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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Wetlands Ecology and Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.656
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9834 - ISSN (Online) 0923-4861
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Recording and modeling the seasonal growth of salt marsh vegetation at
           Liao river estuary, China, based on the wetland image monitoring system
           (WIMS)

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetland ecology monitoring is an essential technical guarantee for the protection and restoration of the fragile ecosystem of wetlands. Due to the degradation of keystone species Suaeda Heteroptera Pall. (S. Heteroptera) in the Liao River Estuary wetland, the Wetland Image Monitoring System (WIMS) was established to obtain real-time, continuous, high spatiotemporal resolution data about the coverage and height of S. Heteroptera. Based on the monitoring data, we elicited the best model to describe the variation of the coverage and height for S. Heteroptera. The results showed that the growth of S. Heteroptera could be divided into three stages: rapid growth stage (April–May), slow growth stage (June–August), and stable stage (after September). The Bertalanffy model was the best choice for the coverage simulation of S. Heteroptera. The segment model composed of the linear and Gompertz models was suitable for the height simulation of S. Heteroptera, which could effectively reduce the relative error compared with the single model. In addition, the WIMS could potentially capture other important ecological factors in local regions, including benthic animals, birds, waterlogging conditions, etc. Although WIMS has some application limitations, the high spatiotemporal resolution and relatively low cost make it an effective tool to explore the degradation of typical ecosystems under climate change and human activities.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Historical changes in wetland management legislation and practices in
           Zimbabwe, and their implications

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      Abstract: Abstract This study critically discusses historical developments in wetland management legislation through the twentieth century up to present in Zimbabwe, and how the legislative and management frameworks of different time periods have influenced wetland management strategies, including the needs and involvement of local wetland users. This analysis shows that in the twentieth century colonial era (up to 1980), laws prohibited the use of wetlands for some purposes and that local communities were largely excluded from using wetland resources. After independence in 1980, laws inherited from the colonial era were still applied despite the changed political and social situation, and this resulted in tensions between different wetland users. Since 2002, the Environmental Management Agency in Zimbabwe has regulated wetland use through licensing of wetland resource exploitation and through training of wetland users. However, this has not been effective and wetlands throughout the country have continued to be exploited for agriculture and by encroachment of urban infrastructure. There are also wider national-level tensions between the need for sustainable wetland management and conservation, and political imperatives for economic development by exploiting wetland resources. Balancing these issues underlies the challenges for wetland management in Zimbabwe and other developing countries. Based on this analysis, key recommendations are made regarding the need for closing legislative gaps in wetland management, inventorising and monitoring wetland properties, and engaging fully with community stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Using UAV imagery to map invasive Phragmites australis on the Crow Island
           State Game Area, Michigan, USA

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetland managers in North America spend a great deal of time and money trying to control invasive Phragmites australis. Accurate mapping with remote sensing imagery is key to these efforts, which are increasingly employing uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. We mapped P. australis on the Crow Island State Game Area using UAV-derived single-date and multi-date RGB imagery combined with a Digital Surface Model (DSM). In addition to a traditional maximum likelihood classification (MLC), we used two machine-learning (ML) classification algorithms: support vector machine (SVM) and neural network (NN). We assessed accuracy based on both the traditional global model (overall accuracy [OA], omission [OE] and commission [CE] errors for the Phragmites class, and Kappa statistic) and local, per-patch accuracy broken down across 5 density classes and 3 size classes. Our global accuracy assessment for single-date imagery found that SVM (72% OA, 10% OE, 16% CE) performed similar to MLC (70% OA, 17% OE, 8% CE), while NN (33% OA, 7% OE, 41% CE) performed worse. The use of multi-date imagery had little effect on accuracy (MLC 64% OA, 21% OE, 12% CE; SVM 71% OA, 11% OE, 17% CE) except with NN, where the additional bands led to much higher accuracy (67% OA, 7% OE, 22% CE). These results were largely mirrored in the per-patch accuracy assessment, where SVM performed slightly better than MLC and NN performed poorly due to high commission errors. Regarding patch size and density, both larger and medium sized patches, as well as denser patches, were identified relatively accurately, but smaller patches tended to be overestimated and lower-density patches exhibited high omission errors. These results show that wetland managers can achieve very acceptable mapping accuracies with simple methods that require little in the way of resources and expertise.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Comparison of annual flood characteristics in four watersheds in relation
           to the wetland surface areas (Southern Quebec, Canada)

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      Abstract: Abstract This study compares the characteristics (magnitude, duration, frequency and timing) of annual flood (floods) in southern Quebec in relation to the wetland surface areas in four different watersheds, grouped into two pairs over the 1930–2019 period. The four watersheds are: the two watersheds of the Matane (1% wetland surface area) and Rimouski (3% wetland surface area) rivers located on the south shore and characterized by temperate maritime climate on the one hand, and the watersheds of the Matawin (9% wetland surface area) and Petite-Nation (15% wetland surface area) on the north shore and characterized by temperate continental climate on the other. The study revealed that the magnitude (specific discharges) of annual flood flows is on average about four times greater in the Matane River watershed than in the Petite-Nation River watershed. However, the duration of these flood flows is on average about six times shorter in the first (Matane river) than in the second (Petite Nation river) watershed. Despite the small sample size analyzed, the correlation analysis revealed that out of 13 physiographic and climatic variables, wetland surface area is the variable that best correlates with the magnitude (negative correlation) and duration (positive correlation) of flows. Therefore, wetlands significantly reduce the intensity of annual floods but significantly increase their duration due to the “surface water storage” they exert on surface runoff. No significant differences in the frequency and timing of annual flood peaks were observed among the four watersheds.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Open SESAME: a social-ecological systems framework for collaborative
           adaptive management and engagement in coastal restoration and climate
           adaptation

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      Abstract: Abstract The successful implementation and sustainability of many marsh restoration efforts, including coastal adaptation to buffer inundation and mitigate sea level rise, often hinges upon support from surrounding human communities. Yet, stakeholder engagement in these projects remains relatively undervalued and underutilized. We present the Social-Ecological Systems, Adaptive Management, and Engagement (SESAME) framework that provides reciprocal connections between the human and ecological components of restoration efforts and the resulting management and engagement needs. We built and describe this framework through discussion of two case studies of coastal restoration efforts in southern New England salt marshes. The first case study focuses on the use of sediment placement to increase the elevation of the surface of a drowning marsh in Rhode Island as an interim measure to protect against sea level rise. The second case study describes the use of living shorelines for erosion mitigation on a salt marsh in Massachusetts. These cases included significant partner and stakeholder engagement and provided important lessons learned for practical implementation of the SESAME framework. Valuable lessons included the need for engagement throughout the entirety of the process, specific clarification of roles within the restoration efforts, and flexibility in implementation and goal setting.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Response of Typha to phosphorus, hydrology, and land use in Lake Ontario
           coastal wetlands and a companion greenhouse study

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      Abstract: Abstract Loss of Great Lakes wetlands due to changes in land use, hydrology, nutrient inputs, and invasive species led to the need for studies involving physical factors that influence growth of invasive cattails (Typha). Thus, in 18 Lake Ontario coastal wetlands, we sampled vegetation along stratified random transects and collected water samples for total phosphorus (TP) analyses. We used GIS to determine watershed area, percent land use as croplands, and length of lotic surface waters entering wetlands. A greenhouse growth experiment with a full factorial random block design was used to investigate the effects of variable hydroperiod and phosphorus concentrations on T. × glauca biomass changes. Correlation analyses of wetland data revealed that TP in field studies was related to percent croplands but not lotic length; mean percent Typha was not related to TP. In the growth experiment, above- and below-ground biomass increased significantly for simple main effects of hydroperiod and phosphorus concentrations. Multiple pairwise interaction comparisons between hydrology and nutrient treatments showed that effects of phosphorus concentration were present only at longer hydroperiods. Lack of correlation between Typha and phosphorus concentrations in the field was likely due to the overwhelming effect of water-level regulation on Lake Ontario. The greenhouse study demonstrated that increasing concentrations of phosphorus positively influenced cattail growth in a controlled setting. Although phosphorus positively influenced growth, hydrologic regime had the greatest influence on cattail growth, with increased biomass as hydroperiod increased. More natural hydrology and management of phosphorus inputs may help limit spread of Typha.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Waterbird communities and wetland dynamics in the Mexican Highlands,
           1951–2006

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      Abstract: Abstract Many North American migratory waterbird species rely on wintering and stopover sites in the Northern Highlands of Mexico, several of which have experienced habitat loss or degradation over the last century. Despite this, the long-term patterns of waterbird abundance and the state of the wetlands themselves had not been analyzed. Changes in abundance and distribution of 3.4 million birds belonging to 19 waterbird taxa that winter in the Mexican Highlands were assessed using data from the United States Fish and Wildlife (USFWS) aerial surveys carried out between 1951 and 2006. Additionally, water occurrence at 29 wetlands used by these birds was inferred from satellite imagery corresponding to the bird count dates by calculating water surface area using Google Earth Engine. Bird abundance between 1975 and 2006 and environmental variables were modelled using Generalized Linear Mixed Models to identify determinants of wetland use by these groups of wintering waterbirds. Total sampled abundance in the Highlands was between 125,000 and 500,000 individuals of the different species of waterbird per year, and their abundance was highly variable between sites and years. The sites with the highest average abundance were Laguna de Babícora and the wetland complexes from Laguna Bustillos to Laguna de los Mexicanos in the northwestern section of the Highlands, as well as the wetlands in the sierra of the state of Durango, to the south-southeast of the former. Water permanence was different between the six subregions into which the wetlands were grouped, despite waterbody size not being significantly different between them. Overall, waterbirds were more abundant in semi-permanent sites, and abundance was explained best by water surface area plus total precipitation of the previous 12 months. Geese in the area exhibited site fidelity and this reflected in site-specific variables included in the best model. Abundance of diving ducks was explained best by water surface area, while that of dabbling ducks was so by water permanence plus water surface area. Our work supports that most birds preferred reliable, natural wetlands over human-modified ones even if the latter were larger, and this has clear implications for habitat management in this semiarid region.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Understanding communities’ perceptions, demographics and uses of
           wetlands in Vhembe Biosphere Reserve, South Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetlands are amongst the world’s most important ecosystems, providing direct and indirect benefits to local communities. However, wetlands worldwide continue to be degraded due to unsustainable use and improper resource management. In this paper, we assess the perceptions, importance, management and utilisation of wetlands among local community members using a household questionnaire and field observations within the seven Thulamela municipality wetlands, Vhembe Biosphere Reserve in South Africa. Seven wetlands were chosen for the study, with 140 household respondents randomly selected for a questionnaire survey. The study indicated that wetlands were beneficial in supporting local communities through resource provisioning. The unemployment rate and household respondents’ income were the main contributors to increased wetland dependency and utilisation. We found that urban and rural developments, unregulated use and extensive agricultural practices (i.e., cultivation, livestock grazing) have resulted in wetland degradation. We observed that the local communities around the wetlands were interested in the benefits they receive from wetlands when compared to their conservation. Furthermore, the study observed poor wetland co-management or collaboration among the local stakeholders. This has resulted in a lack of openly known, active platforms to discuss wetlands management issues. These results highlight that centralized, top–down approaches to wetland use are insufficient for maintaining and managing wetland ecosystems, posing a challenge to sustainable wetland management. Therefore, there is a need to develop a shared understanding through bottom-up approaches to wetland management nested within national regulatory frameworks, ideally combined with awareness building and knowledge sharing on ecological benefits and management of wetlands.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Evaluating ecosystem services for agricultural wetlands: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Globally, the extent of inland wetlands has declined by approximately 70% since the start of the twentieth century, resulting in the loss of important wetland-associated ecosystem services. We evaluate the drivers of wetland values in agricultural landscapes to increase the effectiveness and reliability of benefit transfer tools to assign values to local wetland services. We reviewed 668 studies that analyzed wetland ecosystem services within agricultural environments and identified 45 studies across 22 countries that provided sufficient economic information to be included in a quantitative meta-analysis. We developed meta-regression models to represent provisioning and regulating wetland ecosystem services and identify the main drivers of these ecosystem service categories. Provisioning wetland ecosystem service values were best explained (direction of effects in parenthesis) by high-income variable (+), peer-reviewed journal publications (+), agricultural total factor productivity index (−) and population density (+), while agricultural total factor productivity index (−), income level ( +) and wetland area (−) had significant effects on regulating wetland ecosystem service values. Our models can help estimate wetland values more reliably across similar regions because they have significantly lower transfer errors (66 and 185% absolute percentage error for the provisioning and regulating models, respectively) than the errors from unit value transfers. Model predicted wetland values ($/Ha/Year) range from $0.62 to $11,216 for regulating services and $0.95 to $2,122 for provisioning services and vary based on the differences in the levels of the variables (in the wetland locations) that best explained the estimated models.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Composition and community structure of mangroves distributed on the east
           coast of Marajó Island, Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study aimed to determine the composition and structure of the fringe and inland mangroves near the mouth of the Amazon River in Marajó Island. We established five study sites and, in each site, we established a fringe zone and an inland zone. In each zone, we delimited five 400-m2 plots, and we selected arboreal individuals with a minimum height of 1 m. The individuals were grouped into diameter and height classes and basal area, and we analyzed five phytosociological parameters. The composition, richness, density, diversity and dendrogram analysis used were compared between the sampled fringe and inland zones. In our exploration, 344 individuals were recorded, distributed in 10 species, suggesting that Marajó Island has one of the most diverse mangrove forests ever recorded in the world. We also recorded three typical species of mangrove, namely, Rhizophora racemosa, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa. We also observed that the Marajó mangroves have species that occur in other ecosystems (e.g., várzea and igapós), such as Paeonia officinalis, Phalaris aquatica, and Virola surinamensis. We observed that no significant variation between zones was found in terms of richness and density. The NMDS explained variance of 95.3% but no clear pattern of dissimilarity was observed between fringe and inland. In cluster analysis, four groups were statistically well supported, with an explanation of 85% on the dendrogram. These characteristics are important for conservation policies and specific management plans for the mangroves in Salvaterra, since, just as the vegetation is unique in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
       
  • Changing landscapes: habitat monitoring and land transformation in a
           long-time used Mediterranean coastal wetland

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      Abstract: Abstract Zone Umide della Capitanata, located in the northeastern part of the Apulia Region, is one of the most extensive coastal wetlands of the Italian peninsula and one of the largest components of the Mediterranean wetland system. Despite its high ecological importance, this site has been undergoing a variety of pressures intensified in recent decades. This study analyzes and evaluates the changes occurred in this area between 2010 and 2020. Land cover and habitat maps were performed by photointerpretation and on-site surveys, and classified according to the FAO-LCCS and EUNIS taxonomies, respectively. To focus on local dynamics, four subset areas were analyzed separately. A set of landscape metrics was computed to analyze the landscape structure. The anthropogenic pressures affecting the study area were described through the Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) conceptual framework. Numerous changes were identified, deriving from both finest thematic redefinition and anthropogenic pressures. Both class conversions and class modifications were identified and quantified by means of transition matrices. Most of the observed conversions were borne by classes belonging to saltmarshes and to coastal dune systems. In particular, landscape configuration of coastal dune classes was well highlighted by a set of specific landscape metrics. Agriculture practices and changes in water flow pattern turned out to be the main driving forces exerting pressures on these natural systems. Significant differences were found between the four subsets under analysis, thus indicating that different management strategies lead to different levels of conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Correction: Evaluating ecosystem services for agricultural wetlands: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis

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      PubDate: 2022-10-31
       
  • Shrimp farms as a threat to mangrove forests in Kannur district of Kerala,
           India

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      Abstract: Abstract Mangroves are one of the most productive, diverse ecosystems on the planet and serve as a protective barrier for coastal areas. Shrimps have a productive correlation with mangroves habitat, thereby large-scale shrimp farming pose a serious threat to mangroves ecosystems. The present study was carried out to estimate the total area under shrimp farming in the intertidal regions of Kannur district. From the study, we have documented 140 shrimp ponds, which contributes to a total area of 524.4 ha. We found that active shrimp farming area in the district is 524.4 ha in 2020. The traditional shrimp farming method accounts for 60.6% of the total farmed area while non-traditional shrimp farming accounts for 36.9% of the total farmed area; both types are expanding fast in the district. Of the five major Rivers in the district, Kuppam River has the majority of the shrimp farms followed by Dharmadam River. Penaeus monodon, Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus indicus are the shrimp species cultivated in the district. Since shrimp farms are created by replacing the mangrove habitats in the intertidal region, mangroves of Kannur district are under threat and needs serious intervention for long term survival.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
       
  • Controlling mosquitoes through innovative and collaborative wetland
           management practices in the Pacific Northwest

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      Abstract: Abstract When developing a plan to restore or modify a wetland within the Pacific Northwest of the United States (PNW), land managers must consider all of the potential ecological impacts, including the unintended production of mosquitoes which can adversely impact the health of people and wildlife in the area. Case studies in this article highlight mitigation activities conducted in cooperation with local mosquito control professionals for water conveyances in the states of Washington and Oregon that effectively minimize production of mosquitoes in managed wetlands. Communicating with mosquito control professionals early in the wetland restoration planning process can save valuable time and resources if the restored wetland becomes an ideal breeding site for pestiferous mosquitoes. By preventing unintentional mosquito production, resources that would be spent controlling mosquitoes and responding to public health concerns post restoration could be redirected towards achieving the overall mission of the wetland restoration. The authors will demonstrate how mosquito control professionals and wetland managers worked cooperatively to achieve mutually-beneficial results, while complying with all local, state, and federal regulations. The following broad steps for a wetland restoration project are recommended: (1) Create a long-term vision for the project; (2) Build a team of collaborators and gather stakeholders; (3) Outline the regulatory guidelines; (4) Prepare required planning documents/acquire permits; (5) Conduct project, while monitoring (target and non-target) impacts including mosquitoes; and (6) Periodically review environmental impacts.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Influence of vegetation and vegetation management on Culex mosquitoes in
           surface stormwater habitats

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      Abstract: Abstract Stormwater drainage infrastructure creates abundant, nutrient-rich habitats in urban landscapes vulnerable to colonization by undesirable organisms, including vector mosquitoes and invasive aquatic macrophytes. The overall aim of our study was to identify consequences from cattails (Typha spp.) and their management to the seasonal abundance and adult fitness parameters of Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans developing in these surface stormwater habitats. We surveyed juvenile mosquitoes in 36 stormwater management structures (ditches and detention basins) with differing plant species composition and frequency of mowing. Effects of litter biomass, litter type (cattail, turfgrass) and exogenous enrichment with orthophosphate on oviposition site selection were evaluated in aquatic mesocosms. Individual laboratory experiments investigated effects of litter factors on juvenile development rate and survivorship, and adult body size and starvation resistance. We observed a greater abundance of both Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans larvae in stormwater management structures with recently mowed vegetation. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between mowing and dominant plant type for Cx. pipiens, with the greatest number of larvae observed in mowed turfgrass habitats. For both Culex species, increasing litter biomass and the addition of orthophosphate enhanced oviposition rates in mesocosms, but the two species differed in their relative response to litter type. Similarly, we detected differences in the effects of litter type and biomass on Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans development and adult fitness traits. Our results suggest asymmetrical effects from invasion and management of cattails in stormwater ditches and detention basins on potential risks posed by these two vector species.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Integrated mosquito management in rice field in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Rice cultivation is important in China with over 29.33 million hm2 of rice fields, producing 28.9% of rice yields worldwide. Rice fields are mass breeding sites for mosquitoes with approximately 40 mosquito species found breeding amongst them. Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles lesteri, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus are the three main species that are found breeding in rice fields. An. sinensis and An. lesteri are important vectors of malaria in flat areas of China, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus is a main vector of Japanese B encephalitis. This review provides the principles of mosquito control used to target the species of mosquitoes breeding in rice fields, as well as some main approaches that have been tested and implemented for mosquito control in the past 70 years. The irrigation management of rice fields is included, such as intermittent irrigation, wet irrigation, controlled irrigation, and rotation of rice fields and dry fields. Biocontrol measures and agents, including rice-fish coculture, Azolla, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), and Bacillus sphaericus, for mosquito control are discussed. These control methods benefit the prevention and control of mosquito-borne disease, especially malaria elimination in China.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • The role of topography, climate, soil and the surrounding matrix in the
           distribution of Veredas wetlands in central Brazil

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      Abstract: Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems in the world in terms of endemic biodiversity, carbon storage and hydrological process. Veredas wetlands are distributed across the Brazilian savanna (i.e. Cerrado biome) and are permanently protected areas. Veredas wetlands have a hydromorphic soil, providing water to the main rivers of central Brazil and allowing the occurrence of several endemic species of plants and animals. Although recent studies on biotic and abiotic characteristics have been conducted in several areas of Veredas, the studies are local and there is a lack of information about large-scale patterns. Here we used remote sensing data to explore the role of climate, soil, topography and surrounding matrix explaining Veredas occurrence in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba (TMAP), a mesoregion of the State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Veredas were more frequent in the western region of TMAP, in areas with lower altitudes, temperature and precipitation seasonality, soil cation exchange capacity, silt and sand content, and slope. Moreover, farming was the most frequent land use in areas surrounding Veredas. Veredas are associated with recharging of the water table and water flow that maintains rivers in the Upper Paraná River water basin. We trust the present assessment will be of help for the development of conservation strategies and biodiversity studies. Graphical abstract Research questions, data processing, statistical analysis and illustration of the outputs generated.
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11273-022-09895-z
       
  • The co-management approach has positive impacts on mangrove conservation:
           evidence from the mono transboundary biosphere reserve (Togo-Benin), West
           Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract Literature on conservation science has documented the increasing use of the co-management approach to effectively conserve natural resources. Although some studies found the co-management approach as highly effective, others also reported some uncertainties associated with the use of this conservation approach. Using the mono transboundary biosphere reserve (MTBR) as a case study, this work assessed the effectiveness of the co-management approach for mangrove conservation in West Africa. Data was collected in two protected sites of the reserve (one in Togo and the other in Benin). Exploratory sequential mixed method via in-depth interviews (n = 17), focus group discussions (n = 14), household surveys (n = 274) and expert-based surveys (n = 10) were carried out, and data was analyzed using the InVEST-based Habitat Risk Assessment (HRA) model, chi-square tests and simple probability of likelihood. Findings showed that the co-management approach has lowered anthropogenic stressors to mangroves in the reserve. Under the co-management approach, all the mangroves located in the Benin side of the reserve are identified as under low risk whereas 42% of the mangrove cover are considered under low risk and 58% under medium risk in Togo. Local perception also portrayed the reduction of mangrove degradation in the study sites following the adoption of the co-management approach in the two countries. However, there are some challenges such as the financial support provision and regular community engagement which need to be thoroughly researched and addressed to achieve the sustainability of the positive impacts of the co-management in the MTBR.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11273-022-09894-0
       
  • Correction: Evaluating the contribution of wetlands to food security and
           livelihoods improvement in the Savelugu Municipality, Ghana

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      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11273-022-09889-x
       
  • Programmatic review of the mosquito control methods used in the highly
           industrialized rice agroecosystems of Sacramento and Yolo Counties,
           California

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      Abstract: Abstract In the Sacramento Valley (California, USA), rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields are an economically important crop and productive habitats for the mosquito species Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni. Since 2010, approximately 150 km2 of conventional and 16 km2 of organic rice have been grown in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. These fields are often within mosquito flight-range of both rural towns and urban centers. Culex tarsalis are highly competent vectors of West Nile virus, and An. freeborni are aggressive, mammalophagic, nuisance biters. The Sacramento–Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District provides mosquito control for the two counties in its jurisdiction. The principles of Integrated Pest Management are used to control mosquitoes in rice growing areas, relying upon a range of surveillance and control interventions. Larvae are controlled by limiting habitats that enable development of immature mosquitoes while balancing agricultural and wildlife needs, applying larvicides, and the use of Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish). Adult mosquitoes are controlled by ultra-low volume pesticide applications. The program was assessed for larval and adult mosquito control efficacy and areas of programmatic improvement identified. Because rice fields are productive habitats for mosquitoes, complete elimination of the habitat is not a feasible goal, thus efforts are aimed at interrupting disease transmission and reducing the number of mosquitoes that traverse into populated areas.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11273-022-09893-1
       
 
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