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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Water Resources Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.185
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 46  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0920-4741 - ISSN (Online) 1573-1650
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • A Novel Hybrid Approach for Predicting Western Australia’s Seasonal
           Rainfall Variability

    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, 100 years of uninterrupted rainfall data for 12 rainfall stations (four rainfall stations from each region) in Western Australia were analyzed against respective dominant climate indices, and representative prediction models were developed using ARIMAX, GEP, and a hybrid technique (GEP-ARIMAX). Statistical performance evaluators such as Pearson correlation \((r)\) , root mean square error \((RMSE)\) , mean absolute error ( \(MAE\) ), and refined Willmot index of agreement ( \({d}_{r}\) ) were used to evaluate the prediction performance of the developed models. These models demonstrated their capability to predict up to four months in advance with Pearson correlation \((r)\) values ranging from 0.53 to 0.83, 0.75 to 0.85, and 0.87 to 0.95 for ARIMAX, GEP, and hybrid (GEP-ARIMAX) models respectively. While compared, the hybrid (GEP-ARIMAX) model showed superior prediction performance in both calibration and validation periods with Pearson correlation \((r)\) and refined Willmot index of agreement ( \({d}_{r}\) ) values were as high as 0.96 and 0.84 respectively. This paper demonstrated a novel hybrid GEP-ARIMAX model showing significantly good rainfall forecasting capability than conventional linear and non-linear models.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
       
  • The Perception of Residential Water Tariff, Consumption, and Cost:
           Evidence of its Determinants Using Survey Data

    • Abstract: Abstract In a survey of 1,500 households in Zaragoza (Spain), we found that respondents did not accurately know what the price of water was, and what the characteristics of the water tariff were, how much water they consumed, or how much it cost them; they thought they consumed less water than they actually did, and thought that their consumption level was normal; they believed they paid more than they really did, and considered the payments to be appropriate or expensive. Based on this sample of households, this paper analyses what determines the level of accuracy in the perception of consumers about their water tariff, their water consumption, and their total water cost, or, in other words, what determines the closeness between their perception and reality. The methodology applied is based on maximum likelihood estimates using various probit/logit models. The results obtained allow to identify the collectives to whom an information policy should be directed in order to approximate their perceptions closer to the real tariff, consumption and cost of water in households, and to point out the kind of information that should be transmitted in order to contribute to the preservation of water resources.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Towards a More Robust Evaluation of Climate Model and Hydrological Impact
           Uncertainties

    • Abstract: Abstract The uncertainty of climate model projections is recognized as being large. This represents a challenge for decision makers as the simulation spread of a climate model ensemble can be large, and there might even be disagreement on the direction of the climate change signal among the members of the ensemble. This study quantifies changes in the hydrological projection uncertainty due to different approaches used to select a climate model ensemble. The study assesses 16 Euro-CORDEX Regional Climate Models (RCMs) that drive three different conceptualizations of the MIKE-SHE hydrological model for the Ahlergaarde catchment in western Denmark. The skills of the raw and bias-corrected RCMs to simulate historical precipitation are evaluated using sets of nine, six, and three metrics assessing means and extremes in a series of steps, and results in reduction of projection uncertainties. After each step, the overall lowest-performing model is removed from the ensemble and the standard deviation is estimated, only considering the members of the new ensemble. This is performed for nine steps. The uncertainty of raw RCM outputs is reduced the most for river discharge (5 th , 50 th and 95 th percentiles) when using the set of three metrics, which only assess precipitation means and one ‘moderate’ extreme metrics. In contrast, the uncertainty of bias-corrected RCMs is reduced the most when using all nine metrics, which evaluate means, ‘moderate’ extremes and high extremes. Similar results are obtained for groundwater head (GWH). For the last step of the method, the initial standard deviation of the raw outputs decreases up to 38% for GWH and 37% for river discharge. The corresponding decreases when evaluating the bias-corrected outputs are 63% and 42%. For the bias corrected outputs, the approach proposed here reduces the projected hydrological uncertainty and provides a stronger change signal for most of the months. This analysis provides an insight on how different approaches used to select a climate model ensemble affect the uncertainty of the hydrological projections and, in this case, reduce the uncertainty of the future projections.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • Water Allocation Management Under Scarcity: a Bankruptcy Approach

    • Abstract: Abstract This study hopes to develop a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method for equitable and efficient allocation of water resources under scarcity. Based on the Bankruptcy problems, five classic plus one proposed allocation rules are introduced to generate water distribution alternatives. The “Core” solution of Cooperative Game Theory (CGT) and the Security Restriction have been used to select feasible alternatives. Additionally, five voting methods in Social Choice Theory (SCT) are launched to aggregate preferences and obtain a “win” alternative. Apply this model to the 2030 water allocation planning project of Ezhou City, China, as a case study. Under the proposed rule, Adjust minimal overlap rule (AMO), five regions, Urban Area, Gedian DZ, and three counties, hold the water deficit rate of 5.9%, 15.8%, and 4.7%-6.1%, respectively. In aggregating preferences by voting, AMO wins four out of five methods and takes second place in the last one, which provides some insights for allocating water fairly and feasibly.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • An Integrated Extreme Rainfall Modeling Tool (SDExtreme) for Climate
           Change Impacts and Adaptation

    • Abstract: Abstract The estimation of the Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) relation is often necessary for the planning and design of various hydraulic structures and design storms. It has been an increasingly greater challenge due to climate change conditions. This paper therefore proposes an integrated extreme rainfall modeling software package (SDExtreme) for constructing the IDF relations at a local site in the context of climate change. The proposed tool is based on a temporal downscaling method to describe the relationships between daily and sub-daily extreme precipitation using the scale-invariance General Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. In addition, SDExtreme provides a modified bootstrap technique to determine confidence intervals (CIs) of the estimated IDF curves for current and the future climate conditions. The feasibility and accuracy of SDExtreme were assessed using rainfall data available from the selected rain gauge stations in Quebec and Ontario provinces (Canada) and climate simulations under three different climate change scenarios provided by the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) and the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4).
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Comprehensive Regulation of Water Services. Why Quality of Service and
           Economic Costs Cannot be Considered Separately

    • Abstract: Abstract Regulation in the water sector emerged as a formula to protect customers from the natural monopoly that conforms water and wastewater services. As there is little information about regulatory practices in the sector around the world, information has been collected though a survey sent to water regulators. The results of the survey provided enough information to understand how the different utilities’ behaviours are regulated and the methodologies used. Among all the behaviours to be regulated, economic and quality of service regulation emerge as key aspects from a technical point of view. The first one supervises utilities’ costs and tariffs while the second, the standards the service is provided. However, it has been detected that these aspects are regulated separately and the quality of service does not have an impact on economic regulation. This work quantifies the impact that the quality of services has on costs and the consequences derived from not considering it in the economic regulation. In addition, this study also lists all the different aspect of the quality of service with an impact on costs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Performances of Pressure Reducing Valves in Variable Demand Conditions:
           Experimental Analysis and New Performance Parameters

    • Abstract: Abstract Pressure Reducing Valves (PRV) play a critical role in Water Distribution Networks (WDN): they regulate pressure ensuring an efficient service to users and preventing damage to pipelines. In recent years, the attention of water utilities towards pressure management and leakage control led to the necessity of more flexible and responsive technologies that can guarantee a higher level of pressure control accuracy. Because of this the common performance parameters based on steady state conditions are no longer satisfactory to evaluate the effective behaviour of the devices when used in situations where demand can change. In the present paper the pressure control effectiveness of different types of PRV (electric actuated, pilot operated and direct acting) in variable demand conditions is discussed. The data used are from experimental tests, literature and field application. To assess valves’ pressure control performance, the use of new parameters, which consider the peak of pressure reached during control operations and the accuracy of target pressure regulation, has been proposed. The use of these parameters allows the comparison between different type of valves giving to WDN managers a direct overview on the valves ability to regulate pressure under variable demand conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
       
  • Drought Governance in Transition: a Case Study of the Meuse River Basin in
           the Netherlands

    • Abstract: Abstract The Netherlands is internationally renowned for its flood risk management, but three consecutive dry years between 2018–2020 fuelled the debate on how to deal with future drought risk. Drought governance in the Netherlands is still in its infancy. The increased sense of urgency has led many scholars and policy makers to call for transitions towards a more anticipatory drought governance which enables transformative actions in an adequate and timely manner. Whilst transitions have been studied before, few have looked at governance systems, and even fewer on the processes that can steer the direction and speed of governance transitions in the future. This paper adopts a novel perspective by combining theories on mechanisms and transitions to analyse future governance transitions. The aim of this study is to identify the key mechanisms that have potential to steer and/or accelerate transitions in Dutch drought governance. This study focusses on the upper part of the Dutch Meuse River basin. Using a document analysis, expert interviews, and focus group discussions, the findings show that five underlying micro-level mechanisms are critical to steer and accelerate transitions. These include social learning, shared problem perception, administrative courage and leadership, persistency, and institutionalisation. The novel transition-mechanistic conceptual approach adopted in this study offers a starting point for other studies that wish to obtain a better understanding of underlying processes in a transition.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Revisiting Major Dry Periods by Rolling Time Series Analysis for
           Human-Water Relevance in Drought

    • Abstract: Abstract Drought is increasingly gaining importance for society, humans, and the environment. It is analyzed commonly by the use of available hydroclimatic or hydrologic data with little in-depth consideration of specific major dry periods experienced over a region. Also, it is not a common practice to assess the probability of drought categories with a rolling time series and hence the changing knowledge for operational drought monitoring. A combination of such quantitative analysis with a comprehensive qualitative assessment of drought as a human-water relation aimed to fill this gap performing a case study in the Seyhan River Basin, Turkey. Six major dry periods were identified from the precipitation time series of 19 meteorological stations. Major dry periods were analyzed by rolling time series and full time series, and they were also analyzed individually. A major dry period could be important in terms of its duration while another in terms of its severity or intensity, and each with its own impact on the human-water relations that can be influential on the drought mitigation, management and governance. Significantly higher probabilities were calculated for extreme droughts with the use of individual major dry periods. An important outcome from the study is that drought is underestimated in practice with the sole use of the whole data record.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Correction to: Monthly Streamflow Modeling Based on Self-organizing Maps
           and Satellite-estimated Rainfall Data

    • PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Correction to: Improving the Summer Power Generation of a Hydropower
           Reservoir Using the Modified Multi‑Step Ahead Time‑Varying Hedging
           Rule

    • PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Improvement of Rainwater Harvesting Analysis Through an Hourly Timestep
           Model in Comparison with a Daily Timestep Model

    • Abstract: Abstract For the analysis of rainwater tank outcomes, some researchers used monthly water balance model, which ignores an important factor such as overflow from the tank. Recently, to improve the accuracy of such analysis facilitated by the availability of daily rainfall data, many researchers started using daily timestep models. In the daily timestep models, the daily rainwater demand is deducted from the available storage, once in a day and there are debates on whether to apply that deduction at the beginning of the day or at the end of the day. Moreover, there is significant diurnal variation of water demand, which can not be accounted for in a daily timestep model. To overcome this, current study investigates an hourly timestep model considering hourly rainfall data and hourly variable rainwater demands. Hourly rainfall data was collected from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for a raingauge station located in Melbourne. An earlier developed daily water balance model was converted to hourly scale incorporating hourly variable rainwater demands. Model simulated results for three distinct years (dry, average and wet) were compared with the results using a daily timestep model with the same data. Variations of water savings and overflow amounts are presented under four combinations of roof area and daily rainwater demand with tank sizes varying from 2500 L to 20,000 L. It is found that in all the selected years, the daily timestep model underestimated the annual water savings compared to the hourly timestep model and the highest difference was estimated to be 13,750 L for a smaller tank size connected with a bigger roof having higher rainwater demand.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • State Variable Implications on Hydraulic State Estimation

    • Abstract: Abstract Hydraulic State Estimation allows to estimate the most likely state of a water supply network considering multiple sources of information and their associated uncertainty. It is set out as an optimization problem, often addressed according to the Weighted Least Squares criterion. It can be formulated differently depending on the selected set of state variables. This choice is not straightforward and leads to different problem dimensions, time complexities and convergence behavior. All possible essential approaches are gathered in this work and two are identified as the most suitable according to the resulting problem dimensions: a head-based approach and a demand-based approach. The particularities and the formulation according to both sets of state variables are discussed, seeking for efficient implementation. Their time complexity and convergence behavior are compared to draw conclusions that help to identify the most suitable approach for real practice applications.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Innovative Risk Assessment Framework for Hydraulic Control of Irrigation
           Reservoirs´ Breaching

    • Abstract: Abstract This research introduces an innovative framework aimed at developing a risk assessment to analyse the breaching hydraulic control of non-impounding reservoirs for irrigation purposes, called irrigation reservoirs (IRs). This approach comprises an analytical method based on several empirical formulas where the one that best fits the different geometric characteristics of IR water systems is chosen. Furthermore, a stochastic framework allows for the incorporation of the occurrence probability as a tool to characterize the risk analysis of IRs. This occurrence probability has two components: probability based on the bottom elevation of a final breach and probability based on the failure mode (piping in this case). In risk assessment terms, the ultimate product comprises the maximum hazard probability maps that allow a significant improvement in the representation of the artificial flooding effect. This research was successfully applied in two dimensions, synthetically and realistically, in the Las Porteras and Macías Picavea IR water systems (Spain). This approach may improve the management of this type of hydraulic infrastructure and its surrounding area by reducing the risk of experiencing negative consequences derived from uncontrolled hydraulic breaching.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Monthly Streamflow Modeling Based on Self-Organizing Maps and
           Satellite-Estimated Rainfall Data

    • Abstract: Hydrological data provide valuable information for the decision-making process in water resources management, where long and complete time series are always desired. However, it is common to deal with missing data when working on streamflow time series. Rainfall-streamflow modeling is an alternative to overcome such a difficulty. In this paper, self-organizing maps (SOM) were developed to simulate monthly inflows to a reservoir based on satellite-estimated gridded precipitation time series. Three different calibration datasets from Três Marias Reservoir, composed of inflows (targets) and 91 TRMM-estimated rainfall data (inputs), from 1998 to 2019, were used. The results showed that the inflow data homogeneity pattern influenced the rainfall-streamflow modeling. The models generally showed superior performance during the calibration phase, whereas the outcomes varied depending on the data homogeneity pattern and the chosen SOM structure in the testing phase. Regardless of the input data homogeneity, the SOM networks showed excellent results for the rainfall-runoff modeling, presenting Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients greater than 0.90. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Is There a Residual and Hidden Potential for Small and Micro Hydropower
           in Europe' A Screening-Level Regional Assessment

    • Abstract: Abstract Small hydropower plants (installed power below 10 MW) are generally considered less impacting than larger plants, and this has stimulated their rapid spread, with a developing potential that is not exhausted yet. However, since they can cause environmental impacts, especially in case of cascade installations, there is the need to operate them in a more sustainable way, e.g. considering ecosystem needs and by developing low-impacting technologies. In this paper, an assessment was conducted to estimate how the environmental flow and the plant spatial density affect the small hydropower potential (considering run-of-river schemes, diversion type, DROR) in the European Union. The potential of DROR is 79 TWh/y under the strictest environmental constraints considered, and 1,710 TWh/y under the laxest constraints. The potential of low-impacting micro technologies (< 100 kW) was also assessed, showing that the economic potential of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers is 1.2 TWh/y, that of water wheels in old mills is 1.6 TWh/y, and the hydropower potential of water and wastewater networks is 3.1 TWh/y, at an average investment cost of 5,000 €/kW.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03084-6
       
  • Permeable Asphalt Hydraulic Conductivity and Particulate Matter Separation
           With XRT

    • Abstract: Abstract Permeable asphalt (PA) is a composite material with an open graded mix design that provides a pore structure facilitating stormwater infiltration. PA is often constructed as a wearing course for permeable pavements and on impervious pavements to reduce aquaplaning and noise. The pore structure of PA functions as a filter promoting particulate matter (PM) separation. The infiltrating flow characteristics are predominately dependent on pore diameter and pore interconnectivity. X-Ray microTomography (XRT) has successfully estimated these parameters that are otherwise difficult to obtain through conventional gravimetric methods. Pore structure parameters allow modeling of hydraulic conductivity (k) and filtration mechanisms; required to examine the material behavior for infiltration and PM separation. In this study, pore structure parameters were determined through XTR for three PA mixture designs. Additionally, the Kozeny-Kovàv model was implemented to estimate k. PM separation was evaluated using a pore-to-PM diameter categorical model. This filtration mechanism model was validated with data from a rainfall simulator. The filtration model provided a good correlation between measured and modeled data. The identification of filtration mechanisms and k facilitate the design and evaluation of permeable pavement systems as a best management practice (BMP) for runoff volume and peak flow as well as PM and PM-partitioned chemical separation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03113-4
       
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Best Management Practices on Streamflow,
           Sediment and Nutrient Yield at Field and Watershed Scales

    • Abstract: Evaluating Best Management Practices (BMPs) in watersheds using hydrologic and water quality models can help to establish an effective watershed water management. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to Big Sunflower River Watershed (BSRW) and the Stovall Sherard Watershed (SSW) to evaluate BMP’s impact at watershed and field scale watersheds respectively. SWAT was calibrated and validated for streamflow, sediment yield, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) at outlets of three sub-basins of the BSRW, and within the SSW. BMP scenarios of check-dam, tail water pond, vegetative filter strips (VFS), nutrient management, and tillage management were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing streamflow, sediment yield, and nutrient loads at field and watershed scales. The VFS was determined as the most effective BMP in decreasing sediment yield, TN, and TP at both field and watershed scales. At field scale, reduction of sediment yield, TN, and TP by VFS ranged from 8 to 12%, 71% to 98%, and 72% to 99% respectively and at watershed scale, reduction of sediment yield, TN, and TP by VFS ranged from 12 to 38%, 29% to 87%, and 42% to 99% respectively. The application of conservation and zero tillage operation showed reduction in sediment yield by 1% to 2% respectively but increased TN and TP by 2% to 25% at field and watershed scale watersheds. This study will help in managing water at field and watershed scale watersheds regarding BMPs selection and implementation. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03075-7
       
  • Improving the Summer Power Generation of a Hydropower Reservoir Using the
           Modified Multi-Step Ahead Time-Varying Hedging Rule

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to improve summer power generation of the Yeywa Hydropower Reservoir in Myanmar using the modified multi-step ahead time-varying hedging (TVH) rule as a case study. The results of the TVH rules were compared with the standard operation policy (SOP) rule, the binary standard operation policy (BSOP) rule, the discrete hedging (DH) rule, the standard hedging (SH) rule, the one-point hedging (OPH) rule, and the two-point hedging (TPH) rule. The Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) was utilized to drive the optimal Pareto fronts for the hedging rules. The results demonstrated that the TVH rules had higher performance than the other rules and showed improvements in power generation not only during the summer period but also over the entire period.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-03043-7
       
  • Combined Management of Groundwater Resources and Water Supply Systems at
           Basin Scale Under Climate Change

    • Abstract: Abstract Water stress conditions associated with population growth, climate change, and groundwater contamination, represent a significant challenge for all stakeholders in the water sector. Increasing the resilience of Water Supply Systems (WSSs) becomes of fundamental importance: along with an adequate level of service, sustainability targets must be ensured. A long-term management strategy is strictly connected to a holistic approach, based on analyses at different scales. To this end, both groundwater modeling tools and water management models, with different spatial and temporal scales, are routinely and independently employed. Here, we propose a coupled approach combining: i) groundwater models (MODFLOW) to investigate different stress scenarios, involving climate change and anthropic activities; ii) water management models (Aquator), to assess the water resources availability and the best long-term management strategy for large-scale WSS. The management models are implemented starting from input and output flows derived by groundwater models: this leads to establish a comprehensive framework usually not defined in management models and including a quantitative characterization of the aquifer. The proposed methodology, general and applicable to any study area, is here implemented to the WSS of Reggio Emilia Province, and its main groundwater resource, the Enza aquifer, considering three different stress scenarios for groundwater models (BAU, ST1, and ST2), and for management strategies (BAU, BAURV2, ST2). Among the key results, we observe that coupling the two model types: i) allows evaluating water resources availability in connection with management rules; ii) leads to examining more realistic operation choices; iii) permits planning of infrastructures at basin scale.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03059-7
       
 
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