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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 161 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Agua y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
altlastenforum Baden-Württemberg e.V., Schriftenreihe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries     Open Access  
Aquasains     Open Access  
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Discover Water     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal and Hydraulic Structures (JCHS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecohydraulics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of South Carolina Water Resources     Open Access  
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Enggano     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural and Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
npj Clean Water     Open Access  
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ribagua : Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access  
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Soil Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Cycle     Open Access  
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Water Research X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
wH2O : The Journal of Gender and Water     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Water Policy     Hybrid Journal  
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Water Resources Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.185
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 46  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0920-4741 - ISSN (Online) 1573-1650
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Monthly Streamflow Modeling Based on Self-organizing Maps
           and Satellite-estimated Rainfall Data

    • PubDate: 2022-05-18
  • Correction to: Improving the Summer Power Generation of a Hydropower
           Reservoir Using the Modified Multi‑Step Ahead Time‑Varying Hedging

    • PubDate: 2022-05-18
  • Improvement of Rainwater Harvesting Analysis Through an Hourly Timestep
           Model in Comparison with a Daily Timestep Model

    • Abstract: For the analysis of rainwater tank outcomes, some researchers used monthly water balance model, which ignores an important factor such as overflow from the tank. Recently, to improve the accuracy of such analysis facilitated by the availability of daily rainfall data, many researchers started using daily timestep models. In the daily timestep models, the daily rainwater demand is deducted from the available storage, once in a day and there are debates on whether to apply that deduction at the beginning of the day or at the end of the day. Moreover, there is significant diurnal variation of water demand, which can not be accounted for in a daily timestep model. To overcome this, current study investigates an hourly timestep model considering hourly rainfall data and hourly variable rainwater demands. Hourly rainfall data was collected from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for a raingauge station located in Melbourne. An earlier developed daily water balance model was converted to hourly scale incorporating hourly variable rainwater demands. Model simulated results for three distinct years (dry, average and wet) were compared with the results using a daily timestep model with the same data. Variations of water savings and overflow amounts are presented under four combinations of roof area and daily rainwater demand with tank sizes varying from 2500 L to 20,000 L. It is found that in all the selected years, the daily timestep model underestimated the annual water savings compared to the hourly timestep model and the highest difference was estimated to be 13,750 L for a smaller tank size connected with a bigger roof having higher rainwater demand.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
  • State Variable Implications on Hydraulic State Estimation

    • Abstract: Hydraulic State Estimation allows to estimate the most likely state of a water supply network considering multiple sources of information and their associated uncertainty. It is set out as an optimization problem, often addressed according to the Weighted Least Squares criterion. It can be formulated differently depending on the selected set of state variables. This choice is not straightforward and leads to different problem dimensions, time complexities and convergence behavior. All possible essential approaches are gathered in this work and two are identified as the most suitable according to the resulting problem dimensions: a head-based approach and a demand-based approach. The particularities and the formulation according to both sets of state variables are discussed, seeking for efficient implementation. Their time complexity and convergence behavior are compared to draw conclusions that help to identify the most suitable approach for real practice applications.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
  • Innovative Risk Assessment Framework for Hydraulic Control of Irrigation
           Reservoirs´ Breaching

    • Abstract: Abstract This research introduces an innovative framework aimed at developing a risk assessment to analyse the breaching hydraulic control of non-impounding reservoirs for irrigation purposes, called irrigation reservoirs (IRs). This approach comprises an analytical method based on several empirical formulas where the one that best fits the different geometric characteristics of IR water systems is chosen. Furthermore, a stochastic framework allows for the incorporation of the occurrence probability as a tool to characterize the risk analysis of IRs. This occurrence probability has two components: probability based on the bottom elevation of a final breach and probability based on the failure mode (piping in this case). In risk assessment terms, the ultimate product comprises the maximum hazard probability maps that allow a significant improvement in the representation of the artificial flooding effect. This research was successfully applied in two dimensions, synthetically and realistically, in the Las Porteras and Macías Picavea IR water systems (Spain). This approach may improve the management of this type of hydraulic infrastructure and its surrounding area by reducing the risk of experiencing negative consequences derived from uncontrolled hydraulic breaching.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
  • Monthly Streamflow Modeling Based on Self-Organizing Maps and
           Satellite-Estimated Rainfall Data

    • Abstract: Hydrological data provide valuable information for the decision-making process in water resources management, where long and complete time series are always desired. However, it is common to deal with missing data when working on streamflow time series. Rainfall-streamflow modeling is an alternative to overcome such a difficulty. In this paper, self-organizing maps (SOM) were developed to simulate monthly inflows to a reservoir based on satellite-estimated gridded precipitation time series. Three different calibration datasets from Três Marias Reservoir, composed of inflows (targets) and 91 TRMM-estimated rainfall data (inputs), from 1998 to 2019, were used. The results showed that the inflow data homogeneity pattern influenced the rainfall-streamflow modeling. The models generally showed superior performance during the calibration phase, whereas the outcomes varied depending on the data homogeneity pattern and the chosen SOM structure in the testing phase. Regardless of the input data homogeneity, the SOM networks showed excellent results for the rainfall-runoff modeling, presenting Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients greater than 0.90. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
  • Is There a Residual and Hidden Potential for Small and Micro Hydropower
           in Europe' A Screening-Level Regional Assessment

    • Abstract: Abstract Small hydropower plants (installed power below 10 MW) are generally considered less impacting than larger plants, and this has stimulated their rapid spread, with a developing potential that is not exhausted yet. However, since they can cause environmental impacts, especially in case of cascade installations, there is the need to operate them in a more sustainable way, e.g. considering ecosystem needs and by developing low-impacting technologies. In this paper, an assessment was conducted to estimate how the environmental flow and the plant spatial density affect the small hydropower potential (considering run-of-river schemes, diversion type, DROR) in the European Union. The potential of DROR is 79 TWh/y under the strictest environmental constraints considered, and 1,710 TWh/y under the laxest constraints. The potential of low-impacting micro technologies (< 100 kW) was also assessed, showing that the economic potential of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers is 1.2 TWh/y, that of water wheels in old mills is 1.6 TWh/y, and the hydropower potential of water and wastewater networks is 3.1 TWh/y, at an average investment cost of 5,000 €/kW.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
  • Permeable Asphalt Hydraulic Conductivity and Particulate Matter Separation
           With XRT

    • Abstract: Abstract Permeable asphalt (PA) is a composite material with an open graded mix design that provides a pore structure facilitating stormwater infiltration. PA is often constructed as a wearing course for permeable pavements and on impervious pavements to reduce aquaplaning and noise. The pore structure of PA functions as a filter promoting particulate matter (PM) separation. The infiltrating flow characteristics are predominately dependent on pore diameter and pore interconnectivity. X-Ray microTomography (XRT) has successfully estimated these parameters that are otherwise difficult to obtain through conventional gravimetric methods. Pore structure parameters allow modeling of hydraulic conductivity (k) and filtration mechanisms; required to examine the material behavior for infiltration and PM separation. In this study, pore structure parameters were determined through XTR for three PA mixture designs. Additionally, the Kozeny-Kovàv model was implemented to estimate k. PM separation was evaluated using a pore-to-PM diameter categorical model. This filtration mechanism model was validated with data from a rainfall simulator. The filtration model provided a good correlation between measured and modeled data. The identification of filtration mechanisms and k facilitate the design and evaluation of permeable pavement systems as a best management practice (BMP) for runoff volume and peak flow as well as PM and PM-partitioned chemical separation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Best Management Practices on Streamflow,
           Sediment and Nutrient Yield at Field and Watershed Scales

    • Abstract: Evaluating Best Management Practices (BMPs) in watersheds using hydrologic and water quality models can help to establish an effective watershed water management. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to Big Sunflower River Watershed (BSRW) and the Stovall Sherard Watershed (SSW) to evaluate BMP’s impact at watershed and field scale watersheds respectively. SWAT was calibrated and validated for streamflow, sediment yield, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) at outlets of three sub-basins of the BSRW, and within the SSW. BMP scenarios of check-dam, tail water pond, vegetative filter strips (VFS), nutrient management, and tillage management were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing streamflow, sediment yield, and nutrient loads at field and watershed scales. The VFS was determined as the most effective BMP in decreasing sediment yield, TN, and TP at both field and watershed scales. At field scale, reduction of sediment yield, TN, and TP by VFS ranged from 8 to 12%, 71% to 98%, and 72% to 99% respectively and at watershed scale, reduction of sediment yield, TN, and TP by VFS ranged from 12 to 38%, 29% to 87%, and 42% to 99% respectively. The application of conservation and zero tillage operation showed reduction in sediment yield by 1% to 2% respectively but increased TN and TP by 2% to 25% at field and watershed scale watersheds. This study will help in managing water at field and watershed scale watersheds regarding BMPs selection and implementation. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03075-7
  • Improving the Summer Power Generation of a Hydropower Reservoir Using the
           Modified Multi-Step Ahead Time-Varying Hedging Rule

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to improve summer power generation of the Yeywa Hydropower Reservoir in Myanmar using the modified multi-step ahead time-varying hedging (TVH) rule as a case study. The results of the TVH rules were compared with the standard operation policy (SOP) rule, the binary standard operation policy (BSOP) rule, the discrete hedging (DH) rule, the standard hedging (SH) rule, the one-point hedging (OPH) rule, and the two-point hedging (TPH) rule. The Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) was utilized to drive the optimal Pareto fronts for the hedging rules. The results demonstrated that the TVH rules had higher performance than the other rules and showed improvements in power generation not only during the summer period but also over the entire period.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-03043-7
  • Combined Management of Groundwater Resources and Water Supply Systems at
           Basin Scale Under Climate Change

    • Abstract: Abstract Water stress conditions associated with population growth, climate change, and groundwater contamination, represent a significant challenge for all stakeholders in the water sector. Increasing the resilience of Water Supply Systems (WSSs) becomes of fundamental importance: along with an adequate level of service, sustainability targets must be ensured. A long-term management strategy is strictly connected to a holistic approach, based on analyses at different scales. To this end, both groundwater modeling tools and water management models, with different spatial and temporal scales, are routinely and independently employed. Here, we propose a coupled approach combining: i) groundwater models (MODFLOW) to investigate different stress scenarios, involving climate change and anthropic activities; ii) water management models (Aquator), to assess the water resources availability and the best long-term management strategy for large-scale WSS. The management models are implemented starting from input and output flows derived by groundwater models: this leads to establish a comprehensive framework usually not defined in management models and including a quantitative characterization of the aquifer. The proposed methodology, general and applicable to any study area, is here implemented to the WSS of Reggio Emilia Province, and its main groundwater resource, the Enza aquifer, considering three different stress scenarios for groundwater models (BAU, ST1, and ST2), and for management strategies (BAU, BAURV2, ST2). Among the key results, we observe that coupling the two model types: i) allows evaluating water resources availability in connection with management rules; ii) leads to examining more realistic operation choices; iii) permits planning of infrastructures at basin scale.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-022-03059-7
  • Prior Assumptions for Leak Localisation in Water Distribution Networks
           with Uncertainties

    • Abstract: Abstract Hydraulic model-based leak (burst) localisation in water distribution networks is a challenging problem due to a limited number of hydraulic measurements, a wide range of leak properties, and model and data uncertainties. In this study, prior assumptions are investigated to improve the leak localisation in the presence of uncertainties. For example, \(\ell _2\) -regularisation relies on the assumption that the Euclidean norm of the leak coefficient vector should be minimised. This approach is compared with a method based on the sensitivity matrix, which assumes the existence of only a single leak. The results show that while the sensitivity matrix method often yields a better leak location estimate in single leak scenarios, the \(\ell _2\) -regularisation successfully identifies a search area for pinpointing the accurate leak location. Furthermore, it is shown that the additional error introduced by a quadratic approximation of the Hazen-Williams formula for the solution of the localisation problem is negligible given the uncertainties in Hazen-Williams resistance coefficients in operational water network models.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-02988-z
  • Relationship Between Rainfall Duration and Sewer System Performance
           Measures Within the Context of Uncertainty

    • Abstract: Abstract Urbanization and climate change have resulted in an increase in catchment runoff, often exceeding the designed capacity of sewer systems. The decision to modernize a sewer system should be based on appropriate criteria. In engineering practice, the above is commonly achieved using a hydrodynamic model of the catchment and the simulation of various rainfall events. The article presents a methodology to analyze the effect of rainfall characteristics parametrized with intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves in regard to performance measures of sewerage networks (flood volume per unit impervious surface and share of overfilled manholes in the sewerage network) accounting for the model uncertainty determined via the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. An urban catchment was modeled with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Analyses showed that the model uncertainty exerts a large impact on certain measures of sewage network operation. Therefore, these measures should be analyzed in similar studies. This is very important at the stage of decision making in regard to the modernization and sustainable development of catchments. It was found that among the model parameters, the Manning roughness coefficient of sewer channels yields a key impact on the specific flood volume, while the area of impervious surfaces yields the greatest impact on the share of overflowed manholes.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-02998-x
  • A Cox Process with State-Dependent Exponential Pulses to Model Rainfall

    • Abstract: Abstract A point process model based on a class of Cox processes is developed to analyse precipitation data at a point location. The model is constructed using state-dependent exponential pulses that are governed by an unobserved underlying Markov chain. The mathematical formulation of the model where both the arrival rate of the rain cells and the initial pulse depth are determined by the Markov chain is presented. Second-order properties of the rainfall depth process are derived and utilised in model assessment. A method of moment estimation is employed in model fitting. The proposed model is used to analyse 69 years of sub-hourly rainfall data from Germany and 15 years of English rainfall data. The results of the analysis using variants of the proposed model with fixed pulse lifetime and variable pulse duration are presented. The performance of the proposed model, in reproducing second-moment characteristics of the rainfall, is compared with that of two stochastic models where one has exponential pulses and the other has rectangular pulses. The proposed model is found to capture most of the empirical rainfall properties well and outperform the two alternative models considered in our analysis.
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-03028-6
  • What Drives Water Utility Selection of Pricing Methods' Evidence from

    • Abstract: Abstract Water pricing is a demand management strategy to address the looming challenge of greater water scarcity in arid regions. Much of the literature on residential water rates focuses on evaluating the impact of pricing on household conservation. A separate, but rarely addressed question is what motivates a water utility to select a particular rate structure and the timing of doing so. We assess utilities’ decisions to adopt pro-conservation rate structures, such as increasing block rates and water budget rates. We develop a conceptual model of utility decision-making regarding the transition to pro-conservation rates and apply it to California. We examine the relationship between rate adoption and characteristics of utilities and customers using logistic regression and a balanced panel dataset of 323 California water systems from 2006-2015. We find a notable shift towards pro-conservation rates, which 71% of California utilities had by 2015, compared to 44% in 2006. Capacity factors associated with adoption include size of service population and customer income level, while motivating factors include peer adoption, greater customer engagement, and special district governance. Overall, this study provides insight into barriers to pro-conservation pricing, which can inform policies to enable transitions and advance conservation goals.
      PubDate: 2021-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-03018-8
  • The Working Conditions and Optimisation of a Large Rainwater Harvesting
           and Treatment System in an Area at a Risk of Erosion

    • Abstract: Abstract Rainwater harvesting and treatment systems (RHTS) are used in many places around the world as a part of sustainable water management. They decrease the risk of overloading the sewage network and environmental pollution. The efficiency and reasonableness of using such solutions in specific erosive conditions are not sufficiently understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the operation of RHTS, receiving effluents from the wholesale market and fuel station (twenty years of observations). The studied system is located in an area endangered by water erosion. In the study period, due to the accumulation of erosive phenomena, it was necessary to optimise the system (including the installation of new devices and increasing the capacity of reservoirs). The analyses referred to the stability and work safety of the most important equipment and water treatment efficiency. The quality of water in the reservoirs was measured before and after the modernisation of the system. Selected physical, oxygen, biogenic and salinity indicators were determined in the water. During the study, RHTS had a positive effect on the quality of rainwater runoff – the values of many contaminants were reduced (RHTS 1: suspended solids, nitrogen, iron, potassium; RHTS 2: conductivity, suspended solids, nitrogen). Design and operational errors were noticed that in the long run may contribute to deteriorating the operational efficiency and even lead to a building collapse (intense erosive phenomena). This study clearly demonstrates that building a rainwater management system is a highly site-specific issue.
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-03017-9
  • A Tale of Two Dams: The Impact of Reservoir Management on Rural
           Depopulation in Central Spain

    • Abstract: Abstract In rural areas, depopulation is mainly due to a lack of economic and employment opportunities. In this context, the reservoirs already built can be a source of socioeconomic development based on tourism and outdoor leisure activities. The condition for this development to materialize is that reservoir management considers these activities. In Central Spain, a process of rural depopulation has been generated in the municipalities around the reservoirs at the Upper Tagus River, as water management allows water transfers from the Tagus to the Segura River without taking into account regulations that prioritize and protect donor basin users. Through the comparison of reservoir water management and demographic data of two rural areas close to the reservoirs, this article reveals the direct relationship between reservoir management that enables recreational uses with its consequent socioeconomic development and the maintenance of the population in the territory. Consequently, reservoir water management based on the socioeconomic development of reservoir banks is necessary and a priority over transfers to another basin.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-02938-9
  • Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Evaluate Investments in the
           Modernization of Collective Management Irrigation Systems in Valencia

    • Abstract: Abstract Climate change and increased competition for water resources are generating growing concern about how to improve water-use efficiency in agriculture. In turn, this has prompted substantial investments in the installation of water-saving technologies in irrigation systems. The first aim of this research is to use data envelopment analysis to quantify, in terms of gross water savings (GWS), the local-scale efficiency of the irrigation policies adopted in an area of Spain suffering from a structural water deficit. Second, the cross-efficiency method is used to produce a ranking of the irrigation organizations analysed, in order to identify patterns of water-use efficiency performance that can guide future lines of investment. The results reveal that water-use efficiency prior to modernization is a key determinant of the efficiency achieved in terms of GWS at local scale. However, the investments targeted at irrigation modernization often have objectives other than water savings. These and other aspects should be taken into account when allocating public funds to irrigation modernization.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-02986-1
  • Feature-based Groundwater Hydrograph Clustering Using Unsupervised
           Self-Organizing Map-Ensembles

    • Abstract: Abstract Hydrograph clustering helps to identify dynamic patterns within aquifers systems, an important foundation of characterizing groundwater systems and their influences, which is necessary to effectively manage groundwater resources. We develope an unsupervised modeling approach to characterize and cluster hydrographs on regional scale according to their dynamics. We apply feature-based clustering to improve the exploitation of heterogeneous datasets, explore the usefulness of existing features and propose new features specifically useful to describe groundwater hydrographs. The clustering itself is based on a powerful combination of Self-Organizing Maps with a modified DS2L-Algorithm, which automatically derives the cluster number but also allows to influence the level of detail of the clustering. We further develop a framework that combines these methods with ensemble modeling, internal cluster validation indices, resampling and consensus voting to finally obtain a robust clustering result and remove arbitrariness from the feature selection process. Further we propose a measure to sort hydrographs within clusters, useful for both interpretability and visualization. We test the framework with weekly data from the Upper Rhine Graben System, using more than 1800 hydrographs from a period of 30 years (1986-2016). The results show that our approach is adaptively capable of identifying homogeneous groups of hydrograph dynamics. The resulting clusters show both spatially known and unknown patterns, some of which correspond clearly to external controlling factors, such as intensive groundwater management in the northern part of the test area. This framework is easily transferable to other regions and, by adapting the describing features, also to other time series-clustering applications.
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-03006-y
  • A Simplified Methodology for Optimal Location and Setting of Valves to
           Improve Equity in Intermittent Water Distribution Systems

    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a simplified methodology to increase the water distribution equity in existing intermittent water distribution systems (WDSs) is presented. The methodology assumes to install valves in the water distribution network with the objective to re-arrange the flow circulation, thus allowing an improved water distribution among the network users. Valve installation in the WDS is based on the use of algorithms of sequential addition (SA). Two optimization schemes based on SA were developed and tested. The first one allows identifying locations of gate valves in order to maximize the global distribution equity of the network, irrespectively of the local impact of the valves on the supply level of the single nodes. Conversely, the second scheme aims to maximize the global equity of the network by optimizing both location and setting (opening degree) of control valves, to include the impact of the new flow circulation on the supply level of each node. The two optimization schemes were applied to a case study network subject to water shortage conditions. The software EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used for the simulations in the wake of previous successful applications for the analysis of intermittent water distribution systems. Results of the application of the SA algorithms were also compared with those from the literature and obtained by the use of the multi-objective Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II). The results show the high performance of SA algorithms in identifying optimal position and settings of the valves in the WDS. The comparison pointed out that SA algorithms are able to perform similarly to NSGA II and, at the same time, to reduce significantly the computational effort associated to the optimization process.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11269-021-02962-9
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