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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0049-6979 - ISSN (Online) 1573-2932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Functional Trait Analysis and the Multi-metric Integrity Model, Based on
           Stream Fish Indicators, and Their Relations to Chemical Water Quality

    • Abstract: Abstract Functional trait and biological integrity approaches in stream ecology enable the determination and prediction of aquatic community responses to a variety of environmental stressors, such as chemical pollution, habitat disturbance, and biological invasion. Here, we used multi-trait based functional groups (FGs) to predict the functional responses of fish assemblages to the physicochemical and ecological health gradients in a temperate stream. The multi-metric biological integrity model (mIBI model) was used to evaluate stream ecological health. The FGs were derived from the distance matrix of trophic, tolerance, and physical habitat traits among fish species. The leading water quality indicators (conductivity [EC], total suspended solids [TSS], and chlorophyll-a [CHL-a]) varied conspicuously with the stream gradient and anthropogenic pollution. The multi-metric water-pollution index (mWPI) showed differences in chemical health from upstream to downstream. Monsoon precipitation may have affected the variations in fish species and associated changes linked to irregular chemical health. The fish FGs varied more by space (longitudinal) than by season (premonsoon and postmonsoon). Functional metrics, which reflected trophic and tolerance traits, as well as vertical position preference, were strongly correlated with water quality degradation downstream. Changes were evident in FG (II, III, and IV) combinations from the upstream to downstream reaches. Furthermore, the structure of the fish assemblages from FG-II and FG-III was significantly correlated with chemical (R2 = 0.43 and 0.35, p < 0.001) and ecological health (R2 = 0.69 and 0.66, p < 0.001), as well as the metrics of mWPI. In conclusion, the results indicate significant variations in both trait-based FGs and biological integrity among stream-fish communities, influenced by chemical water quality gradients. The causes included longitudinal zones and intensifying degradation of water quality downstream. Therefore, multi-trait based FGs can facilitate ecological health assessment and develop the mIBI model based on fish assemblages by reflecting the prevailing chemical health status of streams and rivers.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
  • Applicability and Extraction Characteristics of Aluminum Sulfate as
           Extractant of Harmful Heavy Metals for On-Site Treatment of Deep-Sea
           Mining Tailings

    • Abstract: This research was focused on the eco-friendly treatment of deep-sea mining tailings in the sea areas and mainly dealt with evaluating the optimal conditions by comparing aluminum sulfate (AS), which had been proven recently to have an effect as a heavy metal extractant, with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in terms of environmental and economic feasibility. Harmful heavy metals in the manganese nodules (2%, w/v) were chemically washed by mixing with each EDTA and AS concentration for 16 elapsed times. Copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium, which could have a fatal effect due to their high total content or high bioavailable content, were selected as the primary treatment target materials. The content of harmful heavy metals was 293.2 times more for nickel when compared with environmental standards of various countries. When 1% AS was used as the extractant, the removal efficiency of harmful heavy metals compared to the bioavailable content was 32.77% on average. It has been verified that multi-stage treatment could be necessary, and the short treatment time could be an important factor. Within a short elapsed time (3 h), the remediation efficiency of zinc and nickel under the 1% AS condition was higher than with 0.1 M EDTA. In terms of environmental and economic feasibility, it was verified that the use of 1% AS would be reasonable. The results of this research could be valuably applied to process design and optimization as basic data presented before the development of remediation technologies in the future. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
       
  • Cultivating Salix Viminalis in Agricultural-Riparian Transition Areas to
           Mitigate Agriculturally Derived N2O Emissions from Potato Cropping Systems
           on Prince Edward Island

    • Abstract: Abstract Cultivating shrub willow (Salix viminalis) in agricultural-riparian transition areas has been proposed as a strategy for mitigating elevated riparian nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in agricultural regions. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are water soluble, enter riparian areas through surface runoff and subsurface lateral flow, and are converted to N2O by incomplete anaerobic denitrification. Salix buffer strips can intercept and recycle fertilizer nitrate (NO3−) into their biomass and/or promote complete denitrification, reducing N2O emissions. We investigated the impact of Salix viminalis buffers on N2O emissions relative to grassed buffers and upslope cultivated fields in potato rotations at 5 research sites across Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Greenhouse gas (N2O, CO2, CH4) flux at the soil-atmosphere interface was measured using non-steady-state static chambers in 2018 and 2019. NO3− exposure, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were quantified. Agricultural-riparian Salix significantly reduced N2O emissions even when high NO3− inputs occurred and following precipitation events. Mean cumulative seasonal reductions of 1.32 kg N2O–N ha−1 (− 0.02 to 6.16 kg N2O–N ha−1) were observed in Salix relative to cultivated fields; however, they were not significantly different than grass. The mean cumulative average global warming potential of Salix was 613 kg CO2e ha−1 lower than cultivated fields, with reductions of up to 2918 kg CO2e ha−1. Differences in N2O flux between vegetation types were the greatest influencing factor. No hot moments of N2O emission were observed in Salix following high rainfall events, which coincided with up to 95% decreases in N2O emissions in Salix relative to cultivated fields.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • Groundwater Vulnerability of Halabja-Khurmal Sub-Basin Using Modified
           DRASTIC Method

    • Abstract: Abstract Evolving groundwater vulnerability from DRASTIC to modified DRASTIC methods helps choose the most accurate areas that are most delicate toward pollution. This study aims to modify DRASTIC with land use and water quality index for groundwater vulnerability assessment in the Halabja-Khurmal sub-basin, NE/Iraq. The Halabja-Khurmal sub-basin groundwater vulnerability index is calculated from nine hydrogeological parameters by the overlay weighting method. As a result, 1.3% of the total area has a very high vulnerability value and 46.1% with high vulnerability. The regions with high groundwater vulnerability have a high-water table and groundwater recharge. Nitrate concentration was used to validate the result, and the Pearson correlation and recession analysis between the modified DRASTIC index and nitrate concentration depicted a strong relation with 0.76 and 0.7, respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
       
  • How Many Small Agglomerations Do Exist in the European Union, and How
           Should We Treat Their Wastewater'

    • Abstract: Abstract The European Union (EU)’s legislation on urban wastewater requires all agglomerations with a population equivalent (PE) above 2000 people to undergo a secondary (mechanical/physical and biological) wastewater treatment. Agglomerations below 2000 PE, though, fall outside the scope of the current EU’s legislation. As such, their regulation is heterogeneous across the various EU member states, and there is no systematic collection nor reporting of data enabling an estimation of their actual significance as a source of pollution for the receiving water bodies. Here we present a spatial model to delineate agglomerations in a GIS, based on population distribution and land cover. From the model results, in the EU, we identify 364,650 agglomerations with 2000 PE or less, housing a cumulative population of about 75 million inhabitants. We then calculate the organic matter and nutrient loads these agglomerations can discharge, assuming they presently undergo primary wastewater treatment, and the reduction of loads that can be expected under different treatment scenarios, together with the corresponding treatment costs based on a simple cost model. Using a conventional shadow price for the organic matter and nutrients removed, we show that all treatment scenarios show a benefit-to-cost ratio (B/C) above (or close to) 1. However, only a scenario of secondary treatment applied to all agglomerations above 1000 PE provides sufficient safety margins on the B/C. This suggests the opportunity to expand the scope of the current legislation down to agglomerations of this size, while addressing smaller agglomerations depending on their actual impacts on the receiving water bodies, through “appropriate treatments” defined by the local authorities.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
       
  • Piloting Activities for the Design of a Large-scale Biobarrier Involving
           In Situ Sequential Anaerobic–aerobic Bioremediation of Organochlorides
           and Hydrocarbons

    • Abstract: Abstract In situ bioremediation (ISB) is a widely accepted method for eradicating petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) from contaminated aquifers. To achieve full removal of all toxic compounds that originated from microbial degradation, sequential anaerobic/aerobic bioremediation systems are recommended. While several works based on laboratory analyses targeting sequential bioremediation have been documented, examples of sequential ISB are limited. The purpose of this study is to report and analyze the results obtained from the multiscale characterization activities propaedeutic to the construction of Italy’s largest (> 400 m long) sequential ISB system. The rich wealth of information produced during this study provides a useful example that can be followed for the construction of new sequential ISBs. The system was set up to remediate a solute plume containing PHCs and CAHs in an alluvial aquifer in Italy. Microcosm experiments were carried out to determine the biodegradation potential under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. In situ tests were performed by installing two 40-m-long pilot biobarriers for sequential anaerobic and aerobic degradation intercepting part of the contamination plume. These experiments pointed out the need of adding biostimulating compounds to accelerate the biodegradation process, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In situ tests showed removal efficiencies of up to 95 and 99% for total CAHs and PHCs, respectively, proving the feasibility of the full-scale ISB system. Apparent discrepancies between laboratory and in situ tests can be ascribed to scale effects and aquifer heterogeneities.
      PubDate: 2022-10-15
       
  • Seasonal Variability of Large-Sized Particulate Matter Concentrations

    • Abstract: Abstract Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) is of great scientific interest due to its impact on both human health and the environment (climate change, reduced visibility, deterioration of archaeological sites, etc.). The aim of the current paper was to study the concentration of large-sized particulate matter (PM10) in relation to the season of the year. Measurements were performed with the help of a personal Button Sampler in three repeated cycles, namely summer, autumn, and winter, in order to obtain comparable results from three different seasons of the year. A total of 45 samples were collected, 27 of which were obtained from a peri-urban Pinus brutia forest and 18 from an adjacent urban area (9 and 6 samples in each repeated sampling cycle, respectively). Results obtained from both sampling areas show a significant increase in PM10 levels during the summer (8.86 mg m−3/24 h) in comparison with the autumn and winter concentrations (3.71 mg m−3/24 h and 4.12 mg m−3/24 h, respectively).
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
       
  • Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Antibiotic Residues in Sewage Sludge of
           Two Nigerian Hospital Wastewater Treatment Plants

    • Abstract: Abstract Antibiotic residues in sewage sludge can present detrimental environmental effects due to sewage sludge application onto soils for agricultural purposes. Reports on the occurrence of antibiotics in sewage sludge and risk assessment due to the application of sewage sludge onto soils are still limited in Africa. The occurrence of fourteen antibiotic residues in sewage sludge from two Nigerian hospital wastewater treatment plants was investigated. For the first time, the potential environmental risk of target antibiotics associated with the use of sewage sludge for application onto soils in Nigeria was assessed. Risk assessment was carried out using both terrestrial and aquatic toxicity data. All target antibiotics were detected in at least one sludge sample. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (fluoroquinolones) had the highest concentrations, up to 674 ng g−1 dry weight for ciprofloxacin. All ten antibiotics evaluated for terrestrial ecological risk in sludge-amended soils presented low risk. Only three out of thirteen antibiotics assessed for aquatic ecological risk in sludge-amended soils posed medium risk, while the remaining antibiotics presented low risk. Antibiotic mixtures presented low risk in sludge-amended soils. A more holistic evaluation of the potential risks due to a mixture of a wider scope of chemicals in Nigerian sewage sludge is recommended prior to application onto soils as fertilizers for agricultural purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
       
  • Aqueous Acetamiprid Degradation Using Combined Ultrasonication and
           Photocatalysis Under Visible Light

    • Abstract: Acetamiprid (ACE), a neonicotinoid pesticide widely used in pest control, was found in high concentrations in soils, rivers, and lakes. In the present study, ACE degradation was investigated using visible light driven photocatalysis over nitrogen-graphene oxide (N-GO) and palladium-graphene oxide (Pd-GO)–doped ZnO photocatalysts combined with ultrasonication implemented either as a pretreatment (sonolysis) or operated simultaneously with photocatalysis (sonophocatalysis). The effectiveness of the two ACE degradation processes was determined separately. The sonolysis pretreatment allowed reaching almost 40% acetamiprid conversion within 30 min of reaction. Pursuing with the photodegradation reaction in the presence of N-GO-ZnO and Pd-GO-ZnO resulted in a maximum conversion of 98% of ACE within 5 h. As for the sonophotocatalysis process, the reaction time was shortened from 5 to 2 h with 100% acetamiprid conversion. In addition, the photocatalysts were shown to keep their activity even after 5 sonophotocatalytic cycles, thus proving their reusability. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05867-4
       
  • Potential for Pastoral Irrigation Using Sulphate-Rich Waters at Macraes
           Gold Mine, Southern New Zealand

    • Abstract: Abstract There is growing recognition that elevated dissolved sulphate around mines will lead to significant environmental issues within the industry that need specific management. Various sulphate attenuation engineering methods exist, and so processes that could occur within a mine site are of particular interest. In this pilot study, we investigate the possibility of using high-sulphate mine water (~ 2500 mg/L) for irrigation of farm land. This approach is made feasible from mildly alkaline (pH ~ 8), non-toxic discharge waters at a semi-arid gold mine site. Geochemical models predicted Ca-sulphate will readily precipitate from the mine water at pH 6 and potentially attenuate downstream concentrations of dissolved sulphate. We used the slightly acidic natural soil environment (pH 5–6) of the mine to test initial model predictions in the laboratory and field trials. Ca-sulphate in gypsum formed in experimental soil columns, and the pH of input water lowered by 2–3 units. In the field, only minor soil gypsum was observed, and instead Mg-sulphate and Ca-carbonate were found more readily on evaporation surfaces. Additional terrestrial effects of soil dilution, leaching, and plant uptake of sulphate are discussed. Irrigated pasture had healthy, green plants that supported a potentially dual benefit of mine water irrigation to enhancing farm productivity in the local community. Irrigation is an effective way to manage mine waters with high dissolved sulphate but requires further trials to refine methods and the feed values of pasture.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05838-9
       
  • Seasonal and Spatial Variations in the Presence of Giardia and
           Cryptosporidium in Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems in Different
           Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    • Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the seasonal and spatial variations in the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in rural drinking water supply systems of different municipalities of Antioquia. The municipalities evaluated were Envigado, Caldas, Sabaneta, La Estrella, Itagüi, Bello, Barbosa, Copacabana, and Girardota, located in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. The experimentation was carried out over 9 sampling campaigns in the period between July 2019 and November 2020. This period encompassed the two seasons presented in Colombia: dry and wet. Each municipality included in this study has a conventional basic drinking water treatment system (DWTS) which includes sand trap, rapid filtration, and chlorination. The results showed good removal efficiencies of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the DWTS evaluated. However, evaluation of other characteristics of water quality and of the water quality risk index for human consumption (IRCA) showed concerning water quality conditions in the rural drinking water systems supply. The prevailing risk levels of the drinking water are medium, high, or non-viable sanitary, which means the population is supplied with water that does not meet the minimum quality criteria established by Colombian regulations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05760-0
       
  • Differentiating and Quantifying Carbonaceous (Tire, Bitumen, and Road
           Marking Wear) and Non-carbonaceous (Metals, Minerals, and Glass Beads)
           Non-exhaust Particles in Road Dust Samples from a Traffic Environment

    • Abstract: Abstract Tires, bitumen, and road markings are important sources of traffic-derived carbonaceous wear particles and microplastic (MP) pollution. In this study, we further developed a machine-learning algorithm coupled to an automated scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analytical approach to classify and quantify the relative number of the following subclasses contained in environmental road dust: tire wear particles (TWP), bitumen wear particles (BiWP), road markings, reflecting glass beads, metallics, minerals, and biogenic/organics. The method is non-destructive, rapid, repeatable, and enables information about the size, shape, and elemental composition of particles 2–125 µm. The results showed that the method enabled differentiation between TWP and BiWP for particles > 20 µm with satisfying results. Furthermore, the relative number concentration of the subclasses was similar in both analyzed size fractions (2–20 µm and 20–125 µm), with minerals as the most dominant subclass (2–20 µm x̄ = 78%, 20–125 µm x̄ = 74%) followed by tire and bitumen wear particles, TBiWP, (2–20 µm x̄ = 19%, 20–125 µm x̄ = 22%). Road marking wear, glass beads, and metal wear contributed to x̄ = 1%, x̄ = 0.1%, and x̄ = 1% in the 2–20-µm fraction and to x̄ = 0.5%, x̄ = 0.2%, and x̄ = 0.4% in the 20–125-µm fraction. The present results show that road dust appreciably consists of TWP and BiWP within both the coarse and the fine size fraction. The study delivers quantitative evidence of the importance of tires, bitumen, road marking, and glass beads besides minerals and metals to wear particles and MP pollution in traffic environments based on environmental (real-world) samples
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05847-8
       
  • Visible Light–Driven Advanced Oxidation Processes to Remove Emerging
           Contaminants from Water and Wastewater: a Review

    • Abstract: Abstract The scientific data review shows that advanced oxidation processes based on the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals are of great interest among the currently conventional water and wastewater treatment methods. Different advanced treatment processes such as photocatalysis, Fenton’s reagent, ozonation, and persulfate-based processes were investigated to degrade contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as pesticides, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, disinfectants, dyes, and estrogenic substances. This article presents a general overview of visible light–driven advanced oxidation processes for the removal of chlorfenvinphos (organophosphorus insecticide), methylene blue (azo dye), and diclofenac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). The following visible light–driven treatment methods were reviewed: photocatalysis, sulfate radical oxidation, and photoelectrocatalysis. Visible light, among other sources of energy, is a renewable energy source and an excellent substitute for ultraviolet radiation used in advanced oxidation processes. It creates a high application potential for solar-assisted advanced oxidation processes in water and wastewater technology. Despite numerous publications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), more extensive research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of contaminant degradation in the presence of visible light. Therefore, this paper provides an important source of information on the degradation mechanism of emerging contaminants. An important aspect in the work is the analysis of process parameters affecting the degradation process. The initial concentration of CECs, pH, reaction time, and catalyst dosage are discussed and analyzed. Based on a comprehensive survey of previous studies, opportunities for applications of AOPs are presented, highlighting the need for further efforts to address dominant barriers to knowledge acquisition.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05831-2
       
  • Floating Islands Supported by LED Lighting: an Ecological Solution of
           Nutrients Removal from Municipal Wastewater'

    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds by floating islands with macrophytes and influence of LED lights imitating the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on that effectiveness. Improving removal efficiency is crucial, thanks to ever-tightening legal requirements. Main reason for that is growing problem of eutrophication phenomenon. Nowadays, this problem is visible not only in lakes and ponds but also in water courses and coastal water. Study was conducted during time of 15 weeks. In that time, listed parameters were tested: pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, organic nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and phosphates. Each tank was filled with same amount of biologically treated wastewater; ambient temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations were kept in same range for the time of experiment. Average concentrations of main pollutants in tanks with LED lighting have reached: conductivity, 936 μS/cm; TN, 8.55 mg/dm3; P-PO4, 0.74 mg/dm3; TP, 2.57 mg/dm3. In case of no LED lighting, concentrations of main pollutants have reached: conductivity, 949 μS/cm; TN, 12.85 mg/dm3; P-PO4, 1.28 mg/dm3; TP, 2.54 mg/dm3. Based on observations and analyses, it can be concluded that the use of LED lighting imitating PAR radiation has positive effect on removal efficiency of total nitrogen and phosphates. Data suggests optimal time for treatment with floating islands as 13 weeks, extending that time to 15 weeks leads to degradation of treated wastewater quality instead improving it. Highlights • Floating islands supported with LED lighting are an alternative solution for nutrients removal. • LED light intensifies nitrogen and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater. • The use of macrophytes in third stage of wastewater purification may result in increased nutrient removal efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05821-4
       
  • Removal of Nitrogenous Compounds from Municipal Wastewater Using a
           Bacterial Consortium: an Opportunity for More Sustainable Water Treatments
           

    • Abstract: The integrated management of water resources is a requirement for environmental preservation and economic development, with the removal of nutrients being one of the main drawbacks. In this work, the efficiency of a bacterial consortium (Ecobacter WP) made up of eight bacterial strains of the genus Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter paraffineus, Corynebacterium sp., and Streptomyces globisporus was evaluated in the removal of nitrogen compounds in domestic wastewater in a plug flow system, in the extended aeration and bioaugmentation (FLAEBI). To promote the nitrification and denitrification processes, three doses were tested to establish the optimal concentration of the bacterial consortium on a laboratory scale and its subsequent application in an outdoor wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The evaluation period was 15 days for each treatment in the laboratory and WWTP. The parameters monitored both at laboratory and outdoor were pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonium, nitrites, and nitrates. The results indicated that the optimal concentration of the consortium was 30 mg L−1, with a removal of 92% of nitrate at the laboratory and 62% outdoor. Such a difference is attributed to the different operation residence times and the volume that caused different concentration gradients. The consortium studied can be used to promote nitrification and denitrification processes that intervene in the removal of nitrogenous compounds in plants with similar operating conditions, without investment in restructuring or design modification of the WWTP. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05754-y
       
  • Preliminary Laboratory Investigations into Zinc and Copper Adsorption by
           Crushed Bivalve Shells

    • Abstract: Abstract Crushed shells from three bivalve mollusc species (mussel, oyster and scallop) in two particle size ranges (63–150 μm and 710–1180 μm) were tested for their ability to remove dissolved copper and zinc ions from synthetic stormwater in a column. For comparison, zeolite (1–2 mm), which is commonly used for heavy metal ion capture, was also assessed. All shell types of both particle sizes were effective in removing zinc from solution with 97–100% removal efficiency which was similar to the removal efficiency by zeolite (97.6%). The removal of copper was most efficiently achieved with oyster shell with a particle size range of 710–1180 μm (83.6%), which was similar to the removal efficiency by zeolite (83.4%). Brunauear-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements showed significant decreases in the surface area of the shells after exposure to synthetic stormwater due to adsorption of heavy metals, visually confirmed by observation of a fine layer of metal precipitate adsorbed to the shell particle surfaces using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that crushed bivalve shells have excellent potential for the removal of dissolved zinc and copper from stormwater and should be tested in more complex stormwater studies. This work has significant implications for stormwater infrastructure design using a local, cheap and readily accessible waste material.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05805-4
       
  • Geospatial Technique Integrated with MCDM Models for Selecting Potential
           Sites for Harvesting Rainwater in the Semi-arid Region

    • Abstract: Abstract Severe droughts and mismanagement of water resources during the last decades have propelled authorities in the Kurdistan Region to be concerned about better management of precipitation which is considered the primary source of recharging surface and groundwater in the area of interest. The drought cycles in the last decades have stimulated water stakeholders to drill more wells and store uncontrolled runoff in suitable structures during rainy times to fulfill the increased water demands. The optimum sites for rainwater harvesting sites in the Qaradaqh basin, which is considered a water-scarce area, were determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), sum average weighted method (SAWM), and fuzzy-based index (FBI) techniques. The essential thematic layers within the natural and artificial factors were rated, weighted, and integrated via GIS and multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches. As a consequence of the model results, three farm ponds and four small dams were proposed as future prospective sites for implementing rainwater harvesting structures. The current work shows that the unsuitable ratio over the study area in all methods AHP, SAWM, and FBI occupied 12.6%, 12.7%, and 14.2% respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristics were used to validate the model outcomes. The AUC values range from 0.5 to 1, meaning that all MCDM results are good or are correctly selected. Based on the prediction rate curve for the suitability index map, the prediction accuracy was 72%, 57%, and 59% for AHP, SAWM, and fuzzy overlay, respectively. The final map shows that the potential sites for rainwater harvesting or suitable sites are clustered mainly in the northern and around the basin’s boundary, while unsuitable areas cover northeastern and some scatter zones in the middle due to restrictions of geology, distance to stream with the villages, and slope criteria. The total harvested runoff was 377,260 m3 from all the suggested structures. The proposed sites may provide a scientific and reasonable basis for utilizing this natural resource and minimize the impacts of future drought cycles.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05796-2
       
  • Contemporary Contamination of Urban Floodplains in Chennai (India)

    • Abstract: Abstract Fast growing coastal population centers face an increasing vulnerability to several emission sources of anthropogenic and industrial pollutants. The ongoing industrialization in emerging countries increases the environmental and human risk for people living in coastal megacities, especially in the global south of Asia. Extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfalls and resulting flood events, are projected to increase in frequency in the foreseen future, facing an increasing vulnerability to monsoon-induced floods and the release and distribution of xenobiotics causing harm to communities and the environment along a river’s pathway. To endeavor the unknown risks posed by these toxic floods and to assess the associated contamination distribution, the preserved organic geochemical signature from floodplain sediments is studied. This investigation evaluates the inorganic and organic pollutant assemblage in ten surface sediments along the Adyar and Cooum river in the urban areas of Chennai (southern India). Potentially toxic elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) show a continuous concentration decrease downstream. Four main groups of persistent organic pollutants have been detected: petrogenic pollutants (hopanes, PAHs), urban wastewater pollutants (LABs, DEHA, methyl-triclosan, octocrylene), technical compounds (Mesamoll®, DPE, NBFA), and pesticides (DDX). While most organic compounds show source specific properties, the definite sources for others remain vague based on the multitude of potential sources and diffusiveness of anthropogenic emissions. The chosen approaches have shown that urban wastewater pollutants and several technical compounds are suitable to assess the anthropogenic-induced contamination in floodplain sediments. However, sedimentary archives in fast-growing, urbanized environments are influenced and superimposed by anthropogenic alterations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05785-5
       
  • Heavy Metal Contamination of the River Nile Environment, Rosetta Branch,
           Egypt

    • Abstract: Abstract The Rosetta Branch is one of Egypt’s most important Nile River branches, providing freshwater to multiple cities. However, its water quality has been deteriorating, with various wastes containing high loads of heavy metals being discharged into its body of water. Seasonally, water and sediment samples and two native aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum and Eichhornia crassipes) were collected and analyzed from the Rosetta Branch to assess the level of metal contamination (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Co) using different metal indices. The levels of some metals in the branch water overstepped those suitable for drinking water and aquatic life. In increasing order, the means of the heavy metal concentrations in branch water (µg/L) were Cd (1.8–4.9) < Co (7.18–28.1) ≈ Ni (9.0–25.1) < Cr (8.56–27.4) < Cu (14–75) < Pb (9.3–67.9) < Zn (22–133) < Mn (68–220) < Fe (396–1640). All the metal indices measured in the sediment confirmed the Ni and Cd contamination, where Ni and Cd in the sediment surpass the sediment quality guidelines in 80% and 53% of samples, respectively, reflecting frequent adverse effects on aquatic organisms. According to the bioconcentration factor, C. demersum and E. crassipes have higher accumulation capacities mainly for Cd than those for other metals considered as major pollutants in the water and sediment of Rosetta Branch, reflecting the role of hydrophytes in the biological treatment of polluted water in aquatic environments.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05759-7
       
  • Anticancer Drugs Gemcitabine, Letrozole, and Tamoxifen in Municipal
           Wastewater and Their Photodegradation in Laboratory-Scale UV Experiments

    • Abstract: Abstract The occurrence of three anticancer drugs (gemcitabine, letrozole, tamoxifen) was studied in wastewater samples from two local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Finland. Studied pharmaceuticals were selected, as anticancer drugs are potential to cause adverse effects on organisms even at low concentrations, but they are seldom included in the analysis of emerging contaminants. The concentration of anticancer drugs was determined by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC–MS/MS). Tamoxifen and letrozole were detected from influent samples ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 ng/L, respectively. Letrozole was detected from effluent samples at a concentration up to 2.4 ng/L. Letrozole has been detected in wastewater effluent only once before, at a lower concentration of 0.28 ng/L. Gemcitabine was not detected in any of the samples. UV irradiation is used in many wastewater treatment plants to disinfect the effluent. Such tertiary treatment might degrade also these potentially harmful drugs and, therefore, photodegradation of the chosen pharmaceuticals was studied in laboratory-scale experiments. Tamoxifen showed high degradation rates, 94% in spiked wastewater with UV fluence 4830 mJ/cm2 and 98% in pure water with UV fluence 2520 mJ/cm2, respectively. Letrozole showed the lowest degradation rates of 24% in wastewater and 34% in pure water, respectively. The degradation rate at the fluence level typical for UV disinfection stage of wastewater treatment plants was 37% for tamoxifen but only 5% for letrozole. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report to show the effectiveness of UV irradiation to degrade letrozole.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05763-x
       
 
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