Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Wood Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1611-4663 - ISSN (Online) 1435-0211
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Effects of the presence or absence and the position of glued edge joints
           in the lamina on the shear strength of glued laminated timber

    • Abstract: Abstract Four kinds of glued laminated timber were produced (i.e., one with a glued edge-joint and the other three with nonglued edge joints) in the lamina at different positions toward the depth direction. Shear tests using an asymmetric four-point bending method were then conducted for these glued laminated timber specimens. The results showed that although the glued edge-joint specimens had the highest shear strength in all groups, the shear strength decreased as the distance from the adjacent nonglued edge-joint plane decreased. Furthermore, the shear strength of all specimens exceeded the standard shear design strength value (2.1 N/mm2) set by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan. Next, the shear strength of the nonglued edge-joint specimens was estimated based on that of the glued edge-joint specimens. Although the mean-estimated shear strength was lower than the mean-measured shear strength, the possibility of the shear strength changing based on the position of the nonglued edge-joint plane specimens from that of the glued edge-joint specimens was still estimated.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Structural diversity of natural cellulose and related applications using
           delignified wood

    • Abstract: Abstract Cellulose is synthesized by organisms belonging to each biological kingdom, from bacteria to terrestrial plants, leading to its global-scale distribution. However, the structural properties of cellulose, such as its microfibril size, crystal form, cross-sectional shape, and uniplanar orientation, vary among species. This mini-review discusses the structural properties and diversity of cellulose. After describing historical developments in the structural analysis of cellulose, the technique of intracrystalline deuteration and rehydrogenation to understand structural diversity—particularly the localization of crystalline allomorphs in single microfibril—is discussed. Furthermore, the development of cellulose materials that maintain hierarchical structures of wood is introduced, and methods for producing functional materials are presented.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Combined analysis of microstructures within an annual ring of Douglas fir
           (Pseudotsuga menziesii) by dynamic mechanical analysis and small angle
           X-ray scattering

    • Abstract: Abstract Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of water-saturated wood of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the temperature range of 0 ℃ to 100 ℃ were focused to clarify microstructural changes within an annual ring. The following results were obtained. Thermal softening behavior caused by micro-Brownian motion of lignin was observed in both earlywood and latewood. The peaks of tanδ were found at around 95 ℃ for earlywood and at around 90 ℃ for latewood. These results suggested that the structures of lignin in the cell wall were different between earlywood and latewood. SAXS measurements of water-saturated earlywood and latewood in water were performed with precise temperature control. The scattering intensity increased with increasing temperature, indicating that the density of the matrix was reduced at higher temperature. One-dimensional SAXS intensity at the equator, which approximately represents cellulose microfibrils arrangement in the matrix, was intensively analyzed using the WoodSAS model. The result of this model fitting showed that the cellulose microfibril diameter of latewood was higher than that of earlywood. In addition, the value of interfibrillar distance decreased monotonically in the earlywood, while it decreased rapidly in the latewood from 60 ℃ to 90 ℃. The changes in the cellulose microfibril (CMF) diameter and the interfibrillar distance with increasing temperature between earlywood and latewood by SAXS measurement were different. The differences in CMF diameter and inter-fibril distance between earlywood and latewood measured by SAXS also support the hypothesis that lignin structure differs between earlywood and latewood based on the results of DMA measurements.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Elastic interaction in multiple bolted timber joints

    • Abstract: Abstract The management of axial forces is an important issue when a joining method that takes into account the axial forces generated by tightening bolts is applied to the bolted joints of a wooden structure during construction. This study focuses on elastic interactions in which the axial force of adjacent bolts changes as a result of sequential tightening of each bolt in multiple bolted joints affecting the deformation around each of the other bolts. To this end, tightening experiments are conducted within the elastic range, with the tightening sequence, bolt spacing, and wood thickness set as parameters. From the results, it was found that variations in axial force tended to decrease as bolt spacing increases. In addition, an evaluation formula for calculating fluctuations in axial force due to elastic interactions was derived. By comparing the calculated value to the experimental value, it was found that as bolt spacing was increased, the calculated value tended to capture the experimental values well.
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
       
  • Demethylation and tannin-like properties of guaiacyl/syringyl-type and
           syringyl-type dehydrogenation polymers using iodocyclohexane

    • Abstract: Abstract The demethylation of guaiacyl/syringyl (G/S)-type (G/S = 1/1) and syringyl (S)-type dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs) using iodocyclohexane (ICH) under reflux in DMF was performed to afford demethylated G/S- and S-DHPs in moderate yields. Along with significant structural changes, such as side-chain cleavage and recondensation, as observed using heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectra, the phenolic-OH content of the demethylated DHPs increased, as expected. The tannin-like properties, such as the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, iron(III) binding ability, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption ability, of the demethylated DHPs increased with increasing reaction time. In particular, the BSA adsorption ability was significantly enhanced by demethylation of the G/S- and S-DHPs, and was better than that of G-DHP reported previously. These results indicate that hardwood lignin containing both G and S units is more suitable than softwood lignin containing only G units for functionalization through demethylation into a tannin-like polymer, which has applications as a natural oxidant, metal adsorbent, and protein adsorbent.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
       
  • Research on the wood processing method of helium-assisted laser process

    • Abstract: Abstract In order to promote the development of environmental protection, and the usage rate of green energy utilization, a progressive, innovative laser process method employing helium assisted is proposed, which optimizes the joint cutting process under the same energy consumption. This method provides a new idea for the wood process industry. The uniqueness of this paper establishes a mathematical model to address the diffusion of helium injection and the heat transfer of the laser beam on the processed surface. From the results, it can be exhibited that the oxygen concentration reduces when the helium is injected on the processed surface. The helium could destroy the combustion-supporting conditions and decrease the combustion zone of the processed joint cutting. Thus, the carbonized area of the processed surface is reduced, which could effectively enhance the processing quality of joint cutting. Notably, the helium with injection speed forms a sweeping effect on the processed surface, which could remove parts of the carbonized particles and residues on the processed surface, as well as improve the processing quality. Comparing the traditional laser process and helium-assisted laser process, the gas-assisted laser process owns higher process quality than that of traditional laser processing and cutting. In detail, it features the advantages of smaller joint cutting width, lower surface roughness and smoother surface. Eventually, a mathematical model based on the response surface method with the evaluation criteria of the kerf width, kerf depth, and surface roughness is established to analyze the interaction of laser power, cutting speed and inert gas pressure on the response factors. Comparing the error between the predicted and experimental measurement value, and the optimized process parameters could be acquired. In this paper, the helium-assisted laser process method proposed is meaningful and encouraging, which not only obtains better processing quality, but also provides a guide for developing green industry.
      PubDate: 2022-08-27
       
  • Effect of wood attributes on the price persistence of acoustic guitars

    • Abstract: Abstract Wood attributes are important, because they directly affect the price persistence of wood products. Consumers consider the “aesthetic,” “traditionality,” “decay resistance,” and “scarcity” attributes important when evaluating wood. This study analyzed the impact of these four attributes on the price persistence of acoustic guitars. We obtained data from a Japanese internet auction platform and winning-bid data for two representative brands, Martin and Yamaha. We performed a quantitative analysis using the winning bid price as the dependent variable and the adoption of various wood attributes in each part of the guitar corresponding to the four attributes as explanatory variables. We found that rosewood, mahogany, palisander, and ebony have a significant impact on price persistence, and that all of them fit the four attributes of traditionality, decay resistance, scarcity, and aesthetics. We also found that traditionality was the key attribute among the four. Using wood in luxury brands without traditionality was not effective, even if other attributes were present. For mass-market brands, scarcity and decay resistance had positive effects on price persistence. The finding that scarcity and decay resistance were important only for mass-market brands can help companies understand market demand, determine product attributes, and achieve product–market fit.
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
       
  • Relationship between the xylem maturation process based on radial
           variations in wood properties and radial growth increments of stems in a
           fast-growing tree species, Liriodendron tulipifera

    • Abstract: Abstract Promoting wood utilization from fast-growing tree species is one solution to address supply and demand issues relating to wood resources while sequestering carbon dioxide in large quantities. Information on the quality of wood from fast-growing tree species and its relationship with changes in stem size is essential for promoting the establishment of plantations and wood utilization of fast-growing tree species. To explore the relationship between the xylem maturation process and radial growth increments of stems in fast-growing tree species, we examined radial variations in annual ring widths and wood properties in Liriodendron tulipifera in Japan. The cambial ages at which current annual increment and mean annual increment values were greatest were 4.9 years and 7.4 years, respectively. Based on radial variations evaluated by mixed-effects modeling of wood properties, all properties increased or decreased near the pith before becoming stable towards the cambium. Changing ratios of multiple wood properties at 1-year intervals became stable after a cambial age of 9 years. These results point to an ecological strategy in L. tulipifera, in which there is a tradeoff between radial growth increments and wood properties. As part of this strategy, in response to competition among individual trees within a stand, the tree produces a large volume of xylem with lower physical and mechanical properties, allowing it to increase its volume faster than that of the surrounding trees. Subsequently, it produces xylem that is more stable, with greater physical and mechanical properties. This wood forms at a slower growth rate compared to the xylem that forms at the time of initial tree growth. Based on the ecological strategy adopted by L. tulipifera, wood that forms before a cambial age of 9 years can be used for utility applications, and wood that forms after a cambial age of 9 years can be used for structural applications.
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
       
  • Synthesis of highly deuterated coniferyl alcohol for silencing of NMR
           signals in the resulting dehydrogenative polymer

    • Abstract: Abstract To establish a facile methodology for the elucidation of the lignin chain-growth mechanism, the preparation of monolignol that does not show NMR signals in the dehydrogenative polymer (DHP) was attempted. As a monolignol of which aliphatic moieties were deuterated, coniferyl alcohol-d7 was successfully synthesized from protocatechualdehyde and malonic acid via the modified Knoevenagel–Doebner reaction and the Luche reduction. The process achieved high to excellent deuteration efficiencies at the aimed positions (i.e., methoxy: > 99%D, α: > 99%D, β: 92%D, and γ: 98%D). DHP was prepared solely from coniferyl alcohol-d7, and its NMR spectra were compared with those from coniferyl alcohol. The results indicated that: (1) the deuterium atoms at methoxy group, α- and β-positions were highly retained even in the DHP, and their signals were effectively suppressed; (2) a part of the deuterium at γ-position was replaced with H through the reaction; (3) meanwhile, the formation of γ-CH2 was negligible. This study demonstrated that coniferyl alcohol-d7 could “silence” the majority of the signals even when converted to DHP. Highly deuterated monolignols can be a unique molecular tool that can differentiate the signals of interest from those derived from monolignols.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
       
  • The effects of watering on cambial activity in the stems of evergreen
           hardwood (Samanea saman) during the pre-monsoon season in subtropical
           Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Abstract Water stress has a significant impact on tree growth. However, the effects of watering on cambial activity and its influence on tree growth in subtropical climates is poorly understood. The present study analyzed the cambial activity on the stem of evergreen hardwood Samanea saman in response to either high frequency or low frequency watering during the pre-monsoon season in subtropical Bangladesh. We used two groups of seedlings: one group of seedlings was watered daily (high frequency watering), while the second group of seedlings was watered at 4–5-day intervals (low frequency watering). Samples for sequential observations of cambial activity by microscopy were collected from the main stems of seedlings of both groups. At the start of the experiment on March 25, 2015, during the pre-monsoon season, the cambium was inactive with no evidence of cell division. After 10 days of high frequency watering, cambial cell division and xylem differentiation were initiated. New cell plates were formed in the phloem side of the cambium. However, the cambium was inactive when low frequency watering was supplied. Supplying water in high frequency reactivated the cambium with forming small to large vessels. In contrast, the cambium remained inactive when low frequency watering was supplied throughout the experiment. These results suggest that continuous supply of water to the soil is one of the most important factors for cambial reactivation during pre-monsoon season in subtropical trees. Furthermore, our findings of artificial watering treatments might help to better understand the response of cambium to changes in precipitation patterns under natural conditions, allowing us to learn more about how cambium of subtropical trees responds to climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
       
  • Composition analysis of exudates produced by conifers grown in Taiwan and
           their antifungal activity

    • Abstract: Abstract Exudates are involved in the defense mechanism of trees; they could work against insects or microorganisms through a physical or chemical system. The main components of exudates are terpenoids. This study identified the main compounds of exudates from 13 conifers of Taiwan using gas chromatogram–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and spectroscopic analysis. The results revealed that the main volatiles were α-pinene, β-ocimene, β-pinene, sabinene, and caryophyllene. On the other hand, the main nonvolatile compounds were diterpenoids, which were classified into three skeletons (abietane-, labdane-, and pimarane-types). Among these, abietane-type presented in Pinaceae and in most of Cupressaceae; labdane-type presented in Pinaceae and in all of Cupressaceae and Araucariaceae; pimarane-type existed in both Pinaceae and Cupressaceae. Furthermore, the epigenetics of conifers analysis results by GC–MS and heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprints were similar to traditional taxonomy classification; it indicated that exudates chemotaxonomy by using GC–MS and HSQC profiling is a useful technology to classify the conifers. Besides, the exudates of Pinus elliottii, Pinus taiwanensis, Calocedrus macrolepis and Chamaecyparis formosensis possessed the strong antifungal activity. For white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, Pinus morrisonicola, Chamaecyparis obtusa, and Araucaria heterophylla exhibited the higher antifungal index. For brown-rot fungus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Pinus elliottii, Pinus morrisonicola, and Chamaecyparis formosensis revealed a good antifungal activity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
       
  • Experimental study on the embedment strength of smooth dowels inserted in
           cross-laminated timber narrow side

    • Abstract: Abstract The embedment properties of the dowel-type fasteners is a fundamental parameter that can determine the shear resisting performance of the connections utilized in cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures. To investigate the embedment strength of the smooth dowels inserted in CLT narrow side, totally 504 CLT embedment specimens were tested to evaluate the effects of the influencing factors on the embedment strength, which included the loading angle, the embedment angle, the embedment position, the diameter of the dowels, and the gaps between the lumbers. The existing predictive equations of the embedment strength were validated based on the experimental results, and modified empirical equations were proposed for a more accurate prediction on the average embedment strength. It is found that when the loading direction with a loading angle of 90 degree is parallel to the adhesive layer, for the dowels embedded in the core layer and for those embedded between layers, the average embedment strength decreases by 27.89% and by 33.61% with an increase of the diameter from 8 to 24 mm, respectively. When the loading direction is perpendicular to the adhesive layer, the average embedment strength of the smooth dowels with an embedment angle of 90 degree is 85.25–218.96% higher than that of the dowels with an embedment angle of 0 degree. Furthermore, almost no drop can be identified for the embedment strength of the dowels with an embedment angle of 0 degree when the gap exists in their embedment position. A more accurate prediction on the average embedment strength can be achieved based on the modified empirical equations.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Interaction between particle size and mixing ratio on porosity and
           properties of tea oil camellia (Camellia oleifera Abel.) shells-based
           particleboard

    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the interaction between particle size and mixing ratio on the porosity of particleboard and in consequence its effect on the physical and mechanical properties of panels. Tea Oil Camellia Shell (TOCS), which could provide 1.8 million tons of lignocellulose raw material annually, can be a useful resource for particleboard production. In that regard, particleboards with different particle sizes (coarse and fine) and mixing ratios (wood and TOCS) bonded with Polymethylene polyphenyl polyisocyanate (pMDI) were investigated. The results showed that particleboard made with TOCS particles had higher densities than those of commercial wood particles. Furthermore, particleboards made with fine particles had lower porosity. The average values for physical and mechanical properties have shown that except for thickness swelling (TS), most properties were better with coarse particles. In terms of all properties, results showed that adding 50% of commercial wood in conjunction with TOCS particles regardless of particle size can offer acceptable results, which qualified all requirements of EN 312:2010 standard for P2-type particleboard (boards for interior fitments (including furniture) for use in dry conditions). In addition, due to the porous structure of the shells, TOCS-based particleboards have better thermal conductivity compared to wood-based particleboards.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
       
  • Comparison of the elastic limit and yield load of nailed joints connecting
           solid wood and wood-based board material

    • Abstract: Abstract Evaluations of the lateral properties of timber joints are necessary to ensure the safety of timber buildings. The yield load is an important property that is usually obtained using authorized engineering techniques. Although yield loads have been easily obtained using authorized techniques, events that have occurred in the joint during yielding have not been clarified. This study experimentally obtains elastic limit data using nailed joints. Mechanical tests measuring the residual displacement after various lateral loads with six-joint specimen specifications were conducted. In this study, the load at which the residual displacement reached 5% of the nail diameter was defined as the elastic limit. The experimentally obtained elastic limits were compared with the yield loads obtained using authorized engineering techniques. The ratios of elastic limits to the yield loads obtained using the perfect elasto-plastic model, method described in EN, and 5% offset method were 0.554–0.743, 0.557–0.834, and 0.648–0.801, respectively. The results numerically revealed that residual displacements occurred at a much lower load than the yield loads.
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
       
  • Experimental and nonlinear finite-element analysis study on lateral push
           resistance of San-dou components perpendicular and parallel to grain in
           traditional timber buildings

    • Abstract: Abstract Dou-gong is an essential part of traditional timber buildings in East Asia, having a decoration function and a load transfer function. The San-dou component, which is vulnerable to the lateral push force of the Gong, Fang, and purlin, is a critical structural component in the Dou-gong. In San-dou components, there are two distinctive types of surfaces subjected to lateral push force, perpendicular to the grain and parallel to the grain. However, few investigation into the structural performance of these two types has been done. Considering this shortcoming in the literature, in the current study, tests were carried out to obtain elasticity and strength characteristics on 90 timber specimens of fir and larch. After the material property test, 24 San-dou specimens were prepared to investigate the lateral push resistance. Consequently, an elastic–plastic damage assessment model was developed to calculate the load–displacement curve and possible damage distribution region of San-dou component, using the nonlinear finite-element analysis. According to the analyses, the failure mode for the San-dou component perpendicular to the grain is a horizontal crack parallel to the Dou-ear. Besides, the failure mode of the San-dou component parallel to the grain is an oblique crack, which begins from the inner edge of the Dou-ear to the lower part of the San-dou component. In the case of the other factors being the same, the bearing capacity of the larch San-dou component is 49.64–55.78% stronger than the fir San-dou component. Besides that, the bearing capacity of the San-dou component perpendicular to the grain is 32.85–38.22% higher than the San-dou component parallel to the grain. The research findings are expected to give a theoretical foundation for the structural evaluation of the Dou-gong system in traditional timber buildings and a scientific basis for elucidating the differences in the construction of traditional timber buildings in East Asia.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
       
  • Effect of layups on the mechanical properties of overlaid laminated bamboo
           lumber made of radial bamboo slices

    • Abstract: Abstract Radial bamboo strips are being widely used for structural applications due to the higher yield and high strength. However, there was a sharp taper at the top of bamboo which made nodal diaphragm removed incompletely during the process of stripping. The residual bump could bring about poor bonding strength between adjacent radial bamboo strips. In addition, the traditional radial bamboo strips should be weaved before the next step of processing, which caused a lot of material wastes and consumed a lot of labor and time. In order to address these problems, a novel lumber product made of laminated radial bamboo slices was developed by the proper arrangement of core layer and surface layer. The major and minor directions of a panel were defined as the parallel- and perpendicular-to-its arrangement ones in the core layer, respectively. It was found that (1) the layups with double-layer bamboo mats and radial bamboo slices could produce better mechanical properties. The effective modulus of elasticity in major and minor direction was about 7032.5 MPa and 5016.0 MPa, respectively. The effective modulus of rupture in major and minor direction was about 81.0 MPa and 43.6 MPa, respectively; (2) the density distribution tended to be uniform, with a density of about 0.7 g/cm3 that was lower than other similar bamboo-based materials (about 1.0 g/cm3); and (3) the failures occurred in bamboo slices rather than along the bond lines, suggesting good bond quality achieved in this study.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Application of a bending vibration method without weighing specimens to
           the practical wooden members conditions

    • Abstract: Abstract A vibration test to measure the mass of a specimen without weighing it using the difference between the resonance frequency with an additional mass and that without it (vibration method with additional mass, VAM) was applied to small, clear, and wooden specimens assuming practical situations. An apparatus that provided various end conditions by compressing the ends of the specimens was used in the tests. Bending vibration tests were performed on the specimens installed in the apparatus with/without an additional mass. Because the mass ratio (estimated mass by VAM/measured mass), namely, MVAM/M0, which represents the estimation accuracy of VAM, was stable when the compressive strength was sufficiently large, VAM could be adequately used when the specimen was properly installed in the apparatus. The end condition at maximum compressive stress by the apparatus was an imperfect fixed condition. The MVAM/M0 value greatly deviated from 1 in the specimens with a large height. The deviation in MVAM/M0 from 1 was due to the introduction of the measured resonance frequencies with/without a concentrated mass into the frequency equation that required resonance frequencies under an ideal fixed–fixed condition. A correction method for MVAM/M0 was then proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • Similarity network fusion for aggregating headspace GC–MS and direct
           analysis in real time–mass spectrometry data from solid samples to
           enhance species identification efficiency of high–temperature heated
           wood

    • Abstract: Abstract Pterocarpus santalinus and Pterocarpus tinctorius are commonly used species of the genus Pterocarpus in the wood trade. Although both of them have been listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 2019, it is still critical to identify them in terms of plant taxonomy. Currently, high-temperature heating is an accepted treatment method for high-density wood species such as Pterocarpus to improve dimensional stability and restore previous drying defects partially. It has proved challenging to identify the high-temperature (e.g., 120 °C) heated wood from these two species. Thus, this study approaches species identification of two Pterocarpus of high-temperature (e.g., 120 °C) heated solid wood samples using headspace–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS–GC–MS). Besides, a computational analytical method named similarity network fusion (SNF) was proposed to aggregate data in two different types, respectively, derived from the HS–GC–MS and direct analysis in real time–mass spectrometry (DART–MS) to explore the feasibility of improving the efficiency and accuracy of wood species discrimination. The SNF exhibits more significant differences and higher predictive accuracy (100%) between P. santalinus and P. tinctorius than that based on the HS–GC–MS data (77.78%) or DART–MS (66.67%) alone. These results demonstrated the capability of the HS–GC–MS technique in the analysis of high-temperature heated solid wood and the potential of multidimensional or comprehensive data sets based on the SNF algorithm in the field of wood species identification.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Study on in-plane shear failure mode of cross-laminated timber panel

    • Abstract: Abstract To explore in-plane shear failure mode of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel, this paper carried out relevant research work from the perspective of stress analysis and combined with the crack morphology of the specimen after planar shear. In this study, the load–displacement curve of the hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] CLT specimen was obtained by a three-point bending test or an improved planar shear test, the crack morphology of the CLT vertical layer and the azimuth angle of the crack surface were observed and recorded synchronously. The shear strength values of CLT specimens under the two tests were obtained by corresponding calculation. Then the stress analysis of the CLT vertical layer was combined with the azimuth angle of the crack surface to discuss the failure mode of the CLT vertical layer in planar shear. The results showed that the planar shear strength measured by the three-point bending test and the improved planar shear test was in good agreement, and the results measured by the improved planar shear test were more dispersed than those measured by the three-point bending test; Considering the approximation that the in-plane shear of the CLT vertical layer could be treated as pure shear, the three-point bending test was better than the improved planar shear test; For the vertical layer of 63.3% CLT specimens, the azimuth of the crack surface was near the azimuth of the first principal plane obtained by stress analysis; There were two failure modes in the CLT vertical layer in-plane shear: tension failure and shear failure.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
  • Mechanical properties of hybrid joints in timber structures

    • Abstract: Abstract Mechanical joints with screws or bolts are widely employed in timber structures and are known to provide high toughness. However, they result in low stiffness, which is a representative limitation of wood structural joints. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of hybrid joints comprising mechanical and adhesive joints, to prevent the decrease in stiffness while maintaining high toughness. Wood and steel plates were joined with screws and adhesives, and their stiffness, bearing capacity, and fracture energy were evaluated by lap-shear tests. We inferred that the stiffness and bearing capacity of the hybrid joints change with the type of adhesive used, while the fracture energy primarily depends on the diameter of the screws. Interestingly, when the adhesive strength was too large, a decrease in the fracture energy was observed because the precursory rupture of the adhesive joint triggered the wood failure in the fastened regions and lead to the early pull-out of the screws. To suppress such decrease and early pull-out, an adhesive fillet, i.e., the coating of the adhesive onto a larger area than that of the steel plate, was investigated. Accordingly, we successfully improved the toughness. Our results suggest the importance of optimal designs for the hybrid joint in timber structures.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
 
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