Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Forest Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.555
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1104-6899 - ISSN (Online) 1618-1530
Published by Now Publishers  [1 journal]
  • Study on the Impacts of China’s Waste Paper Import Restrictive Policies
           on the Cycle Synchronization between the Chinese and International Waste
           Paper Markets

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      Abstract: AbstractAs strong mutual dependence exists between the Chinese and international waste paper markets, changes in one market will inevitably affect both markets. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of China’s newly implemented waste paper import restrictive policies on the price cycles of the Chinese and international waste paper markets and on the relationship between them. The results of the wavelet analysis and cointegration test based on the ARDL model revealed that the price cycles of the Chinese and international waste paper markets are synchronized in both periodicity and amplitude, but the degree of the synchronization relationship varies across time and frequencies along with China’s newly implemented policies. These policies have broken the price cycle synchronization between the two markets and led to ineffective resource allocations and more fluctuations in both markets, threatening the stable development of the Chinese paper industry and the international recycling industry.Suggested CitationDi Shang, Gang Diao, Chang Liu and Lucun Yu (2022), "Study on the Impacts of China’s Waste Paper Import Restrictive Policies on the Cycle Synchronization between the Chinese and International Waste Paper Markets", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000548
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Estimating Annual Investment Returns from Industrial Planted Forests of
           Radiata Pine in New Zealand

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      Abstract: AbstractThis will be published in the forthcoming Special Issue on The Economics of Global Forest Investments.The purpose of this paper is develop an industry-level (average) estimate of annual investment returns from industrial planted forests in New Zealand, from publicly-available financial statement data. The research used data from seven New Zealand commercial forest-growing companies, for the period 2008 to 2018. These companies managed around 600,000 ha of planted forest (or about half of the industrial forest estate in New Zealand), and had a total asset value of approximately $NZ 11 billion in 2018. The data were used to calculate an average industry-level estimate of annual investment returns, from 2009 to 2018. The calculated value is directly equivalent to the one-period internal rate of return and is separable into two components – cash return on assets and the real change in asset value. Since 2009, commercial forestry investment returns (unleveraged, pre-tax) have increased. The average investment return for 2009 to 2013 was 5.4%, while for 2014 to 2018 the average investment return was 14.7%. These returns are superior to returns from pastoral farming.Suggested CitationDavid Evison (2022), "Estimating Annual Investment Returns from Industrial Planted Forests of Radiata Pine in New Zealand", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000544
      PubDate: Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Designing Voluntary Subsidies for Forest Owners under Imperfect
           Information

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      Abstract: AbstractIn this paper, we study voluntary subsidies offered to forest owners to increase rotation periods. We assume that a forest owner takes private amenity values into account when making decisions, but these values are lower than the social amenity values; therefore, an amenity value externality arises. Furthermore, the regulator has imperfect information regarding the timber profit of the forest owner. We show that voluntary subsidies must reflect the difference between (a) private and social amenity values and (b) timber profit among the possible types of the forest owner. In this way, we solve the amenity value externality and the problem of imperfect information about timber profit in a second-best optimal way. We have also investigated what happens if the regulator excludes private amenity values when fixing voluntary subsidies and we show that two sources of efficiency losses arise: (a) non-optimal rotation periods and (b) non-truthful revelation of private information.Suggested CitationFrank Jensen, Bo Jellesmark Thorsen, Jens Abildtrup, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen and Anne Stenger (2022), "Designing Voluntary Subsidies for Forest Owners under Imperfect Information", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000541
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Projecting the Impact of Socioeconomic and Policy Factors on Greenhouse
           Gas Emissions and Carbon Sequestration in U.S. Forestry and Agriculture

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      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding greenhouse gas mitigation potential of the U.S. agriculture and forest sectors is critical for evaluating potential pathways to limit global average temperatures from rising more than 2°C. Using the FASOMGHG model, parameterized to reflect varying conditions across shared socioeconomic pathways, we project the greenhouse gas mitigation potential from U.S. agriculture and forestry across a range of carbon price scenarios. Under a moderate price scenario ($20 per ton CO2 with a 3% annual growth rate), cumulative mitigation potential over 2015–2055 varies substantially across SSPs, from 8.3 to 17.7 GtCO2e. Carbon sequestration in forests contributes the majority, 64–71%, of total mitigation across both sectors. We show that under a high income and population growth scenario over 60% of the total projected increase in forest carbon is driven by growth in demand for forest products, while mitigation incentives result in the remainder. This research sheds light on the interactions between alternative socioeconomic narratives and mitigation policy incentives which can help prioritize outreach, investment, and targeted policies for reducing emissions from and storing more carbon in these land use systems.Suggested CitationChristopher M. Wade, Justin S. Baker, Jason P. H. Jones, Kemen G. Austin, Yongxia Cai, Alison Bean de Hernandez, Gregory S. Latta, Sara B. Ohrel, Shaun Ragnauth, Jared Creason and Bruce McCarl (2022), "Projecting the Impact of Socioeconomic and Policy Factors on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carbon Sequestration in U.S. Forestry and Agriculture", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000545
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +020
       
  • On the Performance of Timberland as an Alternative Asset

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      Abstract: AbstractThe financial performance of timberland as an alternative asset is assessedby the intertemporal capital asset pricing model and Fama-MecBeth two-stepregression method. In the analysis, alternative assets include emergingmarkets, hedge funds, private equity, venture capital, commodities, realestate, farmland and timberland; conventional assets include S&P 500Index, Dow Jones Index, first, fourth, seventh, and tenth decile sizeportfolios of NYSE, AMEX, and NASDAQ listed stocks, 5- and 10-year Treasurybonds, and long-term AAA and BAA corporate bonds; and risk factors includemarket excess returns, term spread, default spread, personal consumptionexpenditures and inflation. Timberland return is found to becountercyclical, positively correlated with innovations in default spread,personal consumption expenditures and inflation, and negatively correlatedwith innovations in term spread. On a risk-adjusted basis, timberland showssuperior performance than stocks and most other alternative assets. There isalso evidence that alternative asset market is not integrated withconventional asset market as the risk premiums for these two asset groupsdiffer significantly.Suggested CitationBin Mei (2022), "On the Performance of Timberland as an Alternative Asset", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. 2, pp 169-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000539
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +020
       
  • The Performance of Private Equity Timberland Funds in the United States
           between 1985 and 2018

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      Abstract: AbstractBetween the end of 1980s and today, the timberland asset class managed bytimberland investment management organizations in the United States hasgrown from one to over 30 billion USD. However, to date, the application ofscholarly research on the assessment of the performance of private equitytimberland funds has been limited. In this study, we attempt to fill thisknowledge void by investigating the performance of private equity timberlandfunds in the United States between 1985 and 2018 based on confidential datafrom Preqin Pro (February 2020). Our results show that the historicalreturns of private equity timberland funds (4–6%) were close to thereturns of the bond markets (3.4% and 7.6% for 3-Month Treasury billand US treasury 10-year bond, respectively) and much less than BAA CorporateBond (9.7%) and stock markets (12.6%). The results may help investorsbetter understand privately placed timberland as an asset class andtherefore improve their strategic investment decisions.Suggested CitationRafał Chudy, Bin Mei and Svein Skjerstad (2022), "The Performance of Private Equity Timberland Funds in the United States between 1985 and 2018", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. 2, pp 199-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000550
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Special Issue on The Economics of Global Forest Investments

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      Abstract: AbstractIntroduction to the Special Issue on The Economics of Global Forest Investments.Suggested CitationRafał Chudy, Bin Mei and Frederick Cubbage (2022), "Special Issue on The Economics of Global Forest Investments", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. 2, pp 167-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000554
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Pine Log Price Changes in South America: A Comparison of Argentina,
           Brazil, and Uruguay Markets

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      Abstract: AbstractWe analysed the degree of price cointegration among pine log markets innortheast Argentina, Paraná State of Brazil, and Uruguay by examiningprice series over the period 2008--2020. We evaluated the cointegration ofprice series of the same product through the study regions. In the same way,we analysed the cointegration of price series of different products withinthe same zone. We found market cointegration for medium sawlogs and exportlogs, between Paraná and Uruguay and between Misiones and Uruguay. Inaddition, pairwise groups of sawlogs, pulpwood and woodchips werecointegrated in sawmill and pulp mill-markets. In regions withoutpulp mills, the prices of sawlogs and veneer logs of similar size andquality were cointegrated. These results reveal the existence of a dynamicof substitution. Usually, veneer logs are delivered to sawmills. However, insome situations, small sawlogs may be downgraded and sold to pulp mills.Suggested CitationEduardo Hildt, Adriana Bussoni, Virginia Morales Olmos, Patricio M. Mac Donagh and Frederick W. Cubbage (2022), "Pine Log Price Changes in South America: A Comparison of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay Markets", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. 2, pp 217-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000555
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Productivity Dynamics and Exports in the French Forest Product Industry

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      Abstract: AbstractThis paper investigates aggregate productivity dynamics of the French forest product industry based on firm-level data from 1994 to 2016. The main objectives of the paper are to investigate aggregate productivity growth in the industry, while taking market entry and exit into account. Further, aggregate productivity growth is investigated with respect to firms’ export status and with respect to their domestic and export economic activity. Decomposing the productivity growth into the contribution of incumbent, entering, and exiting firms, the results show a considerable slowdown during the economic crisis from 2007 on, which is mainly induced by decreasing productivity improvements and inefficient resource allocation among incumbent firms. Moreover, the study shows that exporters contribute more to aggregate productivity growth than non-exporters. However, investigating the contribution of firms’ domestic and export economic activities on aggregate productivity growth, I find that the aggregate productivity growth is mainly related to firms' domestic economic activity.Suggested CitationEnrico De Monte (2022), "Productivity Dynamics and Exports in the French Forest Product Industry", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. 1, pp 1-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000540
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Impact of Forest Stewardship Council on Integrated Pest Management in
           Certified Plantations of South Africa

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      Abstract: Abstract“Highly hazardous” pesticides have been listed and banned in ForestStewardship Council (FSC) certified areas and producers from tropicalcountries in the southern hemisphere, such as Australia, Brazil and SouthAfrica suffer the consequences of these restrictions. The objective was toassess changes and costs of FSC forest certification in the pest managementfrom the perspective of certified foresters in South Africa. Questionnaireswere sent to for all FSC certified forest plantations managers in SouthAfrica until July 2014. Deltamethrin was considered the most needed activeingredient in derogation, but cypermethrin and alpha-cypermethrin were alsoconsidered necessary. A total of 37.5% of respondents were totallydissatisfied with the cost/benefit ratio of FSC certification related topest management. Excessive rigidity and a lack of justifiable criteria forbanning chemicals may turn the certification process difficult and reduceits adoption in South Africa, although FSC certification has made pestmanagement more sustainable.Suggested CitationPedro G. Lemes, Simon A. Lawson, José C. Zanuncio, Laercio A. G. Jacovine, Carlos M. M. E. Torres and Carlos F. Wilcken (2022), "Impact of Forest Stewardship Council on Integrated Pest Management in Certified Plantations of South Africa", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. 1, pp 103-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000543
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +010
       
  • In Memoriam: Karl-Gustaf Löfgren 1943-2021

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      Abstract: AbstractSuggested CitationPer-Olov Johansson and Bengt Kriström (2022), "In Memoriam: Karl-Gustaf Löfgren 1943-2021", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. 1, pp 163-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000553
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Branding Wooden Multi-storey Construction – Real-Estate Agents as
           Gatekeepers for Enhancing Consumer Value in Housing

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      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding of consumer value expectations in the Finnish multistorey construction (MSC) markets is limited. Even less information exists on branding in the MSC businesses. Real-estate agents are powerful actors in the housing markets through their intermediary role between construction sector businesses and home purchasers. Despite this, their perceptions on the consumer value expectations or branding possibilities in the MSC markets has not been previously addressed. In our pilot study, by employing data gathered from real-estate agents from Finland in 2018 (n = 65, response rate 14%) we address the following questions: Based on real-estate agents’ perceptions, what are the housing value expectations of consumers in the Finnish multi-storey housing markets' Are there branding possibilities in those markets' Could wood be a source for branding in the MSC businesses' The quantitative and qualitative analysis show that branding opportunities exist. However, branding requires enhancing differentiation above traditional product-service thinking, which currently dominates MSC businesses.Suggested CitationKatja Lähtinen, Liina Häyrinen, Jaakko Jussila, Charlotta Harju, Anne Toppinen and Ritva Toivonen (2022), "Branding Wooden Multi-storey Construction – Real-Estate Agents as Gatekeepers for Enhancing Consumer Value in Housing", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 37: No. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000538
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Can Satellite-Based Weather Index Insurance Hedge the Mortality Risk of
           Pine Stands'

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      Abstract: AbstractDue to rising temperatures, forest stands are increasingly exposed to drought stress, which affects forest productivity through lower growth rates and higher mortality rates. Satellite-based index insurance could be an option for hedging the mortality risk of trees. Therefore, we calculated three remotely-sensed vegetation health indices from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. As indices for index insurance we use the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), the Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). We generate temperature, precipitation and a combined index of the two as benchmark indices. For 12 pine stands in northeastern Germany, we calculate the hedging effectiveness for hypothetically designed index insurance contracts based on satellite and meteorological indices. Both station- and satellite-based insurance contracts have been shown to be effective in hedging standing timber mortality risk. The average hedging effectiveness ranges from 36% for TCI-based to 48% for VHI-based index insurance contracts.Suggested CitationWienand Kölle, Matthias Buchholz and Oliver Musshoff (2021), "Can Satellite-Based Weather Index Insurance Hedge the Mortality Risk of Pine Stands'", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 4, pp 315-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000533
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • A Gravity Model of Softwood Lumber Trade: An Application to the
           Canada-U.S. Trade Dispute

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      Abstract: AbstractA gravity model of softwood lumber (SWL) trade is developed and used to determine the effect that U.S. tariffs have on SWL exports from Canada to the U.S. The gravity model employs quarterly data for seven Canadian and three U.S. regions over the period 2007–2019; it is expanded to include Japan and China as separate regions, and then as a combined China-Japan region. The effect of a Canadian export tax or U.S. import tariff is examined using information on the Softwood Lumber Agreement (effective from 2006 to 2015), which included a trigger mechanism that varied the tax/tariff. The gravity model was estimated for trade quantity and value using OLS and a Poisson Pseudo-Maximum-Likelihood estimation method for different configurations of the China-Japan export regions. Our findings indicate that (1) the imposition of a countervail and/or anti-dumping duty usually has a negative effect on Canada’s physical exports, but not in all cases; (2) the value of softwood lumber trade decreases by 0.054% on average with each 1% increase of tax/tariff; (3) the tax/tariff has a significant impact on Canadian exports when China and Japan are included; and, not surprisingly, (4) duties affect the value of lumber exports to a much greater extent than quantity.Suggested CitationXintong Li, Fatemeh Mokhtarzadeh and G. Cornelis van Kooten (2021), "A Gravity Model of Softwood Lumber Trade: An Application to the Canada-U.S. Trade Dispute", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 4, pp 351-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000534
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • On the Asymmetric Effects of Exchange Rate Changes on Trade Flows:
           Evidence from the U.S.-Canada Trade in Forest Products

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      Abstract: AbstractUp to now, relatively little attention has been given to the asymmetric effects of exchange rates on the trade balance in the forest economics literature. Thus, the primary thrust of this article is to probe the asymmetric impacts of exchange rates on exports and imports in the context of bilateral trade of forest products between the U.S.A. and Canada. To this end, we use the method of the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL). We discover that there is evidence that ups and downs of exchange rates appear to have asymmetric impacts on U.S. forest product trade with Canada in the long-run, though not in the short-run. Additionally, the dollar’s depreciation has a more substantial long-run effect than appreciation.Suggested CitationJiangqin Xu and Jungho Baek (2021), "On the Asymmetric Effects of Exchange Rate Changes on Trade Flows: Evidence from the U.S.-Canada Trade in Forest Products", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 4, pp 383-406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000535
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • A Theoretical Modeling Framework to Support Investment Decisions in Green
           and Grey Infrastructure under Risk and Uncertainty

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      Abstract: AbstractGreen infrastructure for source water protection in the form of forest protection and afforestation is gaining interest worldwide. It is considered more sustainable in the long-term than traditional engineering-based approaches. This paper presents a theoretical model to support investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water. We first develop a static optimal control model accounting for the uncertainties surrounding green infrastructure. This model is then extended to factor in key characteristics surrounding investment decisions aimed at optimizing the stock of green and grey infrastructure. We first include dynamic forest growth, followed by the risk of wildfires and finally the potential offsetting effect of carbon sequestration on long-term climate change and the reduced risk of wildfires. We provide a numerical example to analyze the performance of the different model specifications, interpret their outcomes and draw conclusions to guide future investment decisions in green and grey infrastructure.Suggested CitationZehua Pan and Roy Brouwer (2021), "A Theoretical Modeling Framework to Support Investment Decisions in Green and Grey Infrastructure under Risk and Uncertainty", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 4, pp 407-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000536
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Swapping Forests to Preserve Valuable Sites: A Sketch of a Framework for
           Economic Evaluation

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      Abstract: AbstractIn 2012 the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency was providedwith 100,000 ha of productive forest land. The Agencyswapped the land to obtain conservation-worthy forests, and thesewere turned into natural reserves. Conservation without referenceto both benefits and cost typically results in inefficient solutions. Inthis paper we discuss how to select the forest stands to preserve in acost-effective manner. We also discuss how to design a cost-benefitanalysis of the swapping program. We provide several new resultsregarding the economics of preservation, when land swaps is aviable instrument.Suggested CitationPer-Olov Johansson and Bengt Kriström (2021), "Swapping Forests to Preserve Valuable Sites: A Sketch of a Framework for Economic Evaluation", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 3, pp 183-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000521
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • The Loop Effect: How Climate Change Impacts the Mitigation Potential of
           the French Forest Sector

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      Abstract: AbstractObjectives: Evaluate the capacity of temperate forest resourcesto both provide climate change mitigation and to sustain thedownstream timber sector explicitly considering the cascade ofbiophysical and economic drivers (in particular, climate changeimpacts and subsequent adaptation actions) and their uncertainty.Methodology: A recursive bio-economic model of French forestresources, management, and timber markets has been coupled forthis study with spatial statistical models of forest response toclimate change long-term scenarios and land-use change.Main Results:(a) Climate change impacts on tree mortality are greater thanthose on tree growth variations;(b) Due to increasing competition with agriculture, climate changemay reverse current trends in forest area expansion; (c) Due to rising average tree sizes, volume growth strongly declinesover time and may eventually cease within the nextcentury;(d) Future climate change impacts already have strong consequenceson today’s forest investment profitability;(e) The relative importance of forest substitution over forestsequestration increases as the timeframe increases;(f) While the forest sector has the potential to counterbalance asignificant share of the national carbon emissions, this potentialis threatened by climate change and the need to adapt toit. Profit-driven forest management does increase mitigation;(g) Uncertainty derived from using different climatic models overthe same IPCC storyline has the same order of magnitude asthe uncertainty derived from using the same climatic modelunder different storylines.Suggested CitationPhilippe Delacote, Antonello Lobianco, Sylvain Caurla, Jean-Daniel Bontemps, Anna Lungarska, Pierre Mérian, Miguel Rivière and Ahmed Barkaoui (2021), "The Loop Effect: How Climate Change Impacts the Mitigation Potential of the French Forest Sector", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 3, pp 201-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000522
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Ex Post Consequentiality and Willingness to Accept: A Case Study of a
           Payment for Ecosystem Services Program

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      Abstract: AbstractForest related ecosystem services provide benefits at multiple geographic scales (i.e. watersheds, habitat, and carbon sequestration), motivating the development of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs, which provide monetary incentives for forest conservation. In this study, we apply a dichotomous choice, contingent valuation study to investigate stated willingness to accept (WTA) for access to forest resources amongst residents of Kam Cha i, Thailand. We consider the endogeneity of perceived consequentiality by estimating a joint bivariate probit model of consequentiality and WTA. Compared to a subset of consequential respondents, we find upward bias in mean WTA for decreased access to forest resources. In the standard probability model of WTA, the inclusion of a consequentiality dummy variable magnifies this bias. This indicates that failure to account for the endogeneity when conditioning using the consequentiality dummy variable may in fact exacerbate bias in some cases. Our joint bivariate probit model of consequentiality and WTA reduces mean WTA, results which are in line with the subset of consequential respondents. Overall, our evidence supports the hypothesis of positive hypothetical bias in studies of WTA for reductions in access to public goods.Suggested CitationJeff Felardo and Paul Hindsley (2021), "Ex Post Consequentiality and Willingness to Accept: A Case Study of a Payment for Ecosystem Services Program", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 3, pp 265-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000531
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • An Economical Transportation Plan for Forest Products Using a
           Computer-Aided Model

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      Abstract: AbstractThe paper presents a computerized model for finding the single most economical landing location for ground-based timber harvesting and finding the least cost road path from the selected landing point to the existing off-road. The model uses raster-based GIS data and considers multiple design factors influencing the optimal landing location. Terrain conditions, the volume of stock distribution, downhill and uphill skidding directions, and distance to the existing road were the influencing design factors in the model. Three approaches were adopted for finding a landing location within three harvest units. In the first approach, a preliminary process evaluated all cells of a 20m × 20m network within the harvest units and determined the candidate landing cells with the largest gentle slope (<10%) In the second and third approaches, the points on a 50m × 50m mesh grid and the harvest units’ centroids were assumed as candidate landings, respectively. The sum of skidding, road construction, and hauling costs was as total harvesting costs. Results indicated that the distance to the existing roads and the access direction from the existing road to the candidate landings could effectively limit the choice options for landing location. Results of feeding a penalized cost estimation model as an objective function to the modified Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm led to planning the road alignments with the least expected excavation and soil disturbance. Results also showed that the optimal landings could ensure the least total harvesting cost within the harvest unit.Suggested CitationIsmael Ghajar (2021), "An Economical Transportation Plan for Forest Products Using a Computer-Aided Model", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 3, pp 289-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000532
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Development of Giant Panda Nature Reserves in China: Achievements and
           Problems

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      Abstract: AbstractThis paper provides a review of the history and development ofGiant Panda Nature Reserves in China over the past 56 years.Four challenging issues facing the Giant Panda Nature Reservesare discussed. (i) Although the total population of wild giantpandas is increasing, the local populations are declining in smallisolated reserves. This is concerning because the current populationstructure of wild giant panda shows a trend of continuingfragmentation and isolation. These phenomena are driven by thecombined effects of natural geography and human disturbance.(ii) The full range of giant panda habitat is not currently underthe protection of the network of nature reserves. Although GiantPanda Nature Reserves cover a total area of 35,326 km2, only25,765 km2 of panda habitat overlaps with the reserves, with largeareas of panda habitat (with documented evidence of giant pandaactivity) not included in the reserves. Conservation regulationshave limited effects on human activities in these areas, resultingin further habitat fragmentation and reduced connectivity amonggiant panda populations. (iii) The pressure of the managementsystem of Giant Panda Nature Reserves. Because of the lack ofregulation outside reserves, stress is being transferred to these areasfrom the reserves, resulting in their being exposed to continuouslyincreasing human pressure and aggravating conflicts between giantpanda conservation and economic development. (iv) There areongoing conflicts between giant panda conservation and the livelihoodsof people who live within or around the reserves. On onehand, resource utilization conflict exacerbates the change of landcover. The grain growing industry and deforestation place greatpressure on efforts to conserve the giant panda. On the other hand,a shortage of funds for conservation and lack of balanced policieshave exacerbated existing conflicts between the conservation ofgiant pandas and the livelihoods of people. The main conclusionsrelated to the development of Giant Panda Natural Reserves are:(1) The management system and regulatory regime of Giant PandaNature Reserves in China have continuously evolved and improved,(2) The level of socioeconomic development in the communitieswithin and surrounding the Giant Panda Nature Reserves haveprogressively increased, and (3) A Giant Panda National Park iscurrently under development.Suggested CitationZhenjiang Song, Wei Zhou and Lan Gao (2021), "Development of Giant Panda Nature Reserves in China: Achievements and Problems", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 1-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000523
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Impacts of Protected Areas on Income Inequality: Evidence from the Giant
           Panda Biosphere Reserves in Sichuan Province, China

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      Abstract: AbstractUnderstanding the livelihood impacts of protected areas (PAs) onlocal people is important to inform equitable and effective regulationand management. In this study we used non-parametricregression analysis to determine the impacts of PAs on incomeinequality in 710 rural households living in or around nine giantpanda biosphere reserves in Sichuan Province, China. The resultsshow that the PAs not only have a negative impact on householdincome, but also exacerbate income inequality. Based on incomestructure decomposition, we found that the establishment of PAsmainly increases the gap of on-farm income. We also found thatparticipatory management projects have a positive effect on householdincome, of which eco-tourism increased household incomeinequality, while skill training and agricultural projects decreasedit. Thus, better conservation policies must be formulated to realizethe harmonious and concurrent development of ecological andlivelihood objectives.Suggested CitationWei Duan, Nicholas J. Hogarth and Jinyu Shen (2021), "Impacts of Protected Areas on Income Inequality: Evidence from the Giant Panda Biosphere Reserves in SichuanProvince, China", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 27-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000524
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Can Protected Area Have Positive Effects on Community
           Livelihood'–Evidence from Wuyi Mountain National Nature
           Reserve, China

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      Abstract: AbstractDespite an extensive literature indicating that protected areas (PA)affect negatively local people’s livelihood and can even exacerbatelocal poverty, a few studies found that PA can have positive effectson the local economy by promoting eco-tourism. In this study, weconducted a three-period survey of 170 rural households in WuyiMountain National Nature Reserve (WNR) in northern Fujianprovince of China during 2010–2014. We used robust randomeffect models to examine the effects of PA on local livelihood. Anovel finding is that households (HHs) within WNR have muchhigher total income and total income per capita than HHs nearbyWNR. HHs within WNR have a simple livelihood strategy withan extremely high dependence on the black tea industry, and HHsnearby WNR have diversified livelihood strategy with an increasingdependence on the black tea industry. Our results show that HHincome is positively related to the age and education of the HH head.Membership of a large clan and financial and technical assistancecan contribute to increasing HH income. HHs that engage only infarming as well as those that are a member of farm cooperative arelikely to have lower income. The results also indicate a positivespill-over effect of communities within WNR on communities nearbyWNR. We argue that communities within WNR should diversifytheir livelihood strategy to control risk, and communities nearbyWNR should explore their comparative advantages rather thanfollowing the example of communities within WNR to expand blacktea production.Suggested CitationYaxin Zhang, Bo Zhang and Yi Xie (2021), "Can Protected Area Have Positive Effects on Community Livelihood'–Evidence from Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve,China", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 53-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000525
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Impact of Nature Reserves on Human Well-being – Evidence from Giant
           Panda Reserves in China

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      Abstract: AbstractThe potential impact of nature reserves (NRs) on human well-beinghas been widely debated, while the results are still uncertain dueto methodological challenges, data limitations, and underdevelopedtheoretical framework. This study uses a seemingly unrelatedregression (SUR) model to assess giant panda reserves’ impacts onhuman well-being. Using cross-sectional data of 714 householdsfrom both inside and outside of 14 giant panda reserves in Shaanxiand Sichuan provinces, we examined the impact of NRs on fivedimensions of human well-being. Findings suggest that overallhuman well-being and the sub-dimensions of basic material forgood life, good social relations, and the freedom of choice wellbeingare significantly higher for households living outside pandareserves than those living inside. In contrast, security was higherfor households inside the reserves compared to outside. The resultsalso indicate that households living inside the national-level NRsare significantly more satisfied with their basic material for goodlife and security than those living outside of national-level NRs.Furthermore, the negative impacts of the NRs on human well-beingare relieved as the time since establishment increase.Suggested CitationJinyu Shen, Nicholas J. Hogarth, Yilei Hou and Wei Duan (2021), "Impact of Nature Reserves on Human Well-being – Evidence from Giant Panda Reserves in China", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 79-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000526
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Spatial Distribution and Influencing Factors of Crop Loss Caused by
           Wildlife

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      Abstract: AbstractThe scope of wildlife has expanded with the implementation ofecological restoration projects. Therefore, the number of conflictsbetween humans and wildlife in agricultural production has alsoincreased. By studying the spatial distribution and influencingfactors of crop losses caused by wildlife, we can understand thedistribution of the wildlife population, the effectiveness of ecologicalrestoration projects, and take targeted measures towards reducingthe spread of wildlife populations and mitigating the damage causedto crops. This paper examines the Miyun District of Beijing, anarea in which wildlife frequently causes crop losses in China. Weconstruct spatial statistical and pooled data regression models toanalyse the spatial distribution and influencing factors of crop lossescaused by wildlife in the study area. Results revealed the following:the spatial distribution of wildlife conflicts in Miyun District wereagglomerated and expanded in the spatial scope, which indicatesthat the distribution of wildlife populations in Miyun District isspreading and afforestation projects are effective. There is a closerelationship between the extent of crop loss caused by wildlife andwildlife types, crop types, types of protection and eviction measures,and the environment surrounding the agricultural land. The scopeof wildlife can be controlled and losses caused by wildlife reducedthrough measures such as rationally planting crops, building abuffer area around farmland, physically driving wildlife away, andplanting trees that wildlife will not consume as part of afforestationprojects.Suggested CitationWenhui Chen, Sha Li and Xi Chenqi (2021), "Spatial Distribution and Influencing Factors of Crop Loss Caused by Wildlife", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 103-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000527
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Determinants of Household Fuelwood Consumption in Giant Panda Nature
           Reserves

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      Abstract: AbstractFuelwood collection is one of the main human activities threateninggiant pandas’ habitats. The main purpose of this paper is toanalyze the determinants of fuelwood consumption by householdsinside and around China’s panda nature reserves. Finding thesedeterminants is not only useful in understanding energy consumptionbehavior, but also for creating more effective policy to protectgiant pandas’ habitats. We conducted a questionnaire survey in theQinling mountain areas of Shaanxi province; 187 effective questionnairesfrom 16 villages in five nature reserves were collected andanalyzed using a Tobit model. The results show that the averagefuelwood consumption per household around panda nature reserveswas 1.22 t in year 2017, and that there was no significant differencein fuelwood consumption between households inside or outside thenature reserves. Apart from household income, both the numberof household members and ownership of energy-saving stoves showsignificant effects on fuelwood consumption. We conclude that theestablishment of these nature reserves has not contributed towardsdecreasing fuelwood consumption inside the nature reserves, butit has transferred the harvesting location for fuelwood from insidethe nature reserve to the outside. Since the increase in householdincome can significantly reduce the fuelwood consumption, policymakersshould focus on how to increase rural household incomes todecrease fuelwood consumption. However, providing rural householdsaround nature reserves with energy-saving stoves tends notto be an effective measure for reducing the fuelwood consumption.Suggested CitationWei Zhou, Zhong-Yu Yang and Yi-Jing Zhang (2021), "Determinants of Household Fuelwood Consumption in Giant Panda Nature Reserves", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 125-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000528
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Impact of Gender and Risk Preference on Forest Management Decisions of
           Rural Households in China: Evidence from Giant Panda Nature Reserves

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      Abstract: AbstractHouseholds in giant panda nature reserves rely heavily on naturalresources, and the balance between nature conservation and economicdevelopment is crucial. Along with the increase of off-farmworking opportunities and rural development, the labor structureof forest management activities has been changing and women havestarted to play determinant roles in households. Thus, it is of interestto explore gender differences in the forest management decisionsof rural households and to further analyze the role of risk preferencein decision-making. Through an investigation of giant panda naturereserves in Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces, this research analyzeda 411-household sample using the ordinary least squares (OLS)and Tobit models. The evidence showed that generally householdswith a female forestry decision maker invested significantly less inforest activities than those with a male decision maker, and theforest investment intensity decreased as the degree of risk-aversionof decision maker increased. Moreover, at each risk preferencelevel, females input less on forest management compared to theirmale counterparts. The paper provided some solid evidence for thebehavioral differences between male and female in the context offorest management. Overall, the results highlighted the importanceof intrinsic characteristics in forest management decision-making,while the extrinsic factors of forest size, forestland quality as well ashousehold income and household location also significantly affectedthe level of forest management inputs. To conclude, this papersuggests policy makers to aware the intrinsic difference amongforest decision makers, and to distinguish corresponding trainingsand supportive services on forest management technologies toacknowledge the gender difference on risk preference.Suggested CitationYijing Zhang, Nicholas J. Hogarth and Wei Duan (2021), "Impact of Gender and Risk Preference on Forest Management Decisions of Rural Households in China: Evidencefrom Giant Panda Nature Reserves", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 141-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000529
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
  • How Does Wildlife Damage Change Farmers’ Production Behavior' A
           Case Study of China’s Giant Panda Reserves

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      Abstract: AbstractIn this study, we examine the impact of damage caused by wildlifeon farmers’ production behavior and analyze the livelihood optionswhen they face the loss. Our research area comprises 51 villagessurrounding 14 giant panda reserves in China. Based on a questionnairesurvey of 787 households, a linear regression model was usedto analyze the changes of farmers’ production behavior in 2018 dueto wildlife damage. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) as therisk of wildlife damage increases, farmers have to abandon someof the heavily damaged lands, which are expected to produce verylow profits; (2) although the farmer’s labor and capital input perunit area of the remaining land increased, the total farming timedecreased due to the reduction of the cultivated land area; (3) thelabor time that farmers released was partially allocated to livestockraising. There is a large heterogeneity in the livelihood selectionbehavior of farmers. In view of this, this article suggests that inorder to protect farmland resources and farmers’ livelihoods, thegovernment should implement compensation or promote agriculturalinsurance so that farmers have a stable profit expectation fortheir farming activities.Suggested CitationYi Li, Ziqiang Zhang, Jiesheng Ke and Lan Gao (2021), "How Does Wildlife Damage Change Farmers’ Production Behavior' A CaseStudy of China’s Giant Panda Reserves", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 36: No. 1-2, pp 161-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/112.00000530
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +010
       
 
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