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  Subjects -> WATER RESOURCES (Total: 161 journals)
Showing 1 - 47 of 47 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS ES&T Water     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Limnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Oceanography and Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Journal of Aquatic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Agua y Territorio     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Águas Subterrâneas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
altlastenforum Baden-Württemberg e.V., Schriftenreihe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Water Works Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Water Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Aquaculture and Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries     Open Access  
Aquasains     Open Access  
Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Aquatic Geochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Living Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AWWA Water Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Desalination and Water Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Discover Water     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan     Open Access  
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Nexus     Open Access  
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European journal of water quality - Journal européen d'hydrologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
GeoHazards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Grundwasser     Hybrid Journal  
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IDA Journal of Desalination and Water Reuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ingeniería del agua     Open Access  
Inland Waters     Hybrid Journal  
International Hydrographic Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Water Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Water Resources Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Irrigation and Drainage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Irrigation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Coastal and Hydraulic Structures (JCHS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Water Resource & Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecohydraulics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Hydro-environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hydrometeorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Limnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Oceanology and Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of South Carolina Water Resources     Open Access  
Journal of the American Water Resources Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Water and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Water Process Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Water Resource and Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Enggano     Open Access  
La Houille Blanche     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural and Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
npj Clean Water     Open Access  
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Ozone Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Paddy and Water Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revue des sciences de l'eau / Journal of Water Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ribagua : Revista Iberoamericana del Agua     Open Access  
River Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientia Marina     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Soil Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Water Resources Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tecnología y Ciencias del Agua     Open Access  
Texas Water Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Water Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Water and Environment Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Cycle     Open Access  
Water Environment and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Water Research X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Resources Management     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Water Resources Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
Water SA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water Science : The National Water Research Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Water-Energy Nexus     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Water21     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Watershed Ecology and the Environment     Open Access  
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wetlands Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
wH2O : The Journal of Gender and Water     Open Access  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Water     Hybrid Journal  
WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Water Policy     Hybrid Journal  
علوم آب و خاک     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Aquatic Geochemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1421 - ISSN (Online) 1380-6165
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Geochemical Proxies and Mineralogical Fingerprints of Sedimentary
           Processes in a Closed Shallow Lake Basin Since 1850

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      Abstract: Lake systems are essential for the environment, the biosphere, and humans but are highly impacted by anthropogenic activities accentuated by climate change. Understanding how lake ecosystems change due to human impacts and natural forces is crucial to managing their current state and possible future restoration. The high sensitivity of shallow closed lakes to natural and anthropogenic forcing makes these lacustrine ecosystems highly prone to variations in precipitation and sedimentation processes. These variation processes, occurring in the water column, produce geochemical markers or proxies recorded in lake sedimentary archives. This study investigated specific proxies on high-resolution sedimentary archives (2–3 years resolution) of the Trasimeno lake (Central Italy). The Trasimeno lake underwent three different hydrological phases during the twentieth century due to several fluctuations induced mainly by human activities and climate change. The Trasimeno lake, a large and shallow basin located in the Mediterranean area, is a good case study to assess the effects of intense anthropogenic activity related to agriculture, tourism, industry, and climate changes during the Anthropocene. The aim is to identify the main characteristics of the main sedimentary events in the lake during the last 150 years, determining the concentrations of major and trace elements, the amount of organic matter, and the mineralogical composition of the sediments. This type of work demonstrates that studying sediment archives at high resolution is a viable method for reconstructing the lake’s history through the evolution/trends of the geochemical proxies stored in the sediment records. This effort makes it possible to assess past anthropogenic impact and, under the objectives of the European Green Deal (zero-pollution ambition for a toxic-free environment), to monitor, prevent, and remedy pollution related to soil and water compartments. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-022-09403-y
       
  • A Late Holocene Record of Variations in the Chemical Weathering Intensity
           and Pedogenesis in a Lake Catchment from Southern India

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      Abstract: Abstract We investigated the detrital influx, chemical weathering intensity, provenance and pedogenesis over the past 2,500 years in the catchment of Pookot Lake, southern India. The down-core variations of metal/Al ratios (Na/Al, K/Al, Mg/Al, Ca/Al, Fe/Al, Mn/Al, Zn/Al, Ba/Al) of the Pookot sediments indicate changes in the rainfall-induced terrigenous inflow to the lake. In contrast, fluctuations in the chemical index of alteration (CIA) and Rb/Sr values denote the variability in the strength of chemical weathering in the watershed of the lake. The results show that the detrital influx, and hence rainfall, remained steady except during 1500–600 cal. years B.P. (high) and 600–300 cal. year B.P. (low) in the Pookot lake catchment. However, the periods of high/low chemical weathering intensity in the catchment do not correspond to periods of high/low detrital influx to the lake basin. The similar shale-normalized rare earth elemental curves point to a uniform provenance. The past pedogenic activity is indicated by pedogenic χlf and pedogenic χfd derived from citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) extraction. The data indicate that the fine-grained magnetite/maghemite formed during the pedogenesis mainly contributes to the magnetic signal of sediments. The degree of pedogenesis was strong during 2500–2000 cal. years B.P. and moderate throughout 1500–600 cal. years B.P. The pedogenic intensity became stronger again during ~ 600 cal. years B.P., which weakened between 600 and 300 cal. years B.P. and remained steady thereafter. The present study indicates that detrital influx proxies like metal/Al ratios are more suitable for reconstructing past climate in tropical climate rather than chemical weathering indices.
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09402-5
       
  • Upwelling of Deep-seated Fluid in the Sikhote-Alin Region, Far East of the
           Eurasian Plate

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      Abstract: Abstract Spring waters with high-pCO2 content are widely distributed in the Sikhote-Alin region in Russia. Mukhen spa is one such spring located in the northern Sikhote-Alin region. This spa has two types of upwelling spring waters and exhibits distinct chemical signatures. One of the springs originates from a shallow aquifer and features hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of meteoric water with a high 3He/4He ratio, whereas the other originates from a deeper aquifer and features a distinctly negative δ18O with a lower 3He/4He ratio. To understand this apparent discrepancy and the water circulation dynamics beneath Mukhen springs, we utilized all published data concerning the major solute elements and isotopic ratios of Mukhen spring waters and compared them with the He isotopic compositions on several springs in the far eastern region, which are newly analyzed in this study. The results show that the shallow aquifer comprises meteoric water that interacts with the crust enhanced by the gas component welling up from deep underground, while the fluid in deep aquifer fingerprinted the hydration reaction of silicate and involves a mantle component possibly delivered by a deep-seated fluid and/or gas upwelling along the tectonic fault through the western margin of the Sikhote-Alin region.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09398-y
       
  • Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Chemical and Physical Parameters on
           the Heron Island Coral Reef Platform

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      Abstract: Abstract Globally, coral reefs are threatened by ocean warming and acidification. The degree to which acidification will impact reefs is dependent on the local hydrodynamics, benthic community composition, and biogeochemical processes, all of which vary on different temporal and spatial scales. Characterizing the natural spatiotemporal variability of seawater carbonate chemistry across different reefs is critical for elucidating future impacts on coral reefs. To date, most studies have focused on select habitats, whereas fewer studies have focused on reef scale variability. Here, we investigate the temporal and spatial seawater physicochemical variability across the entire Heron Island coral reef platform, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for a limited duration of six days. Autonomous sensor measurements at three sites across the platform were complemented by reef-wide boat surveys and discrete sampling of seawater carbonate chemistry during the morning and evening. Variability in both temporal and spatial physicochemical properties were predominantly driven by solar irradiance (and its effect on biological activity) and the semidiurnal tidal cycles but were influenced by the local geomorphology resulting in isolation of the platform during low tide and rapid flooding during rising tides. As a result, seawater from previous tidal cycles was sometimes trapped in different parts of the reef leading to unexpected biogeochemical trends in space and time. This study illustrates the differences and limitations of data obtained from high-frequency measurements in a few locations compared to low-frequency measurements at high spatial resolution and coverage, showing the need for a combined approach to develop predictive capability of seawater physicochemical properties on coral reefs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09400-7
       
  • Organic versus Inorganic Carbon Exports from Glacier and Permafrost
           Watersheds in Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

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      Abstract: Abstract In a warming climate, land-to-water carbon mobilization is increasing in glacier and permafrost area. To identify the connection between exported river carbon content and the permafrost or glacier condition in the high-altitude mountain area, we studied the dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration in three streams of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP), which were located in the continuous permafrost, seasonal permafrost and glacial basin, respectively. It was found that the DIC and DOC concentrations were lower in the glacial rivers compared with the permafrost derived rivers; but more DOC would be exported from glacier due to the large amount of melted glacier water in the high mountainous area. DIC/DOC ratio in rivers reflected the watershed landscape types. In the permafrost area, the river recharged by seasonal permafrost had higher DIC concentration than the river in the continuous permafrost region, suggesting that increased DIC concentration could be a precursor of permafrost degradation. Research is meaningful to estimate the DOC and DIC export from high mountain area.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09399-x
       
  • Oxygen Consumption of Resuspended Sediments of the Upper Elbe Estuary:
           Process Identification and Prognosis

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      Abstract: Abstract The resuspension of sediment leads to an increased release of nutrients and organic substances into the overlying water column, which can have a negative effect on the oxygen budget. Especially in the warmer months with a lower oxygen saturation and higher biological activity, the oxygen content can reach critical thresholds in estuaries like the upper Elbe estuary. Many studies have dealt with the nutrient fluxes that occur during a resuspension event. However, the sediment properties that influence the oxygen consumption potential (OCP) and the different biochemical processes have not been examined in detail. To fill this gap, we investigated the biogeochemical composition, texture, and OCP of sediments at 21 locations as well as the temporal variability within one location for a period of 2 years (monthly sampling) in the upper Elbe estuary. The OCP of sediments during a seven-day resuspension event can be described by the processes of sulphate formation, nitrification, and mineralisation. Chlorophyll, total nitrogen (Ntotal), and total organic carbon showed the highest correlations with the OCP. Based on these correlations, we developed a prognosis model to calculate the OCP for the upper Elbe estuary with a single sediment parameter (Ntotal). The model is well suited to calculate the oxygen consumption of resuspended sediments in the Hamburg port area during the relevant warmer months and shows a normalised root mean squared error of < 0.11 ± 0.13. Thus, the effect of maintenance measures such as water injection dredging and ship-induced wave on the oxygen budget of the water can be calculated.
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09401-6
       
  • The Abiotic Nitrite Oxidation by Ligand-Bound Manganese (III): The
           Chemical Mechanism

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      Abstract: Abstract Given their environmental abundances, it has been long hypothesized that geochemical interactions between reactive forms of manganese and nitrogen may play important roles in the cycling of these elements. Indeed, recent studies have begun shedding light on the possible role of soluble, ligand-bound Mn(III) in promoting abiotic transformations under environmentally relevant conditions. Here, using the kinetic data of Karolewski et al. (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 293:365–378, 2021), we provide the chemical mechanism for the abiotic oxidation of nitrite (NO2−) by Mn(III)-pyrophosphate, MnIIIPP, to form nitrate (NO3−). Nitrous acid (HNO2), not NO2−, is the reductant in the reaction, based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. As soluble Mn(III) complexes react in a one-electron transfer reaction, two one-electron transfer steps must occur. In step one, HNO2 is first oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, ·NO2, a free radical via a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction. We show that this inner sphere reaction process is the rate-limiting step in the reaction sequence. In step two, ·NO2 reacts with a second MnIIIPP complex to form the nitronium ion (NO2+), which is isoelectronic with CO2. Unlike the poor electron-accepting capability of CO2, NO2+ is an excellent electron acceptor for both OH− and H2O, so NO2+ reacts quickly with water to form the end-product NO3− (step 3 in the reaction sequence). Thus, water provides the O atom in this nitrification reaction in accordance with the O-isotope data. This work provides mechanistic perspective on a potentially important interaction between Mn and nitrogen species, thereby offering a framework in which to interpret kinetic and isotopic data and to further investigate the relevance of this reaction under environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09396-0
       
  • Chemical weathering and carbon dioxide consumption in a small tropical
           river catchment, southwestern India

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      Abstract: Abstract Studies done on small tropical west-flowing river catchments located in the Western Ghats in southwestern India have suggested very intense chemical weathering rates and associated CO2 consumption. Very less studies are reported from these catchments notwithstanding their importance as potential sinks of atmospheric CO2 at the global scale. A total of 156 samples were collected from a small river catchment in the southwestern India, the Payaswini–Chandragiri river Basin, during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in 2016 and 2017, respectively. This river system comprises two small rivers originating at an elevation of 1350 m in the Western Ghats in peninsular India. The catchment area is dominated by biotite sillimanite gneiss. Sodium is the dominant cation, contributing ~ 50% of the total cations, whereas HCO3− contributes ~ 75% of total anions. The average anion concentration in the samples varied in the range HCO3− > Cl− > SO42− > NO3− > F−, whereas major cation concentration varied in the range Na+  > Ca2+  > Mg2+  > K+. The average silicate weathering rate (SWR) was 42 t km−2 y−1 in the year 2016 and 36 t km−2 y−1 in 2017. The average annual carbon dioxide consumption rate (CCR) due to silicate rock weathering was 9.6 × 105 mol km−2y−1 and 8.3 × 105 mol km−2 y−1 for 2016 and 2017, respectively. The CCR in the study area is higher than other large tropical river catchments like Amazon, Congo-Zaire, Orinoco, Parana and Indus because of its unique topography, hot and humid climate and intense rainfall.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09394-2
       
  • Carbonate Alkalinity Enhances Triclosan Photolysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial compound found in many household products used across the world. TCS is not completely removed in wastewater systems, resulting in trace-level concentrations present ubiquitously in surface waters. The direct photodegradation of TCS has been widely studied, with results indicating that TCS breaks down to chlorophenols and dioxins. To date, no studies have specifically investigated the effects of alkalinity on the photolysis of the acidic form of TCS. This study assessed the effect of carbonate/bicarbonate alkalinity, which is ubiquitous in natural waters, on the photolysis rate of TCS. Results indicate that bicarbonate enhances the photodegradation of TCS at pH values well below the pKa of TCS (7.9), with direct photolysis reaction kinetics that are very slow in the absence of buffers, but significant in the presence of bicarbonate (0.711 h−1 at pH 6.55). At pH values well above its pKa, both unbuffered- and buffered-mediated photolysis increased dramatically (1.92 h−1 for direct photolysis and 2.86 h−1 in buffered water) and is attributable to the increased photoreactivity of TCS by its conjugate base. Photolysis of methyl triclosan (MeTCS), a non-acidic analog of TCS, demonstrated the importance of TCS’s acidic functionality as MeTCS did not degrade at any pH. The observed influence of alkalinity on the acidic form of TCS photolysis was attributed to both a decrease in its excited state pKa, coupled with TCS deprotonation through an excited state proton transfer to a base (bicarbonate and to a lesser degree hydrogen phosphate) resulting in the more photo-labile conjugate base form of TCS.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09397-z
       
  • Contribution of Hydrothermal Processes to the Enrichment of Lithium in
           Brines: Evidence from Water–Rock Interacting Experiments

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      Abstract: Abstract Over the world, the available lithium (Li) resources are reserved mainly in closed-basin brines, with high Li concentration (> 150 mg/L) and low Mg/Li ratio (< 10) being critical for Li extraction using precipitation-based methods. In order to investigate the enrichment of Li over Mg during the formation of Li brine deposits, batch water–rock interacting experiments between igneous rocks and aqueous solutions were carried out under low (25, 50 and 75 °C) and high (200, 300 and 400 °C) temperature conditions. Our results show that for the experiments using water and accomplished under 25 °C, the Mg and Li concentrations vary from 0.470 and 0.782 mg/L in the solution interacted with Li-rich granite, to 5.626 and < 0.002 mg/L in that interacted with basalt, with Mg/Li ratio being slightly higher than those of the igneous rocks. By contrast, while a NaCl or Na2SO4 solution was used, the Mg and Li concentrations can be improved by up to tens of times, and the Mg/Li ratio also increased slightly. Lastly and above all, with increase in the water–rock interacting temperature from 25 to 400 °C, the Mg and Li concentrations in all solutions vary conversely and the Mg/Li ratio decreases by orders of magnitude, leading to the formation of Li-rich brines with very low Mg/Li ratios at temperatures above 200 °C. By comparing the results from our experiment to those from Li-rich springs, rivers and closed-basin brines, we conclude that water evaporation over time is fundamental for the concentration of Li in brines, meanwhile high-temperature hydrothermal processes are key to the formation of Li brine deposits with low Mg/Li ratios.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09395-1
       
  • Metal Speciation in Water of the Flooded Mine “Arsenic” (Karelia,
           Russia): Equilibrium-Kinetic Modeling with a Focus on the Influence of
           Humic Substances

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      Abstract: Abstract Equilibrium-kinetic modeling allows investigating metal behavior in the water–rock-organic matter system with time to evaluate anthropogenic effects on the environment. In the article, the interactions of stagnant mine drainage water of the flooded mine “Arsenic” with ore and gangue minerals were simulated using different organic matter incorporation approaches. If the model is closed to humic substances (no additional organic matter input), most fulvic acids are bound in the Fe fulvate complex. While under the removal of Fe fulvate from the model, the Cu fulvate becomes prevalent, the contribution of the fulvate complexes with Zn, Mg, and Ca also increases. This scenario simulates the organo-mineral complexes behavior well and allows identifying the sequence of metal binding to organic ligands as follows Fe > Cu > Zn > Mg > Ca. The second scenario imitates the constant input of organic matter to the model (open system regarding humic substances). The dissolved metal concentrations in the model solution are extremely high in comparison to the mine drainage water. This scenario demonstrates that excessive input of organic matter leads to the accumulation of the metals in a dissolved form and blocks the secondary mineral formation despite the faster dissolution of the primary minerals under a more acidic pH than in the first scenario. However, despite the differences between the model solution and the mine drainage water, this scenario is useful to address specific issues associated with changes in natural and anthropogenic conditions. Both scenarios show the importance of organic matter incorporation to the equilibrium-kinetic models.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09393-3
       
  • Climate Change-Induced Changes in the Chemistry of a High-Altitude
           Mountain Lake in the Central Alps

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      Abstract: Abstract Mountains are among the most sensitive ecosystems to climate change, and one of the most evident signs of climate-related effect is the continuous net loss of ice from the cryosphere. Several studies showed that meltwater from glaciated and perennially frozen areas can profoundly affect alpine aquatic ecosystems. Here, we present the impressive temporal increase in solutes in Lake Leit, a mountain lake in the Central Alps that is impacted by an active rock glacier. During the last 30 years, concentrations of sulfate and base cations increased by factors of 4 and 3, respectively. Atmospheric deposition, the only catchment external source, could be excluded as possible cause. The inlets have sulfate and base cations concentrations that were up to double the concentrations of the lake outlet confirming the presence of catchment internal sources. The highest concentrations were measured in the springs at the bottom of the rock glacier. Ground surface temperatures of the rock glacier indicated a high probability of permafrost occurrence, while the annual mean air temperature after the mid-1980s showed continuously positive deviations from the long-term average values (period 1961–1990) with increasing values after 2010. δ34S of sulfate in the inlets and the outflow indicated that sulfate in Lake Leit mainly derived from dissolution of gypsum/anhydrite even if its presence is not confirmed by the Geologic Atlas of Switzerland. Because of these results, we postulate the presence of subsurface traces of sulfate-bearing evaporites, probably associated with Triassic metasediments. These deposits are very common in the closer surroundings. We further hypothesize that the thawing of permafrost affects the flow path of water enabling its contact with fresh highly weatherable minerals increasing the overall weathering rate and shifting the relative ionic composition in the discharge toward the ions that originate from the most soluble minerals. This study shows that increased permafrost thawing in the future can influence water quality in high-alpine settings.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09388-6
       
  • Free Eu(III) Determination by Donnan Membrane Technique with
           Electrochemical Detection: Implementation and Evaluation

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method to determine free concentrations of Europium (Eu(III)) in natural waters. Europium(III) in solution was detected using cathodic stripping voltammetry after complexation with N-nitroso-N-phenylhydroxylamine (cupferron). Optimization of analytical parameters allowed us to detect nanomolar levels of Eu(III) in solution. Free Eu(III) in solution was measured using the Donnan membrane technique in which a natural solution (the “donor”, containing various ligands) is separated from a ligand-free solution (the “acceptor”) by a cation-exchange membrane. This membrane allows only non-colloidal cationic species to pass through it, and after an adequate time equilibrium is reached between both compartments. Total Eu(III) concentration can then be quantified in the acceptor solution and related to free Eu(III) in the natural sample. Due to its high valency, free Eu(III) tends to adsorb strongly to the cation-exchange membrane. In order to determine the physicochemical conditions minimizing this adsorption, we analyzed solutions of different Eu(III) and Ca(II) (as background ion) concentrations. Results showed that 100 mM of Ca(II) were necessary to make adsorption of Eu(III) onto the membrane negligible. The optimized setup was then used to quantify Eu(III) complexation in a Eu(III)-dissolved organic matter solution.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-021-09392-4
       
  • Effects of Bioirrigation and Salinity on Arsenic Distributions in
           Ferruginous Concretions from Salt Marsh Sediment Cores (Southern Brazil)

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      Abstract: Abstract Arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) contents were measured in sediment nodules and associated pore waters obtained from sediment cores collected from a salt marsh on Pólvora Island (southern Brazil). Sediment cores were obtained when brackish water dominated the estuary, at two different environments: an unvegetated mudflat colonized by crabs (Neohelice granulata), and a low intertidal stand vegetated by Spartina alterniflora. We determined the percentage of nodules in each depth interval of the cores, along with redox potential, and As, Fe, and Mn contents of the nodules. The mineralogy of the nodules was investigated, and results showed they are mainly composed by quartz, phyllosilicates, and amorphous Fe–Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Pore water results showed that bioturbation by local crabs supports oxygen penetration to depths of ca. 25 cm below the salt marsh surface, with lower Fe contents in pore water associated with the brackish period. However, S. alterniflora growth appears to have a greater impact on sediment geochemistry of Fe, Mn, and possibly As due to sulfate reduction and the associated decrease in pore water pH. Higher Fe concentrations were observed in the pore waters during the period of brackish water dominance, which also corresponded to the S. alterniflora growth season. The study demonstrates that differences in geochemical conditions (e.g., Fe content) that can develop in salt marsh sediments owing to different types of bioirrigation processes (i.e., bioirrigation driven by crabs versus that related to the growth of S. alterniflora) play important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of As.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09387-7
       
  • Kinetics of Thiocyanate Formation by Reaction of Cyanide with
           Tetrathionate

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      Abstract: Abstract In aquatic systems a reaction between tetrathionate and cyanide results in the formation of thiocyanate. We have studied kinetics of the reactions of tetrathionate with free cyanide and two cyanide complexes, hexacyanoferrate(II) and hexacyanoferrate(III), at the environmentally relevant conditions. For the reaction between tetrathionate and free cyanide, the rate constant and the activation energy, but not the reaction order, strongly depend on pH. Our observations allow to propose the following pathways of thiocyanate formation by the reactions of free cyanide with tetrathionate: (1) tetrathionate reacts relatively slow with hydrogen cyanide at acidic and neutral conditions; and (2) tetrathionate reacts relatively fast with cyanide anion under highly alkaline conditions. Depending on environmental conditions, the half-lives of the reaction between free cyanide and tetrathionate will be in the ranges of hours to several years. Reactions of tetrathionate with hexacyanoferrate(II) and hexacyanoferrate(III) have no environmental significance as they are slower than the decomposition of tetrathionate. Strategy for improvement of analytical protocols for analysis of tetrathionate and cyanide is proposed based on the detected kinetics parameters.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09385-9
       
  • Concentration of Iron(II) in Fresh Groundwater Controlled by Siderite,
           Field Evidence

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      Abstract: Abstract Iron(II) concentrations in fresh groundwater in Dutch aquifers range from absent up to 50 mg/l. Evaluation of extensive chemical data sets learned that the maximum logarithmic concentration of iron(II) in aquifers, between ± 6.5 < pH <  ± 8, is a linear function of pH, governed by Siderite. It is a broad relation due to oversaturation with respect to Siderite and to variation in alkalinity. Iron(II) is continuously supplied to groundwater by reduction of hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), until becoming saturated with respect to Siderite, and from then on, HFO reduction and Siderite precipitation occur simultaneously. In Dutch aquifers, the electron supply rate (equivalent to the organic matter oxidation rate) apparently exceeds the HFO electron uptake rate (equivalent to the HFO reduction rate) and the excess supply is taken up by sulfate (equivalent to the sulfate reduction rate): HFO reduction, sulfate reduction and FeS precipitation occurring simultaneously, where the presence of Siderite prevents a dip in the iron(II) concentration. After sulfate becomes exhausted, the excess electron supply is transferred to methane production: HFO reduction and methane production occurring simultaneously. This evaluation also demonstrated that the organic matter oxidation rate and the HFO reduction rate decrease over time. The results of this study are also relevant for the behavior of As and of Co, Ni and Zn in groundwater, as HFO, Pyrite and Siderite may contain variable contents of these elements.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09390-y
       
  • Stable Carbon Isotopes δ13C as a Proxy for Characterizing Carbon Sources
           and Processes in a Small Tropical Headwater Catchment: Nsimi, Cameroon

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      Abstract: Abstract Stream carbon fluxes are one of the major components in the global C cycle, yet the discrimination of the various sources of stream carbon remains to a large extent unclear and less is known about the biogeochemical transformations that accompany the transfer of C from soils to streams. Here, we used patterns in stream water and groundwater δ13C values in a small forested tropical headwater catchment to investigate the source and contribution from the soil carbon pools to stream organic and inorganic carbon behavior over seasonal scales. Stream organic carbon (DOC and POC) comes mainly from the upper rich soil organic carbon horizons and derived from total organic carbon (TOC) of biogenic source. The isotopic compositions δ13CTOC, δ13CDOC and δ13CPOC of these carbon species were very close (− 30‰ to − 26‰) and typical of the forested C3 vegetation. The relationship observed between DOC and log pCO2 and δ13CDIC indicated that besides the considerable CO2 evasion that occurs as DIC is transported from soils to streams, there were also other processes affecting the stream DIC pool. In-stream mineralization of DOC and mixing of atmospheric carbon had a significant influence on the δ13CDIC values. These processes which varied seasonally with hydrological changes represent the main control on DOC and DIC cycling in the wet tropical milieu. The rapid turnover of carbon on hillside soils, the transformation of TOC to DOC in wetland soils and further mineralization of stream DOC to DIC favor the evasion of C, making the zone a source of carbon to the atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09386-8
       
  • Experimental and Modeling Studies on Sorption Behaviour of 133Ba(II) on
           Fe–Montmorillonite Clay Minerals

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      Abstract: Abstract Fe type clay minerals, Fe–montmorillonite, are expected to form in the nuclear waste repositories over a span of few years owing to the interaction of corrosion products from overpack and/or canister with bentonite consisting of montmorillonite (Mt) as the major clay mineral. Therefore, it is important to understand the properties of altered clay minerals, Fe–Mt. In the present study, the sorption behaviour of 133Ba(II), one of the high-yield fission products of uranium-based fuels and analogue of 90Sr (t1/2 = 28.5 y), on Fe(II)–Mt and Fe(III)–Mt has been investigated. Retention behavior of Ba(II) on Fe–Mt has been studied at varying pH (3–9), ionic strength (0.001 M–1 M) and Ba(II) concentration (10−9–10−3 M) by batch sorption method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Ba(II) on Fe–Mt was found to be nearly independent of pH while it decreased with increasing ionic strength indicating ion exchange as the dominant Ba(II) sorption mode on Fe–Mt. Adsorption isotherm of Ba(II) exhibited linearity in the entire Ba(II) concentration range. A comparison of Ba(II) sorption behavior on Fe–Mt and Na–Mt has been made. The Fe released from both Fe(III)–Mt and Fe(II)–Mt was measured in all the sorption experiments and was found to be much less in the case of Fe(III)–Mt (≤ 1.7 ppm) when compared to Fe(II)–Mt (~ 25 ppm). The modeling of Ba(II) sorption profiles on Fe–Mt and Na–Mt has been carried out using FITEQL 4.0.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09389-5
       
  • Correction to: Ultra-trace Element Characterization of the Central Ottawa
           River Basin Using a Rapid, Flexible, and Low-Volume ICP-MS Method

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      Abstract: In the original publication of the article, the content under the section heading has been published incorrectly. Now the same has been corrected in this correction.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09382-y
       
  • Ultra-trace Element Characterization of the Central Ottawa River Basin
           using a Rapid, Flexible, and Low-volume ICP-MS Method

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      Abstract: Abstract Ultra-trace (< 1 ng g−1) rare earth elements and yttrium (REE + Y) and high field strength element (HFSE) geochemistry of freshwater can constrain element sources, aqueous processes in hydrologic catchments, and the signature of dissolved terrestrial fluxes to the oceans. This study details an adapted method capable of quantifying ≥ 38 elements (including all REE + Y, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Mo, W, Th, U) with minimal sample preparation in natural water aliquots as low as ≤ 2 mL. The method precision and accuracy are demonstrated using measurement of the National Research Council – Conseil national de recherches Canada (NRC-CNRC) river water certified reference material (CRM) SLRS-6 sampled from the Ottawa River (OR). Data from SLRS CRM are compared to those of new, filtered (< 0.45 µm) stream water samples from the central Ottawa River basin (ORB), and discussed in terms of processes and geochemical signatures inherited from the highly evolved igneous/metamorphic Archean and Proterozoic bedrock in the catchment. The ORB waters have significantly LREE > HREE-enriched REE + Y patterns, small natural positive Y and Gd anomalies, and negative Eu and Ce anomalies. These REE + Y features are coherent downstream in the OR apart from amplification of Eu and Ce anomalies during REE removal/dilution. The OR samples capture a downstream decrease in sparingly soluble HFSE (Th, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf), presumably related to their colloid-particulate removal from the dissolved load, accompanied by crustal Zr/Hf (32.5 ± 5.1) and supercrustal Nb/Ta (25.1 ± 7.7) ratios. Subcrustal Th/U (0.17–0.96) and supercrustal Mo/W (12.0–74.5) ratios in all ORB waters indicate preferential release and aqueous solubility of U > Th and Mo > W, with the latter attributed primarily to preferential W adsorption on soil or upstream aquatic (oxy)(hydr)oxide surfaces.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10498-020-09376-w
       
 
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