Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-893X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Combined Carbon and Albedo Climate Forcing From Pine and Switchgrass Grown
           for Bioenergy

    • Authors: Benjamin J. Ahlswede, Thomas L. O'Halloran, R. Quinn Thomas
      Abstract: Expanding and restoring forests decreases atmospheric carbon dioxide, a natural solution for helping mitigate climate change. However, forests also have relatively low albedo compared to grass and croplands, which increases the amount of solar energy they absorb into the climate system. An alternative natural climate solution is to replace fossil fuels with bioenergy. Bioenergy crops such as switchgrass have higher albedo than forest ecosystems but absorb less total carbon over their lifetime. To evaluate trade-offs in the mitigation potential by pine and switchgrass ecosystems, we used eddy covariance net ecosystem exchange and albedo observations collected from planted pine forests and switchgrass fields in eastern North America and Canada to compare the net radiative forcing of these two ecosystems over the length of typical pine rotation (30 years). We found that pine had a net positive radiative forcing (warming) of 5.4 ± 2.8 Wm−2 when albedo and carbon were combined together (30 year mean). However the assumptions regarding the fate of harvested carbon had an important effect on the net radiative forcing. When we assumed all switchgrass carbon was emitted to the atmosphere while the harvested pine carbon was prevented from entering the atmosphere, the 30-year mean net radiative forcing reversed direction (−3.6 ± 2.8 Wm−2). Overall, while the pine ecosystem absorbed more carbon than the switchgrass, the difference in albedo was large enough to result in similar climate mitigation potential at the 30-year horizon between the two systems, whereby the direction and magnitude of radiative forcing depends on the fate of harvested carbon.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
  • The Role of Secondary Metabolites and Bark Chemistry in Shaping Diversity
           and Abundance of Epiphytic Lichens

    • Authors: Alexander Paukov, Anzhelika Teptina, Alexander Ermoshin, Ekaterina Kruglova, Lada Shabardina
      Abstract: Diversity of secondary lichen metabolites was studied in epiphytic lichens on six phorophytes—spruce, pine, birch, alder, aspen and poplar in the Middle Urals of Russia. Atranorin, usnic, fumarprotocetraric acid, zeorin, and gyrophoric acid were found in 31, 24, 23, 18, and 14 species, respectively, of 237 taxa collected. Seventy-seven species (i.e., 32% of total species documented) contained no secondary metabolites. Spectra of secondary metabolites of fruticose and foliose lichens varied on different phorophytes, while in crustose species the strong dependence on the tree species was not detected. This is different to the pH dependence of saxicolous lichens where crustose lichens were more susceptible to the rock chemistry. The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis reveal the affinity of species containing depsides, depsidones or usnic acid to acidic substrata and those lacking secondary metabolites or containing terpenes and antraquinones to the pH-neutral bark. We suppose that phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as chemical constituents of bark, may interact with lichen symbioses and elements in phellem, and similarly to the lichen acids shape the affinity of species to the substrata.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T00:00:00Z
  • Critical Ecological Roles, Structural Attributes and Conservation of Old
           Growth Forest: Lessons From a Case Study of Australian Mountain Ash

    • Authors: David Lindenmayer, Elle Bowd
      Abstract: Old growth is a critical growth stage in many forest types globally. It has many key ecological roles including biodiversity conservation, carbon storage and the provision of services such as water production. The extent of old growth forest has been declining in many ecosystems around the world, with major ecological and ecosystem service consequences. Important insights about such declines, as well as the structure, function and conservation of old growth forest, can be gained from detailed cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of different age cohorts within a given forest ecosystem. In this review article, we outline key insights into the characteristics of, and threats to old growth forests, using the Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, south-eastern Australia as a detailed case study. These forests are dominated by the tallest flowering plants on earth and have been subject to several decades of intense study. These studies show that old growth Mountain Ash forests are characterized by (among other features): giant trees (approaching 100 m tall and sometimes exceeding 20 m in circumference), numerous trees with hollows, an understorey of Acacia and rainforest trees, a range of plant and animal species that are rare or absent in younger aged stands, and moist, nutrient-rich soils. The area of old growth Mountain Ash forest has declined to 1.16% of the ∼141,000 ha area occupied by ash-type forests in the Central Highlands region. This is up to 60 times less than it was at the time of European colonization ∼220 years ago. The loss of old growth has major implications for bird, mammal and other biodiversity, as well as for carbon storage and water production for human consumption. The main drivers of old growth decline are recurrent wildfire, widespread clearcutting, and a logging-fire interaction in which cut and then regenerated forests become more flammable and are at significantly elevated risk of burning at high (stand replacing) severity. Climate change is also a driver of old growth decline both through elevating the mortality of large old living trees and underpinning an increase in the frequency of high severity wildfire. These interacting drivers mean that restoring old growth Mountain Ash forest will be an ecological and policy challenge. We argue that a first step must be to cease all commercial logging in the Mountain Ash ecosystem to allow new cohorts of old growth forest to be recruited and thereby expand the extent of the old growth estate. In addition, the Government of Victoria should revert to a past definition of old growth that made it easier for forest to qualify for protection. Given there are high risks of recurrent high-severity wildfire in the existing Mountain Ash forest estate which is dominated by highly flammable young regrowth forest, new technologies (such as the use of drones and satellites) are needed to rapidly detect and then suppress ignitions before fires become large and difficult to control. Mountain Ash forests have provided an important natural laboratory for understanding the dynamics, management and conservation of old growth forest. They have also helped generate some valuable general perspectives likely to be relevant to other forest ecosystems globally. These include: (1) the critical value of multi-facetted cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in quantifying attributes of, and threats to, old growth forest, (2) the need for a carefully crafted definition of old growth that will typically be ecosystem-specific and based on the time required to develop key ecosystem attributes (e.g., large old trees), (3) the importance of rigorous protection measures because poor decisions that result in the loss of old growth now will take prolonged periods to rectify, and (4) setting protection levels that are relative to the existing spatial coverage of remaining old growth and the extent and impacts of stressors driving old growth decline.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T00:00:00Z
  • Beyond a Focus on Fuel Reduction in the WUI: The Need for Regional
           Wildfire Mitigation to Address Multiple Risks

    • Authors: Max A. Moritz, Rob Hazard, Kelly Johnston, Marc Mayes, Molly Mowery, Katie Oran, Anne-Marie Parkinson, David A. Schmidt, Graham Wesolowski
      Abstract: There are thousands of communities and millions of homes in fire-prone wildland–urban interface (WUI) environments. Although future developments may be sited and designed to be more survivable and resistant to losses, an over-arching strategy is needed for those that are already at high risk. Traditionally, most plans for protecting WUI inhabitants focus on fuel reduction in strategic locations (e.g., defensible space around homes, fuel breaks around communities). While this approach can reduce fire hazard in specific locations and under certain weather conditions, there are a variety of vulnerabilities that are not directly addressed by fuel reduction. A more comprehensive approach is needed – one that facilitates climate change adaptation and future resilience – to mitigate multiple fire-related risks. A Regional Wildfire Mitigation Program (RWMP), expanding on traditional approaches to wildfire protection, is a key step in this direction. The goals of an RWMP include (1) retrofitting of the built environment (i.e., structural ignition vulnerabilities, water supply deficiencies, evacuation constraints); (2) buffering the landscape (i.e., a mosaic of less flammable land uses complementing traditional fuel breaks); and (3) training the community (i.e., education to become fire-adapted). We demonstrate here a consistent methodology for mapping hazards and vulnerabilities, assessing the risks of multiple negative impacts, prioritizing diverse mitigation activities, and implementing solutions that are effective and portable across many WUI environments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Diversity and Vertical Distribution of Epiphytic Angiosperms, in Natural
           and Disturbed Forest on the Northern Coast of Jalisco, Mexico|Background
           and Aims|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Alejandra Flores-Argüelles, Adolfo Espejo-Serna, Ana Rosa López-Ferrari, Thorsten Krömer
      Abstract: Background and AimsEpiphytes are an important component of tropical forests, also they are sensitive to disturbance and deforestation caused by humans, since they depend on their host trees and the micro environmental conditions that these provide. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in species richness, composition, and vertical distribution of epiphytic angiosperms between areas with natural and disturbed forest at the Northern Coast of Jalisco state, Mexico.MethodsThe presence/absence of epiphytic angiosperms was evaluated in each vertical zone of a selected tree, as well as those present in the understory, both in natural and disturbed sites in three types of vegetation (gallery forest, oak forest, tropical semideciduous forest) with a total of 30 plots of 20 m × 20 m in six sites. Alpha diversity was calculated for each site, as well as species turnover (beta diversity) between habitats. An analysis of variance was performed to determine if there was a significant difference in species richness between sites and, also to compare the height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of the host trees. Multivariate analyzes were used to group the sites according to their floristic composition. Furthermore, a linear regression was performed to detect any relationship between the number of species and the phorophyte structure.ResultsWe recorded 45 species, 29 genera and nine families of epiphytic angiosperms. The most diverse families were Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae and the richest genus was Tillandsia. Although the disturbed sites had more species, a significant difference in richness was not found, except for the disturbed gallery forest. Epiphytic angiosperms presented a high beta diversity, since the sites shared only between 2 and 18% of the recorded species. The inner portion of the canopy (Z3 and Z4) hosted most of the species in all sites and the understory had a high representation of epiphytes except for the disturbed oak forest, where these were absent. A relationship between the DBH and the number of species was found only at the disturbed sites, however, it was highly influenced by the high number of taxa registered in disturbed gallery forest. Therefore, the size of the trees could not be considered a factor in determining the diversity of epiphyte species.ConclusionThe diversity of epiphytic angiosperm species from the North Coast of Jalisco has not been severely affected by the human disturbance. Most of the species have morphological and physiological adaptations that allow their establishment and survival in adverse climatic conditions. Our results suggest that epiphytic angiosperms cannot be considered as a good indicator for natural or disturbed environments in this region but should be considered in environmental conservation, as they present a high beta diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Microorganisms of the Phyllosphere: Origin, Transport, and Ecological

    • Authors: Steven D. Warren
      Abstract: Microbes are ubiquitous residents of the atmosphere, including the air that we breathe. They are also widely present in terrestrial, marine, and aquatic environments. Typical microbes include viruses, fungi, archaea, bacteria, algae, and bryophytes. Many are of edaphic origin and play significant ecological roles in the soil. Propagules are exceedingly lightweight and small, generally measured in microns (millionths of a meter). Propagules achieve airborne status in the wind, where they may travel from a few millimeters to thousands of kilometers. Most have been recorded at least as high as the stratosphere. While airborne, microbes may pass through multiple generations. Microbes in the atmosphere are often accompanied by vast clouds of dust. They perform a variety of essential functions such as raindrop and snowflake condensation nuclei, without which there would be little or no precipitation. It is important to realize that all solid things that are carried up into the atmosphere must eventually fall back down to the Earth. When precipitated or deposited back onto the Earth, they may land on and occupy any surface, including trees and other plants where they become epiphytic residents. They have been documented on broad-leaved and needle-leaved trees from deserts to tropical rainforests. If they land on bare soil, they often participate in biological soil crusts that are important for soil stabilization and for water and nutrient cycling.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Copiotrophic Bacterial Traits Increase With Burn Severity One Year After a

    • Authors: Jaron Adkins, Kathryn M. Docherty, Jessica R. Miesel
      Abstract: Wildfire and burn severity influence soil microbial communities during post-fire recovery. If post-fire differences in microbial communities affect soil carbon (C) pool dynamics, altered microbial communities could influence the transition of forests from C sources to C sinks during ecosystem recovery. For example, fire may change the abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacteria, influencing the kinetic rates of soil C pools due to differences in C-acquisition strategies and nutrient requirements. We assessed differences in soil bacterial communities and soil C pool kinetics 1 year after a wildfire in a mixed-conifer forest in northern California, United States. We determined whether differences in bacterial communities and soil C pools were related to copiotrophic versus oligotrophic life history strategies. Specifically, we assessed bacterial community oligotrophy versus copiotrophy based on phyla relative abundances and predicted 16S gene copy numbers. We then determined whether these life-histories were correlated with C pool kinetic rates. We further determined whether C degradation metabolic pathways predicted using PICRUSt2 were related to C pool kinetics. We found that copiotrophic bacteria exhibited greater abundance in burned areas than unburned areas, evidenced by increases in 16S rRNA gene copy number and by taxonomic classifications. Furthermore, the abundance of predicted metabolic pathways associated with fast-cycling C compounds increased with severity, including carbohydrate, alcohol, and amine degradation pathways, suggesting increased copiotrophic metabolic strategies. In contrast, the abundance of metabolic pathways of slow-cycling aromatic C compounds did not change, indicating oligotrophic metabolic strategies did not increase. The kinetic rate of the active C pool was positively related to the copiotrophic metabolic pathway of alcohol degradation, and negatively related to oligotrophic pathways like aromatic compound degradation. The links between C pool kinetics and phylum-level life-strategy classifications were ambiguous. Overall, our results suggest that metabolic life-strategies are related to soil C pool kinetics and could have short- and long-term impacts on soil C persistence during post-fire recovery. In the short-term, increased copiotrophy could increase soil C efflux via rapid cycling of labile C pools. However, over the longer-term lower prevalence of oligotrophic strategies could allow aromatic compounds associated with pyrogenic C to accumulate, increasing stable soil C stocks.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Dynamics of Soil CO2 Efflux and Vertical CO2 Production in a European
           Beech and a Scots Pine Forest

    • Authors: Hubert Jochheim, Stephan Wirth, Valentin Gartiser, Sinikka Paulus, Christoph Haas, Horst H. Gerke, Martin Maier
      Abstract: The conversion of coniferous forest to deciduous forest is accompanied by changes in the vertical distribution of fine roots and soil organic carbon (SOC) content. It is unclear how these changes affect soil CO2 efflux and vertical soil CO2 production, considering changing climate. Here, we present the results of a 6-year study on CO2 efflux, covering relatively warm-dry and cool-wet years. A combination of the flux-gradient method and closed chamber measurements was used to study the CO2 efflux and the vertical distribution of soil CO2 production in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and a pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest in northeast Germany. We observed, on average, similar CO2 efflux with 517 (±126) and 559 (±78) g C m–2 a–1 for the beech site and the pine site, respectively. CO2 efflux at the beech site exceeded that at the pine site during the wet year 2017, whereas in dry years, the opposite was the case. Water availability as indicated by precipitation was the primary determining long-term factor of CO2 efflux, whereas seasonal variation was mainly affected by soil temperature, and—in the case of beech—additionally by soil water content. CO2 efflux decreased more dramatically (-43%) at the beech site than at the pine site (-22%) during the warm-dry year 2018 compared to the cool-wet year 2017. We assumed that drought reduces heterotrophic respiration (Rh) at both sites, but additionally decreases autotrophic respiration (Ra) at the beech stand. Soil CO2 production at the beech site ranged over a greater soil depth than at the pine site, attributed to different fine root distribution. The organic layer and the A horizon contributed 47 and 68% of total CO2 efflux at the beech site and the pine site, respectively. The seasonal patterns of different CO2 efflux between both sites were assumed to relate to different phases of tree physiological activity of deciduous compared to evergreen tree species.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T00:00:00Z
  • Stocks and Productivity of Dead Wood in Mangrove Forests: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Lilian Mwihaki Mugi, Dora Kiss, James Gitundu Kairo, Mark Richard Huxham
      Abstract: The functional and ecological importance of dead wood in terrestrial forests is widely recognized and researched. In contrast, much less is known about dead wood in mangrove forests, despite its known or demonstrated contribution to key ecological processes including nutrient cycling and seedling recruitment. In addition, mangrove dead wood provides an important service for millions of people; harvesting wood for fuel is widespread in mangroves and is often vital for the lives and wellbeing of people living close to these forests. Limited information on stocks and production, and the drivers of these, means that understanding and managing the supply of this service is difficult. Here we conduct a systematic review of the literature on dead wood stocks and production in mangrove ecosystems. Four hundred and seventy-five subject articles were found, with large gaps in geography, species, and forest type. After excluding records that were not relevant to our study and those from mass mortality events, 68 studies remained. We also added new data from 9 sites in Kenya, to provide overall estimates of mean (± SD) stocks of dead wood of 16.85 ± 25.35 Mg ha−1 standing and 29.92 ± 36.72 Mg ha−1 downed. Our analysis shows that potentially, higher stocks of dead wood might be found in forests without evidence of human impact. Average mean production with 95% CI was 6.30, 3.10–11.40 Mg ha−1 yr−1. Estimates of daily wood use were applied to give likely demands on wood from mangrove dependent communities. This review reveals the paucity of research on mangrove dead wood, hence these estimates of average stocks and productivity remain very limited and thus, further work on the dynamics of dead wood in mangroves and the ecological effects of its removal is needed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T00:00:00Z
  • Forest Carbon Emission Sources Are Not Equal: Putting Fire, Harvest, and
           Fossil Fuel Emissions in Context

    • Authors: Kristina J. Bartowitz, Eric S. Walsh, Jeffrey E. Stenzel, Crystal A. Kolden, Tara W. Hudiburg
      Abstract: Climate change has intensified the scale of global wildfire impacts in recent decades. In order to reduce fire impacts, management policies are being proposed in the western United States to lower fire risk that focus on harvesting trees, including large-diameter trees. Many policies already do not include diameter limits and some recent policies have proposed diameter increases in fuel reduction strategies. While the primary goal is fire risk reduction, these policies have been interpreted as strategies that can be used to save trees from being killed by fire, thus preventing carbon emissions and feedbacks to climate warming. This interpretation has already resulted in cutting down trees that likely would have survived fire, resulting in forest carbon losses that are greater than if a wildfire had occurred. To help policymakers and managers avoid these unintended carbon consequences and to present carbon emission sources in the same context, we calculate western United States forest fire carbon emissions and compare them with harvest and fossil fuel emissions (FFE) over the same timeframe. We find that forest fire carbon emissions are on average only 6% of anthropogenic FFE over the past decade. While wildfire occurrence and area burned have increased over the last three decades, per area fire emissions for extreme fire events are relatively constant. In contrast, harvest of mature trees releases a higher density of carbon emissions (e.g., per unit area) relative to wildfire (150–800%) because harvest causes a higher rate of tree mortality than wildfire. Our results show that increasing harvest of mature trees to save them from fire increases emissions rather than preventing them. Shown in context, our results demonstrate that reducing FFEs will do more for climate mitigation potential (and subsequent reduction of fire) than increasing extractive harvest to prevent fire emissions. On public lands, management aimed at less-intensive fuels reduction (such as removal of “ladder” fuels, i.e., shrubs and small-diameter trees) will help to balance reducing catastrophic fire and leave live mature trees on the landscape to continue carbon uptake.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
  • Assessing the Welfare Impacts of Forest Ecosystem Service Management
           Policies and Their Distributional Rules

    • Authors: Ilda Dreoni, Henri Utila, Clive Neil, Felix Eigenbrod, Marije Schaafsma
      Abstract: Community based management (CBM) is widely advocated as an effective method for governing and managing ecosystem services (ES). However, the distributional rules and maximum harvesting levels are likely to affect both the effectiveness of CBMs in maintaining ES and the fairness and equity of access to these ES. This article proposes a methodological approach for investigating normative trade-offs involved in CBM of forests, where forest conservation objectives need to be traded off against livelihoods objectives. The study uses remote sensing methods to quantify forest ES supply in Namizimu Forest Reserve in Malawi, and links this to demand for ES within the villages near the reserve. It then investigates how a plausible set of CBM rules can be developed to cap consumption of forest products to sustainable amount and quantifies, by using monetary valuation techniques, how these set of rules may affect the total well-being of local population. Our results demonstrate that, due to the spatial mismatches between demand and supply, the distribution of provisioning ES to the population across the harvesting area is unequal in biophysical terms. The current available stock of forest products is sufficient to cover the current demand, however, it is higher than the mean annual increment indicating that this level of consumption is ecologically unsustainable and will lead to forest degradation as shown under the business-as-usual scenario. We then examined the impact of governance and how CBM rules to allocate forest ES to different social groups (poor and rich) under a co-management regime will affect total societal welfare. We found that the distributional scenario that maximises total societal welfare expressed in monetary terms across the whole harvesting area is the scenario that distributes 40% of biomass to the rich group while the remaining 60% is allocated to the poor group. However, this scenario maximises Willingness to Pay (WTP) at total level but does not maximise WTP in each sub-area of forest but just for those that have a high availability for biomass. This indicates that the distributional rules that maximise total welfare at aggregate level may not maximise welfare at local level where constraints from biomass availability require to restrict further the distribution of forest products. When biomass availability is low, total societal welfare is maximised with distributional rules that distribute more trees to richer. Yet, a policymaker may choose a distributional rule that distribute more trees to the poor on normative grounds and forego the objective of maximising total welfare. In such cases the WTP analysis outlined in this paper can support the policymaker in choosing the distributional rule that minimise trade-offs between efficiency, i.e., maximising total welfare, and livelihoods objectives.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T00:00:00Z
  • Forest Proximity Positively Affects Natural Enemy Mediated Control of Fall
           Armyworm in Southern Africa

    • Authors: Juliet Clarkson, Joli R. Borah, Frédéric Baudron, Terry C. H. Sunderland
      Abstract: The fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda) is a major crop pest in southern Africa. It threatens the livelihoods and food security of smallholder farmers in the region by negatively impacting maize yield. Although scientific evidence suggests that natural enemy-mediated predation can potentially reduce FAW infestation, the effectiveness of natural enemies such as birds, bats, parasitoids, and generalist predators on FAW is poorly understood. This study reviews existing literature to assess how birds, bats, parasitoids, and generalist predators’ control FAW infestation, as well as the role of forest or tree cover in natural enemy mediated pest control of FAW in maize in southern Africa. We then present a case study to examine the role of forest proximity in reducing FAW infestation in maize in Zimbabwe. We conclude that birds, bats, parasitoids, and generalist predators are likely drivers of the reduced success of FAW near forests in southern Africa. While predators influence FAW survival and development, their role is largely undermined by parasitoids, which are more efficient in affecting FAW populations. Birds, bats, parasitoids, and generalist predators play an important role in controlling FAW on farms in heterogenous landscapes with diverse vegetation and near-forest proximity. The findings of our case study from Zimbabwe suggest that the distance to forest had a much higher impact on FAW incidence than maize variety, planting date, or the rate of nitrogen applied. Lack of enough case studies from maize in southern Africa makes it challenging to assess the mechanism and the effectiveness of bird predation on FAW. For this reason, further research is necessary to examine how predation by birds, bats and arthropods and parasitism impacts maize yield. We discuss research barriers, recommend appropriate methods for experimental studies, and suggest possible management options to control FAW in southern Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T00:00:00Z
  • Sedimentation as a Support Ecosystem Service in Different Ecological Types
           of Mangroves

    • Authors: Siuling Cinco-Castro, Jorge Herrera-Silveira, Francisco Comín
      Abstract: Mangrove vegetation is strongly dependent on the climate, the physicochemical variables of the sediment, and the hydrological dynamics. These drivers regulate the distribution of different mangrove ecotypes and their ecosystem services, so the net sediment accumulation rates in different mangrove ecotypes in Celestun Lagoon, a karstic zone in the NW Yucatan Peninsula, SE Mexico, were estimated. The measurements considering mangrove ecotypes and their spatial variability concerning the lagoon's salinity gradient (inner, middle, and outer lagoon zones) in three climate seasons (dry, rain, and “nortes”) were realized. We registered the structural variables of the forest, interstitial water physicochemical characteristics, and sediment variables that could influence the net sediment deposition. Fringe mangroves are exposed to low hydrodynamism and show the highest sedimentation rate (3.37 ± 0.49 kg m−2 year−1) compared to basin (1.68 ± 0.22 kg m−2 year−1), dwarf (1.27 ± 0.27 kg m−2 year−1), and “peten” (0.52 ± 0.12 kg m−2 year−1) mangroves. The highest sedimentation rate was recorded in the rainy season (0.24 ± 0.08 kg m−2 month−1), while spatially, the highest value was registered in the outer zone (0.44 ± 0.09 kg m−2 month−1). If the extension of each mangrove ecotype is considered, dwarf mangroves have the highest annual sediment accumulation (1,465 t year−1 in 14,706 ha). The structural, physicochemical, and sediment variables of the sites by mangrove ecotype show that dwarf mangroves represent a distinct group from those formed by fringe, basin, and peten mangroves. However, the sedimentation is high in fringe mangroves at the front of the lagoon and diminishes inland where peten mangroves exist. The differences are given by tree density, but salinity, as a proxy variable of the freshwater influence, significantly influences the sedimentation rate. These results indicate that mangroves in karstic environments can have critical roles in confronting climate change, considering water and sediment flows are the basis of sediment accumulation. According to their hydrogeomorphological drivers, conserving, managing, and restoring the mosaic of mangrove ecotypes improves ecosystem services, including mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Tangled Roots and Murky Waters: Piecing Together Panama’s Mangrove
           Policy Puzzle

    • Authors: Sarah Chamberland-Fontaine, Stanley Heckadon-Moreno, Gordon M. Hickey
      Abstract: Mangrove forest policies are often characterized by their fragmented nature, as multiple sectors, disciplines, and institutional structures interact to affect mangrove conservation and management. This study analyzes mangrove forest policies in Panama, a country known for its rich mangrove coverage and, conversely, its high rates of mangrove loss, urban expansion, and coastal development. To complement the policy analysis, key informant interviews with national policy actors are used to gather insights on policy implementation challenges and potential multi-actor collaboration opportunities. Results suggest that despite the development of multiple policies targeting wetlands and conferring a high conservation status to mangroves in Panama, mangrove protection is challenged by competing governmental agendas and policy implementation gaps. Efforts to strengthen mangrove conservation and initiate participatory management processes were also found to conflict with institutional structures that struggle to include local communities and foster collective action.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Forest Fire History in Amazonia Inferred From Intensive Soil Charcoal
           Sampling and Radiocarbon Dating

    • Authors: Ted R. Feldpausch, Lidiany Carvalho, Kita D. Macario, Philippa L. Ascough, César F. Flores, Eurídice N. Honorio Coronado, Michelle Kalamandeen, Oliver L. Phillips, Richard A. Staff
      Abstract: Fire has a historical role in tropical forests related to past climate and ancient land use spanning the Holocene; however, it is unclear from charcoal records how fire varied at different spatiotemporal scales and what sampling strategies are required to determine fire history and their effects. We evaluated fire variation in structurally intact, terra-firme Amazon forests, by intensive soil charcoal sampling from three replicate soil pits in sites in Guyana and northern and southern Peru. We used radiocarbon (14C) measurement to assess (1) locally, how the timing of fires represented in our sample varied across the surface of forest plots and with soil depth, (2) basin-wide, how the age of fires varies across climate and environmental gradients, and (3) how many samples are appropriate when applying the 14C approach to assess the date of last fire. Considering all 14C dates (n = 33), the most recent fires occurred at a similar time at each of the three sites (median ages: 728–851 cal years BP), indicating that in terms of fire disturbance at least, these forests could be considered old-growth. The number of unique fire events ranged from 1 to 4 per pit and from 4 to 6 per site. Based upon our sampling strategy, the N-Peru site—with the highest annual precipitation—had the most fire events. Median fire return intervals varied from 455 to 2,950 cal years BP among sites. Based on available dates, at least three samples (1 from the top of each of 3 pits) are required for the sampling to have a reasonable likelihood of capturing the most recent fire for forests with no history of a recent fire. The maximum fire return interval for two sites was shorter than the time since the last fire, suggesting that over the past ∼800 years these forests have undergone a longer fire-free period than the past 2,000–3,500 years. Our analysis from terra-firme forest soils helps to improve understanding of changes in fire regime, information necessary to evaluate post-fire legacies on modern vegetation and soil and to calibrate models to predict forest response to fire under climate change.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Beech Bark Disease in an Unmanaged Temperate Forest: Patterns, Predictors,
           and Impacts on Ecosystem Function

    • Authors: Rosalyn Kish, Patrick M. A. James, Rachel O. Mariani, Jonathan S. Schurman, Sean C. Thomas, Emily N. Young, Adam R. Martin
      Abstract: Beech Bark Disease (BBD) is a devastating threat to American beech (Fagus grandifolia), spreading through eastern mixed deciduous forests of North America at unprecedented rates. Understanding how and why some beech trees escape severe BBD effects is important; however, the biotic and abiotic factors that underpin the progression of BBD within unmanaged forests at local scales are not well explored. We surveyed 651 individual beech trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) for BBD, in a 13.5-ha unmanaged forest dynamics plot in Ontario, Canada, where>46,000 trees have been identified to species, mapped, and DBH measured at ∼5-year intervals. For each beech tree, BBD severity was ranked on a 5-point severity index, which was then evaluated as a function of tree characteristics including DBH and relative growth rate (RGR). Most beech trees were at either the insect or fungal stage of BBD, with only 22% of beech trees being free of symptoms. Ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated both DBH and RGR were significant predictors of BBD severity. These models, along with both randomization and Moran’s Eigenvector Maps (MEM) analyses, indicated that DBH and RGR and their spatial variation accounted for ∼44.6% of BBD severity in trees. Our MEMs also indicated ∼4.2% of variation in BBD severity was associated with unmeasured spatial variables, which may reflect either the spread of BBD through our study site, or the influence of abiotic variables on BBD severity. At our site, BBD is responsible for at least ∼6.0 Mg C ha–1, or ∼6.5% of the average 92.5 Mg of aboveground biomass C ha–1, transitioning from the live to dead biomass pool. Our study enhances the understanding of the factors predicting the severity of a major forest pathogen in North American temperate forests, assists the integration of BBD severity risk into forest C budget models, and provides insight into how large-scale forest inventories can inform screening for pest or pathogen resistance in trees.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Wind Speed Controls Forest Structure in a Subtropical Forest Exposed to
           Cyclones: A Case Study Using an Individual-Based Model

    • Authors: E-Ping Rau, Barry A. Gardiner, Fabian Jörg Fischer, Isabelle Maréchaux, Emilie Joetzjer, I-Fang Sun, Jérôme Chave
      Abstract: Extreme wind blowdown events can significantly modify the structure and composition of forests, and the predicted shift in tropical cyclone regimes due to climate change could strongly impact forests across the tropics. In this study, we coupled an individual-based and spatially-explicit forest dynamics model (TROLL) with a mechanistic model estimating wind damage as a function of tree size, traits, and allometry (ForestGALES). We assimilated floristic trait data and climate data from a subtropical forest site in Taiwan to explore the effect of wind regimes on forest properties. We found that the average canopy height and biomass stocks decreased as wind disturbance strength increased, but biomass stocks showed a nonlinear response. Above a wind intensity threshold, both canopy height and biomass drastically decreased to near-zero, exhibiting a transition to a non-forest state. Wind intensity strongly regulated wind impact, but varying wind frequency did not cause discernible effects. The implementation of within-stand topographic heterogeneity led to weak effects on within-stand forest structure heterogeneity at the study site. In conclusion, the intensity of wind disturbances can potentially greatly impact forest structure by modifying mortality. Individual-based modeling provides a framework in which to investigate the impact of wind regimes on mortality, other factors influencing wind-induced tree mortality, as well as interaction between wind and other forms of forest disturbance and human land use legacy.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Fungi in a Changing World

    • Authors: Mark A. Anthony, Adriana L. Romero-Olivares, Camille Truong
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T00:00:00Z
  • Replicated Spatial Point Pattern Analyses for Ecological Inference: A
           Tutorial Using the RSPPlme4 Package in R

    • Authors: Robert Bagchi, Michael C. LaScaleia, Valerie R. Milici, Dipanjana Dalui
      Abstract: The analysis of spatial point patterns has greatly advanced our understanding of ecological processes. However, the methods currently available for analyzing replicated spatial point patterns (RSPPs) are rarely used by ecologists. One barrier to the use of RSPP analyses is a lack of software to implement the approaches that have been developed in the statistical literature. Here, we provide a practical guide to RSPP analysis and introduce the RSPPlme4 R package that implements the approaches we discuss. The methods we outline use a linear modeling framework to link variation in the spatial structure of point patterns to discrete and continuous explanatory covariates. We describe methods for linear models and mixed-effects models of RSPPs, including approaches to estimating confidence intervals via semi-parametric bootstrapping. The syntax for model fitting is similar to that used in linear and linear mixed-effects modeling packages in R. The RSPPlme4 package also allows users to easily plot the results of model fits. We hope that this tutorial will make methods for RSPP analysis accessible to a wide range of ecologists and open new avenues for gaining insight into ecological processes from spatial data.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
  • Predictive Ecological Land Classification From Multi-Decadal Satellite

    • Authors: Daniel Sousa, Frank W. Davis, Kelly Easterday, Mark Reynolds, Laura Riege, H. Scott Butterfield, Moses Katkowski
      Abstract: Ecological land classifications serve diverse purposes including sample stratification, inventory, impact assessment and environmental planning. While popular, data-driven classification approaches can require large training samples, frequently with limited robustness to rapid environmental change. We evaluate the potential to derive useful, durable ecological land classifications from a synthesis of multi-decadal satellite imagery and geospatial environmental data. Using random forests and multivariate regression trees, we analyze 1982–2000 Landsat Thematic Mapper (L45) and 2013–2020 Harmonized Landsat Sentinel (HLS) imagery to develop and then test the predictive skill of an ecological land classification for monitoring Mediterranean-climate oak woodlands at the recently established Jack and Laura Dangermond Preserve (JLDP) near Point Conception, California. Image pixels were processed using spectral and temporal mixture models. Temporal mixture model residual scores were highly correlated with oak canopy cover trends between 2012 and 2020 (r2 = 0.74, p
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
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Heriot-Watt University
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