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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Water Resources Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.185
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 46  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0920-4741 - ISSN (Online) 1573-1650
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Assessment of Flooding Impact on Water Supply Systems: A Comprehensive
           Approach Based on DSS

    • Abstract: Abstract The assessment of flood impact on a Water Supply System (WSS) requires a comprehensive approach including several scales of analysis and models and should be managed in the Water Safety Plans (WSP), as recommended in the EU Water Directive 2020/2184. Flooding can affect the quality of groundwater and surface water resources and can cause supply service interruption due to damaged infrastructures. A complete approach to address flood impact on WSS is required but not yet available, while only specific aspects were investigated in details. This work introduces a comprehensive tool named WAter Safety Planning Procedures Decision Support System (WASPP–DSS) developed in the context of MUHA (Multihazard framework for Water Related risks management) project. The tool is mainly addressed to small water utilities (WU) for supporting WSP development and is based on two main premises: 1) a correct approach for WSS risk analysis requires a multi-hazard perspective encompassing all the system components and different hazards; 2) other institutions in addition to WUs have to be involved in WSS risk analyses to harmonize monitoring and response procedures. The tool is here applied on risks associated to flooding and demonstrated for three case studies. The WASPP–DSS, tested by eight WUs, was found a potentially valid support for small WUs that must start drafting the WSP in a comprehensive way and can provide a common shared scheme. Improvements are desirable, as including a specific section to consider the issue of loss of water resources from reservoirs due to overflow.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
  • System Archetypes Underlying Formal-Informal Urban Water Supply Dynamics

    • Abstract: Abstract Contrary to developed countries, developing countries have been observed to have an increased reliance on a diversity of water supply options to meet their daily demands, where formal supply systems are incapable of fulfilling the daily needs of consumers. In filling a demand-supply gap, informal supply systems are increasingly being associated with issues of long-term sustainability, higher consumer cost, and inequity. Emerging formal-informal dynamics in developing countries require a thorough understanding of complex human-water interactions for policy direction, in order to best support the advancement of urban water sustainability. Accordingly, system archetypes offer a platform to explain the behaviors of complex systems. This paper identifies common system archetypes that define urban waterscapes in the developing world. In this way, Causal Loop Diagrams (CLDs) are used to present relationships and identify common archetypes that define the complexity of urban water supply systems in Hyderabad, Pakistan. These archetypes include ‘fixes that fail’, ‘shifting the burden’, ‘limits to growth/success’ and ‘growth and underinvestment’. These archetypes demonstrate that increases in formal infrastructure capacity and the number of informal suppliers to increase supply reliability are symptomatic solutions, restrained by financial and technical resources, and thus have unintended consequences. Further, a number of policy instruments are discussed as leverage points to achieve financial sustainability of formal systems. This paper emphasizes the need of a policy framework for informal supply system in national and regional water policies to ensure its service reliability as a short to medium term solution.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
  • Assessing Economic Feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge Schemes:
           Evidence from Cost-benefit Analysis in Poland

    • Abstract: Highlights Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are promising solutions in water management. It is important to ensure the economic feasibility and viability of MAR schemes. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a widely used approach for the economic feasibility assessment of MAR projects. Our findings support the importance of the MAR scheme’s non-use benefits.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
  • Climate Change Impacts on ‘Seasonality Index’ and its Potential
           Implications on Rainwater Savings

    • Abstract: Abstract Seasonality Index (SI) is commonly used to define rainfall variability within a year for a locality, which has got significant impact on the water resources planning and management. Both the longer periods of dry and wet conditions are reflected by SI value. As SI is calculated using historical rainfall data, a historical average value is represented for a locality. However, with the emerging impacts of climate change SI values based on historical data are likely to change. This paper presents expected changes in future SI values for the largest city of Australia (Sydney) based on projected future rainfall scenarios for the city. The paper further illustrates potential water savings through rainwater tanks under projected climate change scenarios using an earlier developed daily water balance model, eTank. For the simulations of potential water savings through rainwater tanks, projected daily rainfall data was collected from Australian government data portal for four stations within Sydney. Future potential rainwater savings efficiencies were correlated with the corresponding SI values. It is found that such correlation closely matches with an earlier developed correlation using past historical data, however the future water savings efficiency will be slightly lower than the past water savings efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
  • A Pipe Ranking Method for Water Distribution Network Resilience Assessment

    • Abstract: Abstract The resilience assessment is crucial for many infrastructures, including water supply and distribution networks. In particular, the identification of the ‘critical’ components (nodes or pipes) whose failure may negatively affect network performances and system resilience is a key issue, with a direct relevance for decision-makers involved in planning, management and improvement activities. Among the multiple methods and tools available, the use of graph-theory metrics is a cutting-edge research topic, as the analysis of topological properties may provide simple yet reliable information on the performance of complex networks. In the present work, we aim to overcome the limit associated to the use of individual graph-theory metrics, identifying a subset of relevant metrics that are directly connected to network resilience properties, using them to perform a ‘network degradation analysis’ in case of single pipe failure and finally proposing an aggregation of the results using a Bayesian Belief Network. Ultimately, the proposed methodology provides a ranking of the most critical pipes, i.e. those that contribute most to system resilience. A real water distribution network in Italy is used for model development and validation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
  • Water Transfer Redistributes Sediment in Small Mountain Reservoirs

    • Abstract: Abstract Reservoir sedimentation management has become an important topic for large dams in the United States due to their historical design, current age, and increased environmental regulation. Less attention has been paid to small dams (hydraulic size < 0.01) in remote mountains with urgent sedimentation problems. In drier climates, such reservoirs may be frequently drained and trans-catchment flows routed over their sediment deposits heading from one mountain tunnel to another. This study asked an unexplored scientific question focusing on this special setting: how do different amounts of water transfers interact with different reservoir stages to affect sediment erosion and its redistribution in the backwater zone' Mindful timing and magnitude adjustment of water transfer, involving water diverted across watersheds by tunnels, through a reservoir were hypothesized to strategically redistribute sediment erosion for sites with water transfer/diversion facilities in the main channel. For a study site in the north-central Sierra Mountains of California, 2D hydrodynamic modeling revealed that sediment erosion within the backwater zone increased by > 100% when water transfer was maximized, involving a flow 12 times higher than mean annual discharge. With reservoir stage drawdown, the increment of sediment erosion was further increased by > 50% compared with water-transfer-only scenarios. The natural upstream inflow with daily flow occurrence of 5–25% was the optimal water transfer to avoid disturbing sediment. These results indicated that water transfer and stage drawdown optimization is a promising strategy to promote or abate redistribution of deposited sediment through a smaller reservoir.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
  • Managing Risks of Climate Change on Irrigation Water in Arid Regions

    • Abstract: Abstract Abnormal changes in temperature, precipitation, atmospheric carbon dioxide, or solar radiation are examples of climate change that may affect irrigation water demand. Studies show an increasing trend in the earth’s surface temperature, with decreasing trends in rainfall. With most studies focused on predicting the extent of climate change, fewer studies focused on developing appropriate response strategies. This paper aims to propose a systematic approach to identify, analyze, and respond to the risks of climate change on irrigation water in arid regions using the Risk Management process. The compound effect of these risks was analysed using Monte Carlo Simulation, which indicated a 69% loss in crop production due to climate change at a 90% confidence level. The proposed responses to the risks of climate change include strategies to avoid, transfer, mitigate, and/or accept these risks. The study has made three contributions to the state of the art. First, to adopt a well-recognized risk management methodology in climate change studies. Second, to quantify the compound effect of climate change risks on irrigation water in arid regions. Third, to recommend a set of response strategies to help policymakers mitigate the inevitable harmful effect of climate change on irrigation water.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
  • Inverse Flood Routing Using Simplified Flow Equations

    • Abstract: Abstract The paper considers the problem of inverse flood routing in reservoir operation strategy. The aim of the work is to investigate the possibility of determining the hydrograph at the upstream end based on the hydrograph required at the downstream end using simplified open channel flow models. To accomplish this, the linear kinematic wave equation, the diffusive wave equation and the linear Muskingum equation are considered. To achieve the hydrograph at the upstream end, an inverse solution of the afore mentioned equations with backward integration in the x direction is carried out. The numerical solution of the kinematic wave equation and the Muskingum equation bases on the finite difference scheme. It is shown that both these equations are able to provide satisfying results because of their exceptional properties related to numerical diffusion. In the paper, an alternative approach to solve the inverse routing using the diffusive wave model is also presented. To this end, it is described by a convolution which involves the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) corresponding to the linear diffusive wave equation. Consequently, instead of a solution of partial or ordinary differential equations, the integral equation with Laguerre polynomials, used for the expansion of the upstream hydrograph, is solved. It was shown that the convolution approach is more reliable comparing to the inverse solution of the simplified models in the form of differential equations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
  • Digital Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in the Water Industry

    • Abstract: Abstract Companies in the Water Industry present digital Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) agenda and, also, the social and environmental commitment to their stakeholders through the websites. The purpose of this research is to assess the digital CSR in Portuguese companies of the Water Industry. Furthermore, the research examines factors that impacts on the digital status of the online disclosure. The authors analyze the CSR information published on their websites of the Portuguese companies, operating in bottle water industry using empirical analysis. The data was collected based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI 2021a) standards that details the level of disclosure in this industry and highlight areas of underreporting. The results point to factors that need to improve to companies’ digital CSR report good practices and weak points based on the companies’ size, number of employees and turnover as factors that influence this level of disclosure.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
  • Comparative Evaluation of Water Resource Data Policy Inventories Towards
           the Improvement of East African Climate and Water Data Infrastructure

    • Abstract: Abstract The recognized challenge of freely accessing climate and water data in East Africa poses a problem in undertaking relevant analytical studies and making informed water resources management decisions in the region. This study seeks to understand the defining characteristics of policies and distribution infrastructure, in the context of meteorological, water quantity, and water quality data, that determine whether or not a user will be able to freely and readily access existing data. An analysis was developed to quantify the information contained in legislation, official documents and websites, and similar textual resources from the study region and elsewhere to establish commonalities, potential trends, and patterns in the documentation behind data streams culminating successfully in a portal or database accessible by the public. A quantitative analysis was applied to discern overall patterns in what constitutes effective policy and to diagnose where there may be impediments in the path between data collection and its application. Generally, the foundational elements present in the documentation pertaining to most accessible data streams represented are: (1) known organization in charge of that data type; (2) known location where this data would be stored; (3) defined data collection format; and (4) commitment to a plan for making data available to potential users. Examination of overlap between elements absent in unsuccessful data streams and present in successful data streams suggests that those without a documented commitment to making data available online rarely result in a functioning, accessible portal and vice versa. Amongst other findings, this knowledge has the potential to contribute towards the development and refinement of policies so that more emphasis is placed on openness and access, leading to informed decision-making and management of water resources.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
  • Assessing the Vulnerability of California Water Utilities to Wildfires

    • Abstract: Abstract Wildfires are becoming more frequent and destructive in California, and it is essential to quantify their potential impacts on drinking water utilities. This study aims to measure the severity of wildfires in each California water utility based on the exposure frequency and the extent of area burned by wildfires in each service area. Our quantitative models show an association between water utility characteristics and their vulnerability to wildfires. Findings indicate that wildfire vulnerability is higher in government-owned utilities than private ones, utilities primarily relying on surface water than groundwater, and utilities using local-sourced water than purchased water. Also, we find a stronger association between wildfire vulnerability and large utilities in terms of population served than small or medium ones. Regarding geography, we find wildfire vulnerability is higher in southern and coastal California utilities than in Northern and inland California. These results help water utilities and land managers identify vulnerable locations and develop wildfire management and disaster preparedness strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03247-5
  • Priority Water Rights for Irrigation at the River Basin Level. Do They
           Improve Economic Efficiency During Drought Periods'

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper assesses the potential efficiency gains of reforming the water rights regime in the Spanish agricultural sector by replacing current allocation procedures based on the proportional rule with a priority allocation procedure based on two tiers of security-differentiated water rights. This assessment is useful for evaluating whether said change in water rights can be considered a suitable policy instrument to improve water management during droughts events. For this purpose, a mathematical programming model is built to simulate the performance of the proposed reform. The empirical analysis is implemented at the basin scale, where water rights holders are highly heterogeneous, considering different climate scenarios accounting for changes in water supply reliability. The Guadalquivir River Basin (GRB) in southern Spain is used as a case study. The results obtained show that this change in the water allocation regime would yield only modest economic efficiency gains under the current climate scenario. However, it is also evidenced that this policy instrument could play a more relevant role as an efficiency enhancer in a climate change scenario, given that more frequent and intense drought episodes are expected. Moreover, priority rights represent an interesting risk management instrument for farmers, allowing the most vulnerable farmers to reduce income volatility. These findings suggest that the combined implementation of the proposed shift in the allocation regime with spot or allocation water markets would lead to successful outcomes, significantly improving drought management in the irrigation sector.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03228-8
  • Analysis of the isolation valve system in water distribution networks
           using the segment graph

    • Abstract: Abstract The mechanical reliability of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) is a relevant technical and scientific issue. During planned maintenance or unplanned interruptions, the affected area must be isolated by valves shutdown. This operation involves the alteration of the network structure, i.e., the domain of the hydraulic system, and for this reason the isolation valve system plays a central role. Some studies started to consider the presence of the isolation valve system in WDNs reliability analysis. Accordingly, this work uses the Complex Network Theory to analyse the isolation valve system performance and to assess the importance of the segments generated by valves shutdown. Differently from the classic complex network theory approach, in this work the recently proposed WDN-relevance-based betweenness centrality is applied to the segment graph to introduce information about the relevance of the different elements into the network, considering geometric and hydraulic parameters, such as length, demand, risk of disconnection, etc. The proposed strategy also suggests an improvement in the representation of the segment graph with respect to the presence of parallel edges. The strategy is presented using a small network, while it is demonstrated and discussed using a real WDN. The results indicate that the WDN-relevance-based betweenness centrality allows to effectively assess the importance of the segments generated by valves shutdowns, also providing indications to improve the isolation valve system design.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03213-1
  • Optimal Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Measures to Ensure
           Long-term Sustainability on Large Irrigation Systems

    • Abstract: Abstract Observed and projected consequences of climate change on streamflow generated in the Pyrenees threatens the long-term sustainability of water resources systems downstream, especially those with high irrigation demands. To tackle this challenge, the participation of stakeholders in defining potential adaptation strategies is crucial to building awareness and capacity for the community, providing agreed solutions, and reducing conflict. However, there is also a need for a top-down approach to incorporate other, large-scale, or innovative adaptation strategies. This article describes a bottom-up-meets-top-down approach to estimate the optimal implementation intensity of adaptation strategies under different climate scenarios on a complex water resources system. Future streamflow projections were used in a water allocation model combined with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling process to obtain optimal combinations of measures to meet different sustainability objectives. The methodology was applied to the Gállego-Cinca River system in NE Spain, which relies on water from the Pyrenees. A stakeholder workshop identified storage development and irrigation modernisation as the preferred adaptation options. However, the modelling results show that more storage in the basin, especially on-farm reservoirs, is not enough to maintain current sustainability levels. This will enable the adoption of demand management measures that optimise water use despite not being among stakeholder preferences.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03225-x
  • A Novel Hybrid Approach for Predicting Western Australia’s Seasonal
           Rainfall Variability

    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, 100 years of uninterrupted rainfall data for 12 rainfall stations (four rainfall stations from each region) in Western Australia were analyzed against respective dominant climate indices, and representative prediction models were developed using ARIMAX, GEP, and a hybrid technique (GEP-ARIMAX). Statistical performance evaluators such as Pearson correlation \((r)\) , root mean square error \((RMSE)\) , mean absolute error ( \(MAE\) ), and refined Willmot index of agreement ( \({d}_{r}\) ) were used to evaluate the prediction performance of the developed models. These models demonstrated their capability to predict up to four months in advance with Pearson correlation \((r)\) values ranging from 0.53 to 0.83, 0.75 to 0.85, and 0.87 to 0.95 for ARIMAX, GEP, and hybrid (GEP-ARIMAX) models respectively. While compared, the hybrid (GEP-ARIMAX) model showed superior prediction performance in both calibration and validation periods with Pearson correlation \((r)\) and refined Willmot index of agreement ( \({d}_{r}\) ) values were as high as 0.96 and 0.84 respectively. This paper demonstrated a novel hybrid GEP-ARIMAX model showing significantly good rainfall forecasting capability than conventional linear and non-linear models.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03219-9
  • The Perception of Residential Water Tariff, Consumption, and Cost:
           Evidence of its Determinants Using Survey Data

    • Abstract: Abstract In a survey of 1,500 households in Zaragoza (Spain), we found that respondents did not accurately know what the price of water was, and what the characteristics of the water tariff were, how much water they consumed, or how much it cost them; they thought they consumed less water than they actually did, and thought that their consumption level was normal; they believed they paid more than they really did, and considered the payments to be appropriate or expensive. Based on this sample of households, this paper analyses what determines the level of accuracy in the perception of consumers about their water tariff, their water consumption, and their total water cost, or, in other words, what determines the closeness between their perception and reality. The methodology applied is based on maximum likelihood estimates using various probit/logit models. The results obtained allow to identify the collectives to whom an information policy should be directed in order to approximate their perceptions closer to the real tariff, consumption and cost of water in households, and to point out the kind of information that should be transmitted in order to contribute to the preservation of water resources.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03134-z
  • Towards a More Robust Evaluation of Climate Model and Hydrological Impact

    • Abstract: Abstract The uncertainty of climate model projections is recognized as being large. This represents a challenge for decision makers as the simulation spread of a climate model ensemble can be large, and there might even be disagreement on the direction of the climate change signal among the members of the ensemble. This study quantifies changes in the hydrological projection uncertainty due to different approaches used to select a climate model ensemble. The study assesses 16 Euro-CORDEX Regional Climate Models (RCMs) that drive three different conceptualizations of the MIKE-SHE hydrological model for the Ahlergaarde catchment in western Denmark. The skills of the raw and bias-corrected RCMs to simulate historical precipitation are evaluated using sets of nine, six, and three metrics assessing means and extremes in a series of steps, and results in reduction of projection uncertainties. After each step, the overall lowest-performing model is removed from the ensemble and the standard deviation is estimated, only considering the members of the new ensemble. This is performed for nine steps. The uncertainty of raw RCM outputs is reduced the most for river discharge (5 th , 50 th and 95 th percentiles) when using the set of three metrics, which only assess precipitation means and one ‘moderate’ extreme metrics. In contrast, the uncertainty of bias-corrected RCMs is reduced the most when using all nine metrics, which evaluate means, ‘moderate’ extremes and high extremes. Similar results are obtained for groundwater head (GWH). For the last step of the method, the initial standard deviation of the raw outputs decreases up to 38% for GWH and 37% for river discharge. The corresponding decreases when evaluating the bias-corrected outputs are 63% and 42%. For the bias corrected outputs, the approach proposed here reduces the projected hydrological uncertainty and provides a stronger change signal for most of the months. This analysis provides an insight on how different approaches used to select a climate model ensemble affect the uncertainty of the hydrological projections and, in this case, reduce the uncertainty of the future projections.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03212-2
  • Water Allocation Management Under Scarcity: a Bankruptcy Approach

    • Abstract: Abstract This study hopes to develop a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method for equitable and efficient allocation of water resources under scarcity. Based on the Bankruptcy problems, five classic plus one proposed allocation rules are introduced to generate water distribution alternatives. The “Core” solution of Cooperative Game Theory (CGT) and the Security Restriction have been used to select feasible alternatives. Additionally, five voting methods in Social Choice Theory (SCT) are launched to aggregate preferences and obtain a “win” alternative. Apply this model to the 2030 water allocation planning project of Ezhou City, China, as a case study. Under the proposed rule, Adjust minimal overlap rule (AMO), five regions, Urban Area, Gedian DZ, and three counties, hold the water deficit rate of 5.9%, 15.8%, and 4.7%-6.1%, respectively. In aggregating preferences by voting, AMO wins four out of five methods and takes second place in the last one, which provides some insights for allocating water fairly and feasibly.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03098-0
  • An Integrated Extreme Rainfall Modeling Tool (SDExtreme) for Climate
           Change Impacts and Adaptation

    • Abstract: Abstract The estimation of the Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) relation is often necessary for the planning and design of various hydraulic structures and design storms. It has been an increasingly greater challenge due to climate change conditions. This paper therefore proposes an integrated extreme rainfall modeling software package (SDExtreme) for constructing the IDF relations at a local site in the context of climate change. The proposed tool is based on a temporal downscaling method to describe the relationships between daily and sub-daily extreme precipitation using the scale-invariance General Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. In addition, SDExtreme provides a modified bootstrap technique to determine confidence intervals (CIs) of the estimated IDF curves for current and the future climate conditions. The feasibility and accuracy of SDExtreme were assessed using rainfall data available from the selected rain gauge stations in Quebec and Ontario provinces (Canada) and climate simulations under three different climate change scenarios provided by the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) and the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4).
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03194-1
  • Comprehensive Regulation of Water Services. Why Quality of Service and
           Economic Costs Cannot be Considered Separately

    • Abstract: Abstract Regulation in the water sector emerged as a formula to protect customers from the natural monopoly that conforms water and wastewater services. As there is little information about regulatory practices in the sector around the world, information has been collected though a survey sent to water regulators. The results of the survey provided enough information to understand how the different utilities’ behaviours are regulated and the methodologies used. Among all the behaviours to be regulated, economic and quality of service regulation emerge as key aspects from a technical point of view. The first one supervises utilities’ costs and tariffs while the second, the standards the service is provided. However, it has been detected that these aspects are regulated separately and the quality of service does not have an impact on economic regulation. This work quantifies the impact that the quality of services has on costs and the consequences derived from not considering it in the economic regulation. In addition, this study also lists all the different aspect of the quality of service with an impact on costs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03198-x
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