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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Wetlands Ecology and Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.656
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9834 - ISSN (Online) 0923-4861
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The co-management approach has positive impacts on mangrove conservation:
           evidence from the mono transboundary biosphere reserve (Togo-Benin), West
           Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract Literature on conservation science has documented the increasing use of the co-management approach to effectively conserve natural resources. Although some studies found the co-management approach as highly effective, others also reported some uncertainties associated with the use of this conservation approach. Using the mono transboundary biosphere reserve (MTBR) as a case study, this work assessed the effectiveness of the co-management approach for mangrove conservation in West Africa. Data was collected in two protected sites of the reserve (one in Togo and the other in Benin). Exploratory sequential mixed method via in-depth interviews (n = 17), focus group discussions (n = 14), household surveys (n = 274) and expert-based surveys (n = 10) were carried out, and data was analyzed using the InVEST-based Habitat Risk Assessment (HRA) model, chi-square tests and simple probability of likelihood. Findings showed that the co-management approach has lowered anthropogenic stressors to mangroves in the reserve. Under the co-management approach, all the mangroves located in the Benin side of the reserve are identified as under low risk whereas 42% of the mangrove cover are considered under low risk and 58% under medium risk in Togo. Local perception also portrayed the reduction of mangrove degradation in the study sites following the adoption of the co-management approach in the two countries. However, there are some challenges such as the financial support provision and regular community engagement which need to be thoroughly researched and addressed to achieve the sustainability of the positive impacts of the co-management in the MTBR.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
       
  • Correction: Evaluating the contribution of wetlands to food security and
           livelihoods improvement in the Savelugu Municipality, Ghana

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      PubDate: 2022-08-12
       
  • Programmatic review of the mosquito control methods used in the highly
           industrialized rice agroecosystems of Sacramento and Yolo Counties,
           California

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      Abstract: Abstract In the Sacramento Valley (California, USA), rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields are an economically important crop and productive habitats for the mosquito species Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni. Since 2010, approximately 150 km2 of conventional and 16 km2 of organic rice have been grown in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. These fields are often within mosquito flight-range of both rural towns and urban centers. Culex tarsalis are highly competent vectors of West Nile virus, and An. freeborni are aggressive, mammalophagic, nuisance biters. The Sacramento–Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District provides mosquito control for the two counties in its jurisdiction. The principles of Integrated Pest Management are used to control mosquitoes in rice growing areas, relying upon a range of surveillance and control interventions. Larvae are controlled by limiting habitats that enable development of immature mosquitoes while balancing agricultural and wildlife needs, applying larvicides, and the use of Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish). Adult mosquitoes are controlled by ultra-low volume pesticide applications. The program was assessed for larval and adult mosquito control efficacy and areas of programmatic improvement identified. Because rice fields are productive habitats for mosquitoes, complete elimination of the habitat is not a feasible goal, thus efforts are aimed at interrupting disease transmission and reducing the number of mosquitoes that traverse into populated areas.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Understanding communities’ perceptions, demographics and uses of
           wetlands in Vhembe Biosphere Reserve, South Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetlands are amongst the world’s most important ecosystems, providing direct and indirect benefits to local communities. However, wetlands worldwide continue to be degraded due to unsustainable use and improper resource management. In this paper, we assess the perceptions, importance, management and utilisation of wetlands among local community members using a household questionnaire and field observations within the seven Thulamela municipality wetlands, Vhembe Biosphere Reserve in South Africa. Seven wetlands were chosen for the study, with 140 household respondents randomly selected for a questionnaire survey. The study indicated that wetlands were beneficial in supporting local communities through resource provisioning. The unemployment rate and household respondents’ income were the main contributors to increased wetland dependency and utilisation. We found that urban and rural developments, unregulated use and extensive agricultural practices (i.e., cultivation, livestock grazing) have resulted in wetland degradation. We observed that the local communities around the wetlands were interested in the benefits they receive from wetlands when compared to their conservation. Furthermore, the study observed poor wetland co-management or collaboration among the local stakeholders. This has resulted in a lack of openly known, active platforms to discuss wetlands management issues. These results highlight that centralized, top–down approaches to wetland use are insufficient for maintaining and managing wetland ecosystems, posing a challenge to sustainable wetland management. Therefore, there is a need to develop a shared understanding through bottom-up approaches to wetland management nested within national regulatory frameworks, ideally combined with awareness building and knowledge sharing on ecological benefits and management of wetlands.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
       
  • Wetlands in drylands: diverse perspectives for dynamic landscapes

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      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Wetlands of the South American pacific coast: a bibliometric analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetlands are ecosystems susceptible to anthropogenic impacts; analysis of the scientific publications on these ecosystems can be used as a reference to inform research and conservation measures. This bibliometric analysis aimed to evaluate the temporal evolution of scientific publications and trends in research topics related to the wetlands of Ecuador, Peru, and Chile; this region includes an extended desertic region in the southern Pacific. A total of 405 articles published during the period from 2000 to 2019 were reviewed. The most frequent subject areas were 'birds' and 'other types of fauna' (20.7% and 19.8%, respectively); the diversity of publications was similar, but the proportions of the total subject areas for each country varied. The number of papers published per year was found to be increasing. The thematic areas related to these ecosystems that require strengthening in Ecuador, Peru and Chile are identified (e. g. 'remote sensing' in Peru, 'microscopic organisms' in Chile and Ecuador). Decision-makers should use this information to continue developing helpful conservation lines (for example, those related to ecosystem services) and promote less developed lines of research identified for each country.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Egg banks in dryland wetlands provide information on the diversity and
           vulnerability of branchiopod communities along a longitudinal aridity
           gradient

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      Abstract: Abstract Continued degradation of temporary wetlands and rapidly declining freshwater biodiversity call for identification of vulnerable species as targets for conservation and management efforts. Branchiopod crustaceans are endemic to temporary waters and rely on banks of drought-resistant eggs in the sediment for survival across dry seasons. These egg banks are like archives to biologists and allow them to estimate population status and resilience, without the need to sample active communities. Such an approach has, however, not yet been fully explored. Here, we investigate egg bank abundance and morpho-species richness to assess the vulnerability of branchiopod communities in dryland landscapes. For study systems, we use 98 temporary wetlands across the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, which contained eggs of Notostraca, Anostraca, Spinicaudata and Cladocera. We invoked the insurance hypothesis to investigate community resilience and studied egg bank abundance to reveal population status. Our results indicate that branchiopod communities become more vulnerable along an aridity gradient, from the semi-arid eastern regions to the arid western parts of the province. Apart from longitude, we also considered a suite of other environmental descriptors to explain variability in egg bank abundance and richness patterns and found that egg bank abundance decreased with alkalinity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Aquatic invertebrate community structure and phenology of the intermittent
           treed swamps of the semi-arid Paroo lowlands in Australia

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      Abstract: Abstract The middle Paroo lowlands in semi-arid western New South Wales support numerous intermittent wetlands of various types. Differences between them are promoted by three ecological drivers: salinity, turbidity and hydroperiod. Community structure and phenology of the two most common types, saline lakes and claypans, are known but similar ecologies are lacking for the third most common wetland, the treed swamps. These are of six subtypes distinguished by dominant tree species, geomorphology and hydroperiod, all with similar community structure and phenology, but with differing invertebrate diversities. Summed diversity is not as high as in local creek pools, the shorter hydroperiods and simpler geomorphology of the treed swamps being restrictive so that there is almost no replacement of species during the early dominance of branchiopods and later of insects. Such treed swamps are uncommon in the semi-arid zone, but much more speciose treed swamps are known under similar and seasonally dry Mediterranean climates of the Western Australian Wheatbelt where hydroperiods are more stable.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • The arid Andean plateau waterscapes and the lithium triangle: flamingos as
           flagships for conservation of high-altitude wetlands under pressure from
           mining development

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      Abstract: Abstract The high Andean arid plateau extends through Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. Within the desert matrix, basins contain wetlands that provide essential resources for human activity, and habitat for biodiversity highly adapted to extreme temperatures, altitudes, and salinity gradients. In these waterscapes, the water balance, even without human intervention, is negative and their unique biodiversity and lifeways are now confronted with an unprecedented level of development from lithium mining for rechargeable batteries. The “lithium triangle” coincides with the areas of highest abundance of the altiplano’s iconic flamingos. Flamingos are an ideal flagship for conservation because of the landscape scale at which they use wetlands, and Network of Wetlands for Flamingo Conservation, which implies the sustainable use of these wetlands, can be invoked to determine priority conservation actions. Since 2016, mining exploration has increased throughout the region, most notably in Argentina. A review of the Environmental Impact Reports (IIAs) for projects in Catamarca, Argentina, shows that they do not comply with national guidelines: they do not adequately address water budgets, consider protected area status, engage local communities, or consider cumulative and synergistic impacts. While the transition to “green” energy sources holds the promise of mitigating the negative impacts of traditional energy sources responsible for climate change, a truly sustainable energy sector would consider the full life cycle of the battery (“cradle-to-grave”), the social and environmental impacts of mining, and the feedback processes across the coupled socioecological systems, from raw material mining through production, use, recycling, and disposal.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • What drives patchiness in palmiet wetlands'

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetland communities are shaped by high levels of stress, disturbance and competition. Using South African palmiet wetlands as a case study (Prionium serratum dominated valley-bottom wetlands), we explore whether autogenic or allogenic succession is the dominant process driving community dynamics in valley-bottom wetlands in drylands. Several wetland rehabilitation programmes in South Africa use the dominant wetland species palmiet (P. serratum) as a pioneer to facilitate recolonization. However research is needed on palmiet wetland dynamics and formation to guide these restoration efforts. We explore vegetation patterns by analyzing which environmental parameters drive dominance of palmiet, resulting in the characteristic patchiness of palmiet wetlands, and which plant functional traits account for this. In 20 plots from three palmiet wetlands distributed across the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, key soil, groundwater and vegetation parameters, as well as community composition were measured. Twenty-two dominant species were selected and 13 functional traits measured. Soil pH and relative groundwater depth were the main environmental parameters driving community assembly in palmiet wetlands. Palmiet-dominated communities were characterized by greater stem diameter, leaf length–width ratio, leaf area and cellulose and lignin concentration compared to fynbos communities. These traits suggest adaptations to disturbances such as fires (thicker stems) and floods (long, thin leaves, flexible shoots and thicker stems). We propose three hypotheses of palmiet wetland development which shed light on palmiet wetland restoration and highlight gaps for future research.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Soil properties across a hydrological gradient in saladas from northeast
           Spain: what are the implications for soil carbon stocks, CO2 efflux and
           microbial communities in a warming world'

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      Abstract: Abstract Numerous permanent and temporary wetlands occur throughout the world’s drylands. Although characterised by diverse water inundation frequencies, durations and depths, these wetlands in drylands are typically hotspots of biological activity and productivity. The healthy functioning and even existence of many wetlands in drylands, however, is threatened by desiccation resulting from a combination of climate change and human disturbance. Near Alcañiz in arid northeast Spain, three adjacent saladas (playas) with contrasting hydroperiods provide an opportunity to investigate how moisture availability affects their soil carbon (C) stocks, CO2 efflux, and microbial communities. Predicting the impacts of changes in moisture availability on the C cycle in wetlands in drylands is challenging but important because many contain large C stocks and may be significant sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. Frequent inundation and/or near-permanent soil water saturation supports the generation of organic C from a range of different sources. Soil inorganic C was greatest on the driest salada (3.8%) compared to the wetter saladas (3.0% and 2.1%) owing to evaporative concentration and the reaction of CO2 with available Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ ions. CO2 efflux was greatest at intermediate moisture levels (142 mg CO2 m−2 h−1), but the spatial and temporal variability in CO2 efflux on salada surfaces is large, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling regimes to provide realistic estimates of their contribution to atmospheric CO2 exchanges. Different microbial community structures also characterise each salada. The saladas near Alcañiz, and many other similar features in northeast Spain, are renowned for their rare and threatened flora and fauna, yet their soil C cycle characteristics and soil microbial communities provide additional reasons to monitor the impacts of climate change and protect these vulnerable environments from further anthropogenic disturbances.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Predicting wetland occurrence, main hydrogeomorphic type and vulnerability
           in the predominantly arid to semi-arid interior of the Western Cape, South
           Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract As with drylands globally, there has been limited effort to map and characterize wetlands in the Western Cape interior of South Africa. Thus, the study assessed how probable wetland occurrence and type in the predominantly arid to semi-arid interior of the Western Cape relate to key biophysical drivers and physiographic zones, and, through modelling, to predict spatially their likelihood of occurrence. The study further aimed to qualitatively assess the vulnerabilities of the identified wetland types to human impacts. Field-verified test areas were selected to represent the aridity gradient, rainfall seasonality, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) types and physiographic zones encompassed in the study area. The Little Karoo and Great Karoo plains physiographic zones, which were predominantly arid, had: (1) a low (0.7%) proportional area of wetland; (2) an almost complete absence of seepage slope wetlands; and (3) much of the wetland associated with valley bottoms confined within a channel. The three mountainous physiographic zones, which were semi-arid to sub-humid, had: (1) a much higher (2.6 to 5.2%) proportional area of wetland; and (2) wetlands being predominantly hillslope seepages. A spatial probability surface of wetland occurrence was generated based on the statistical relationship of verified wetland presence and absence data points with a range of catchment-scale predictor variables, including topographic metrics and hydrological/climatic variables. This layer was combined with raster images of most likely HGM type within the landscape to provide a final product of wetland occurrence, attributed by HGM type. Vulnerabilities of the wetlands to human impacts were identified based on key attributes of the different wetland types, and recommendations were provided for assisting with future mapping and HGM type identification for the Western Cape interior and for predominantly arid to semi-arid areas generally.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Analysis and conceptual geospatial modelling of the intermediary role of
           wetlands in drylands in post-fire material flux dynamics, Silvermine River
           catchment, Cape Town

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      Abstract: Abstract Although it is generally accepted that wetlands in drylands are subject to higher fire frequencies than wetlands in humid regions, little is known about how wetlands in varied hydrogeomorphic settings mediate runoff and material fluxes in the post-fire catchment landscape. This paper evaluates the intermediary role of wetlands in water and sediment dispersal through a wet season that followed the March 2015 wildfire in the Silvermine River catchment, Cape Town. Field and laboratory analyses of the development and dynamics of soil water repellency were conducted across terrestrial hillslope, river riparian zone and hillslope seepage wetland sites. The latter two sites had significantly lower soil water repellency than the terrestrial site immediately preceding the first large rainfall event, and soil moisture emerged as a significant predictor of soil water repellency, consistent with previous research. Remote sensing analysis of post-fire vegetation recovery revealed that the first emergence of new vegetation occurred within wetlands and other moisture-rich areas across the catchment, likely associated with intact rhizome networks of the predominant sprouting vegetation in these areas. This post-fire green flush could have served to enhance post-fire infiltration due to macropore flow along rhizome networks, and to reduce early wet season runoff and erosion due to the rapid establishment of rainfall-intercepting leaf and stem structures. Longitudinal investigations of post-fire river channel and bed sediment characteristics detected a transition in bed composition from gravel to sand through hillslope-channel coupling and channel bank erosion, and effective conveyance of sand through the catchment to a constructed wetland at the catchment outlet. Suspended sediment sampling upstream, within and downstream of this wetland suggested a relative sediment trap efficiency of ~ 87 to 99%, supporting previous observations of post construction aggradation at the head of the wetland, with serious implications for long term wetland maintenance and management. Insights from field and remote sensing studies were used to develop a conceptual geospatial model of the role of wetlands in varied hydrogeomorphic settings in post-fire catchment sediment (dis)connectivity. Hillslope seepage wetlands located across the burned region of the catchment were shown to play an important role in hillslope surface sediment trapping and erosion control, contrary to common assumptions, and sediment connectivity modelling is recommended as a tool for further research aimed at understanding the intermediary role of wetlands in drylands in material fluxes in post-fire landscapes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Chemical sedimentation as a driver of habitat diversity in dryland
           wetlands

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      Abstract: Abstract Freshwater wetlands located in dryland environments are characterised by high evapotranspiration rates and frequent periods of desiccation, which strongly influence the water chemistry and solute budgets of these systems. The transpiration of groundwater, especially by trees, is an important mechanism through which dryland wetlands can lose water. This process can lead to groundwater salinization and the precipitation of substantial quantities of minerals within the soil, the accumulation of which can have profound consequences for wetland structure and function. This paper aims to bring together current knowledge on the processes that result in solute accumulation and chemical sedimentation which assist in maintaining freshwater conditions in many seasonal dryland wetlands. Examples from central and southern Africa, Australia and South America are presented to illustrate the geomorphically diverse settings under which chemical sedimentation can occur, and the importance of these processes for the resilience and longevity of dryland wetlands. We show that the localised development of saline groundwater and subsurface precipitation of minerals within soils can play a key role in creating and maintaining the habitat diversity of dryland wetlands. Wetland vegetation localises the accumulation of deleterious constituents, thereby preventing widespread salinization and playa-lake formation, and thus ensuring that the bulk of the surface water remains fresh. Although such processes remain widely understudied, we suggest that chemical sedimentation could be a common phenomenon in many dryland wetlands and have important implications for the future management of these ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Indigenous research methodologies in water management: learning from
           Australia and New Zealand for application on Kamilaroi country

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      Abstract: Abstract Indigenous Research Methodologies (IRMs) for considering cultural values of water are a missing component of water and wetlands management in Australia. On this dry, flat and ancient continent Traditional Knowledge has been passed on from generation to generation for millennia. The profound knowledge of surface and groundwater has been critical to ensuring the survival of Indigenous peoples in the driest inhabited continent, through finding, re-finding and protecting water. Indigenous Research Methodologies can provide a basis for the exploration of this knowledge in a way that that is culturally appropriate, and which generates a culturally safe space for Indigenous researchers and communities. The development of IRMs has been and continues to be limited in Australia in the water context, primarily due to the lack of Indigenous water practitioners, with non-Indigenous researchers dominating the sector. The intention of the paper is to shift and decolonise the research paradigm from studying Indigenous peoples through non-Indigenous research methodologies, to partnering in developing methods appropriate to Indigenous knowledge systems. Indigenous Research Methodologies are rooted in Indigenous epistemologies and ontologies and represent a radical departure from more positivist forms of research (Wilson, Can J Native Educ 25:2, 2001). This allows the Indigenous researcher to derive the terms, questions, and priorities of what is being researched, how the community is engaged, and how the research is delivered. This paper provides an overview of Indigenous engagement in water management in Australia and Aotearoa (New Zealand), with reference to case studies. These more general models are used as the basis for developing an IRM appropriate to the Kamilaroi people in the Gwydir Wetlands of northern NSW, Australia.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Contextualising sediment trapping and phosphorus removal regulating
           services: a critical review of the influence of spatial and temporal
           variability in geomorphic processes in alluvial wetlands in drylands

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetlands in drylands are dynamic landforms and hotspots of ecosystem service provision, including downstream improvements in water quality by mediating fluxes of sediment, nutrients and toxicants. This review focuses on fluvially associated wetlands including valley-bottom (also called upland swamps and ciénegas) and meandering river floodplain wetlands in drylands and specifically considers the long-term resilience of ecosystem services associated with sediment trapping in these systems. We critically evaluate global rates of sediment accretion within wetlands, consider sediment trapping and erosion dynamics and the biogeochemical cycling of phosphate, and reflect on the implications of dryland environments for sediment trapping and phosphorous removal services. Reported rates of accretion in valley-bottom wetlands are variable and low when compared to floodplains. Clastic-dominated valley-bottom wetlands have lower long-term vertical sediment accretion rates compared to systems characterised by peat accumulation. While floodplain systems exhibit a wide range of vertical accretion rates, dryland floodplains have a lower and more narrow range of accumulation rates compared to humid regions, which may be attributed to seasonality and inter-annual variability in flow-sediment regimes. The periodic desiccation of wetland sediments in dryland settings will likely amplify phosphorus (P) cycling and retention due to oxidation and precipitating cationic complexes. Organic P retention is potentially less important in these systems as rapid losses and speciation will occur due to low organic matter preservation. In valley-bottom and floodplain wetlands, storage of phosphate-rich sediment cannot be considered permanent due to sediment reworking and may become sources of P-enriched legacy sediment in the future. The review indicates that complex temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of characteristic hydrogeomorphic processes in these wetlands preclude the generalisation of sediment trapping and P removal services.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Holocene evolution of a floodplain wetland in the dryland piedmont of
           central-west Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract In arid central-west Argentina, South America, many wetlands have developed in association with rivers draining the Andean piedmont and are vital hotspots for resources. However, knowledge about their long-term evolution is generally scarce. The Bañados del Atuel wetland, a low gradient fluvio-aeolian plain linked to the Atuel-Diamante fluvial system, is analyzed to depict its geomorphological and sedimentological Holocene evolution. The study area comprises a fluvial fill terrace with fine-grained alluvial deposits (~ 4186–4419 cal years BP), deposited by a palaeodistributary fluvial system, that is covered by SW–NE oriented aeolian dune complexes. The present-day wetland, which developed after formation of the fill terrace, is characterized by: (1) a NW–SE oriented floodplain with distributary channels and fine-grained, massive to laminated deposits of low organic matter content, dated to 2755–2864 and 729–895 cal years BP, and includes SW–NE oriented dune systems and salt flat depressions; and (2) a transfer area with active headcutting channels, entrenched in the fill terrace, that connects the NW–SE oriented floodplain with (3) a saline endorheic depression (salt lake) with active deflation. The fill terrace distribution suggests much more extensive floodplain environments prior to the late Holocene; the present-day wetland is not older than the last 2–3 millennia and records a late Holocene trend of floodplain size reduction. Fluvial processes of avulsion were likely driven by mid and late Holocene El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Late Holocene arid conditions favoured aeolian dune formation and fluvio-aeolian interactions. Furthermore, anthropogenic river modifications, starting ~ 200 years ago, also have promoted severe changes in the Atuel-Diamante fluvial system, deepening the aridity in the wetland.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Open SESAME: a social-ecological systems framework for collaborative
           adaptive management and engagement in coastal restoration and climate
           adaptation

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      Abstract: Abstract The successful implementation and sustainability of many marsh restoration efforts, including coastal adaptation to buffer inundation and mitigate sea level rise, often hinges upon support from surrounding human communities. Yet, stakeholder engagement in these projects remains relatively undervalued and underutilized. We present the Social-Ecological Systems, Adaptive Management, and Engagement (SESAME) framework that provides reciprocal connections between the human and ecological components of restoration efforts and the resulting management and engagement needs. We built and describe this framework through discussion of two case studies of coastal restoration efforts in southern New England salt marshes. The first case study focuses on the use of sediment placement to increase the elevation of the surface of a drowning marsh in Rhode Island as an interim measure to protect against sea level rise. The second case study describes the use of living shorelines for erosion mitigation on a salt marsh in Massachusetts. These cases included significant partner and stakeholder engagement and provided important lessons learned for practical implementation of the SESAME framework. Valuable lessons included the need for engagement throughout the entirety of the process, specific clarification of roles within the restoration efforts, and flexibility in implementation and goal setting.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
       
  • The physical, chemical, mineralogical, and hydrological properties of
           three different wetland types in the Kruger National Park

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      Abstract: Abstract The Kruger National Park is largely in a pristine natural state in terms of development, hydrology, soils, and vegetation. However, little characterisation of its wetlands has been done. This paper therefore set out to characterise the vegetation, hydrology, and soils of three wetlands that developed in three different lithologies. The Malahlapanga, Nshawu, and Tshutshi spruit wetlands selected for this study were underlain by gneiss, basalt, and granite respectively. Four wetness zones were delineated and three replicate transects were identified at each study site. Vegetation was described, while hydrology and redox potential were measured in wells from 19 September 2012 until 28 August 2013 at each wetness zone and replicate. Soils were sampled in 50 mm intervals, analysed and then averaged for the 0–300 mm layer. Malahlapanga and Nshawu had Gleysols, while Tshutshi spruit had Luvisols in the permanent and seasonal zones. Malahlapanga was the only wetland that had high organic carbon contents. The pH measured in water was > 8 for Nshawu and Tshutshi spruit, and between 5 and 8 for Malahlapanga. The wetland zones differed markedly in salinity, with only Tshutshi spruit that could completely be considered non-saline. Calcium dominated as exchangeable cation in all wetlands, but more so in Nshawu, while elevated sodium concentrations were only observed in Nshawu and Tshutshi spruit. The iron and manganese concentrations increased from the permanent to the upland zone for Malahlapanga and Nshawu, but decreased in the same order for Tshutshi spruit. Data presented here therefore provide a valuable reference for other studies conducted at these sites.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
       
  • Using UAV imagery to map invasive Phragmites australis on the Crow Island
           State Game Area, Michigan, USA

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      Abstract: Abstract Wetland managers in North America spend a great deal of time and money trying to control invasive Phragmites australis. Accurate mapping with remote sensing imagery is key to these efforts, which are increasingly employing uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. We mapped P. australis on the Crow Island State Game Area using UAV-derived single-date and multi-date RGB imagery combined with a Digital Surface Model (DSM). In addition to a traditional maximum likelihood classification (MLC), we used two machine-learning (ML) classification algorithms: support vector machine (SVM) and neural network (NN). We assessed accuracy based on both the traditional global model (overall accuracy [OA], omission [OE] and commission [CE] errors for the Phragmites class, and Kappa statistic) and local, per-patch accuracy broken down across 5 density classes and 3 size classes. Our global accuracy assessment for single-date imagery found that SVM (72% OA, 10% OE, 16% CE) performed similar to MLC (70% OA, 17% OE, 8% CE), while NN (33% OA, 7% OE, 41% CE) performed worse. The use of multi-date imagery had little effect on accuracy (MLC 64% OA, 21% OE, 12% CE; SVM 71% OA, 11% OE, 17% CE) except with NN, where the additional bands led to much higher accuracy (67% OA, 7% OE, 22% CE). These results were largely mirrored in the per-patch accuracy assessment, where SVM performed slightly better than MLC and NN performed poorly due to high commission errors. Regarding patch size and density, both larger and medium sized patches, as well as denser patches, were identified relatively accurately, but smaller patches tended to be overestimated and lower-density patches exhibited high omission errors. These results show that wetland managers can achieve very acceptable mapping accuracies with simple methods that require little in the way of resources and expertise.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
       
 
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