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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 160 journals)
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Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0049-6979 - ISSN (Online) 1573-2932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Aqueous Acetamiprid Degradation Using Combined Ultrasonication and
           Photocatalysis Under Visible Light

    • Abstract: Acetamiprid (ACE), a neonicotinoid pesticide widely used in pest control, was found in high concentrations in soils, rivers, and lakes. In the present study, ACE degradation was investigated using visible light driven photocatalysis over nitrogen-graphene oxide (N-GO) and palladium-graphene oxide (Pd-GO)–doped ZnO photocatalysts combined with ultrasonication implemented either as a pretreatment (sonolysis) or operated simultaneously with photocatalysis (sonophocatalysis). The effectiveness of the two ACE degradation processes was determined separately. The sonolysis pretreatment allowed reaching almost 40% acetamiprid conversion within 30 min of reaction. Pursuing with the photodegradation reaction in the presence of N-GO-ZnO and Pd-GO-ZnO resulted in a maximum conversion of 98% of ACE within 5 h. As for the sonophotocatalysis process, the reaction time was shortened from 5 to 2 h with 100% acetamiprid conversion. In addition, the photocatalysts were shown to keep their activity even after 5 sonophotocatalytic cycles, thus proving their reusability. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
       
  • Potential for Pastoral Irrigation Using Sulphate-Rich Waters at Macraes
           Gold Mine, Southern New Zealand

    • Abstract: Abstract There is growing recognition that elevated dissolved sulphate around mines will lead to significant environmental issues within the industry that need specific management. Various sulphate attenuation engineering methods exist, and so processes that could occur within a mine site are of particular interest. In this pilot study, we investigate the possibility of using high-sulphate mine water (~ 2500 mg/L) for irrigation of farm land. This approach is made feasible from mildly alkaline (pH ~ 8), non-toxic discharge waters at a semi-arid gold mine site. Geochemical models predicted Ca-sulphate will readily precipitate from the mine water at pH 6 and potentially attenuate downstream concentrations of dissolved sulphate. We used the slightly acidic natural soil environment (pH 5–6) of the mine to test initial model predictions in the laboratory and field trials. Ca-sulphate in gypsum formed in experimental soil columns, and the pH of input water lowered by 2–3 units. In the field, only minor soil gypsum was observed, and instead Mg-sulphate and Ca-carbonate were found more readily on evaporation surfaces. Additional terrestrial effects of soil dilution, leaching, and plant uptake of sulphate are discussed. Irrigated pasture had healthy, green plants that supported a potentially dual benefit of mine water irrigation to enhancing farm productivity in the local community. Irrigation is an effective way to manage mine waters with high dissolved sulphate but requires further trials to refine methods and the feed values of pasture.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • Seasonal and Spatial Variations in the Presence of Giardia and
           Cryptosporidium in Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems in Different
           Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    • Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the seasonal and spatial variations in the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in rural drinking water supply systems of different municipalities of Antioquia. The municipalities evaluated were Envigado, Caldas, Sabaneta, La Estrella, Itagüi, Bello, Barbosa, Copacabana, and Girardota, located in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. The experimentation was carried out over 9 sampling campaigns in the period between July 2019 and November 2020. This period encompassed the two seasons presented in Colombia: dry and wet. Each municipality included in this study has a conventional basic drinking water treatment system (DWTS) which includes sand trap, rapid filtration, and chlorination. The results showed good removal efficiencies of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the DWTS evaluated. However, evaluation of other characteristics of water quality and of the water quality risk index for human consumption (IRCA) showed concerning water quality conditions in the rural drinking water systems supply. The prevailing risk levels of the drinking water are medium, high, or non-viable sanitary, which means the population is supplied with water that does not meet the minimum quality criteria established by Colombian regulations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
       
  • Differentiating and Quantifying Carbonaceous (Tire, Bitumen, and Road
           Marking Wear) and Non-carbonaceous (Metals, Minerals, and Glass Beads)
           Non-exhaust Particles in Road Dust Samples from a Traffic Environment

    • Abstract: Abstract Tires, bitumen, and road markings are important sources of traffic-derived carbonaceous wear particles and microplastic (MP) pollution. In this study, we further developed a machine-learning algorithm coupled to an automated scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analytical approach to classify and quantify the relative number of the following subclasses contained in environmental road dust: tire wear particles (TWP), bitumen wear particles (BiWP), road markings, reflecting glass beads, metallics, minerals, and biogenic/organics. The method is non-destructive, rapid, repeatable, and enables information about the size, shape, and elemental composition of particles 2–125 µm. The results showed that the method enabled differentiation between TWP and BiWP for particles > 20 µm with satisfying results. Furthermore, the relative number concentration of the subclasses was similar in both analyzed size fractions (2–20 µm and 20–125 µm), with minerals as the most dominant subclass (2–20 µm x̄ = 78%, 20–125 µm x̄ = 74%) followed by tire and bitumen wear particles, TBiWP, (2–20 µm x̄ = 19%, 20–125 µm x̄ = 22%). Road marking wear, glass beads, and metal wear contributed to x̄ = 1%, x̄ = 0.1%, and x̄ = 1% in the 2–20-µm fraction and to x̄ = 0.5%, x̄ = 0.2%, and x̄ = 0.4% in the 20–125-µm fraction. The present results show that road dust appreciably consists of TWP and BiWP within both the coarse and the fine size fraction. The study delivers quantitative evidence of the importance of tires, bitumen, road marking, and glass beads besides minerals and metals to wear particles and MP pollution in traffic environments based on environmental (real-world) samples
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
       
  • Visible Light–Driven Advanced Oxidation Processes to Remove Emerging
           Contaminants from Water and Wastewater: a Review

    • Abstract: Abstract The scientific data review shows that advanced oxidation processes based on the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals are of great interest among the currently conventional water and wastewater treatment methods. Different advanced treatment processes such as photocatalysis, Fenton’s reagent, ozonation, and persulfate-based processes were investigated to degrade contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as pesticides, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, disinfectants, dyes, and estrogenic substances. This article presents a general overview of visible light–driven advanced oxidation processes for the removal of chlorfenvinphos (organophosphorus insecticide), methylene blue (azo dye), and diclofenac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). The following visible light–driven treatment methods were reviewed: photocatalysis, sulfate radical oxidation, and photoelectrocatalysis. Visible light, among other sources of energy, is a renewable energy source and an excellent substitute for ultraviolet radiation used in advanced oxidation processes. It creates a high application potential for solar-assisted advanced oxidation processes in water and wastewater technology. Despite numerous publications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), more extensive research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of contaminant degradation in the presence of visible light. Therefore, this paper provides an important source of information on the degradation mechanism of emerging contaminants. An important aspect in the work is the analysis of process parameters affecting the degradation process. The initial concentration of CECs, pH, reaction time, and catalyst dosage are discussed and analyzed. Based on a comprehensive survey of previous studies, opportunities for applications of AOPs are presented, highlighting the need for further efforts to address dominant barriers to knowledge acquisition.
      PubDate: 2022-09-03
       
  • Floating Islands Supported by LED Lighting: an Ecological Solution of
           Nutrients Removal from Municipal Wastewater'

    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds by floating islands with macrophytes and influence of LED lights imitating the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on that effectiveness. Improving removal efficiency is crucial, thanks to ever-tightening legal requirements. Main reason for that is growing problem of eutrophication phenomenon. Nowadays, this problem is visible not only in lakes and ponds but also in water courses and coastal water. Study was conducted during time of 15 weeks. In that time, listed parameters were tested: pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, organic nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and phosphates. Each tank was filled with same amount of biologically treated wastewater; ambient temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations were kept in same range for the time of experiment. Average concentrations of main pollutants in tanks with LED lighting have reached: conductivity, 936 μS/cm; TN, 8.55 mg/dm3; P-PO4, 0.74 mg/dm3; TP, 2.57 mg/dm3. In case of no LED lighting, concentrations of main pollutants have reached: conductivity, 949 μS/cm; TN, 12.85 mg/dm3; P-PO4, 1.28 mg/dm3; TP, 2.54 mg/dm3. Based on observations and analyses, it can be concluded that the use of LED lighting imitating PAR radiation has positive effect on removal efficiency of total nitrogen and phosphates. Data suggests optimal time for treatment with floating islands as 13 weeks, extending that time to 15 weeks leads to degradation of treated wastewater quality instead improving it. Highlights • Floating islands supported with LED lighting are an alternative solution for nutrients removal. • LED light intensifies nitrogen and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater. • The use of macrophytes in third stage of wastewater purification may result in increased nutrient removal efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
       
  • Removal of Nitrogenous Compounds from Municipal Wastewater Using a
           Bacterial Consortium: an Opportunity for More Sustainable Water Treatments
           

    • Abstract: The integrated management of water resources is a requirement for environmental preservation and economic development, with the removal of nutrients being one of the main drawbacks. In this work, the efficiency of a bacterial consortium (Ecobacter WP) made up of eight bacterial strains of the genus Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter paraffineus, Corynebacterium sp., and Streptomyces globisporus was evaluated in the removal of nitrogen compounds in domestic wastewater in a plug flow system, in the extended aeration and bioaugmentation (FLAEBI). To promote the nitrification and denitrification processes, three doses were tested to establish the optimal concentration of the bacterial consortium on a laboratory scale and its subsequent application in an outdoor wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The evaluation period was 15 days for each treatment in the laboratory and WWTP. The parameters monitored both at laboratory and outdoor were pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonium, nitrites, and nitrates. The results indicated that the optimal concentration of the consortium was 30 mg L−1, with a removal of 92% of nitrate at the laboratory and 62% outdoor. Such a difference is attributed to the different operation residence times and the volume that caused different concentration gradients. The consortium studied can be used to promote nitrification and denitrification processes that intervene in the removal of nitrogenous compounds in plants with similar operating conditions, without investment in restructuring or design modification of the WWTP. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Preliminary Laboratory Investigations into Zinc and Copper Adsorption by
           Crushed Bivalve Shells

    • Abstract: Abstract Crushed shells from three bivalve mollusc species (mussel, oyster and scallop) in two particle size ranges (63–150 μm and 710–1180 μm) were tested for their ability to remove dissolved copper and zinc ions from synthetic stormwater in a column. For comparison, zeolite (1–2 mm), which is commonly used for heavy metal ion capture, was also assessed. All shell types of both particle sizes were effective in removing zinc from solution with 97–100% removal efficiency which was similar to the removal efficiency by zeolite (97.6%). The removal of copper was most efficiently achieved with oyster shell with a particle size range of 710–1180 μm (83.6%), which was similar to the removal efficiency by zeolite (83.4%). Brunauear-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements showed significant decreases in the surface area of the shells after exposure to synthetic stormwater due to adsorption of heavy metals, visually confirmed by observation of a fine layer of metal precipitate adsorbed to the shell particle surfaces using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that crushed bivalve shells have excellent potential for the removal of dissolved zinc and copper from stormwater and should be tested in more complex stormwater studies. This work has significant implications for stormwater infrastructure design using a local, cheap and readily accessible waste material.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Geospatial Technique Integrated with MCDM Models for Selecting Potential
           Sites for Harvesting Rainwater in the Semi-arid Region

    • Abstract: Abstract Severe droughts and mismanagement of water resources during the last decades have propelled authorities in the Kurdistan Region to be concerned about better management of precipitation which is considered the primary source of recharging surface and groundwater in the area of interest. The drought cycles in the last decades have stimulated water stakeholders to drill more wells and store uncontrolled runoff in suitable structures during rainy times to fulfill the increased water demands. The optimum sites for rainwater harvesting sites in the Qaradaqh basin, which is considered a water-scarce area, were determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), sum average weighted method (SAWM), and fuzzy-based index (FBI) techniques. The essential thematic layers within the natural and artificial factors were rated, weighted, and integrated via GIS and multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches. As a consequence of the model results, three farm ponds and four small dams were proposed as future prospective sites for implementing rainwater harvesting structures. The current work shows that the unsuitable ratio over the study area in all methods AHP, SAWM, and FBI occupied 12.6%, 12.7%, and 14.2% respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristics were used to validate the model outcomes. The AUC values range from 0.5 to 1, meaning that all MCDM results are good or are correctly selected. Based on the prediction rate curve for the suitability index map, the prediction accuracy was 72%, 57%, and 59% for AHP, SAWM, and fuzzy overlay, respectively. The final map shows that the potential sites for rainwater harvesting or suitable sites are clustered mainly in the northern and around the basin’s boundary, while unsuitable areas cover northeastern and some scatter zones in the middle due to restrictions of geology, distance to stream with the villages, and slope criteria. The total harvested runoff was 377,260 m3 from all the suggested structures. The proposed sites may provide a scientific and reasonable basis for utilizing this natural resource and minimize the impacts of future drought cycles.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
       
  • Contemporary Contamination of Urban Floodplains in Chennai (India)

    • Abstract: Abstract Fast growing coastal population centers face an increasing vulnerability to several emission sources of anthropogenic and industrial pollutants. The ongoing industrialization in emerging countries increases the environmental and human risk for people living in coastal megacities, especially in the global south of Asia. Extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfalls and resulting flood events, are projected to increase in frequency in the foreseen future, facing an increasing vulnerability to monsoon-induced floods and the release and distribution of xenobiotics causing harm to communities and the environment along a river’s pathway. To endeavor the unknown risks posed by these toxic floods and to assess the associated contamination distribution, the preserved organic geochemical signature from floodplain sediments is studied. This investigation evaluates the inorganic and organic pollutant assemblage in ten surface sediments along the Adyar and Cooum river in the urban areas of Chennai (southern India). Potentially toxic elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) show a continuous concentration decrease downstream. Four main groups of persistent organic pollutants have been detected: petrogenic pollutants (hopanes, PAHs), urban wastewater pollutants (LABs, DEHA, methyl-triclosan, octocrylene), technical compounds (Mesamoll®, DPE, NBFA), and pesticides (DDX). While most organic compounds show source specific properties, the definite sources for others remain vague based on the multitude of potential sources and diffusiveness of anthropogenic emissions. The chosen approaches have shown that urban wastewater pollutants and several technical compounds are suitable to assess the anthropogenic-induced contamination in floodplain sediments. However, sedimentary archives in fast-growing, urbanized environments are influenced and superimposed by anthropogenic alterations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
       
  • Heavy Metal Contamination of the River Nile Environment, Rosetta Branch,
           Egypt

    • Abstract: Abstract The Rosetta Branch is one of Egypt’s most important Nile River branches, providing freshwater to multiple cities. However, its water quality has been deteriorating, with various wastes containing high loads of heavy metals being discharged into its body of water. Seasonally, water and sediment samples and two native aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum and Eichhornia crassipes) were collected and analyzed from the Rosetta Branch to assess the level of metal contamination (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Co) using different metal indices. The levels of some metals in the branch water overstepped those suitable for drinking water and aquatic life. In increasing order, the means of the heavy metal concentrations in branch water (µg/L) were Cd (1.8–4.9) < Co (7.18–28.1) ≈ Ni (9.0–25.1) < Cr (8.56–27.4) < Cu (14–75) < Pb (9.3–67.9) < Zn (22–133) < Mn (68–220) < Fe (396–1640). All the metal indices measured in the sediment confirmed the Ni and Cd contamination, where Ni and Cd in the sediment surpass the sediment quality guidelines in 80% and 53% of samples, respectively, reflecting frequent adverse effects on aquatic organisms. According to the bioconcentration factor, C. demersum and E. crassipes have higher accumulation capacities mainly for Cd than those for other metals considered as major pollutants in the water and sediment of Rosetta Branch, reflecting the role of hydrophytes in the biological treatment of polluted water in aquatic environments.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
       
  • Anticancer Drugs Gemcitabine, Letrozole, and Tamoxifen in Municipal
           Wastewater and Their Photodegradation in Laboratory-Scale UV Experiments

    • Abstract: Abstract The occurrence of three anticancer drugs (gemcitabine, letrozole, tamoxifen) was studied in wastewater samples from two local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Finland. Studied pharmaceuticals were selected, as anticancer drugs are potential to cause adverse effects on organisms even at low concentrations, but they are seldom included in the analysis of emerging contaminants. The concentration of anticancer drugs was determined by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC–MS/MS). Tamoxifen and letrozole were detected from influent samples ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 ng/L, respectively. Letrozole was detected from effluent samples at a concentration up to 2.4 ng/L. Letrozole has been detected in wastewater effluent only once before, at a lower concentration of 0.28 ng/L. Gemcitabine was not detected in any of the samples. UV irradiation is used in many wastewater treatment plants to disinfect the effluent. Such tertiary treatment might degrade also these potentially harmful drugs and, therefore, photodegradation of the chosen pharmaceuticals was studied in laboratory-scale experiments. Tamoxifen showed high degradation rates, 94% in spiked wastewater with UV fluence 4830 mJ/cm2 and 98% in pure water with UV fluence 2520 mJ/cm2, respectively. Letrozole showed the lowest degradation rates of 24% in wastewater and 34% in pure water, respectively. The degradation rate at the fluence level typical for UV disinfection stage of wastewater treatment plants was 37% for tamoxifen but only 5% for letrozole. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report to show the effectiveness of UV irradiation to degrade letrozole.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05763-x
       
  • Tackling Marine Microplastics Pollution: an Overview of Existing Solutions

    • Abstract: Abstract Microplastics pollution is one of the main environmental challenges of our time, even though microplastics were observed for the first time almost 50 years ago. Microplastics—little plastic fragments smaller than 5 mm in size—are released from bigger plastic objects during their use, maintenance, or disposal. As their release is uncontrolled and mostly uncontrollable, microplastics end up in the environment and are easily transported across the world, polluting nearly every ecosystem, especially the aquatic ones. Hence, microplastics represent a huge menace for many living species: they are ingested unintentionally by smaller animals and transferred along the food chain up to human beings, even threatening our health. It is therefore vital to take action against microplastics and many technologies have been designed in recent years with this purpose in mind. This paper provides an overview of the main solutions developed thus far to reduce further microplastic emissions and to collect those already released.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05715-5
       
  • Iron–Copper Bimetallic Nanoparticle for the Removal of Disinfection
           By-products: Optimization, Kinetic Study, and Life Cycle Assessment

    • Abstract: Abstract Since the early twentieth century, disinfecting water has been an essential process to prevent the introduction of harmful organisms, especially pathogenic organisms. Due to the reaction between anthropogenic contaminants present in water and the chemicals used to disinfect water, compounds known as disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during the water disinfection process. Chlorination, the most dominant water disinfection method, produces DBPs that have drawn a lot of attention and health concerns. The most commonly used removal technology for trichloromethane (TCM) is adsorption, and the use of activated carbon, iron oxides, and nanoparticles has been widely investigated. Studies have found that using nano-zero valent iron with nano-catalytic metals (Cu, Ni etc.) to synthesize bimetallic nanoparticles increases the removal of organic pollutants. The current study investigates the adsorption of trichloromethane (TCM) by synthesized Fe/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of independent variables on the removal of TCM. According to the CCD results, TCM concentration and reaction time were determined as the most effective parameters. The lowest TCM concentrations have low removal efficiencies, while the lowest TCM concentration (50 µg/L) can be removed up to 60%. The highest TCM concentration can be 500 µg/L to achieve a removal below the limits with 500 mg/L Fe/Cu concentration and 24 min of reaction time. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to Fe/Cu nanoparticle synthesis, and results indicated that the highest environmental impact was from the mixture of reactant stage.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05734-2
       
  • Lead (Pb) Contamination in Agricultural Products and Human Health Risk
           Assessment in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Lead (Pb) is a widely occurring heavy metal employed in industrial products and hence released into the environment, causing several environmental health risk concerns. This study comprehensively surveyed the literature on Pb contamination in different agricultural foods and food products commonly consumed by Bangladeshi inhabitants and assessed associated cancer and non-cancer health risks. Cereals (i.e., rice, wheat and maize) contained very high concentrations of Pb among the selected food items, the highest was found in wheat (4.04 µg g−1), while rice and maize were 2.22 and 1.43 µg g−1, respectively, that exceeded the maximum allowable concentration (MAC, 0.20 µg g−1) for cereals. Vegetables contained higher Pb than the MAC of 0.01 µg g−1, except for mushroom, green banana, cauliflower and arum. In addition, pulses also contained a moderate amount of Pb; however, fruits contained a low level of Pb, except for mangoes. When examining spatial differences in Pb contamination, most districts exhibited high Pb content in cereals; however, vegetables of the Tangail district exhibited the highest Pb concentrations (2.17 µg g−1), originating from industrial operations and vehicular emissions. In terms of human health risk assessment, it was observed that consumption of rice, zucchini, tesla gourd, sponge gourd, okra, drumstick lib, chili and cabbage might pose non-cancer health risks (THQs > 1); however, fruits and pulses do not pose any non-cancer health risks to Bangladeshi residents. Most of the cereals and vegetables showed a higher value than 10−6, indicating a potential cancer risk; however, fruits and pulses showed lower risk only marginally exceeding the lower allowable limit (i.e., 10−6). Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05711-9
       
  • Evaluating Anthropogenic Origin of Unidentified Volatile Chemicals in the
           River Rhine

    • Abstract: Abstract Surface water of rivers like the Rhine is a highly relevant environmental and an important source of the Dutch drinking water. To improve protection of the environment and drinking water supply, it is important to have a continuous overview of the chemical composition of the river. Such an overview may be obtained with contemporary, untargeted analytical platforms like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Interpretation of such untargeted data is however challenged by the presence of many chemicals of natural origin. We developed a novel approach to screen for anthropogenic chemicals using non-parametric tests on the time trends of yet unidentified chemicals. The approach uses PARAFAC2 to extract unknown components present in GC–MS data and provides an assessment of whether such components may be anthropogenic. This significantly reduces screening efforts required by human laboratory staff. In total, out of twelve suspect unknown components, eleven were classified as anthropogenic, providing compelling evidence that studying unknown components can be highly valuable for regulatory bodies. This approach filters out many naturally occurring compounds, leaving more resources available for wet-lab identification of suspected anthropogenic chemicals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05713-7
       
  • Mercury–Selenium Accumulation Patterns in Muscle Tissue of Two
           Freshwater Fish Species, Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Vendace
           (Coregonus albula)

    • Abstract: Mercury (Hg) in the form of highly toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) accumulates in aquatic food webs to an extent where it may threaten fish health in many freshwaters. Selenium (Se) mitigates the toxicity of accumulated Hg by forming strong bonds with it, a drawback being diversion of Se from biosynthetic pathways of essential selenoenzymes. We measured Se and Hg in muscle tissue of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and vendace (Coregonus albula). For the perch, Se and Hg correlated positively. For the vendace, a positive relationship was seen when the effect of fish size was accounted for. All fish displayed surplus Se (mol Se – mol Hg > 0). For both fish species, the Se molar surplus ((nmol Se – nmol Hg)/g ww) decreased with fish weight. It was higher in the perch than in the vendace and showed the least variation among the small perch (4–34 g). For the large perch (79–434 g), the Se molar surplus decreased with increasing Hg below 0.5 µg Hg but then increased with further Hg increment despite Hg being a negative term in the Se molar surplus. In case the Se molar surplus reflected the weight-specific Se requirement, the latter clearly decreased with increasing fish size for the vendace. This was less clear for the perch because of the strong correlation between Hg and weight. Together, these Se–Hg relationships suggest that Se accumulation was at least partly subject to homeostatic control and responded to the Hg body burden and the Se requirement. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05709-3
       
  • Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on Underwater Noise Pollution in Venice

    • Abstract: Abstract We illustrate the implementation and results of a field experiment, consisting of recording continuous signal from a hydrophone 3 m deep in the Venetian lagoon. We simultaneously recorded audio signal through a microphone placed on a nearby pier. We investigate the potential of this simple instrumental setup to explore the small touristic boat traffic contribution to the underwater noise. The ultimate goal of our work is to contribute to quantifying underwater noise pollution due to motorboat passages and its impact on the ecosystem. Efforts such as ours should help to identify measures that could diminish noise pollution, focusing specifically on the aspects that are most disruptive to underwater life. After this preliminary test, more work can be planned, involving the deployment of a larger network of similar instruments around the lagoon. At this point, we can conclude that (i) our instruments are sensitive enough to detect motorboats and identify some of their characteristics; (ii) the area of interest is characterized by a large (approx. 20 dB) day/night difference in ambient noise; and (iii) the historic center of Venice and its immediate surroundings are particularly noisy, in comparison to other similarly studied locations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05653-2
       
  • A Simplified Drying Procedure for Analysing Hg Concentrations

    • Abstract: Abstract Mercury (Hg) in peatlands remains a problem of global interest. To mitigate the risks of this neurotoxin, accurate assessments of Hg in peat are needed. Treatment of peat that will be analysed for Hg is, however, not straightforward due to the volatile nature of Hg. The drying process is of particular concern since Hg evasion increases with the temperature. Samples are, therefore, often freeze-dried to limit Hg loss during the drying processes. A problem with freeze-drying is that cost and equipment resources can limit the number of samples analysed in large projects. To avoid this bottleneck, we tested if drying in a 60 °C-degree oven could be an acceptable alternative to freeze-drying. We both freeze-dried and oven-dried (60 °C) 203 replicate pairs of peat samples, and then examined the differences in total Hg concentration. The Hg concentration differed significantly between the two drying methods with a median Hg deficit in oven-dried samples of 4.2%. Whether a 4.2% deficit of Hg depends on one’s purpose. The lower median Hg concentration in oven-dried samples has to be weighed against the upside efficiently drying large sets of peat samples. By freeze-drying a subset of the samples, we fitted a function to correct for Hg loss during oven-drying ( \(y=0.96x+0.08)\) . By applying this correction, the freeze-drying bottleneck could oven-dry large-scale inventories of total Hg in peatlands with results equivalent to freeze-drying, but only have to freeze-dry a subset.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05678-7
       
  • Creating the Distribution Map of Groundwater for Drinking Uses Using
           Physio-Chemical Variables; Case Study: Al-Hilla City, Iraq

    • Abstract: Abstract Surface water and groundwater are significant for population and other activities due to the decreasing surface water flow toward Iraq. Therefore, there is a need to analyze groundwater’s quality and classification and its applicability as an alternative in various human activities in the study area. This study utilized the groundwater quality index model for drinking uses (GW.Q.I.) and entered the resulting values in the GIS environment. This model was applied to 56 wells in Al-Hillah city by measuring twelve variables in each well. The measured variables were calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO4), bicarbonate (HCO3), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate (NO3), and electric conductivity (EC). The prediction map of GW.Q.I. was produced in the GIS. Then, the distributing map was divided into six categories based on the suitability of groundwater for drinking uses. The areas’ values of six categories with their ratings were about 5 km2 (excellent), 122 km2 (good), 610 km2 (poor), 63 km2 (very poor), 36 km2 (contaminated), and 24 km2 (very contaminated). For the entire study area, the average value of the GW.Q.I. was 177, classified as poor for drinking uses.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05660-3
       
 
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