Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Forestry Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.401
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1993-0607 - ISSN (Online) 1007-662X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Effects of water and salt for groundwater-soil systems on root growth and
           architecture of Tamarix chinensis in the Yellow River Delta, China

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      Abstract: Abstract To test the patterns of the root morphology and architecture indexes of Tamarix chinensis in response to water and salt changes in the two media of the groundwater and soil, three-year-old T. chinensis seedlings were chosen as the research object. Groundwater with four salinity levels was created, and three groundwater level (GL) were applied for each salinity treatment to measure the root growth and architecture indexes. In the fresh water and brackish water treatments, the topological index (TI) of the T. chinensis roots was close to 0.5, and the root architecture was close to a dichotomous branching pattern. In the saline water and saltwater treatments, the TI of the T. chinensis roots was large and close to 1.0, and the root architecture was close to a herringbone-like branching pattern. Under different GLs and salinities, the total root length was significantly greater than the internal link length, the external link length was greater than the internal link length, and the root system showed an outward expansion strategy. The treatment with fresh water and a GL of 1.5 m was the most suitable for T. chinensis root growth, while the root growth of T. chinensis was the worst in the treatment with saline water and a GL of 0.3 m. T. chinensis can adapt to the changes in soil water and salt by regulating the growth and morphological characteristics of the root system. T. chinensis can adapt to high-salt environments by reducing its root branching and to water deficiencies by expanding the distribution and absorption area of the root system.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • Selection and evaluation of suitable tree species in dry and dusty mining
           areas of Northwest China

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      Abstract: Abstract To select drought-resistant and dust-tolerant native species suitable for use in the rehabilitation of major coal bases in northwest China, nine tree species were identified for growth rates, biomass, harm index, and physiological indices under drought and high dust stress conditions. The results showed that, in the dust resistance index system, the order was Caragana korshinskii > Amorpha fruticosa > Sabina vulgaris > Hedysarum scoparium > Tamarix chinensis > Ammopiptanthus mongolicus > Ulmus pumila > Caryopteris mongholica > Elaeagnus angustifolia. In a comprehensive drought and dust resistance index system, 14 indices (such as shoot length, stomatal conductance, and peroxidase) had the larger weight indices. The drought and dust resistance order of the tree species was Caragana korshinskii > Ulmus pumila > Amorpha fruticosa > Sabina vulgaris > Caryopteris mongholica > Ammopiptanthus mongolicus > Hedysarum scoparium > Tamarix chinensis > Elaeagnus angustifolia. This study provides effective strategies and references for selecting suitable tree species for arid mining sites in China, and also for the revegetation of coal mining sites worldwide.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • A review of the effects of forest fire on soil properties

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      Abstract: Abstract Forest fires are key ecosystem modifiers affecting the biological, chemical, and physical attributes of forest soils. The extent of soil disturbance by fire is largely dependent on fire intensity, duration and recurrence, fuel load, and soil characteristics. The impact on soil properties is intricate, yielding different results based on these factors. This paper reviews research investigating the effects of wildfire and prescribed fire on the biological and physico-chemical attributes of forest soils and provides a summary of current knowledge associated with the benefits and disadvantages of such fires. Low-intensity fires with ash deposition on soil surfaces cause changes in soil chemistry, including increase in available nutrients and pH. High intensity fires are noted for the complete combustion of organic matter and result in severe negative impacts on forest soils. High intensity fires result in nutrient volatilization, the break down in soil aggregate stability, an increase soil bulk density, an increase in the hydrophobicity of soil particles leading to decreased water infiltration with increased erosion and destroy soil biota. High soil heating (> 120 °C) from high-intensity forest fires is detrimental to the soil ecosystem, especially its physical and biological properties. In this regard, the use of prescribed burning as a management tool to reduce the fuel load is highly recommended due to its low intensity and limited soil heating. Furthermore, the use of prescribed fires to manage fuel loads is critically needed in the light of current global warming as it will help prevent increased wildfire incidences. This review provides information on the impact of forest fires on soil properties, a key feature in the maintenance of healthy ecosystems. In addition, the review should prompt comprehensive soil and forest management regimes to limit soil disturbance and restore fire-disturbed soil ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Seasonality of PSII thermostability and water use efficiency of in situ
           mountainous Norway spruce (Picea abies)

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      Abstract: Abstract The stability of monocultural, even-aged spruce forests at lower altitudes in Central Europe is seriously threatened by the prospects of global climate change. The thermostability and water use efficiency of their photosynthetic apparatus might play a vital role in their successful acclimation. In this study, photosystem II (PSII) performance (OJIP transient, rapid light curves) and thermostability were analyzed in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) throughout the growing season of the exceptionally warm year 2018 (May–September) in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia. These measurements were accompanied by analysis of pigment concentrations in the needles. In addition, gas-exchange temperature curves were produced weekly from June until September to obtain intrinsic water use efficiencies. At the beginning of the growing season, needles exposed to heat stress showed significantly higher basal fluorescence and lower quantum yield, performance index, critical temperature thresholds of PSII inactivation and non-photochemical yield in comparison to other months. The overall thermostability (heat-resistance) of PSII peaked in July and August, reflected in the lowest basal fluorescence and the highest quantum yield of PSII, critical temperature thresholds and yield of non-photochemical quenching under heat stress. Additionally, the ratio between chlorophyll and carotenoids was the highest in August and had a positive impact on PSII thermostability. Moreover, the high-temperature intrinsic water use efficiency was significantly higher during July and August than in June. Results show that 15-year-old trees of Picea abies at 840 m a.s.l. exhibited acclimative seasonal responses of PSII thermostability and intrinsic water use efficiency during an exceptionally warm year. Our results suggest that mountainous P. abies at lower altitudes can acclimate their photosynthetic apparatus to higher temperatures during summer.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • European Union’s imminent ban on glyphosate: Hormesis should be
           considered in new chemical screening and selection

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      Abstract: Abstract The European Federation of Food, Agriculture, and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT) called for the immediate ban on glyphosate in the 2022 renewal process, promoting the use of natural herbicides and recommending against the use of other harmful or hazardous chemicals. The new chemical testing and selection research agendas should consider the hormetic effects of individual natural herbicides, and their potential mixtures, on targeted and non-targeted organisms to avoid stimulation of pests and negative effects on non-targeted organisms. New scientific research programs are needed to study the effects of mixtures of natural pesticides on soils, plants, animals, and microorganisms within the context of agroforestry.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Site index for Chinese fir plantations varies with climatic and soil
           factors in southern China

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      Abstract: Abstract Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.] has a large native distribution range in southern China. Here, we tested differences in productivity of Chinese fir plantations in different climatic regions and screened the main environmental factors affecting site productivity in each region. Relationships of a Chinese fir site index with climatic factors and the soil physiochemical properties of five soil layers were examined in a long-term positioning observation trial comprising a total of 45 permanent plots in Fujian (eastern region in the middle subtropics), Guangxi (south subtropics) and Sichuan (central region in the middle subtropics) in southern China. Linear mixed effects models were developed to predict the site index for Chinese fir, which was found to vary significantly among different climatic regions. Available P, total N, bulk density and total K were dominant predictors of site index in three climatic regions. The regional linear mixed models built using these predictors in the three climatic regions fit well (R2 = 0.86–0.97). For the whole study area, the available P in the 0–20-cm soil layer and total N in the 80–100-cm soil layer were the most indicative soil factors. MAP was the most important climatic variable influencing the site index. The model evaluation results showed that the fitting performance and prediction accuracy of the global site index model using the climatic region as the dummy variable and random parameters and the most important soil factors of the three climatic regions as predictors was higher than that of global site index model using the climatic variable and the most indicative soil variables of the whole study area. Our results will help with further evaluation of site quality of Chinese fir plantations and the selection of its appropriate sites in southern China as the climatic changes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Overexpression of the PdpapERF109 gene enhances resistance of Populus
           

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      Abstract: Abstract The key transcription factor gene PdPapERF109 was cloned from Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis (Pdpap), and after overexpression of PdPapERF109 in transformants, the gene functions in the resistance response to Fusarium oxysporum infection. Compared with the wild Pdpap, after inoculation with F. oxysporum, the physiological and biochemical characteristics, including relative fresh weight, peroxidase activity, and the percentage of electrolyte leakage showed that, after overexpression of the PdPapERF109 gene, the transformants grew well and displayed significant resistance to F. oxysporum infection. By comparing the reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity of Pdpap plants after pathogen infection, the PdPapERF109-overexpressing plants had significantly better reactive oxygen species scavenging ability than the wild plants. Comprehensive analysis of plant morphology and various physiological and biochemical parameters showed that the overexpression of the PdpapERF109 gene significantly improved the resistance of Pdpap plants to F. oxysporum root rot. Therefore, increasing the expression of the homologous ERF109 gene can be an effective strategy to increase disease resistance in hybrid poplars.
      PubDate: 2022-04-10
       
  • Six statistical issues in scientific writing that might lead to rejection
           of a manuscript

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      Abstract: Abstract Communication plays an important role in advancing scientific fields and disciplines, defining what knowledge is made accessible to the public, and guiding policymaking and regulation of public authorities for the benefit of the environment and society. Hence, what is finally published is of great importance for scientific advancement, social development, environmental and public health, and economic agendas. In recognition of these, the goal of a researcher is to communicate research findings to the scientific community and ultimately, to the public. However, this may often be challenging due to competition for publication space, although to a lesser extent nowadays that online-only publications have expanded. This editorial introduces six statistics-related issues in scientific writing that you should be aware of. These issues can lead to desk rejection or rejection following a peer review, but even if papers containing such issues are published, they may prevent cumulative science, undermine scientific advancement, mislead the public, and result in incorrect or weak policies and regulations. Therefore, addressing these issues from the early research stages can facilitate scientific advancement and prevent rejection of your paper.
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
       
  • Improved guidelines for any-aged forestry

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      Abstract: Abstract Any-aged forest management (AAF) is a means to reduce clear-felling without compromising profitability or timber production. The concept of AAF is to choose between clear-felling or thinning one harvest at a time based on what is better at that time in terms of the management objectives for the forest. No permanent choice is made between rotation forest management (RFM) and continuous cover forestry (CCF). Optimized AAF is never less profitable than RFM or CCF because all cutting types of both RMF and CCF are also allowed in AAF. This study developed a new set of guidelines for managing boreal forest stands under AAF when the forest landowner maximizes economic profitability. The first part of the guidelines indicates whether the stand should be cut or left to grow. This advice is based on stand basal area, mean tree diameter, minimum allowable post-thinning basal area, site productivity, and discount rate. If the optimal decision is harvesting, the second instruction determines whether the harvest should be clear-felling or thinning. In the case of thinning, the remaining two steps determine the optimal harvest rate in different diameter classes. The guidelines were developed using two different modeling approaches, regression analysis, and optimization, and applied to two Finnish forest holdings, one representing the southern boreal zone and the other the northern parts of the boreal zone. The results show that AAF improves profitability compared to current Finnish management instructions for RFM. The use of clear-felling also decreased the lower the minimum acceptable post-thinning basal area of the stand.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Aspects of forest restoration and hydrology: the hydrological function of
           litter

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      Abstract: Abstract Although forests play important roles in the hydrological cycle, there is little information that relates the water retention capacity of litter in areas under passive restoration, especially in Cerrado savannas. This study relates litter levels to water holding capacity and effective water retention among forest fragments under different passive restoration stages: 46, 11, and 8 years to better understand litter hydrological functions in the Cerrado. Water retention capacity and effective water retention capacity of litters (unstructured materials, branches and leaves) in the field were monitored on a monthly basis. Total litter accumulation at 46 years was significantly higher than that of the other succession stages. Unstructured litter mass was significantly higher than that of leaves and branches. The 46-year stage had the highest water holding capacity in the leaf fraction, followed by unstructured material and branches. Although the water holding capacity was lower in the oldest restoration, this site showed the highest efficiency under field conditions. The process was quickly reestablished, as the 11-year restoration showed results closer to that for the 46-year stage in comparison to the area at 8 years. Thus, passive restoration plays a key role in soil water maintenance due to the influence of litter in Cerrado savannas. Deforestation and the imminent need of restoring degraded sites, highlight the need for further studies focused on better understanding of the process of forest restoration and its temporal effect on soil water recovery dynamics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Ethylenediurea (EDU) spray effects on willows (Salix sachalinensis F.
           Schmid) grown in ambient or ozone-enriched air: implications for renewable
           biomass production

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      Abstract: Abstract Ground-level ozone (O3) is a widespread air pollutant causing extensive injuries in plants. However, its effects on perennial energy crops remain poorly understood due to technical difficulties in cultivating fast-growing shrubs for biomass production under O3 treatment on the field. Here we present the results of a two-year evaluation in the framework of which willow (Salix sachalinensis F. Schmid) shrubs were exposed to ambient (AOZ) or elevated (EOZ) O3 in two successive growing seasons (2014, 2015) and treated with 0 (EDU0) or 400 mg L−1 (EDU400) ethylenediurea spray in the second growing season. In 2014, EOZ altered the chemical composition of both top young and fallen leaves, and a novel mechanism of decreasing Mg in fallen leaves while highly enriching it in young top leaves was revealed in shrubs exposed to EOZ. In 2015, EDU400 alleviated EOZ-induced decreases in leaf fresh mass to dry mass ratio (FM/DM) and leaf mass per area (LMA). While EDU400 protected against EOZ-induced suppression of the maximum rate at which leaves can fix carbon (Amax) in O3-asymptomatic leaves, it did not alleviate EOZ-induced suppression of the maximum rates of carboxylation (VCmax) and electron transport (Jmax) and chlorophylls a, b, and a + b in the same type of leaves. In O3-symptomatic leaves, however, EDU400 alleviated EOZ-induced suppression of chlorophylls a and a + b, indicating different mode of action of EDU between O3-asymptomatic and O3-symptomatic leaves. Extensive herbivory occurred only in AOZ-exposed plants, leading to suppressed biomass production, while EOZ also led to a similar suppression of biomass production (EDU0 × EOZ vs. EDU400 × EOZ). In 2016, carry-over effects were also evaluated following cropping and transplantation into new ambient plots. Effects of EOZ in the preceding growing seasons extended to the third growing season in the form of suppressed ratoon biomass production, indicating carry-over effect of EOZ. Although EDU400 protected against EOZ-induced suppression of biomass production when applied in 2015, there was no carry-over effect of EDU in the absence of EDU treatment in 2016. The results of this study provide novel mechanistic understandings of O3 and EDU modes of action and can enlighten cultivation of willow as energy crop.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Selection of tree species by principal component analysis for abandoned
           farmland in southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, China

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      Abstract: Abstract With changes in global climate and land use, the area of desertified farmland in southeastern Horqin Sandy Land (HSL) has increased in recent years, and farmlands are being abandoned. These abandoned farmlands (AFs) negatively impact the local ecology. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to select suitable trees and shrubs for those AFs to prevent and control the desertification tendency. In this study, three AFs were fenced for 2 years, then 37 arbor and shrub species or varieties of 21 families were planted in the fenced AFs and grown for 10 years. The ecological adaptability of the species was evaluated and ranked using a principal component analysis. The results showed that the biodiversity of the AFs significantly improved after 2 years of fencing; the Shannon–Wiener index and species richness of perennial grasses and forbs were 1.45 and 3.6 times higher, respectively, than for the unfenced AF. Among all species planted in fenced AFs, nine tree species had positive comprehensive F (CF) values; Pinus sylvestris (Russian Shira steppe provenance), Populus alba ‘Berolinensis’ and Gleditsia triacanthos had CF greater than 1, and the first (PC1), second (PC2) and third (PC3) principal component values (F1, F2, F3) were all positive. Among the shrubs, only Lespedeza bicolor and Rosa xanthina f. normalis had CF greater than 0. All these results suggest that fencing improves biodiversity and that planting trees and shrubs that have higher CF values on the basis of fencing is an effective way to green and beautify AFs in HSL.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Growth and decline of arboreal fungi that prey on Bursaphelenchus
           xylophilus and their predation rate

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      Abstract: Abstract Pine wilt disease caused by pine wood nematodes is a deadly disease of the genus Pinus requiring strong quarantine measures. Since its discovery, it has been widely distributed throughout the world. China is one of the countries with a severe rate of infections due to its abundant pine resources. In this study, nematode-trapping fungi were collected from pine trees in Ninghai City, Zhejiang Province, which is the key area of pine wilt control in February, May, September, October and November. The results showed that nematode- trapping fungi of pine are abundant, especially the number and species detected in each month and are quite different; species of fungi in July, September and November were more numerous and had higher separation rates. The dominant species in November was Arthrobotrys oligospora followed by Arthrobotrys cladodes; July and September it was A. cladodes. In each part of the tree, A. cladodes was the most widely distributed with a high separation rate. Therefore, it is the dominant fungal species in the area. Arboreal Bursaphelenchus xylophilus-trapping fungi are dependent on pine wood nematodes, and none were isolated from healthy pine trees. More arboreal B. xylophilus-trapping fungi were found under the bark than in the xylem. There is a close relationship between arboreal B. xylophilus-trapping fungi and pine wood nematodes. How to make use of these resources to reduce the damage of pine wood nematode fusarium is the focus of future research.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Effects of grazing disturbance of spatial distribution pattern and
           interspecies relationship of two desert shrubs

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      Abstract: Abstract Grazing significantly affects the distribution, growth, and productivity of shrubs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of grazing disturbance on the spatial distribution patterns and interspecific relationships of two desert shrubs, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and Sarcozygium xanthoxylon. Three types of grazing conditions were considered, including enclosed area (EA), seasonal rotational grazing area (SRGA), and grazing area (GA) (100 m × 100 m), in the West Ordos Nature Reserve of Inner Mongolia, China. The results showed that A. mongolicus and S. xanthoxylon populations were uniformly distributed at a small scale, and the distribution in EA and SRGA became gradually random. In GA, A. mongolicus population showed aggregated distribution but S. xanthoxylon population showed random distribution at a small scale. Moreover, both A. mongolicus and S. xanthoxylon populations at the 5–7 m scale showed random distribution. At the small and intermediate scales, the two species showed positive interspecific relationships of GA. However, no interspecific relationship was noted between the two species in EA and SRGA. A significant positive relationship (P < 0.01) was noted between the two species at 2–9 m and a negative relationship (P < 0.01) at 13–17 m scales in GA. Positive relationship (P < 0.01) was noted between the two species at 6–13 m scales and a significant negative relationship (P < 0.01) at 14–24 m scales in SRGA. The two species of desert shrubs showed positive interspecific relationships at the small scale, and they showed negative relationships as the interspecific competition intensified in the presence of grazing disturbance. When the grazing intensity exceeds a certain threshold, the interspecific relationships become weak. Therefore, moderate grazing would facilitate interspecific competition and species succession, whereas excessive grazing would disrupt natural competition causing desertification ultimately.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Behavior of wood basic density according to environmental variables

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      Abstract: Abstract The relationships between climate conditions and wood density in tropical forests are still poorly understood. To quantify spatial dependence of wood density in the state of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil), map spatial distribution of density, and correlate density with climate variables, we extracted data from the Forest Inventory of Minas Gerais for 1988 trees scaled throughout the territory and measured wood density of discs removed from the trees. Environmental variables were extracted from the database of the Ecological-Economic Zoning of Minas Gerais. For spatial analysis, tree densities were measured at 44 georeferenced sampling points. The data were subjected to exploratory analysis, variography, cross-validation, model selection, and ordinary kriging. The relationships between wood density and environmental variables were calculated using dispersion matrices, linear correlation, and regression. Wood density proved to be highly spatially dependent, reaching a correlation of 96%, and was highly continuous over a distance of 228 km. The distribution of wood density followed a continuous gradient of 514–659 kg m−3, enabling correlation with environment variables. Density was correlated with mean annual precipitation (− 0.57), temperature (0.63), and evapotranspiration (0.83). Geostatistical methods proved useful in predicting wood density in native tropical forests with different climate conditions. Our results confirmed the sensitivity of wood density to climate change, which could affect future carbon stock in forests.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Volatile metabolites of willows determining host discrimination by adult
           Plagiodera versicolora

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      Abstract: Abstract Plagiodera versicolora Laicharting is a highly damaging leaf beetle foraging on willow leaves. In willow germplasm collections, observation has shown that Salix suchowensis Cheng was severely foraged by this leaf beetle while Salix triandra L. was damage free or only slightly damaged. Results of olfactometer bioassays show that the headspace volatiles from leaves of S. triandra significantly repelled adult beetles, suggesting that this species produces volatile repellents against P. versicolora. S. suchowensis had no effect on the beetles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was carried out to profile the headspace volatile organic compounds and 23 compounds from leaves of the alternate species in significantly different concentrations were detected. The effects of 20 chemical analogs on host discrimination were examined. Olfactory response to these chemicals showed that o-cymene, a S. suchowensis specific constituent, significantly attracted adult P. versicolora. In contrast, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, a constituent concentrated more in S. triandra than in S. suchowensis, significantly repelled beetles. Mixing o-cymene and cis-3-hexenyl acetate in comparable concentrations as in the volatiles of S. suchowensis demonstrated that the latter could mask the attracting effect of the former, causing a neutral response by adult beetles to leaves of S. suchowensis against clean air. In addition, chemical analogs have the same effect as plants when resembling volatile organic compounds in real samples. Two volatile metabolites were detected triggering host discrimination by one of the most damaging insect pests to host and non-host willows. The two metabolites are of considerable potential for use as olfactory signs in managing the beetles.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • High-throughput phenotyping of two plant-size traits of Eucalyptus species
           using neural networks

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      Abstract: Abstract In forest modeling to estimate the volume of wood, artificial intelligence has been shown to be quite efficient, especially using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Here we tested whether diameter at breast height (DBH) and the total plant height (Ht) of eucalyptus can be predicted at the stand level using spectral bands measured by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) multispectral sensor and vegetation indices. To do so, using the data obtained by the UAV as input variables, we tested different configurations (number of hidden layers and number of neurons in each layer) of ANNs for predicting DBH and Ht at stand level for different Eucalyptus species. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates, with 20 trees in each experimental plot. The treatments comprised five Eucalyptus species (E. camaldulensis, E. uroplylla, E. saligna, E. grandis, and E. urograndis) and Corymbria citriodora. DBH and Ht for each plot at the stand level were measured seven times in separate overflights by the UAV, so that the multispectral sensor could obtain spectral bands to calculate vegetation indices (VIs). ANNs were then constructed using spectral bands and VIs as input layers, in addition to the categorical variable (species), to predict DBH and Ht at the stand level simultaneously. This report represents one of the first applications of high-throughput phenotyping for plant size traits in Eucalyptus species. In general, ANNs containing three hidden layers gave better statistical performance (higher estimated r, lower estimated root mean squared error–RMSE) due to their greater capacity for self-learning. Among these ANNs, the best contained eight neurons in the first layer, seven in the second, and five in the third (8 − 7 − 5). The results reported here reveal the potential of using the generated models to perform accurate forest inventories based on spectral bands and VIs obtained with a UAV multispectral sensor and ANNs, reducing labor and time.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Forest plant and macrofungal differences in the Greater and Lesser Khingan
           Mountains in Northeast China: A regional-historical comparison and its
           implications

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      Abstract: Abstract Forests in Northeast China in the Greater and Lesser Khingan Mountains (GKM and LKM) account for nearly 1/3 of the total state-owned forests in the country. Regional and historical comparisons of forest plants and macrofungi will favor biological conservation, forest management and economic development. A total of 1067 sampling plots were surveyed on forest composition and structure, with a macrofungi survey at Liangshui and Huzhong Nature Reserves in the center of two regions. Regional and historical differences of these parameters were analyzed with a redundancy ordination of their complex associations. There were 61–76 families, 189–196 genera, and 369–384 species, which was only 1/3 of the historical records. The same dominant species were larch and birch with Korean pine (a climax species) less as expected from past surveys in the LKM. Shrub and herb species were different in the two regions, as expected from historical records. There was 10–50% lower species diversity (except for herb evenness), but 1.8- to 4-time higher macrofungi diversity in the GKM. Compared with the LKM, both tree heights and macrofungi density were higher. Nevertheless, current heights averaging 10 m are half of historical records (> 20 m in the 1960s). Edible macrofungi were the highest proportion in both regions, about twice that of other fungal groups, having important roles in the local economy. A major factor explaining plant diversity variations in both regions was herb cover, followed by shrubs in the GKM and herb-dominant species in the LKM. Factors responsible for macrofungi variations were tree density and shrub height. Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Larix gmelinii in the GKM but tree size and diversity were important factors in the LKM. Our findings highlighted large spatial and historical differences between the GKM and LKM in plant-macrofungal composition, forest structure, and their complex associations, which will favor precise conservation and management of forest resources in two region in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Genetic diversity and population structure of Robinia pseudoacacia from
           six improved variety bases in China as revealed by simple sequence repeat
           markers

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      Abstract: Abstract Robinia pseudoacacia is an important afforestation tree introduced to China in 1878. In the present study, we examined the genetic diversity among 687 strains representing four improved varieties and two secondary provenances, comprising 641 clones and 46 seedlings. Ninety-one simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were selected through segregation analysis and polymorphism characterization, and all sampled individuals were genotyped using well-characterized SSR markers. After excluding loci with non-neutral equilibrium, missing locus data and null alleles, we used 36 primer pairs to assess the genetic diversity of these germplasm resources, revealing vast genetic differentiation among the samples, with an average of 8.352 alleles per locus and a mean Shannon′s index of 1.302. At the population level, the partitioning of variability was assessed using analysis of molecular variance, which revealed 93% and 7% variation within and among collection sites, respectively. Four clusters were detected using structure analysis, indicating a degree of genetic differentiation among the six populations. Insights into the genetic diversity and structure of R. pseudoacacia provide a theoretical basis for the conservation, breeding and sustainable development in China.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Evaluation of somatic embryo production during embryogenic tissue
           proliferation stage using morphology, maternal genotype, proliferation
           rate and tissue age of Pinus thunbergii Parl

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      Abstract: Abstract To determine the optimal embryogenic capacity (somatic embryo production) of the selected elite nematode-resistant genotypes of Pinus thunbergii, variables such as embryogenic tissue (ET) morphology, maternal genotype, proliferation rate and tissue age were analyzed. ET morphology and histological evaluation of the proliferation stage showed a decrease in filamentous clump and protuberant surfaces and a decline in the acetocarmine-staining area, which indicates a decrease in somatic embryo production (SEP). Variations in cell physiology during the proliferation stage showed that SEP was positively correlated with soluble sugars and proteins, but negatively correlated with starch, peroxidase, and superoxidase. In addition, SEP was significantly (p < 0.001) affected by maternal genotype, tissue age and proliferation rate. Moreover, SEP was positively correlated with proliferation rate (r = 0.98, p < 0.001), but negatively correlated with tissue age (r =  − 0.95, p < 0.001). In general, the results suggest that SEP could be assessed in ET proliferation stages by the apparent cell morphology, histology, proliferation rate and tissue age, which provides novel insights for evaluating the ET maturation capacity (number of somatic embryos) during the proliferation stage of P. thunbergii somatic embryogenesis.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
 
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