of agricultural management practices on crop evapotranspiration (ET), crop water productivity, and regional water consumption. The results showed that soil mulching, advanced irrigation methods, and their combinations reduced noneffective soil evaporation (E) and the E/ET ratios and improved crop water productivity. Plastic mulching combined with subsurface drip irrigation is the most promising practice, increasing the crop water productivity of seed maize and spring wheat by 18.2% and 11.1% on average and reducing regional crop water consumption by 7.7% (75.0 million m3) and 7.4% (72.7 million m3), respectively. The reduction in irrigation water extraction ranged from 20.6% under furrow irrigation with straw mulching to 68.7% under subsurface drip irrigation with plastic mulching. This study quantitatively assessed the water-saving potential of soil mulching, irrigation methods, and their combinations to reduce agricultural water use, offering practical implications for the management and development of water-saving agriculture in arid areas.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132072
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2073: Effects of Migration and Diffusion of
           Suspended Sediments on the Seabed Environment during Exploitation of
           Deep-Sea Polymetallic Nodules

    • Authors: Zhihan Fan, Yonggang Jia, Fengyou Chu, Xianming Zhu, Na Zhu, Bowen Li, Yongzheng Quan
      First page: 2073
      Abstract: With the increase in demand for metal resources, research on deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining has been reinvigorated, but the problem of its environmental impact cannot be ignored. No matter what method is used for mining, it will disturb the surface sediments of the seabed, thereby increasing the concentration of suspended solid particles and metal ions in the water body, changing the properties of the near-bottom water body and sediments, and affecting biological activity and the living environment. Focusing on the ecological and environmental impacts of deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining, taking as our main subject of focus the dynamic changes in sediments, we investigated the environmental impacts of nodule mining and their relationships with each other. On this basis, certain understandings are summarized relating to the ecological and environmental impacts of deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining, based on changes in the engineering geological properties of sediment, and solutions for current research problems are proposed.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132073
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2074: A Socio-Hydrological Unit Division and
           Confluence Relationship Generation Method for Human–Water Systems

    • Authors: Huanyu Chang, Xuefeng Sang, Guohua He, Qingming Wang, Jiaxuan Chang, Rong Liu, Haihong Li, Yong Zhao
      First page: 2074
      Abstract: Studies on human activities and the natural water cycle as a coupled system are essential for effective water resource management in river basins. However, existing calculation methods based solely on the natural water cycle do not meet the accuracy requirements of natural society dualistic water cycle simulations. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a more scientific and reasonable calculation unit division method and river confluence relationship determination method. This paper presents a socio-hydrological unit with natural society dual characteristics based on both the hydrological characteristics and the social administrative characteristics of the river basin. According to the elevation of the river buffer zone, river confluence relationships among socio-hydrological units are determined, and upstream and downstream confluence of the human–water system is obtained. Finally, a case study of the Jing-Jin-Ji region in China, an area of intensive human activities, was performed. A reliability of 94.3% was reached using the proposed socio-hydrological unit division and river confluence calculation method, suggesting that the approach is highly applicable. Thus, the proposed method for generating socio-hydrological units and determining river confluence relationships can be applied to study the mutual influence and spatial distribution characteristics of natural society dualistic water cycles. The data requirement is minimal, and the approach can provide benefits in research on human water systems.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132074
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2075: Correction: Bakari et al. Fe0-Supported
           Anaerobic Digestion for Organics and Nutrients Removal from Domestic
           Sewage. Water 2022, 14, 1623

    • Authors: Omari Bakari, Karoli N. Njau, Chicgoua Noubactep
      First page: 2075
      Abstract: There were some errors in the original publication [...]
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132075
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2076: Managing Water Level for Large Migratory Fish
           at the Poyang Lake Outlet: Implications Based on Habitat Suitability and
           Connectivity

    • Authors: Huifeng Li, Hui Zhang, Lixiong Yu, Kun Cao, Dengqiang Wang, Xinbin Duan, Fang Ding, Zhihui Mao, Ke Wang, Shaoping Liu, Sheng Wang, Daqing Chen, Lin Wang
      First page: 2076
      Abstract: River–lake interaction is important for maintaining biodiversity, yet it is vulnerable to hydrological alteration. The connectivity of the channel connecting Poyang Lake and the Yangtze River not only ensures the regular migration of fish but also makes Poyang Lake a feeding and fattening ground for them. Unfortunately, human activities have dramatically changed the hydrodynamic conditions of Poyang Lake, which is experiencing severe drought due to the obvious decline in the water level in autumn and winter, especially since 2003. However, the possible impacts of the changes in the water level on the habitats of migratory fish remain unclear due to the limitation of traditional techniques in spatiotemporal analysis. Here, we combined a hydrodynamic model and habitat suitability model to simulate variations in the suitable habitat area and their connectivity under different water-level conditions. The conditions for the migration pathway of the target fish were obtained by a hydroacoustic survey using the Simrad EY60 echosounder. The results showed that the change in water level will significantly affect the spatiotemporal change in the suitable habitats and their connectivity. In particular, we found the existence of two thresholds that play a dominant role in illuminating the connectivity of effective suitable habitats (HC). Firstly, the maximum value of the weighted usable area (WUA) and HC can be achieved when the water level is more than 16 m. Secondly, when the water level is between 10 and 16 m, the changes in the HC are sensitive and rapid, and the area flooded at this stage is called the sensitive area. HC is a crucial element in fish migration and habitat conditions. Under the condition of continuous drought in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, our research contributes to clarifying the influence of water level on key habitats for fish and optimizes the practice of river–lake ecological management.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132076
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2077: Study on the Mechanism and Prevention Method
           of Frozen Wall Maldevelopment Induced by High-Flow-Rate Groundwater

    • Authors: Bin Wang, Yi Cao, Chuanxin Rong, Hua Cheng
      First page: 2077
      Abstract: In order to solve the engineering problem of the increase in closure time or even the failure of closure of the frozen wall in the high-velocity permeable stratum, the maldevelopment mechanism of frozen walls induced by high-flow-rate groundwater was studied by a similar physical model test. The results show that the flowing groundwater reduced the heat transfer efficiency of the freezing pipes and changed the spatial distribution of the frozen area. The closure time of the frozen wall and the non-uniformity coefficient of the frozen wall thickness increased with the increase of the groundwater velocity. Based on the maldevelopment mechanism of frozen wall induced by groundwater, the artificial freezing scheme of permeable stratum with high seepage velocity was optimized. For the scheme of single-circle freezing holes, the optimization method of reducing the spacing between freezing holes and adding auxiliary freezing holes upstream of water flow was proposed. For the scheme of double-circle freezing holes, the optimization method of local variable pipe spacing was proposed. The optimization effect of several schemes was predicted and analyzed by numerical calculation, the results show that: in the optimized design scheme of single-circle freezing holes, both methods of local compaction and adding auxiliary freezing holes upstream could effectively shorten the closure time of frozen walls, and increase the maximum velocity at which the frozen wall can be closed. The optimum spacing of auxiliary freezing pipes under different groundwater velocity was obtained by calculation. In the optimized design scheme of double-circle freezing holes, the spacing of freezing holes in different regions was optimized and adjusted according to the degree of influence of water flow on freezing temperature fields under the condition that the number of freezing holes was kept constant. After adopting this optimization scheme, the limit flow velocity of frozen walls can be closed increased significantly. This study could provide reference for the arrangement of freezing holes in high-velocity permeable formation.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132077
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2078: Insights into Phytoplankton Dynamics and Water
           Quality Monitoring with the BIOFISH at the Elbe River, Germany

    • Authors: Andre Wilhelms, Nicolas Börsig, Jingwei Yang, Andreas Holbach, Stefan Norra
      First page: 2078
      Abstract: Understanding the key factors influencing the water quality of large river systems forms an important basis for the assessment and protection of cross-regional ecosystems and the implementation of adapted water management concepts. However, identifying these factors requires in-depth comprehension of the unique environmental systems, which can only be achieved by detailed water quality monitoring. Within the scope of the joint science and sports event “Elbschwimmstaffel” (swimming relay on the river Elbe) in June/July 2017 organized by the German Ministry of Education and Research, water quality data were acquired along a 550 km long stretch of the Elbe River in Germany. During the survey, eight physiochemical water quality parameters were recorded in high spatial and temporal resolution with the BIOFISH multisensor system. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to identify and delineate processes influencing the water quality. The BIOFISH dataset revealed that phytoplankton activity has a major impact on the water quality of the Elbe River in the summer months. The results suggest that phytoplankton biomass constitutes a substantial proportion of the suspended particles and that photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton is closely related to significant temporal changes in pH and oxygen saturation. An evaluation of the BIOFISH data based on the combination of statistical analysis with weather and discharge data shows that the hydrological and meteorological history of the sampled water body was the main driver of phytoplankton dynamics. This study demonstrates the capacity of longitudinal river surveys with the BIOFISH or similar systems for water quality assessment, the identification of pollution sources and their utilization for online in situ monitoring of rivers.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132078
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2079: Damming-Induced Hydrogeomorphic Transition in
           Downstream Channel and Delta: A Case Study of the Yellow River, China

    • Authors: Hongyu Ji, Shenliang Chen, Chao Jiang, Yaoshen Fan, Yutao Fu, Peng Li, Fucheng Liu
      First page: 2079
      Abstract: River dynamics and sediment budget play a crucial role in shaping geomorphic variability of river channels and deltaic environments. Basin-scale human activities, including dam construction, induce alterations in river flow and sediment dynamics in the downstream channels and to the delta, and quantification of sediment source shift along downstream fluvial-deltaic systems is often uncertain. This study analyzed the river regime changes and sediment dynamics of a typical sediment-laden fluvial-deltaic system—the lower Yellow River (LYR) and the Yellow River Delta (YRD) —to assess the integrated effects of dam impoundment and dam-based river regulation schemes on downstream hydrogeomorphic transition processes. The Xiaolangdi (XLD) Reservoir, which was completed in 2000 with a total storage of 12.7 km3, is the final reservoir located in the middle Yellow River and plays an important role in flood control and energy supply. Following the full operation of XLD Reservoir, the relationship between water and sediment in the LYR became more balanced, with a drastic decline of sediment input and seasonal migrations of floodwaters. The interannual variability of water levels at downstream hydrological stations indicated a geomorphic transition in the LYR from net deposition to erosion state. The building of the XLD Reservoir caused a downstream shift of river-originated sediment source and 48% of the total sediment delivered to the YRD was derived from the LYR. However, the reduced sediment delivery since 2000 has still triggered net land loss regarding the YRD system, with a strong spatial variability which is dominated by the reduced accretion at the active delta front and erosion at the abandoned river mouth and coastal engineering zone. Compared with other environmental factors, the construction of upstream dams contributed the most to the decline of downstream sediment delivery over the past decades. The challenge for sustainable sediment management is the gradual decline of scouring efficiency as the riverbed sediment is coarsening. Our study suggests that future river regulation strategies should consider the geomorphic sustainability of both the LYR and the YRD system.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132079
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2080: Unlocking the Potential of Permeable Pavements
           in Practice: A Large-Scale Field Study of Performance Factors of Permeable
           Pavements in The Netherlands

    • Authors: Ted Isis Elize Veldkamp, Floris Cornelis Boogaard, Jeroen Kluck
      First page: 2080
      Abstract: Infiltrating pavements are potentially effective climate adaptation measures to counteract arising challenges related to flooding and drought in urban areas. However, they are susceptible to clogging causing premature degradation. As part of the Dutch Delta Plan, Dutch municipalities were encouraged to put infiltrating pavements into practice. Disappointing experiences made a significant number of municipalities decide, however, to stop further implementation. A need existed to better understand how infiltrating pavements function in practice. Through 81 full-scale infiltration tests, we investigated the performance of infiltrating pavements in practice. Most pavements function well above Dutch and international standards. However, variation was found to be high. Infiltration rates decrease over time. Age alone, however, is not a sufficient explanatory factor. Other factors, such as environmental or system characteristics, are of influence here. Maintenance can play a major role in preserving/improving the performance of infiltrating pavements in practice. While our results provide the first indication of the functioning of infiltrating pavement in practice, only with multi-year measurements following a strict monitoring protocol can the longer-term effects of environmental factors and maintenance actually be determined, providing the basis for the development of an optimal maintenance schedule and associated cost–benefit assessments to the added value of this type of climate adaptation.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132080
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2081: Soil Loss Estimation Coupling a Modified USLE
           Model with a Runoff Correction Factor Based on Rainfall and Satellite Soil
           Moisture Data

    • Authors: Francesca Todisco, Lorenzo Vergni, Sofia Ortenzi, Lucio Di Matteo
      First page: 2081
      Abstract: Satellite observations (Copernicus Sentinell-1) can supply antecedent soil moisture data, which helps to predict thresholds triggering runoff and runoff volume. In the paper, we developed a runoff correction factor to the USLE, using rainfall and satellite antecedent soil moisture data, following the approach of the modified USLE models such as the USLE-M and USLE-MM. The runoff and soil loss estimations accuracy are validated by plot-scale measurements (2008–2020 period) provided by SERLAB (Soil Erosion Laboratory) of the University of Perugia. The results show that the event rainfall depth added to the antecedent soil moisture is a fairly suitable predictor of the runoff. Using the simulated runoff in a USLE-MM model, the capability to predict event soil losses is enhanced with an RMSE = 0.57 Mg/ha lower than the RMSE ≈ 3.1 Mg/ha obtained by the USLE model. Using a modified USLE model, albeit with remote estimated runoff data, is still more advantageous at the event scale than the USLE model, which does not consider the runoff. These results are particularly significant for the estimation of runoff and soil losses. Satellite data shows the potential of applying the modified USLE models for large-scale monitoring and quantification of event soil erosion and runoff.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132081
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2082: Application of Rainfall-Runoff Simulation
           Based on the NARX Dynamic Neural Network Model

    • Authors: Yuehong Shao, Jun Zhao, Jinchao Xu, Aolin Fu, Min Li
      First page: 2082
      Abstract: The research into rainfall-runoff plays a very important role in water resource management. However, runoff simulation is a challenging task due to its complex formation mechanism, time-varying characteristics and nonlinear hydrological dynamic process. In this study, a nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) is used to simulate the runoff in the Linyi watershed located in the northeastern part of the Huaihe river basin. In order to better evaluate the performance of NARX, a distributed hydrological model, TOPX, is used to simulate the discharge as a reference, and runoff classification by cluster analysis is used to further improve the accuracy of runoff simulation. Based on the four statistics indexes of the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), correlation coefficient (CC), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean relative bias (Bias), the NARX model is capable of simulating the rainfall-runoff dynamic process satisfactorily, although there is a little underestimation of the peak flow. After runoff classification, underestimation has been improved, and discharge simulation driven by NARX based on runoff classification (C-NARX) is well consistent with the observation. It is feasible to take it as a promising method, which also can be seen as a good reference and replacement for the current rainfall-runoff simulation.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132082
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2083: Marine Environmental Capacity in Sanmen Bay,
           China

    • Authors: Yanming Yao, Jiahao Zhu, Li Li, Jiachen Wang, Jinxiong Yuan
      First page: 2083
      Abstract: Estuarine environmental capacity is the foundation for coastal biological diversity and self-purification capacity. Hence, studies on the marine environmental capacity (MEC) are the foundation for the total discharge control and water quality improvement of land-based pollutants. In the article, A calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to study the environmental characteristics of Sanmen Bay, including the tides, the residual currents, the tidal prism, and water exchange abilities. The model results were used to estimate the environmental capacity of the bay. Taking the pollution problem in Sanmen Bay as an example, the method of response factor, the sub-unit control method, and the phased control method were used to estimate the environmental capacity, pollutant amounts, and the pollutant reduction in the bay. The concentrations of COD, inorganic nitrogen, and acid salt in Sanmen Bay are spatially varied, with higher values occurring in the western part and in the inner bay. The half exchange time of the whole bay is about 23 days, and the exchange time of 95% water body is about 60 days. The evaluation of MEC cannot only provide technical support for the offshore aquaculture industries but also provide a scientific basis for the total control of terrigenous pollutants in coastal cities in Southern Zhejiang Province.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132083
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2084: Short-Term Toxicity of Lanthanum to Embryonic
           and Yolk-Sac Stage Larvae of the Rare Minnow Gobiocypris rarus Ye &
           Fu, 1983

    • Authors: Liangxia Su, Dong Hua, Jun Liu, Bing Hu, Jianwei Wang
      First page: 2084
      Abstract: The wide use of rare-earth elements in China for aquacultural purposes and many other applications has resulted in their accumulation in the aquatic environment and has caused concern about their safety. In this study, we tested the toxicity of lanthanum (La (III)) to the early life stages (embryonic and sac-fry stages) of the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus Ye & Fu, 1983. We exposed fertilized eggs to 0, 0.06, 0.13, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 1.92 mg/L of La (III) until the yolk sac was exhausted in any group (at about 168 h of exposure). Exposure to 1.00 and 1.92 mg/L La (III) had obvious lethal effects on embryos, La (III) exposure also accelerated the development of embryos and had a significant inhibitory effect on the hatching rate after 96 h. As the exposure time increased, the larvae exhibited obvious yolk-sac edema, pericardium edema, spinal curvature, tail bending, and other symptoms of poisoning, including deflated swim-bladder. In general, these results clearly indicate that La pollutants hinder the development of rare minnow embryos and are acutely toxic to rare minnow larvae. Our finding would provide a theoretical basis for further research of relevant feed additive criteria for this fish.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132084
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2085: Exceptional Quantity of Water Habitats on
           Unreclaimed Spoil Banks

    • Authors: Daniela Budská, Petr Chajma, Filip Harabiš, Milič Solský, Jana Doležalová, Jiří Vojar
      First page: 2085
      Abstract: Surface mining is responsible for the large-scale destruction of affected landscapes. Simultaneously, the dumping of overburden soil on spoil banks during mining generates new landscapes, usually with heterogeneous topography. If spoil banks are not subsequently reclaimed technically (i.e., if the terrain is not leveled), considerable habitat diversity can thereby be established, consisting of numerous types of both terrestrial and water habitats. We compared the area and number of freshwater habitats between spoil banks (both technically unreclaimed and reclaimed) and the surrounding landscapes undisturbed by mining. The area of water habitats and especially their numbers per km2 were by far the greatest on unreclaimed spoil banks. Meanwhile, the quantity of water bodies on reclaimed spoil banks was about half that on non-mining landscapes. Great variety among the numerous water habitats, as indicated by their areas, depths, and proportions of aquatic vegetation on unreclaimed spoil banks, can contribute to regional landscape heterogeneity and water environment stability while providing conditions suitable for diverse taxa. The exceptional number of these water bodies can compensate for their loss in the surrounding landscape. We conclude that leaving some parts of spoil banks to spontaneous succession plays an irreplaceable role in the restoration of post-mining landscapes.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132085
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2086: Phytoremediation Potential of Selected
           Ornamental Woody Species to Heavy Metal Accumulation in Response to
           Long-Term Irrigation with Treated Wastewater

    • Authors: Rabea S. Al-Sayaydeh, Jehad S. Al-Hawadi, Khaled A. Al-Habahbeh, Mohamed B. Al-Nawaiseh, Randa N. Albdaiwi, Jamal Y. Ayad
      First page: 2086
      Abstract: Arid and semiarid environments of Mediterranean countries suffer from scarcity of water resources, which limits their agriculture productivity. Using treated wastewater (TWW) is considered an alternative strategy for irrigation purposes in such areas. However, TWW contains substantial levels of heavy metals (HMs) and contaminants that pollute the environment and soil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of six selected woody tree species under long-term irrigation with TWW. The concentration, bioaccumulation factor (BFC), translocation factor (TF), and comprehensive bioconcentration index (CBCI) of HMs were measured in the various parts (roots, bark, and leaves) of the studied tree species. The results show a general pattern of mineral accumulation in the roots and low translocation to the areal parts of various species. Cupressus sempervirens, which is a native species in Mediterranean environments, had higher TF values for Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Pb metals in its areal parts compared to other tree species. The study shows that Ficus nitida has the potential to be a hyperaccumulator for Cd in its bark, with a TF value that exceeds 12. Deciduous trees species (Populus nigra and Robinia pseudoacacia) were found to have high TF values for Ni and Cd toward their areal parts, whereas a higher TF for Cr (1.21) was only found in P. nigra bark. Cupressus sempervirens had, significantly, the highest bark and leaf CBCI values (0.83 and 0.82, respectively), whereas Ficus nitida had the second-highest values in the bark and leaves (0.56 and 0.51, respectively). Therefore, Cupressus sempervirens and Ficus nitida are considered good hyperaccumulators for various HMs, and can be used for phytoremediation activities in polluted areas.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132086
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2087: Environmental Concern, Environmental
           Knowledge, and Residents’ Water Conservation Behavior: Evidence from
           China

    • Authors: Yong Li, Bairong Wang, Manfei Cui
      First page: 2087
      Abstract: Water conservation represents a typical green behavior and a sustainable lifestyle. Understanding residents’ water conservation behaviors is a prerequisite for promoting more water savers. Using the snowball sampling technique, this study conducted a survey on a sample of 532 Chinese residents to investigate their water conservation behavior, i.e., reusing water in daily life. This study aims for examining psychological and knowledge factors on residents’ water conservation behavior in China using binary logistic regression. Results show that over half of the respondents (54%) have the habit of reusing water in their daily lives. Residents with stronger environmental concern and higher level of environmental knowledge are more likely to exhibit household water conservation in China. Additionally, environmental knowledge plays a positive moderating role in the relationship between environmental concern and water conservation behavior. Environmental knowledge serves as a catalyzer that facilitates the transformation from residents’ environmental concern into real water conservation behavior. Among the demographic variables, only income exerts significantly negative effect on residents’ water conservation behavior, and other variables (e.g., age and gender) fail to exert any influence on this behavior. This study contributes to the literature on environmental psychology and concludes with implications for water resource management.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132087
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2088: Developing Toxic Metal Environmental Justice
           Indices (TM-EJIs) for Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Manganese Contamination
           in Private Drinking Wells in North Carolina

    • Authors: Noemi Gavino-Lopez, Lauren A. Eaves, Adam E. Enggasser, Rebecca C. Fry
      First page: 2088
      Abstract: Toxic metal exposure via private drinking wells is an environmental health challenge in North Carolina (NC). Policies tainted by environmental racism shape who has access to public water supplies, with Black People, Indigenous People, and People of Color (BIPOC) often excluded from municipal services. Thus, toxic metal exposure via private wells is an environmental justice (EJ) issue, and it is under-studied in NC. In this study, we developed four Toxic Metal Environmental Justice Indices (TM-EJIs) for inorganic arsenic (iAs), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn) to quantitatively identify areas of environmental injustice in NC. TM-EJIs were calculated at the census tract level (n = 2038) as the product of the following: (1) number of well water tests with concentrations exceeding national standards, (2) percentage of the low-income and minority population, and (3) population density. Mn had the greatest proportion (25.17%) of positive TM-EJIs, which are indicative of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups exposed to toxic metals. Positive TM-EJIs, particularly for Pb and Mn, were primarily located in eastern NC. These results highlight several new counties of concern and can be used by public health professionals and state environmental agencies to prioritize remediation efforts and efforts to reduce environmental injustices.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132088
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2089: Extraction of Aquaculture Pond Region in
           Coastal Waters of Southeast China Based on Spectral Features and Spatial
           Convolution

    • Authors: Lin Wang, Yefan Li, Dongzhu Zhang, Zhicai Liu
      First page: 2089
      Abstract: To control the negative effects resulting from the disorderly development of aquaculture ponds and promote the development of the aquaculture industry, rapid and accurate identification and extraction techniques are essential. An aquaculture pond is a special net-like water body divided by complex roads and dikes. Simple spectral features or spatial texture features are not sufficient to accurately extract it, and the mixed feature rule set is more demanding on computer performance. Supported by the GEE platform, and using the Landsat satellite data set and corresponding DEM combined with field survey data, we constructed a decision-making model for the extraction of aquaculture ponds in the coastal waters, and applied this method to the coastal waters of Southeast China. This method combined the image spectral information, spatial features, and morphological operations. The results showed that the total accuracy of this method was 93%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.86. The overlapping proportions of results between the automated extraction and visual interpretation for test areas were all more than 90%, and the average was 92.5%, which reflected the high precision and reliability of this extraction method. Furthermore, in 2020, the total area of coastal aquaculture ponds in the study area was 6348.51 km2, which was distributed primarily in the cities of Guangdong and Jiangsu. Kernel density analysis suggested that aquaculture ponds in Guangdong and Jiangsu had the highest degree of concentration, which means that they face higher regulatory pressure in the management of aquaculture ponds than other provinces. Therefore, this method can be used to extract aquaculture ponds in coastal waters of the world, and holds great significance to promote the orderly management and scientific development of fishery aquaculture.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132089
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2090: Efficient Vanadate Removal by Mg-Fe-Ti Layered
           Double Hydroxide

    • Authors: Yanwei Guo, Hongtao Lu, Bangjun Han, Tiemei Zou, Zhiliang Zhu
      First page: 2090
      Abstract: A series of novel layered double hydroxides (Mg-Fe-Ti-LDHs) containing Mg2+, Fe3+ and Ti4+ were prepared. The adsorption performance of Mg-Fe-Ti-LDHs on vanadate in aqueous solution was investigated and the effects of various factors on the adsorption process were examined, including initial vanadate concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, solution pH and coexisting ions. A preliminary discussion of the adsorption mechanism of vanadate was also presented. Results show that the adsorption efficiency of vanadate increased with the introduction of Ti4+ into the laminate of LDHs materials. The adsorption capacity of the materials also differed for different anion intercalated layers, and the Mg-Fe-Ti-LDHs with Cl- intercalation showed higher vanadate removal compared to the CO32− intercalated layer. Furthermore, Mg-Fe-Ti-CLDH showed higher vanadate removal compared to pre-calcination. The adsorption experimental data of vanadate on Mg-Fe-Ti-LDHs were consistent with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The pH of the solution significantly affected the vanadate removal efficiency. Meanwhile, coexisting ions PO43−, SO42− and NO3− exerted a significant influence on vanadate adsorption, the magnitude of the influence was related to the valence state of the coexisting anions. The possible adsorption mechanisms can be attributed to ion exchange and layered ligand exchange processes. The good adsorption capacity of Mg-Fe-Ti-LDHs on vanadate broadens the application area of functional materials of LDHs.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132090
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Water, Vol. 14, Pages 2091: Advanced Technologies for Offering Situational
           Intelligence in Flood Warning and Response Systems: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Srimal Samansiri, Terrence Fernando, Bingunath Ingirige
      First page: 2091
      Abstract: Deaths and property damage from floods have increased drastically in the past two decades due to various reasons such as increased populations, unplanned developments, and climate change. Such losses from floods can be reduced by issuing timely early warnings and through effective response mechanisms based on situational intelligence during emerging flood situations. This paper presents the outcome of a literature review that was conducted to identify the types and sources of the intelligence required for flood warning and response processes as well as the technology solutions that can be used for offering such intelligence. Twenty-seven different types of intelligence are presented together with the technologies that can be used to extract such intelligence. Furthermore, a conceptual architecture that illustrates how relevant technology solutions can be used to extract intelligence at various stages of a flood cycle for decision-making in issuing early warnings and planning responses is presented.
      Citation: Water
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/w14132091
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2022)
       
 
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