Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Landscape Ecology Reports
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2364-494X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Evidence for the Combined Impacts of Climate and Landscape Change on
           Freshwater Biodiversity in Real-World Environments: State of Knowledge,
           Research Gaps and Field Study Design Recommendations

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Multiple stressor studies conducted in real-world environments play an important role in discovering how stressor pathways may vary relative to ecological complexity and study scale. We reviewed the evidence for climate and landscape change impacts on freshwater biodiversity in real-world ecosystems at the global scale. Using our compiled database of 150 studies, we asked (1) what are the study characteristics within the available evidence base and (2) what are the main knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research' Recent Findings Most studies employed an observational design and examined climatic and landscape change trends over a broad regional spatial scale (median = 97 sites/study). Ecological complexity was well represented in studies with a median of 11 predictor variables that characterized the relevant climate, landscape condition, and many other environmental attributes. Community-level metrics were common response types across all biota including larger, more mobile organisms such as fish that are challenging to examine in an ecologically-relevant context within controlled laboratory settings. Summary We identified several knowledge gaps including the need for more published time-series data, particularly with respect to understanding climate change impacts. Other opportunities for improved future research included incorporating more stressor and biological interactions, examining potential climate stressors over multiple seasons and streamlining methods for dealing with the pervasive challenges of multicollinearity in real-world systems. We emphasize the unique role of ‘natural experiments’ in validating experimental findings and provide a suite of recommendations for creating more strategic field studies to inform conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
       
  • Microlandscape Experiments: Are They Useful for Scale, Scaling, and
           Cross-Scale Inference'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Ecologists frequently must sample and do experiments at smaller scales than the processes of interest. Microlandscape experiments are one potential tool in landscape ecology, because these allow researchers to test hypotheses experimentally, something that is generally not possible in kilometer-extent landscapes. Another tool is to scale samples in space and/or time, and draw inferences across scales. However, scaling from small, experimental systems, and/or sample designs to the landscape level relies on cross-scale inference. The purpose of this review is to assess whether microlandscapes and small-scale sampling can be used successfully for cross-scale inference and identify the challenges of making cross-scale inferences. Recent Findings Cross-scaling work in landscape ecology and other disciplines is not always well integrated. We illustrate how concepts about similitude and cross-scaling for oceanography may yield insights for landscape ecology. Research using microlandscapes does not generally explicitly scale up to extents at which landscape ecologists often work. Summary Landscape ecologists should consider whether cross-scaling in their work is implicit or explicit and clearly identify the scope (ratio of the outer to the inner scale of a measured variable) of their research. The concept of similitude (which refers to the geometric, kinematic, dynamic, or other form of similarity between measured objects) may be useful to consider more in landscape ecology research.
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
       
  • Developing Strategies to Improve the Urban Environmental Structure
           Resiliency During and After Corona Pandemic: A Literature Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The objective of this study is to review the literature on the role of urban environmental structures and to develop proper strategies to strengthen their resilience so that the management performance of the Corona disease can be enhanced. Recent Findings Cities have been severely affected by the Coronavirus pandemic. Changes in the lifestyle of citizens during the pandemic have led urban planners to the realization that the current structure and function of cities do not meet the needs of citizens. Hence, the structure of urban landscape must be transformed so that cities become livable ecosystems for citizens and the urban environment becomes resilient to all kinds of crises. As a result, considering the new standards of life during the pandemic, the question of what changes to the urban planning and design are required to make cities viable and resilient systems arises. Since the year 2020, much research has been published on the impact of Coronavirus on the lifestyle of citizens and the urban environment. These impacts have positively or negatively affected the structure and function of cities in a direct or indirect manner. Similar to all the related studies, the necessity of making changes to the planning and design of urban landscapes has been emphasized here. Summary The present study reviews the literature on the effect of the structure of the urban environment on the corona pandemic management. The objective is to develop proper strategies for planning and designing resilient urban landscapes. It is emphasized that in order to realize the dream of resilient cities during and after the pandemic, the need to develop an interconnected network of green and open urban patches, green transportation system, green neighborhoods, and green residential buildings should be met so that urban resilience and livability can be achieved at a higher level.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
       
  • Recent Evidence of Scale Matches and Mismatches Between Ecological Systems
           and Management Actions

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review In reviewing the most recent literature, this article seeks to assess whether empirical studies support the proposition that scale mismatches between ecological processes and resource management actions—with a focus on conservation measures—result in poorer performance of those actions. Furthermore, the article aims to identify patterns and valuable insights from recent empirical literature in relation to this conceptual framework. Recent Findings We reviewed 122 case studies in 93 papers published mainly in the last 5 years. We identified the outcomes of the relevant management action and evaluated the nature of these scale matches and mismatches in time, space, and functional properties across five different conservation strategies and five distinct types of ecological systems. Summary Our findings largely support the scale fit conceptual framework. Spatial scale (mis)matches are documented and published far more frequently than temporal and functional case studies. Furthermore, mismatches outnumber matches in the reviewed literature. However, certain realms of conservation practice such as farmland and fishery management were exceptions to this rule. We encourage documenting and publishing more examples of successful scale matches, especially in areas where they are lacking, in order to provide valuable experience and inspiration for the planning of future conservation efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
       
  • Pyrodiversity in a Warming World: Research Challenges and Opportunities

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Climate change will continue to alter spatial and temporal variation in fire characteristics, or pyrodiversity. The causes of pyrodiversity and its consequences for biological communities are emerging as a promising research area with great potential for understanding and predicting global change. We reviewed the literature related to the causes and consequences of pyrodiversity over the 3-year period 2019–2021 to identify emerging themes and innovations. Recent Findings Key innovations include multi-scale analyses of pyrodiversity, a focus on mechanisms underlying single-species responses to pyrodiversity, investigating how pyrodiversity influences community stability and beta-diversity, and novel, integrative approaches for measuring pyrodiversity. Summary Pyrodiversity research is still maturing, and will benefit from exploration of multi-scale, gradient analysis of integrated (multi-measure) pyrodiversity metrics, an increased focus on how climate change may influence pyrodiversity across different systems, and a stronger framework for operational pyrodiversity within the context of land management. We suggest that research focusing on pyrodiversity could be generalized to include “turbadiversity,” or the cumulative patterns of heterogeneity produced by multiple types of disturbances (i.e., not just fire).
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
       
  • Assessing the Synergistic Effects of Land Use and Climate Change on
           Terrestrial Biodiversity: Are Generalists Always the Winners'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review There is increasing evidence that land use and land cover (LULC) change interacts with climate change to shape biodiversity dynamics. The prevailing hypothesis suggests that generalist species have an advantage in novel climatic and land cover conditions, while specialists are expected to be more sensitive to both stressors (generalization hypothesis). Some posit, however, that specialization is key to success in the face of combined climate and LULC change (specialization hypothesis). The goal of this review is to examine recent evidence for the generalization and specialization hypotheses. Recent Findings Recent findings at population, species, and community levels provide initial support for the generalization hypothesis—i.e., that wide niche breadths are advantageous in the face of the combined threats of climate and LULC change. Evidence for the specialization hypothesis, however, also exists. Variation among studies in terms of their geographic context, spatial and temporal extent, environmental conditions, taxonomic scope, and metrics used to quantify niche breadth is a likely factor underlying the contradictory evidence for the generalization and specialization hypotheses. Summary Recent research suggests that generalist species are likely able to withstand greater changes brought about by climate and LULC change than specialist species because they persist in environmental conditions that are typically further away from their thermal or resource limits. However, to fully understand factors driving species’ vulnerability to interaction of climate and LULC change, future work should adopt standardized descriptions of niche breadth, retain consistent taxonomic scope whenever possible, and provide increased replication across different geographic contexts.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Mathematical Modeling: Does Landscape Science Need to Become
           an Exact Science'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review In this article, I consider how ideas about the role of mathematics in the formation of landscape studies as those lying between inexact (descriptive) and exact (physical) sciences have changed historically. In his little-known work of 1888, V. V. Dokuchaev answered the question of what was required for a descriptive science, like soil science, to turn into an exact discipline. It took more than a hundred years for Soviet and Russian landscape studies, established in the late 1940s, to move on in the direction of exact sciences owing to informatization. Recent Finding This work was perfomed in the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences within the framework of state assignment. Recent developments in the field of mathematical modeling in Russian landscape science concern the creation of the theory of polygeosystem modeling by applying abstract entities (fiber categories) to characterize landscape entities. Another important direction is presented by geophysical foundation of polystructural landscape organization. A new approach to the development of theory of landscape studies based on landscape radioecology (a branch of landscape ecology) investigating the transformation of patterns of radionuclide pollution has also been proposed. Summary V. V. Dokuchaev’s rhetorical question formulated more than a hundred years about requirements necessary for landscape science as a descriptive science turning into an exact science has so far not been finally resolved. A borderline position of modern landscape science — between exact (modeling) and inexact sciences (applied landscape science) — is one of its strengths, whose benefits can be used to further its progress.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-022-00071-w
       
  • Agricultural Landscape Studies in Russian Federation

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We have analyzed the history of formation and development of the landscape approach to the rational organization of agrolandscapes in Russia. The main stages of the development of agrolandscape theory and its introduction into practice have been revealed. This process has been going on for the last 120 years and has resulted in substantiation, development, and testing of adaptive landscape farming systems. Recent Findings The organization of optimal agrolandscapes is based on the following principles: regional, typological, dynamic, geochemical, and landscape-ecological. Particular attention is paid to methods of agroecological assessment of natural conditions of the territory. The complexity of applying these methods is associated with a large variety of climatic soil and geomorphological conditions of the country. The main purpose of agroecological assessment is to carry out landscape-ecological grouping of lands. As a result, groups of elementary landscapes with similar conditions for growing of cultivated plants are distinguished. Such groupings serve as a basis for designing systems of farming. Summary The analysis shows that in recent years, adaptive landscape farming systems have been actively introduced in Russia in different zonal and geomorphological conditions. They are built taking into account microclimatic features and minimizing the impact of negative exogenous processes in the landscape. Prospects for the development of adaptive landscape farming are related to the practice of landscape planning in general. Digital soil mapping, geochemistry, and geophysics of the landscape can provide it with additional opportunities.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-022-00072-9
       
  • Geosystem Approach to Landscape Pattern and Process Studies in Russia

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review In this review we, first, describe the geosystem approach to studying landscape structure and functioning developing in the twenty-first century in Russia. Second, we highlight the dominant research targets. Third, we classify research issues into leitmotifs that allow getting insight into systemic organization of a landscape. Finally, trends and prospects for each leitmotif are discussed. Recent Findings We identified six principal research targets: (a) delineation, description, and classification of geosystems; (b) identification and quantification of radial relationships between geocomponents and lateral relationships between geosystems; (c) assessment of natural complexes for applied purposes; (d) forecast of changes under the influence of internal or external forces; (e) adaptation of human activities to spatial differences within a landscape; (d) planning activities in connection with existing spatial differences. Seven leitmotifs are commonly followed: (a) geotopological quasi-determinism; (b) landscape diversity; (c) inter-geocomponent radial relationships; (d) integrating and differentiating function of lateral flows; (e) self-development, self-regulation, and self-organization; (f) emergent effects of spatial interactions; (g) chronosequence of dynamic states and evolutionary stages; (h) landscape as a reactor. The present-day concept implies the focus on multiplicity of landscape-forming processes acting at various scale levels, self-development, and probabilistic relationships between geocomponents and between geosystems. Summary Current trends in geosystem studies are expected to increase understanding emergent effects of spatial relationships, to ensure 3-dimensional multiscale and polystructural view on landscape, to focus on nonlinearity and critical thresholds in between-geocomponent relationships, and to elaborate quantitative predictive models of future spatial patterns.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-022-00070-x
       
  • Basin Approach as a Tool for Landscape Assessment and Planning

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review In this paper, I review the interplay between landscape and basin structures in Russian landscape geography, landscape ecology, landscape hydrology, and landscape planning. This discussion includes the following topics: (1) drainage basin as a geosystem; (2) effects of flows in basin on landscape structure formation; (3) landscape paradigm as an alternative approach to mathematical-physical hydrological modeling; (4) the hydrological functions of landscapes; and (5) landscape-basin interactions in environmental management and spatial planning. Recent Findings Recent Russian developments in the field of landscape-basin interactions are the natural continuation of the work begun in previous years. The new results show that the large area of Russia, the presence of ungauged catchments, and the deficiency of hydrological information make the landscape paradigm a good alternative and addition to mathematical-physical runoff modeling. Most researchers agree that the combination of basin and landscape grids is the best way to optimize environmental management. The combination of landscape-genetic and basin approaches turned out to be effective in water consumption management, multifunctional forest management, prevention of erosion, ecological tourism, etc. Summary The basin organization of the territory supplements the landscape organization of objects and phenomena. The idea of the hydrological functions of the landscape is the basis for the hydrological zoning of river basins. Such zoning makes it possible to identify areas in the river basin for which it is possible to predict changes in runoff in various hydrological phases under the influence of natural factors or anthropogenic impacts. The landscape-hydrological analysis is adapted to the methodology of spatial planning. Nevertheless, the spatial planning based on the basin-landscape approach has difficulties, since environmental management is entirely connected to administrative units.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-022-00069-4
       
  • Connectivity in the Urban Landscape (2015–2020): Who' Where'
           What' When' Why' and How'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review uses a combination of narrative and systematic review techniques, including automated content analysis (ACA), to summarize the last 5 years of research on urban connectivity. It addresses the evolution of the field relative to prior reviews, identifies common themes and research gaps in the studies, and assesses the use of novel methods and data. Recent Findings We found a broadening of geographic and taxonomic scope in recent studies, including more research from Chinese cities and on multiple species. We also found more studies that covered multiple time periods than have been documented in prior reviews. However, we observed a continuing reliance on best professional judgment rather than empirical field data to parameterize models and on analytic methods that are 10–20 years old. Our review framework identified several distinct conceptual themes in the literature including foci on land cover, including roads, water, and vegetation; green spaces and infrastructure; ecological conservation, planning, and management; habitat structure and function; and species movement. Summary Urban areas offer the opportunity to leverage unique data sets and novel analytical methods that incorporate both human and other biological needs for connectivity, acknowledging that these two needs may not always align. In terms of data, few of the connectivity results were supported by or tested with empirical data. While nearly two-thirds of the papers reviewed included some measure of functional connectivity, which is an increase from previous reviews, future research would benefit from new modeling approaches that explicitly incorporate the challenges of measuring landscape connectivity within the urban context and from a clear set of shared objectives and goals.
      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-021-00068-x
       
  • Diversifying Landscapes for Wild Bees: Strategies for North American
           Prairie Agroecosystems

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We reviewed the common mechanisms through which intensively cropped landscapes are modified to increase wild bee abundance and diversity in North American prairie ecosystems. We categorized these efforts into three main categories: retaining parcels of land identified as important to wild bee communities, augmenting currently cropped areas to increase available resources, and restoring spaces from cropland to pollinator habitat. We discuss considerations that should be included at both the farm and “farm-neighborhood” scale, and review the literature pertaining to the costs and benefits of each strategy. Recent Findings Wild bee conservation has been a topic of much interest in the past decade, with research generally focused at the field scale. Initial studies have focused on providing evidence that restoring, augmenting, and retaining land for wild bees shows the desired effects. Research quantifying the costs associated with each method still has significant knowledge gaps, as does understanding patterns of variability common in natural prairie ecosystems. Summary Retaining, augmenting, and restoring habitat for wild pollinators can create “win-win” scenarios for both wild bees and land-use decision-makers, whereby increased insect abundance has the potential to increase yield. There are considerations to be taken into account at both the farm and farm-neighborhood scale, and we present a framework which can be used to demonstrate the value of non-cropped areas to land-use decision-makers. Rapidly developing technology, such as GPS yield monitoring, has the potential to dramatically increase our power to detect which areas of a field may be ideal candidates for restoration or augmentation efforts.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-021-00066-z
       
  • Open-source Tools in R for Landscape Ecology

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Landscape ecology, the study of the complex interactions between landscapes and ecological processes, has hugely benefited from the increase in widely available open-source software in recent years. In particular, the R programming language provides a wealth of community developed tools for landscape ecology. Recent Findings In this paper, we examine existing packages for downloading, processing and visualisation of spatial data, as well as those specifically developed for spatial ecological analysis. Additionally, we outline the results of a survey of R users within the landscape ecology community. Summary We found that landscape ecologists are generally satisfied with the functionality available within R, and that as a community they are continually further developing the functionality available. Suggested future developments include improvement of computation performance; additional methods for landscape characterisation such as surface metrics; and advanced, accessible visualisation tools.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-021-00067-y
       
  • Responses of Vertebrate Wildlife to Oil and Natural Gas Development:
           Patterns and Frontiers

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Anthropogenic activities can lead to the loss, fragmentation, and alteration of wildlife habitats. I reviewed the recent literature (2014–2019) focused on the responses of avian, mammalian, and herpetofaunal species to oil and natural gas development, a widespread and still-expanding land use worldwide. My primary goals were to identify any generalities in species’ responses to development and summarize remaining gaps in knowledge. To do so, I evaluated the directionality of a wide variety of responses in relation to taxon, location, development type, development metric, habitat type, and spatiotemporal aspects. Recent Findings Studies (n = 70) were restricted to the USA and Canada, and taxonomically biased towards birds and mammals. Longer studies, but not those incorporating multiple spatial scales, were more likely to detect significant responses. Negative responses of all types were present in relatively low frequencies across all taxa, locations, development types, and development metrics but were context-dependent. The directionality of responses by the same species often varied across studies or development metrics. Summary The state of knowledge about wildlife responses to oil and natural gas development has developed considerably, though many biases and gaps remain. Studies outside of North America and that focus on herpetofauna are lacking. Tests of mechanistic hypotheses for effects, long-term studies, assessment of response thresholds, and experimental designs that isolate the effects of different stimuli associated with development, remain critical. Moreover, tests of the efficacy of habitat mitigation efforts have been rare. Finally, investigations of the demographic effects of development across the full annual cycle were absent for non-game species and are critical for the estimation of population-level effects.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-021-00065-0
       
  • Changes in Land Use and Land Cover Along an Urban-Rural Gradient Influence
           Floral Resource Availability

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review While several hundred thousand species of insects, mammals, and birds rely on flowers for food or reproduction, a surprising dearth of literature focuses specifically on floral resources. An understanding of floral resource availability is particularly necessary in urban areas, which have recently been proposed as important habitat for declining pollinator populations. In this study, we aim to synthesize existing information and provide new insights about the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) change and urbanization on the distribution, diversity, and abundance of floral resources. Recent Findings Our results suggest that certain LULC types provide more floral resources than others. In particular, urban lands may have higher floral density than agricultural or natural lands. However, we also observed inconsistent findings between studies, and the relationship between urbanization and floral resource availability may vary by city, with this variation possibly due in part to city size, LULC composition, regional biome, and biases in sampling. Summary It appears that cities have the potential to provide an important source of floral resources. However, a complete understanding of the effects of urbanization on floral resources requires that landscape composition and heterogeneity be taken into account. We recommend that more studies estimate floral resource availability at a landscape scale by combining data about LULC composition with data about floral resource availability within various LULC types. These studies should focus specifically on flower communities and be conducted along a full urban-rural gradient.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-021-00064-1
       
  • Urban Landscape Genetics: Are Biologists Keeping Up with the Pace of
           Urbanization'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Urbanization has the potential to jeopardize the sustainability of populations of organisms living within and dispersing across urban areas. Landscape genetics approaches offer a great promise for quantifying how urban features affect ecological and evolutionary processes for species living within and around cities. In this review, we assess the current state (2015–2020) of urban landscape genetics research, examining what types of urban features are quantified, what genetic measures are used, what species are studied, and in which geographic regions they are conducted. We then make recommendations for future research. Recent Findings We identified relatively few landscape genetic studies conducted within urban areas published in the last 5 years. We also found a publication bias towards certain taxa and geographic regions (mainly mammals studied in North America), based on results from relatively few molecular markers. These studies used varied measures of urbanization in their analysis, but the most common was urban land use/land cover measured at different resolutions, followed by buildings/development and transportation infrastructure (roads, railroads, and tramways). The results of these studies reflect previously conducted urban research findings that urban features may inhibit, facilitate, or have no correlation with gene flow, usually a product of which focal taxa is being studied, as well as what urban features are present/measured within variable cityscapes. Summary We urge future research to directly measure urban features and stress the need for explicitly sampling within and around urban areas to gain full understanding of whether urbanization impedes, facilitates, or does not affect genetic differentiation between populations. To facilitate the development of robust theory, we urge the formation of a global network of urban landscape geneticists to collaborate and sample diverse taxa, in varied global landscapes and climates, and analyze genome-wide datasets for more robust conclusions about gene flow and genetic diversity. We advocate for analyzing urban features at multiple scales to allow broad conclusions about the effects of urbanization across studies, taxa, and regions. Finally, we recommend that study designs include social, cultural, and economic differences in human land use, which have the potential to affect how species disperse, survive, and reproduce in urban areas. Taking these factors into account, we can make novel advances in understanding how complex urban landscapes shape contemporary evolution.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-021-00062-3
       
  • Mismatches in the Ecosystem Services Literature—a Review of Spatial,
           Temporal, and Functional-Conceptual Mismatches

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The objective of this review is to identify commonly researched ecosystem service mismatches, including mismatches concerning management and policies implemented to manage ecosystem service delivery. It additionally discusses how mismatches affect the ability to develop effective policies and management guidelines for ecosystem services. Recent Findings Recent ecosystem service literature considers mismatches in the ecosystem, the social system, and as social-ecological interactions. These mismatches occur over three dimensions: spatial, temporal, and functional-conceptual. The research field incorporates not only ecological aspects but also social ones like the management and governance of ecosystem services. However, the focus of the reviewed literature is mainly on spatial and temporal dimensions of mismatches and the production of scientific knowledge, rather than the implementation of the knowledge in management and policies. Summary Research on ecosystem service mismatches reflects the complexity and interconnectedness of social-ecological systems as it encompasses a broad variety of approaches. However, temporal mismatches received less attention than spatial mismatches, especially in regard to social and social-ecological aspects and could be a topic for future research. Furthermore, in order to develop effective policies and management guidelines, research must work closer with decision-makers to not only advance scientific understanding of ecosystem service mismatches but also create understanding and support the uptake of this knowledge.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-021-00063-2
       
  • Distance-Dependent Landscape Effects in Terrestrial Systems: a Review and
           a Proposed Spatio-Temporal Framework

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We review recent methodological advancements in estimation of distance-dependent landscape effects on terrestrial species. These methods address key theoretical elements from landscape and metapopulation ecology that were ignored in previous approaches. Models that treat landscapes as circles within which all land features are equally important to a focal population ignore distant-dependent population processes, such as dispersal, resource selection, and social interactions. Realistic models that estimate variation in landscape-scale effects over space and time are necessary to understand the complex processes that influence population dynamics. Recent Findings The addition of kernel smoothers to generalized linear models has potential to increase the biological realism of landscape-species models. These models include estimation of parameters that dictate the relationship between distance and importance of landscape features to focal populations. There are examples of implementing these models in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian frameworks, as well as examples using model selection to determine appropriate smoothing kernel shape. One key limitation of these models is computational effort, although we provide some guidance for reducing model runtime. Summary Models allowing for inference on explicit ecological processes are critical to advancing knowledge of the basic landscape ecology of species and will benefit efforts to prioritize conservation and evaluate species recovery efforts. We describe how distance-dependent landscape-scale effect models can be used for these purposes in a variety of scenarios. We conclude by proposing a process-based, spatio-temporal framework for understanding the mechanisms behind the spatial scale at which landscapes influence species.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-020-00061-w
       
  • Consequences of Urban Living: Urbanization and Ground Beetles

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Urbanization is increasing worldwide, transforming environmental and habitat parameters, and causing adverse effects on organisms living in urban habitats. Urban studies on ground beetles are exponentially increasing and cover all levels of biological organization. Still, to date, there is no comprehensive paper reviewing the impacts of urbanization on ground beetles at different levels of biological organization. Recent Findings At the population level, urbanization induces changes in the morphological characters, including fluctuating asymmetry, physiological condition, behavioral characteristics, seasonal activity, population size, and genetic diversity in ground beetles. Different species groups (habitat specialists vs. generalists, large vs. small-sized species, poor vs. good dispersers, predators vs. herbivores) respond differently to urbanization. Community-level changes associated with urbanization include the abundance, taxonomic as well as functional diversity, community assembly mechanisms, composition, and body size distribution. At the ecosystem level, urbanization influences several ecosystem processes and functions related to ground beetles, but data are only available concerning the edge effect and predation. Summary Urbanization has a considerable effect at various levels of the biological organization on ground beetles living in urban habitats. However, results—especially at the population and community levels—show inconsistent patterns. This discrepancy may result from individual responses and different sensitivity of species to urbanization, suggesting the importance of individualistic and functional approach in future urban studies. To preserve a rich carabid diversity in urban areas, multi-scale greenspace planning and management schemes are needed; these will also ensure both the recreational and the diversity-preserving function of urban green spaces.
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-020-00060-x
       
  • A Review of Overlapping Landscapes: Pseudoreplication or a Red Herring in
           Landscape Ecology'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Identifying the spatial scale at which a species or population most strongly responds to habitat composition and configuration is known as scale-of-effect and is a fundamental pursuit of landscape ecology. In conducting scale-of-effect studies, it is common to measure habitat in landscape buffers of varying sizes surrounding sample sites. When sample sites are in close spatial proximity to one another, these landscape buffers will overlap. Researchers commonly worry that data generated from these overlapping landscapes, and subsequently used as predictor variables in statistical modeling, represent a form of pseudoreplication that violates the assumption of independence. Recent Findings Here, we review the concept of overlapping landscapes and their theoretical and practical implications in landscape ecology. We suggest that the perceived problem of overlapping landscapes is distinct from more important issues in landscape ecology, such as a robust sampling design complete with a discrete assessment of spatial autocorrelation. Through simulation, we demonstrate that changing the amount of landscape overlap does not alter the degree of spatial autocorrelation. Yet, in reviewing over 600 journal articles, we found that a third (29%) of the studies perceived overlapping landscapes as an issue requiring either changes in sampling design or statistical solutions. Researchers concerned with overlapping landscapes often go to great lengths to alter their sampling design by removing or aggregating sites. Overlapping landscapes remain a prevalent concern in landscape ecology despite previous studies that show that overlapping landscapes are not a violation of independence and represent an oversimplification of the statistical concerns of spatial autocorrelation. Summary The concern over overlapping landscapes as a form of pseudoreplication persists in landscape ecology, but acts as a potential red herring detracting from more relevant concerns of proper sampling design and spatial autocorrelation in ecological studies.
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-020-00059-4
       
 
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