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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.422
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1651-436X - ISSN (Online) 1654-1642
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Enhancement of MF R-Mode ranging accuracy by exploiting measurement-based
           error mitigation techniques

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      Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, the maritime sector strongly relies on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) for the provision of position, navigation, and timing (PNT) information. The standard functionality of several ships’ bridge instruments depends on such information, which becomes critical to have a safe and reliable navigation. Nevertheless, the possibility of GNSS outages combined with unintentional and intentional interference to GNSS signals, which have been increasing over the last years, can severely threaten the nominal activity of the crew onboard of vessels. For these reasons, alternative position, navigation, and timing (APNT) systems become fundamental in order to provide operational continuity. R(anging)-Mode is a terrestrial alternative system to GNSS for the maritime domain. In one of its possible implementation, it exploits synchronized medium frequency (MF) signals transmitted by maritime radio beacons. In the MF band, the radio waves are attenuated and distorted by the change of electrical properties of the ground along the propagation path. Moreover, these signals are affected by terrain elevation changes and large metallic infrastructures which induce an overall loss in the accuracy of the system. In this paper, we propose a mitigation technique based on the estimation of these additional error sources by using in-field range measurements. The theoretical details are explained in depth and the technique is validated with real data gathered on a measurement campaign. A clear and significant performance improvement is achieved on the range accuracy when the proposed approach is applied.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • Outlining maritime cabotage public policies for the Brazilian transport
           system

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      Abstract: Abstract Cabotage in Brazil has not been sufficiently addressed, despite the fact that its national importance requires that it be thoroughly understood. The purpose of this research revolves around analysing and discussing the strategic role and usefulness of cabotage in order to base the development of public policies within the scope of the Brazilian transport matrix. The study is both exploratory and descriptive. Its aim is to inductively retrieve empirical data patterns from unstructured interviews guided by a general initial script; primary data collection was grounded on the problematic contextualisation set from relevant secondary data treated with content analysis software. The ex-post literature review played a central role in the discussion of the emerging patterns of behaviour that supported the development of preliminary correlations between the proposed recommendations and the identified obstacles. The three main types of obstacles that were found could be divided and linked to recommendations to facilitate the development of cabotage based on the research findings. The resulting policy proposals are classified as follows: (i) looking holistically at cabotage and, as a strategic domain for both development and sovereignty; (ii) monitoring the fuel price as a core cost; (iii) eliminating and simplifying useless bureaucracy; (iv) establishing a fruitful relationship with shipbuilding; (v) regulating taxation; (vi) reviewing the state’s funding requirements; and (vii) improving port infra- and superstructures. Finally, it is argued that credible public policies have emerged by following a scientific method to process and organise data.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Northern sea route as an emerging option for global transport networks: a
           policy perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract The Northern Sea Route (NSR) is an emerging alternative route to the Suez Canal; however, inconclusive research exists on its benefits and viability. This paper uses a two-stage Delphi approach to collect qualitative data from experts, on what actions Nordic countries (Nordic countries are Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland, as well as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland (Nordic Co-operation, 2020)) can undertake to prepare themselves to enter NSR and capture potential benefits deriving from trading in global transport networks. By conceptually developing a framework based on first-mover advantage (FMA) and dynamic capabilities theory (DCT), this paper empirically identifies a path to develop capabilities that could allow stakeholders to reduce logistics costs through collaborations in NSR. Our paper has made a twofold contribution, first to literature by linking FMA/DCT in a single framework and elaborating it in a global transportation and logistics context. Second, a practical contribution by identifying how countries along the NSR, and specifically Nordic countries, can capture and maximise its benefits by using the right policy framework.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Analysis of factors influencing the effectiveness of MET instructors

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      Abstract: Abstract The Maritime Education and Training (MET) instructors play an important role in maritime safety. They educate, train and prepare new and existing seafarers for efficient and safe job performance and ultimately shape the safety and sustainability of shipping operations. To assist instructors in performing their tasks appropriately, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has developed various IMO model courses. The paper addresses the factors that bear upon the effectiveness of instructors at MET institutions. The authors developed a questionnaire with the aim of identifying the most significant factors from the instructors’ perspective and investigating whether there were correlations between factors and if they affected each other. The survey included 113 participants from 26 countries. In addition to descriptive statistics, Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test were used to analyse the obtained data and investigate the possible correlation between instructors’ competencies and perceptions of the factors affecting the teaching effectiveness. Finally, the research findings and the main conclusions and recommendations that emerge from these findings are presented.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • A systematic scoping review on ship accidents due to off-track manoeuvring

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      Abstract: Abstract This research aims to assess the main contributing factors that lead to a ship manoeuvring off track. For this reason, this paper reviews marine accident reports involving the failure to keep the vessel on the planned route. The study adopts the scoping review technique methodology. It started with the identification and screening of the accident reports as well as the selection of the reports based on the eligibility criteria. This was followed by the mapping and summarising of the reports based on the scope, before finally categorising the underlying factors through thematic analysis. While reviewing the accident records, it was noted that most accidents resulting from off-track manoeuvring were grounded, and in a few cases, it caused collisions with bridges, jetties, and buoys. The contributing factors to off-track manoeuvring were human factors, ship factors, and environmental factors. This study can enhance the navigation officers’ awareness of the importance of staying on the course line and identify the probable cause of such occurrences.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Determining factors affecting second-hand ship value: linkages and
           implications for the shipbuilding industry

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      Abstract: Abstract Inherited volatility and the vulnerability to economic conditions make shipping a challenging business. The prices of second-hand ships and newbuilding are strongly interrelated and are affected by market dynamics. Therefore, understanding factors affecting second-hand prices of ships can be crucial for countries specialize in shipbuilding to diversify their international trade participation via vessels’ exports. This study provides a framework for evaluating several influential factors on second-hand ship prices in different market segments and contributes with managerial implications supporting the shipbuilding industry from a strategic, operational and marketing perspective. This study uses an ordinary least square regression considering a total of 8948 sales transactions of second-hand vessel sales from 2008 to 2020 to determine the effect of factors as age, size and the freight on second-hand ship value. Furthermore, it investigates the effect of ships sold under a time charter agreement, country of built and the type of main engine. The findings suggest that the ships’ type of main engine and the country of build are statistically significant among most vessel categories, while other vessel-specific and economic factors also explain the value of second-hand ships consistent with the literature. Furthermore, the behaviour of the multivariate model is unique depending upon the type of ship classification, which hinders the possibility of generalization. Several implications for the shipbuilding industry are finally derived. The study contributes to existing literature by extending both the factors and type of ships (17 categories among, bulk, tankers and containers) considered in the analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Michael S. Weisbach: The Economist’s Craft: An Introduction to Research,
           Publishing, and Professional Development: Princeton University Press, New
           Jersey, 2021. pp. 320. $60.00, Hardcover. ISBN: 9780691216492

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      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Comparative analysis of charter party clauses versus marine insurance
           contractual terms: present legal status and future trends

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to classify and assess the impact of charter party clauses against the contractual terms of marine insurance contracts. Initially, a contractual term may be classified as a condition, a warranty, or an innominate term when the nature of a clause is not yet classified. Based on this classification, the effectiveness of those terms and the available remedies vary significantly upon a contractual dispute or termination. Specifically, the classification of a term as a condition has similar effects in charter parties and insurance contracts, namely, the termination of the contract and/or claim for damages. Nevertheless, the marine insurance conditions also rely on the claim’s seriousness to effectively provide the election of contractual termination, thus rendering them rather weakened compared to charter parties. At the same time, classifying a term as a warranty always had a different impact. The classification of a term as a warranty in a charter party may only offer as a remedy compensation for damages, but not the option to terminate the contract. In insurance contracts, the classification of a term as a warranty provides the same options to the affected party as a term classified as a condition, namely, the termination of the contract and/or claim for damages. With the introduction of MIA 2015, the affected party, when triggering a warranty, has a third option, namely, to be able to amend the contractual relationship in case reasons of termination emerge, protecting at the same time the other party, rendering it irresponsible of any damages or claims until the contractual relationship is reinstated.
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
       
  • Development of a mathematical model to predict the health impact and
           duration of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on board cargo vessels

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      Abstract: Abstract The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought significant impact onto the maritime activities worldwide, including disruption to global trade and supply chains. The ability to predict the evolution and duration of a COVID-19 outbreak on cargo vessels would inform a more nuanced response to the event and provide a more precise return-to-trade date. This paper presents the SEIQ(H)R (Susceptibility–Exposed–Infected–Quarantine–(Hospitalisation)–Removed/Recovered) model, which is the first deterministic mathematical model developed and fit-tested to describe the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 on board cargo vessels of up to 60 crew members. Due to specific living and working circumstances on board cargo vessels, instead of utilising the reproduction number, we consider the highest fraction of crew members who share the same nationality to quantify the transmissibility of the disease. The performance of the model is verified using case studies based on data collected during COVID-19 outbreaks on three cargo vessels in Western Australia during 2020. The simulations show that the model can forecast the time taken for the transmission dynamics on each vessel to reach their equilibriums, providing informed predictions on the evolution of the outbreak, including hospitalisation rates and duration. The model demonstrates that (a) all crew members are susceptible to infection; (b) their roles on board are a determining factor in the evolution of the outbreak; and (c) an unmitigated outbreak could affect the entire crew and continue on for many weeks. The ability to model the evolution of an outbreak, in both duration and severity, is essential to predict outcomes and to plan for the best response strategy. At the same time, it offers a higher degree of certainty regarding the return to trade, which is of significant importance to multiple stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
       
  • Investment and trading strategies in the maritime sector: an application
           to the secondhand containership market

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      Abstract: Abstract As shipping market players operate in a competitive and volatile business environment, their highly capital-intensive investment decisions to target value-generating projects are exposed to critical risks. Therefore, the paper investigates the efficiency of investment strategies based on the combination of technical trading rules and fundamental analysis in selling and purchasing ships in the container shipping market. Using historical datasets of second-hand vessel prices and time-charter rates from October 1996 to June 2021, long-run cointegrating implications and short-run causality spillover effects are examined for three groups of containerships, distinguished by their transportation capacity, viz. 725 TEUs, 1700 TEUs, and 3500 TEUs. In addition, the moving average trading rules are used to indicate the timing of investment or divestment decisions through the analysis period. The results for vessel prices and earnings for 3500 TEU containerships appeared to be more volatile compared to smaller ships (725 TEUs and 1700 TEUs), while time-charter earnings are seen to exert an impact on second-hand prices across all vessel types. Moreover, due to higher volatility, the trading strategies based on price-earning ratios significantly outperform the buy-and-hold strategies for the 3500 TEU and the 1700 TEU containerships. On the contrary, the decision to buy-and-hold smaller container ships (725 TEU) yields higher profits than the active sale and purchase strategy. The insights provided in this paper can be used by multiple stakeholders, such as liner operators, investors, lessors, and researchers.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
  • Autonomous shipping — an analysis of the maritime stakeholder
           perspectives

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      Abstract: Abstract Several major initiatives have been undertaken worldwide towards the development and commercialisation of maritime autonomous surface ships (MASSs). This study aims at capturing the current understanding and perspectives of the maritime industry stakeholders pertinent to the challenges and requirements for the design and operation of MASSs. A methodological approach consisting of five steps is followed. A questionnaire is developed and employed to conduct two surveys among the identified maritime industry stakeholders. Subsequently, the acquired response results are analysed, whereas statistical metrics are calculated and comparatively assessed using the box plot method, to provide evidence for identifying the perspectives and gaps from the considered stakeholders’ groups. Recommendations are provided for addressing these gaps, whereas further initiatives required in the maritime industry are also highlighted. This study contributes to the better understanding on the perspectives of the maritime industry stakeholders, whereas the results can support the prioritisation of future initiatives towards addressing existing barriers and overcome misconceptions for the next-generation autonomous shipping.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
  • A Fox vs. A Hedgehog: Two Types of Researchers

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      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-022-00287-x
       
  • Timothy G. Pollock: How to use storytelling in your academic writing:
           techniques for engaging readers and successfully navigating the writing
           and publishing processes. Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, 2021,
           200 pp. ISBN: 9781839102820 (eBook)

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      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-022-00288-w
       
  • An analysis of the relationship among organizational justice, vocational
           belongingness and internal customer satisfaction of Turkish seafarers

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, organizational justice perceptions of seafarers in relation to their job belongingness and satisfaction levels were investigated. The outcomes of organizational behaviour and the relationships among these outcomes are more important in maritime than they are in other sectors because of the demanding conditions of the life onboard which requires seafarers to work and live at the same place with the same people for a long time. The number of studies about the relationship among these three outcomes in the maritime sector is scarce, so this research is expected to fill a gap regarding this. The study was conducted with 398 Turkish seafarers. According to the results, positive organizational justice perceptions of seafarers have a significant effect on their vocational belongingness and job satisfaction levels, which will be called internal customer satisfaction levels of seafarers in this study. It is also found that internal customer satisfaction of seafarers has positive effect on their vocational belongingness. Although relations among various organizational outcomes in the maritime sector are significant due to their effective role on the smooth-going of the relations onboard, they have not been widely studied so far, so the further studies may focus on closing this gap with surveys administrated with a wider group of seafarers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-021-00260-0
       
  • An overview of sociotechnical research on maritime energy efficiency

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      Abstract: Abstract A qualitative synthesis is presented covering the literature on operational energy efficiency in shipping based on research from a sociotechnical perspective. Three themes were identified, using thematic analysis, as particularly significant for the management of energy: (i) cooperation, communication, and knowledge sharing between stakeholders; (ii) organizational information processing (cognitive bottlenecks and sense making practices); and (iii) professional education and training. We conclude that while previous research has uncovered many of the barriers to increasing energy efficiency, few studies have examined the interdependence of practices and technologies underlying organizational cognitive systems and change. The identified research gap calls for more longitudinal process-based case studies investigating the design, implementation, and use of information technologies supporting organizational planning and decision-making required for improving energy efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-022-00263-5
       
  • Measurement of situation awareness in engine control room: approach for
           non-technical skill assessment in engine resource management

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      Abstract: Abstract Situation awareness (SA) has been implemented well in theory and application as a non-technical skill to construct human performance in the maritime work environment. However, most of the available literature covers only the SA under the bridge work environment in the maritime operation field. Few studies exist in the field of engine operation environments, supported by little evidence from empirical measurement results. This study examined and measured the SA in engine operation supervisory work. Two scenarios were built to construct different workload levels using a high-fidelity engine plant simulator. Participants (N = 24) were recruited based on their onboard training experience. Two measurement methods were applied to each scenario: a subjective measurement (perceived SA) method and an objective measurement (SA sensitivity) method. The results showed that the participants had a higher perceived SA and SA sensitivity in a lower workload scenario. Moreover, objective measurements were able to discriminate between the perception and comprehension levels of SA. Although all groups achieved the same perception level, more experienced participants had a higher SA sensitivity at the comprehension level. The results revealed that the subjective and objective methods are sensitive to the workloads and experience levels. These measurement methods are beneficial for examining non-technical skills in maritime education and training with the aim of supporting the cadet in present and future work environments.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-022-00270-6
       
  • Socio-economic impacts of a maritime industrial development area (MIDA)
           model in Latin America: the case of the Açu Port-Industrial Complex

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      Abstract: Abstract Maritime industrial development areas (MIDAs) have been designed as important models to promote regional industrialization and accelerate its economic growth. The Port-Industrial Complex (PIC) of Açu is considered the most audacious and great initiative in South America. Its chosen location was a rural and barely populated municipality in the Southeastern Brazil, where farming population was subjected to land expropriation for the creation of an industrial district. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate direct impacts of PIC installation and operation on the life quality of human population. For that, demographic (population size, live births) and economic indicators (royalties, gross domestic product, gross domestic product per capita) were compiled between 2000 and 2020 and statistically analyzed for temporal changes. Significant positive trends were found for all the five socioeconomic indicators, but annual variations were overall more pronounced for economic than demographic indicators. Installation and operation of Açu PIC brought undeniable local positive impacts and caused significant increases in population size, royalties, and gross domestic products. However, the rates of changes varied in scale and time for each indicator, reflecting additive interferences of local, regional, and even global events and governmental policies over the socioeconomic status of the human population affected by MIDA project.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-021-00261-z
       
  • Adapting environmental management systems for African ports

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      Abstract: Abstract Globally sustainable environmental practices in ports have been linked to socio-economic benefits. While African ports are increasingly acknowledging environmental issues and starting to address these in environmental policy, many are still struggling with effective implementation of sound environmental management practices. Multiple factors have been identified as potentially contributing to these challenges including institutional limitations, financial constraints, and limited human and technical capacity. In this paper, we propose an EMS framework for African ports, based on international best practice, but customised to specific continental challenges, and taking guidance from integrated coastal management (ICM) best practice recognising that coastal systems are the broader domain within which ports are spatially situated. The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) model provides the adaptive management structure for the proposed EMS framework. We consider this framework as a logical and structured method to initiate the implementation of EMS in African ports more effectively, compatible with international standards such as ISO 14001. Unpacking each of the key components and elements within the PDCA model, together with motivation for their inclusion, provides greater transparency to port managers who ultimately have to understand and implement EMS processes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-022-00262-6
       
  • Do maritime innovation centers produce results'

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      Abstract: Abstract Over the last decade, numerous innovation centers, accelerators, and incubators have been developed globally to facilitate startup firms within the global maritime sector or as it is a part of what is called the “Blue Economy.” Several of these industry-focused centers have a venture funding connection as part of their offerings. The intent is to spur development of new technologies to be incorporated within the maritime logistics industry or totally reinvent processes that have been in place for decades. Ideation competitions have been developed in some instances and entrepreneurs are urged to participate in programs that will provide networking opportunities and access to funding. Despite this development, the number of maritime startups that reach minimum viable product for introduction and investment remains small in comparison to other industries. This study will examine the current state of maritime innovation centers around the world and consider the value of these programs in the evolution of the industry toward digitization.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-022-00285-z
       
  • Investigating the introduction of e-navigation and S-100 into bridge
           related operations: the impact over seafarers

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      Abstract: Abstract The present work is focused on analyzing how e-navigation will affect the daily work of seafarers involved in bridge-related operations. Within e-navigation, the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is currently working in the development of the new standard (S-100) whose role is to guarantee a homogeneous management of the maritime domain data. S-100 is called to act as the Common Maritime Data Structure (CMDS), it represents the technical framework required to guarantee a wider and better use of maritime data. The mission of the standard is to create a common foundation that can be used for multiple purposes; meteorologists, physicists, and whoever is interested in developing maritime related products will refer to the same standard. Not having a homogeneous type of data processed with standardized procedures will allow a better combination and processing of maritime data. Considering the perspective of Hydrographic Offices, the objective of the present document is to analyze the impact which e-navigation will have over seafarers. The study is focused on the evaluation of the risks connected to S-100-based products and on the analysis of specific bridge operations. Considering that e-navigation products are still at their design phase, being aware of the consequences for the final users is essential to make S-100-based products more customer oriented and to allow seafarers who are involved in bridge operations to get familiar with this new technology.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13437-022-00286-y
       
 
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