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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 161 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Agua y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
altlastenforum Baden-Württemberg e.V., Schriftenreihe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries     Open Access  
Aquasains     Open Access  
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Discover Water     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal and Hydraulic Structures (JCHS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecohydraulics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of South Carolina Water Resources     Open Access  
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Enggano     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural and Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
npj Clean Water     Open Access  
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ribagua : Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access  
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Soil Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Cycle     Open Access  
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Water Research X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
wH2O : The Journal of Gender and Water     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Water Policy     Hybrid Journal  
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Paddy and Water Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.468
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1611-2504 - ISSN (Online) 1611-2490
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Energy and greenhouse gas footprint analysis of conventional and reduced
           tillage practices in rainfed and irrigated rice–wheat systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Conventional tillage practices in rice–wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains are not only energy-intensive but also release large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting in calls for more sustainable tillage practices. To assess total energy use, energy-use efficiency, GHG emissions and total global warming potential, three reduced tillage rice–wheat systems were compared to standard conventional practice. Dry direct-seeded rice, unpuddled transplanted rice and puddled transplanted rice were paired with zero tillage wheat systems for two years in 84 on-farm trials in two Terai districts of Nepal, and compared to the puddled transplanted rice-conventional tillage wheat. In both districts, the total energy use was lower (p < 0.05) by 17–18% in dry direct-seeded rice and 15–17% in unpuddled transpanted rice than in puddled transplanted rice, and lower by 12.5–19% in zero tillage wheat than in conventional tillage. In both crops, the total global warming potential was lower for reduced tillage practices compared with the conventional counterparts. Higher energy-use efficiency with lower global warming potential could be a resilient and risk minimization strategy for crops in the rice–wheat systems established with reduced tillage under both irrigated and rainfed environments. To offer the most promising incentive for a transition from conventional to reduced tillage practices, availability and optimum use of herbicides, easy access to planting machines, and availability of skilled service providers are necessary.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
       
  • Crop type detection using an object-based classification method and
           multi-temporal Landsat satellite images

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      Abstract: Abstract Crop type detection is of great importance in water resource allocation and planning mostly in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Landsat-OLI 16-day inter-annual images are invaluable sources obviating crop monitoring into issues of crop types detection, crop yield prediction, and crop pattern studies. Although many classification methods such as decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM), and maximum likelihood (ML) were implied for crop type mapping, recent researches often use an object-based classification approach. In this study, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) classifier based on rule-based decision tree (RBDT) and object-based nearest neighbor (OBNN) used to delineate five common crop types (includes Wheat and Barley together in one class, rice, multiple crop (MC), Alfalfa and Spring crops) in Isfahan city and nearby areas. The classification was applied in five scenarios using different vegetation indexes including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), green normalized difference vegetation index GNDVI and their combination. All scenarios property and accuracy assessed both with by class separation distance matrix and confusion matrix. The overall accuracy of classification with using only one vegetation index was lower than other scenarios. It was the lowest for GNDVI rating 37% whereas combination of Indexes resulted better accuracy. In final map with combination of NDVI, GNDVI and NDWI, overall accuracy and kappa achieved to 88% and 0/83 successively. Comparing individual accuracy of different crops showed that MC crops with 66% has the lowest accuracy and Wheat-Barely crops with 94.8% individual accuracy has the Maximum accuracy. Other crop types accuracy alters between 66 and 94.8%.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Integration of ridge and furrow rainwater harvesting systems and soil
           amendments improve crop yield under semi-arid conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract Low crop productivity due to prolonged droughts, inappropriate water saving practices, low soil fertility and soil erosion is a major threat to food security in semi-arid areas. In these areas, ridge and furrow rainwater harvesting (RFRH) technique is widely adopted to minimize water deficiency problems. Incorporating mulching in ridge and furrow rainwater harvesting (RFRH + M) is also being promoted to increase water storage and conservation for crop usage. Till date, evidence establishing the efficacy of incorporating mulching and biochar in ridge and furrow system, and modalities for improving crop yield has not been synthesized quantitatively to promote widespread adoption. The objective of this MA was to assess the whether the integration of ridge and furrow rainwater harvesting systems (RFRHs) with soil amendments, namely biochar or mulches affect crop yield and soil properties relative to traditional no-till flat planting. In addition, the MA investigated how factors such as such as precipitation moderate the performance of RFRHs with soil amendments in different regions in China was investigated. A meta-analysis (MA) of data from 42 published articles based on PRISMA guidelines was used to assess the impacts of ridge and furrow tillage with and without mulching on potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.), and maize (Zea mays, L.) yield relative to traditional no-till flat planting in the Loess Plateau of China. Mulch materials were plastic and straw in addition to biochar amendment. RFRH + M significantly affected crop yield in Gansu, Ningxia, Shanxi and Shaanxi regions of the Loess Plateau. Plastic film mulched ridge-furrow planting compared with flat planting without mulching increased potato yield by 34.01% in Gansu, 32.99% in Ningxia, and 12.78% in Shanxi. Maize yield increased by 33.10% in bare ridge-furrow planting with mean of 10,936.81 kg ha−1 compared with flat planting with a mean of 8217.07 kg ha−1. Conversely, in areas where precipitation was higher than 500 mm, integrated plastic film with straw in ridge-furrow significantly (p < 0.00001) increased wheat yield by 60% compared to flat planting without mulching, which can be attributed to the soil alkalinity (pH > 7–8) of the soils in these areas. The observed differences in crop yield could also be ascribed to the influence of phosphorus availability. Results from the MA showed that the effect of straw mulched-ridge-furrow on crop yield was stronger in soils with higher available phosphorus at 20 mg kg−1 (5.31%; p = 0.0003) than flat planting without mulching. Findings of the MA suggest that the adoption of integrated plastic film mulch with straw in ridge and furrow system can improve soil properties and crop yield under rain-fed conditions. Compared with flat planting without mulching, incorporating plastic film mulch and straw in ridge and furrow systems averts residual plastic film accumulation on farmlands, which could impede plant growth, soil structure, water and nutrient uptake in rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid areas.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields in Bangladesh compared to top
           twenty rice producing countries and emission reduction strategies

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      Abstract: Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture contribute to global warming. Total GHG emissions from paddy fields based on life cycle assessments are limited in developing countries because of data lacking. The amounts of carbon (C) emissions and GHG intensity have been evaluated for top 20 rice producing countries based on measured and review of literature for determining relative position of Bangladesh and delineating reduction strategies of GHG emissions from paddy fields. In 2018, the position of Bangladesh was 7th among top 20 rice producing countries in terms of methane (CH4) emission. Per capita CH4 emission because of rice cultivation was the highest in Cambodia followed by Thailand and 8th position for Bangladesh. The higher per capita GHG emissions were recorded in Thailand (1595.24 kg CO2 eq.) than in Cambodia (1517.21 kg CO2 eq.) and in Bangladesh, it was 706.72 kg CO2 eq. Greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) was the highest in China (5.87 kg kg−1) than in Thailand (3.91 kg kg−1) and in India (3.44 kg kg−1). Position of Bangladesh was 6th among top 20 rice producing countries in terms of total GHG emission for rice cultivation (9903.03 kg CO2 eq. ha−1). In Bangladesh, irrigation water management contributed about 30% of indirect GHG emission and that of fertilizers by about 6.5%. The balance between C inputs and outputs resulted in net emission by about 179.92 kg C ha−1 because of rice cultivation in Bangladesh. There were comparatively greater total GHG emissions from paddy fields in developed countries than in the least developed and developing countries. The GHG emissions could be minimized by adopting reduced tillage practices, alternate wetting and drying (AWD), fertilizer placement, suitable cropping patterns, high yielding short duration varieties, and integrated nutrient management.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Level regime of Balkhash Lake as the indicator of the state of the
           environmental ecosystems of the region

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      Abstract: Abstract The article presents the results of studies of the level regime of Lake Balkhash, which has a characteristic, consisting in the change in the average lake horizon, the changes in the magnitudes of the seasonal and inter-annual amplitudes of the levels, as well as their annual and long-term ones. All this involves the change in the lake table area and its outline on the map. The results of full-scale data of modern morphometric characteristics are presented, on the basis of which the actual map of the lake depths is presented. The impact of economic activity on the fluctuations of the long-term annual average water level in the lake is observed, and the analysis of the changes in the hydro chemical composition of the water depending on the level of the lake is given.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Dynamics of radiocesium in an irrigation reservoir managed at low water
           level from the perspective of inflow and outflow water quality under
           non-flood conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the dynamics of radiocesium, including dissolved radiocesium with high bioavailability, in irrigation reservoirs located in nuclear disaster-affected areas is crucial. In this study, we estimated the 137Cs supply flux from an irrigation reservoir managed at low water levels by examining the inflow and outflow water quality mainly under average flow conditions. The results showed that the annual supply fluxes of total 137Cs, suspended 137Cs, and dissolved 137Cs were positive, indicating that the reservoir acted as a source of 137Cs. The source of 137Cs from the reservoir was considered to be the sediment, with suspended 137Cs due to resuspension and dissolved 137Cs due to desorption. The dissolved 137Cs activity concentration in the outflow water was positively correlated with the water temperature, suggesting that the desorption of dissolved 137Cs from the sediment can be attributed to the exchange with cations such as NH4+ generated by biological activities. The dissolved 137Cs activity concentration in the outflow water was equal to that in the inflow water in winter and exhibited seasonal variation with an increasing trend in summer. Furthermore, the carriers of suspended 137Cs in the outflow water were considered to be fine mineral soil particles including clay, along with organic matter. Therefore, the removal of bottom sediments with high 137Cs concentrations in reservoirs with low water levels would contribute to reducing the runoff of radiocesium, effectively restore freshwater resources, and allow for the resumption of agricultural water use.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
       
  • Comparison of consecutive impacts of wood and rice husk gasification
           biochars with nitrogen fertilizer on soybean yield

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      Abstract: Abstract Demand for gasification biochar is expected to increase, owing to the bioenergy requirements of a sustainable society. Here, we assessed the applicability of gasification biochars from cedar wood (W) and rice husk (R) for the agricultural soil amendment and compared their ability in enhancing soybean yield in two consecutive cropping cycles. The pot experiment included four treatments: F0 (control 1), without both nitrogen fertilizer (Nfer) and biochar, F (control 2), using only Nfer, W–F, using W with Nfer, and R–F, using R with Nfer. Both gasification biochars had higher pH, CEC, and greater nitrogen retention than the soil. In the first cropping cycle, the W application showed an immense impact on some soil physical properties, including bulk density reduction (12%) and water-holding capacity increment (25%) while the R amendment significantly increased exchangeable K (45%) and soil pH. In addition, other changes in soil chemical due to W and R applications included enhancement of available phosphorus (P, 8–14%) and reduction of ammonium content (12–21%). After two consecutive cropping cycles, W–F indicated the largest content of soil available P and the highest soil pH. Ultimately, the co-application with Nfer of W and R had the same significant impact on soybean yield compared with control 1 in the first and two consecutive cropping cycles. In addition, the W application specifically recorded a significantly higher soybean yield than control 2 in the first and two cropping cycles, unlike the R amendment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
       
  • On seismic behavior of unsaturated fill dam models

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      Abstract: Abstract A series of centrifuge shaking table tests was conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of unsaturated fill dam models. Two models consisted of different materials were used in centrifuge model tests: one with No. 6 silica sand and the other with a mixture of No. 6 silica sand and artificial silt with a dry mass ratio of 2:1. The effect of soil wetness on the seismic behavior was evaluated by changing the initial water content. In the tests, accelerations, surface deformations, pore water pressures (PWP), pore air pressures (PAP), and displacements within the models by using PIV method were measured. For the models constructed with silica sand only, when the water content was low, deformation with slip failure was observed. Large PWP oscillation occurred during shaking regardless of the water content against our expectations. Such behavior has not been monitored. The magnitude of the oscillation was slightly greater in the silica sand model than in the mixed soil model and positive PWPs remained only in the silica sand models after the tests. The oscillation of PAP during shaking was fairly smaller than that of PWP and therefore appeared to have little effect on the behavior of the dam. When a mixed soil model with varied water contents, 12% in upstream and 5% in downstream of the dam model, was used, vertical downward displacement occurred in the low-water-content region near the dam axis. Displacements occurred within the upstream side were larger than those within the downstream. The dam model moved toward upstream in the upstream region, while it moved toward downstream side with dominant downward movements in the downstream region. Compression occurred at the bottom of the dam model and was particularly high near the slope toe of the downstream side. Thus, the behavior of the mixed soil model depended on the difference of water contents.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
       
  • A field test to investigate spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture
           under different cropland covers in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to simultaneously describe the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture and the influence of land cover conditions in the semiarid Loess Plateau in Northwestern China, a field test was performed. In this study, four cover conditions were considered, including bare soil without any cover, non-vegetated soil with plastic mulch (PM), potato field with PM and maize field with PM. The actively heated fiber optics (AHFO) method was used to capture spatial soil moisture distribution, and the frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensor with a temporal spatial resolution of 3 min was used to record temporal moisture variation. The experimental results indicate that if the soil moisture remains constant and the cumulative precipitation slowly increases, the in-situ apparent effective soil hydraulic conductivity can be inferred from the precipitation rate. The in-situ measured apparent effective soil hydraulic conductivity has been found to be 7.09 × 10–7 m/s in this study. The estimated evapotranspiration rate was 5.68 mm/d as inferred from linear reduction rate of soil moisture after a rainfall, which agreed well with the reported average value in semiarid regions. The PM can effectively prevent water loss due to field evapotranspiration and result in aggravation of spatially uneven distribution of subsurface soil moisture under the same cover condition and depth. The growth of plant roots facilitates water holding capacity and evapotranspiration rate of soil and reduces its temporal stability.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
       
  • Determination of suitable lands for rice cultivation in Edirne plain: GIS
           supported FAO limitation method

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      Abstract: Abstract Concerns about the future of agricultural production and food security in recent years have increased the importance of agricultural land evaluation assessment studies for different agricultural products. Performing studies using geographical information systems (GIS) techniques provides faster and more reliable results than traditional techniques. Given that, regional studies for land suitability assessment to improve product quality have gained momentum. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the land suitability for paddy cultivation in Edirne Plain, where most rice farming cultivation occur in Turkey. To achieve this, we used GIS-supported Food and Agriculture Organization limitation method. The study model is established based on 5 m high-resolution spatial data and the analysis of land quality indexes that affect paddy cultivation, such as Nutrient Elements Availability Index, Soil Quality Index, Climate Quality Index, Irrigation Quality Index, Socio-economic Quality Index and (Agricultural Mechanization Quality Index). The results indicated that 25.41% of Edirne Plain is highly suitable, 53.85% is moderately suitable, 15.93% marginally suitable, and 4.81% unsuitable for paddy cultivation. It was determined that the current paddy cultivation area is far below its potential. Although 79.26% of the study area is suitable for rice cultivation, only 16.90% of the area is currently used as paddy farming which means 62.36% of potential rice cultivation area is not used as its potential. The findings of the present study are essential particularly for local administrators and policy makers to use the available land resources effectively for sustainable agricultural production. The present study points to an important direction for future research and contributes to regional managers and policymakers to better understand rice cultivation and planning accordingly in the region.
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
       
  • Effects of no-tillage practice for late-rice on rice yield and global
           warming potential in double-cropping rice systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Double-cropping rice systems lead to intensive greenhouse gas emissions. No-tillage in late-rice season may be a viable practice to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions without compromising rice yield. A field experiment was conducted with two treatments: tillage for both early-and late-rice (T-T) and tillage for early-rice whereas no-tillage for late-rice (T-NT). The mitigation effect of no-tillage on CH4 was mainly observed in the early vegetative stage. The difference of N2O fluxes between the treatments was mainly observed after fertilization. For the T-T and the T-NT in late-rice season, respectively, seasonal CH4 emissions were 575.1 and 502.9 kg ha−1, seasonal N2O emissions were 0.074 and 0.218 kg ha−1, and rice yields were 5687 and 5169 kg ha−1. CH4 emission was responsible for more than 99% of the global warming potential (GWP). As a result, the T-NT decreased area-scaled GWP by 12.3%, but only decreased yield-scaled GWP by 3.0% due to yield decline by 9.1%. These results reveal that the T-NT is an effective practice in mitigating area-scaled GWP, the risk of yield loss, however, will undermine farmers’ willingness to adopt the practice.
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
       
  • Development of soil conditioner for reclaimed land desalinization based on
           high-iron fly ash

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      Abstract: Abstract Reclaimed soil is known to have high salinity due to poor water permeability. Soil conditioner can improve the permeability of the ground by changing the composition or structure of the soil, and various materials can be used. Fly ash is mainly recycled as a ready-mixed concrete admixture. However, the high Fe content fly ash limits its recycling due to esthetic problems, so a new recycling plan is needed. Calcium in fly ash can support soil aggregation, but its lower content than that of a general soil conditioner requires additional measures. Therefore, in this study, a new soil conditioner based on high Fe content fly ash with low recycling rate was developed and applied to improve soil in reclaimed land. Three soil conditioners based on fly ash, blast furnace slag cement, CaSO4, Al2(SO4)3, and cationic polymer were developed. The soil conditioners increased soil aggregation size and permeability. This improvement is greater in soils with higher fine content, higher additive content in soil conditioners, and a higher mixing ratio of soil conditioners. The rate of capillary rise increased, but the height of capillary rise is predicted to decrease based on particle size analysis. In conclusion, soil conditioner with high Fe content fly ash can be used to improve reclaimed soil. The new recycling method for high Fe content fly ash proposed in this study is expected to increase the recycling rate of fly ash.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-022-00893-8
       
  • Correction to: Improved model for studying hydrological process in the
           field-to-field irrigation system

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      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-022-00891-w
       
  • Evaluation of spatial variability of the integral energy of plant
           available water and its influential properties in paddy soil

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      Abstract: Abstract Plant Available Water is the main concept for describing the existing water content in a soil profile. Along with this concept, Integral Energy shows the energy required for plants to obtain a unit mass of soil water at a specific water content (such as PAW). The spatial variability of EI in paddy soils and the factors affecting it have not been studied yet. To determine the spatial variability of Energy Integral and its influential properties, the number of 104 surface soil samples was collected from paddy fields located in different irrigation districts in Guilan Province. The physical and hydraulic properties were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis to derive the patterns of similarity within the variables, and then the spatial variability was mapped by implementation of a well-known geostatistical approach. The variogram and ordinary kriging estimator were used as function describing the degree of spatial dependence and interpolation, respectively. The results showed that the first four main components including (PC1, PC2, PC3, and PC4) describe about 83% of the variability of soil conditions. Stepwise analysis indicated that among the properties affecting the regional variability, bulk density and mean pore diameter have more effect on the spatial variability of Integral Energy. The structural properties such as pore-size distribution and bulk density had direct and significant effects on the variability of Integral Energy. The aforementioned findings emphasized the importance of effects of puddling on the conversion of macro-structural pores to micro-texture pores, more water retention in paddy soils, and the ability of rice plants to absorb soil water.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-022-00892-9
       
  • Energy input–output modeling and sensitivity analysis for on-farm
           mechanically paddy straw bales formation

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      Abstract: Abstract The paddy straw was collected in the form of bales with three mechanical process CI (stubble shaver + rectangular baler), CII (stubble shaver + rake + rectangular baler), and CIII (stubble shaver + round baler) and straw yield prediction modelling and sensitivity analysis based on input and output energy is investigated using the Cobb–Douglas production function and marginal physical productivity (MPP) method. For each process, model I is divided into direct and indirect energies and model II consisted of renewable and non-renewable energies sources. The MPP value of direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable energy sources was found to be 1.79, 1.38, − 10.57, and 1.36; 1.77, 3.32, 6.03, and 1.87; 5.86, 2.31, − 4.69, and 6.01 for CI, CII and CIII, respectively. Model I was more sensitive towards direct energy, whereas model II was sensitive towards non-renewable energy sources in each process. For CIII, the return to scale was increasing, but for CI and CII, it was declining. The contribution of direct and non-renewable energy sources was fairly dominating over indirect and renewable energy sources for each selected process. The maximum energy productivity and minimum specific energy were observed in CI whereas maximum net energy gain was observed in CII. The GHG emission was minimum in CII for the baler machine as compared to CI and CIII. The results of the study will aid academics and policymakers in optimising energy inputs to increase output energy while reducing pollution by avoiding the burning of paddy straw.
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-021-00888-x
       
  • Assessment of the occurrence of climate change and its effects on planting
           date and growth duration of rainfed wheat in the western and northwestern
           regions of Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the effect of climate change on planting date and growth duration of rainfed wheat in the west and northwest parts of Iran has been investigated. The occurrence of climate change in the region was first evaluated for the base period (1992–2018) using two nonparametric tests of Mann–Kendall and Sen's slope estimator. Then, the climatic parameters of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation were simulated under RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2019–2039 based on downscaled output data of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) using LARS WG software. The growth period was obtained using a linear multiple regression model, which was selected based on R-square and accounted for 87% of its total variation. The results predicted that the average annual temperature will increase by 2 °C, while the average annual precipitation will increase by 30% by the end of 2039. Planting dates were determined based on two indices combining temperature and precipitation for the base and future periods. The results showed that climate change effects at the 2039 horizon will shorten by 18 days the wheat growth period and the appropriate planting time for rainfed wheat will be reduced by 2–19 days.
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-021-00887-y
       
  • GLUE algorithm capability in estimating the van Genuchten soil–water
           characteristic parameters and their uncertainties

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      Abstract: Abstract Uncertainty in the model’s structure, parameters, and input data can be viewed as the three primary sources of hydrological models failure; hence, doing an uncertainty analysis on the model can provide valuable insights into the model’s error sources. In this study, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) algorithm was used to estimate and examine the uncertainty of parameters and model structure in four soil textural classes using the Monte Carlo approach. Additionally, the generalized sensitivity analysis (GSA) algorithm was utilized to determine the most sensitive parameter in each soil texture. The performance of the GLUE algorithm was compared to that of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The results indicated that GLUE algorithm outperformed PSO in estimating the parameters of the van Genuchten model with RMSE of 0.0031–0.0017 and R2 of 0.99. Additionally, statistical indices demonstrated that the PSO algorithm was more accurate than the RETC and Rosetta models. The posterior distribution of the parameters revealed varying degrees of uncertainty in the model parameters across the studied textural classes, which obviously affects the model’s performance. The results of the GSA algorithm indicated that the sensitivity of the parameters in the textures under study follows a distinct trend. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the parameters is affected not only by the inherent nature of the model parameters, but also by soil heterogeneity and soil management practices. Finally, our findings indicated that the GLUE method, when applied with the equifinality concept and taking into account the uncertainty of the parameters and the model structure, can perform better than the PSO in predicting the model parameters. The degree of uncertainty in the van Genuchten model parameters and structure is a significant factor in the efficiency of the methods used to estimate the parameters, which affects the accuracy and efficiency of management programs and the output of soil hydraulic and hydrological models.
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-021-00886-z
       
  • The assessment of rill irrigation and perforated pipes for Lowland paddy
           rice under the system of rice intensification (SRI)

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      Abstract: Abstract Irrigated paddy rice needs new strategies and tools to improve water use efficiency and productivity by applying just enough to sustain production with huge savings on irrigation water. In this regard, an experiment was conducted in Tainan, Xuejia district where lowland paddy rice was grown under the SRI using two different irrigation methods (rill irrigation and sprinkler hose). This was conducted over a period of two years (2019 and 2020) to obtain an optimized irrigation method with high water-saving benefits and increased yields. In the first-year, rill irrigation was used with varying rill depths of 10, 20 and 25 cm (as T10, T20 and T25 treatments) under SRI, and the depth of 10 cm was found to be the most optimum, attaining a yield of 1500 kg/ha. T10 had also the highest water productivity of 0.7 kg/m3. In the second year, a sprinkler hose was used for irrigation with varying irrigation volumes of 0.3, 0.2, 0.1 m3 (as T3, T2 and T1 treatments) and the traditional SRI method as the control. All plots were irrigated at a moisture stress of 25 kPa. The 0.3 m3 treatment was effective in producing the highest yield of 950 kg/ha with a water productivity of 0.21 kg/m3. The results showed that the yield and the water productivity were 63% and 30% higher under rill irrigation, respectively, favouring the adoption of rill irrigation. Generally, lowland paddy rice performed better in the dry season for both methods applied due to high prevalence of diseases in the wet season. In conclusion, any modifications of water applied to paddy should be made during the crucial stages of grain filling to improve the fertility rate otherwise optimum yields will not be realised.
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-021-00879-y
       
  • An economic value for ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction using paddy
           fields in the kasumitei open levee system

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      Abstract: Abstract In this article, we examined the value of the traditional Japanese flood control measure that uses a discontinuous levee (kasumitei). By avoiding the use of flood-prone lowlands for inhabitation and allowing floodwater movement through the kasumitei, the cost of building damage can be reduced, and water supply to wetlands can be increased. The purpose of our study was to quantify flood damage cost reductions and the potential gains for wetland species as part of an ecosystem-based disaster reduction initiative. The study was conducted in the Amano River basin in central Japan. First, we applied a drainage model and calculated the flood damage cost reduction in the floodplain from an evaluation of inundation depth differences. As part of an analysis of potential wetness, we identified areas where 1 m of flooding was predicted in rice paddies near kasumitei. We also quantified a topographic wetness index, the ratio of lowlands, and the ratio of poorly drained soil types, all of which would be beneficial to wetland species. We also investigated land-use change in the area and the relevant financial support framework. The results showed that a simulated closed levee system causes greater inundation and exposure to residents, and the value of paddy areas near kasumitei was calculated to be 43,830 JPY/1000 m2/year at the maximum. Even though the paddies tend to be poorly drained, these areas have been continuously used as paddies for the past century even under development pressure. The economic value and habitat potential of kasumitei levee systems have not been considered as part of any previous flood-management policies. We propose these existing flood control areas to be considered in the financial support framework in the context of river basin and ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction management.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-021-00885-0
       
  • Numerical simulation on effect of irrigation conditions on water
           temperature distribution in a paddy field

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      Abstract: Abstract Water management methods regulate water temperature in paddy fields, which affects rice growth and the environment. To understand the effect of irrigation conditions on water temperature in a paddy field, water temperature distribution under 42 different irrigation models including the use of ICT water management, which enables remote and automatic irrigation, was simulated using a physical model of heat balance. The following results were obtained: (1) Irrigation water temperature had a more significant effect on paddy water temperature close to the inlet. As the distance from the inlet increased, the water temperature converged to an equilibrium, which was determined by meteorological conditions and changes in water depth. (2) Increasing the irrigation rate with higher irrigation water amount increased the extent and magnitude of the effects of the irrigation water temperature. (3) When total irrigation water amount was the same, increasing the irrigation rate decreased the time-averaged temperature gradient effect over time across the paddy field. (4) Irrigation during the lowest and highest paddy water temperatures effectively decreased and increased the equilibrium water temperature, respectively. The results indicate that irrigation management can be used to alter and control water temperature in paddy fields, and showed the potential of ICT water management in enhancing the effect of water management in paddy fields. Our results demonstrated that a numerical simulation using a physical model for water temperature distribution is useful for revealing effective water management techniques under various irrigation methods and meteorological conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10333-021-00884-1
       
 
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