Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agroforestry Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.663
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0167-4366 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9680
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Plant species selection and impact on tree resprouts by semi-free ranging
           pigs in a temperate deciduous forest

    • Abstract: Abstract Silvopastoral systems with grazing pigs are mainly concentrated in Mediterranean regions, for instance in Iberian dehesas and montados. Conversely, in European deciduous forests, outdoor pig farming has almost disappeared, despite it could provide several environmental and socioeconomic benefits. For instance, pig grazing could be used for habitat restoration and conservation, while providing high quality meat products and promoting local breeds. In this study, we investigated (i) the plant species selection and (ii) the impact on tree resprouts (after a silvicultural cut) by semi-free ranging pigs in a degraded oak temperate forest in Northwestern Italy. We monitored pigs foraging behavior by direct observations and discriminated the plant species into three groups: preferred, indifferently consumed and avoided plants. The impact on the resprouts of six tree species was assessed by modeling the percentage of damaged shoots and their height through time using Generalized Linear and Additive Mixed Models. Swine expressed a selective foraging behavior, which was likely influenced by the forage quality and toxicity of plant species. The leaves and resprouts of Corylus avellana and Castanea sativa were highly consumed, whereas Acer and Quercus species and Fraxinus ornus were avoided. Mature leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia were highly preferred while its young resprouts were only slightly impacted, suggesting that pig grazing may not be effective to control this alien invasive species. Contrarily, pigs consumed Rubus sp. abundantly, suggesting they could be used to clear the understory in degraded forests.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
  • Traditional oases in Northern Africa as multifunctional agroforestry
           systems: a systematic literature review of the provided Ecosystem Services
           and of the main vulnerabilities

    • Abstract: Abstract Traditional oases represent unique forms of adaptation to extreme environmental conditions, developed through the centuries by local farmers to support their livelihood, combining different crops (date palms, fruit trees, vegetables and fodder) with livestock breeding. Despite their social, economic and cultural importance, these agroforestry systems are currently facing multiple socio-environmental threats. The aim of the paper is to investigate the variety of Ecosystem Services (ES) and the main threats related to traditional oases in Northern Africa through a systematic literature review. The search returned 257 relevant papers published from 2005 to March 2022, mostly focusing on Tunisian oases (37%), followed by Algerian (23%), Moroccan (19%), Egyptian (17%), and Libyan (4%). Provisioning Services, in particular Genetic diversity, agrobiodiversity and biodiversity, are the most cited ES (36% of the papers) followed by Cultural Services, mainly represented by Traditional knowledge systems, cultural heritage and sense of place (17%), while Regulating Services are less considered. Results highlighted that water related issues (desertification, drought, salinization or overexploitation) represent the main threat, followed by decrease of agrobiodiversity, primarily due to the spread of monocultures of commercial date varieties, and by social transformations (depopulation, traditional knowledge and cultural heritage loss). The literature review proved that traditional oases are still crucial for the livelihood of local communities since they still provide many ES. Local experiences related to sustainable development and tourism, or innovative solutions to valorize local products and byproducts, could be important for replication in other traditional oases to contribute to the wellbeing of local communities and to the preservation of these agroecosystems.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
  • Farmers’ willingness to adopt silvopastoral systems: investigating
           cattle producers’ compensation claims and attitudes using a contingent
           valuation approach

    • Abstract: Abstract Intensive cattle production systems are currently a major contributor to CO2 emissions and biodiversity loss. Silvopastoral systems that combine foraging pastures and trees into an integrated system for raising livestock have been suggested a promising avenue to store carbon and preserve farmland biodiversity. However, investments and maintenance costs for these improvements are paid by producers, who reap few of the environmental benefits. The objective of the present study was to assess farmers’ willingness to adopt silvopastoral systems by reforesting treeless pastures, their compensation claims related to adoption, and how both are affected by their attitudes towards silvopastoral systems. This study was based on a contingent valuation approach coupled with exploratory factor analysis to obtain measures of attitudinal constructs derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior. Results indicate that 52% of respondents were willing to adopt silvopastoral systems and the mean compensation claim per year per hectare is estimated at SEK 3107.17 (308€). Adoption decision is positively correlated with attitudes towards silvopastoral systems, suggesting that decision-making is not solely driven by profit maximization through concerns related to pecuniary factors.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
  • Modelling the spatial distribution of the classification error of remote
           sensing data in cocoa agroforestry systems

    • Abstract: Abstract Cocoa growing is one of the main activities in humid West Africa, which is mainly grown in pure stands. It is the main driver of deforestation and encroachment in protected areas. Cocoa agroforestry systems which have been promoted to mitigate deforestation, needs to be accurately delineated to support a valid monitoring system. Therefore, the aim of this research is to model the spatial distribution of uncertainties in the classification cocoa agroforestry. The study was carried out in Côte d’Ivoire, close to the Taï National Park. The analysis followed three steps (i) image classification based on texture parameters and vegetation indices from Sentinel-1 and -2 data respectively, to train a random forest algorithm. A classified map with the associated probability maps was generated. (ii) Shannon entropy was calculated from the probability maps, to get the error maps at different thresholds (0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5). Then, (iii) the generated error maps were analysed using a Geographically Weighted Regression model to check for spatial autocorrelation. From the results, a producer accuracy (0.88) and a user’s accuracy (0.91) were obtained. A small threshold value overestimates the classification error, while a larger threshold will underestimate it. The optimal value was found to be between 0.3 and 0.4. There was no evidence of spatial autocorrelation except for a smaller threshold (0.2). The approach differentiated cocoa from other landcover and detected encroachment in forest. Even though some information was lost in the process, the method is effective for mapping cocoa plantations in Côte d’Ivoire.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
  • Indigenous agriculture at the beginning of the twenty-first century: the
           Guaraní Mbyás minority conserves ethnoknowledge and agrobiodiversity
           within the remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    • Abstract: Abstract Swidden agricultural practices reflect a great deal of Indigenous and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge; however, such system and livelihoods are in decline worldwide and tend to disappear. This study aimed to survey the main characteristics of land use and agrobiodiversity of the swidden culture practiced by the Guaraní, in Serra do Mar (São Paulo state, Southeast Brazil). We likewise studied the socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Guaraní, focusing specifically on their ethnobotanical knowledge, to help conserve traditional agricultural practices in the deep tropics. A total of eighteen ethnobotanical surveys were carried out on 18 production units (10 × 10 m) in the cultivation phase after combustion took place. All species of agricultural use were indicated by the smallholders and identified to species level. Semi-structured interviews based on the design and diagnosis method World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) were carried out in either Portuguese or the native language with 48 smallholders in the village. Main topics discussed were the history of each sampled plot, socio-economic aspects of the production units, aspects of agricultural management to characterize the level of intensification, and forms of managing vegetation and criteria for making decisions about the maintenance of wild species in the agricultural plots. The ethnobotanical survey showed 65 varieties of plants for agricultural use, totaling 39 species, they are used for cultural-ritualistic, ecological, food, economic, medicinal, and ornamental aspects. Main crops found were corn (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Fire is vital for Guarani’s agricultural practices. Fields are small and occupy just 0.25% of the indigenous land. The Guaraní’s traditional agroforest systems are independent of external inputs and are important for conservation of seeds and agrobiodiversity. There are three factors that maintain the dynamics of Guarani’s agricultural systems, namely: religiosity, the network of kinships and the existence of legal owned territories. Swidden and slash and mulch systems are part of the maintenance of the cultural autonomy of the Guaraní, providing them with a way to obtain financial and food resources directly and indirectly from the biome in a sustainable way. Hence, protecting this ethnoecology guarantees the cultural, physical, and social existence of the Guaraní and likewise helps to conserve the remnants of the Atlantic Forest hotspot.
      PubDate: 2022-10-16
  • Collaborative agroforestry to mitigate wildfires in Extremadura, Spain:
           land manager motivations and perceptions of outcomes, benefits, and policy

    • Abstract: Abstract Wildfires are increasing in severity, and magnitude in the Mediterranean Basin in recent years, reaching a yearly average of 450 000 ha over the last decade. Drivers include climate change, land-use change, and land abandonment. Wildfire mitigation requires landscape-level action as impact to each parcel is affected by the conditions of the others. We conducted a case study of a regional-level initiative that develops community efforts to mitigate wildfires through silvo-pastoral agroforestry systems, using an integrated landscape management approach. This approach involves collaboration among stakeholders to achieve multiple objectives. In order to derive insights into its potential, we asked participating land managers: (1) What motivates their participation', (2) How do they perceive initiative outcomes', and as urban outmigrants with non-traditional goals are increasing in rural areas, (3) Do responses differ between rural and neo-rural participants' Our results show that managers feel highly affected by wildfires and are strongly motivated to reduce wildfire risk. Land abandonment and inappropriate policy were major concerns. The initiative was seen to have positive outcomes for individual participants as well as the region, and to stimulate community connectedness. We conclude that fit to local contexts, integrated landscape management can be a well-received approach to reducing wildfire risk. Agroforestry systems in Extremadura can act as “productive fuelbreaks” that reduce fire risk over extensive areas, while restoring traditional landscapes. We suggest that programs to reduce wildfire risk can also be used as a leverage point for financing rural revival and provision of multiple ecosystem services.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
  • Prospects and problems: considerations for smallholder cattle grazing in
           oil palm plantations in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Abstract Current Indonesian beef production only meets 45% of local demand. Increasing local beef production through integration of cattle production in pre-existing oil palm plantations is a possible solution to meeting this shortfall. The oil palm understorey provides feed, alleviating the need to convert additional land to agriculture. Smallholders are important contributors to both Indonesian cattle and palm oil production. This case study research seeks to understand key aspects of smallholder cattle management in palm oil production areas, to highlight opportunities and barriers to cattle integration. Thirty-nine smallholder cattle farmers from four villages in South Kalimantan were individually interviewed. The lack of alternative feed sources was the major driver towards the adoption of cattle production using oil palm understorey as feed. Cattle grazing was uncontrolled due to labour shortages and occurred in individually owned and ‘plasma’ plantations, with cattle penned at night where possible to avoid theft. Arrangements on land access and use between stakeholders are needed for systematic cattle grazing and to control cattle theft.
      PubDate: 2022-08-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00759-2
  • Soil CO2 emissions in cropland with fodder maize (Zea mays L.) with and
           without riparian buffer strips of differing vegetation

    • Abstract: Abstract Vegetated land areas play a significant role in determining the fate of carbon (C) in the global C cycle. Riparian buffer vegetation is primarily implemented for water quality purposes as they attenuate pollutants from immediately adjacent croplands before reaching freashwater systems. However, their prevailing conditions may sometimes promote the production and subsequent emissions of soil carbon dioxide (CO2). Despite this, the understanding of soil CO2 emissions from riparian buffer vegetation and a direct comparison with adjacent croplands they serve remain elusive. In order to quantify the extent of CO2 emissions in such an agro system, we measured CO2 emissions simultaneously with soil and environmental variables for six months in a replicated plot-scale facility comprising of maize cropping served by three vegetated riparian buffers, namely: (i) a novel grass riparian buffer; (ii) a willow riparian buffer, and; (iii) a woodland riparian buffer. These buffered treatments were compared with a no-buffer control. The woodland (322.9 ± 3.1 kg ha− 1) and grass (285 ± 2.7 kg ha− 1) riparian buffer treatments (not significant to each other) generated significantly (p = < 0.0001) the largest CO2 compared to the remainder of the treatments. Our results suggest that during maize production in general, the woodland and grass riparian buffers serving a maize crop pose a CO2 threat. The results of the current study point to the need to consider the benefits for gaseous emissions of mitigation measures conventionally implemented for improving the sustainability of water resources.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00756-5
  • Herb assemblage dynamics over seven years in different cocoa production

    • Abstract: Abstract Both agronomic practices and spatial position can determine the assemblage of herbaceous species. We assess the dynamics and the contribution of these two aspects over time to the herb assemblages of different cocoa production systems. Braun-Blanquet surveys were performed over seven years in a long-term trial in Bolivia to compare different cocoa production systems: successional agroforestry (SA) with no external inputs, organic agroforestry (OA) and organic monoculture (OM), both including a leguminous perennial cover crop, conventional agroforestry (CA) and conventional monoculture (CM), where agrochemicals were applied. Using general linear models and multivariate analysis we found that assemblages were mainly driven by spatial position only at the beginning. After this, a very dynamic selection process related to the different management practices took place, which became more stable over the years. We observed a decline in species in both the CA and OA systems, due to the loss of heliophilous species and the low number of new species established in them. The OM presented the most conservative pattern, with the lowest number of new species and species lost, due to the presence of the cover crop. Both the most intensively managed system (CM) and the most diverse and least intensive one (SA) had the highest number of new species recorded over time, which led to highly specialized assemblages, with worldwide distributed and herbicide resistant species in the first case and secondary forest species, in the second. We conclude that the promotion of organic management and agroforestry systems, especially highly divers and successional agroforestry sytems would favour herb assemblages with high conservation value and prevent the establishment of globally distributed species.
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00747-6
  • Abundance and richness of invertebrates in shade-grown versus sun-exposed
           coffee home gardens in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Abstract Complex agroforestry systems are suggested as a possible solution to reduce the effects of deforestation in the tropics while enhancing the livelihoods of local human populations. Coffee (Coffea spp.) is one of the most important commodity crops in the world that can easily be cultivated in complex agroforestry systems. Coffee agroforestry systems usually sustain higher biodiversity levels than sun-exposed fields while keeping similar levels of productivity considering the several benefits of growing coffee under a complex system. We aim to explore the richness and abundance of invertebrates in coffee home gardens in West Java, Indonesia by comparing 14 sun-exposed and 14 shade-grown gardens. We collected data in March/April 2019 via pitfall traps, pan traps, and beating tray in each field. We ran generalised linear models to assess whether the number of species and the number of individuals of insects differed between sun-exposed vs. shade-grown coffee gardens, and tested associations between main taxa. Overall, there was no difference in the richness (sun-exposed: 19.86 ± SE1.19; shade-grown: 19.71 ± SE1.19; Z-value = 0.12, p value = 0.904) and abundance (sun-exposed: 141.93 ± SE 3.18; shade-grown: 139.93 ± SE3.16; Z-value = 0.35, p value = 0.706) of invertebrates in coffee gardens, although taxa specific differences were present. Sun-exposed fields had a higher abundance of invertebrates considered as pests (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae, Ectobiidae; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Lycidae and Tenebrionidae; Diptera: Anisolabididae, Drosophilidae and Sarcophagidae). Camponotus spp. were the most dominant ants in shade-grown gardens while Dolichoderus spp. and Myrmicaria spp. were more abundant in sun-exposed gardens. Despite the fact that sun-exposed coffee fields registered higher abundance of invertebrate pests than shade-grown coffee fields, the richness of invertebrates did not substantially vary between sun-exposed and shade-grown coffee, suggesting that the matrix of gardens offers advanced ecosystem services. It is important to keep the complexity of agroforestry systems that provide key habitats for biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00744-9
  • Moderate shading did not affect barley yield in temperate silvoarable
           agroforestry systems

    • Abstract: Abstract With climate change and an increasing global human population, the concept of agroforestry is gaining economic and environmental interest. The practice of growing trees and crops on the same land is mainly applied in (sub)tropical climate and rarer in temperate areas where farmers fear decreased understorey crop yields due to competition with trees. However, whether competition is stronger below- (soil moisture, nutrients) or aboveground (light) in a temperate silvoarable agroforestry system (AFS) is not clear. The effects of different treatments of light, water and nutrient availability on crop production in two temperate AFS in Central Switzerland were investigated, where summer barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown as understorey crop under 90%, 40% and 0% shade nets, with and without irrigation and/or fertilisation in a fully factorial design. Yield was reduced by 26% under heavy shade; yield reductions under moderate shade were not significant. Fertilisation and irrigation increased crop yield by 13% and 6–9%, respectively, independent from shade. Individual seed mass was significantly increased by fertilisation from an average of 0.041 g (± 0.008 SD) in unfertilised treatments to an average of 0.048 g (± 0.010) in fertilised treatments. Fertilisation had the biggest impact on total seed number (p < 0.001) with on average 36 (± 26) seeds per individual in unfertilised plots and 61 (± 33) in fertilised plots. This study demonstrates that moderate shade (as can be expected in modern AFS) was not a major limiting factor for barley yield in these two AFS in Switzerland, indicating that AFS with appropriate management combined with suitable selection of understorey crops are an option for agricultural production in temperate regions without significant yield losses.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00740-z
  • Economic outcomes of rubber-based agroforestry systems: a systematic
           review and narrative synthesis

    • Abstract: Abstract A systematic review was conducted to examine expected economic outcomes of rubber-based agroforestry systems during mature rubber stage in comparison with monoculture rubber farming. Twelve studies were identified for a narrative synthesis of economic outcomes of the mature rubber production systems. The review found that whilst monoculture rubber production may produce higher income in some cases, particularly when rubber prices are high, profitable diversified rubber agroforestry systems were reported in all but one study. Rubber agroforestry has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of smallholders to volatile markets for rubber, particularly if the share of income from secondary species is substantial. Shade-tolerant crops with small canopies (e.g. coffee, bamboo and tea) are reported as ideal intercrops for rubber. Economically advantageous systems reported appeared to be rubber combined with species which provide additional income in the medium to long term (e.g. sheep and high value timber) and/or enhance ongoing cash flow with a lengthy productive lifespan and regular harvests (e.g. durian and gnetum). However, these systems are subject to many constraints such as labour availability, investment and management capacity and market conditions for secondary products. The review showed an absence of farm portfolio studies aimed at finding risk reducing enterprise combinations. Future research on economic outcomes of rubber agroforestry systems should firstly distinguish traditional jungle rubber from rubber agroforestry systems which use clonal rubber similar to those used in monoculture rubber, and secondly consider the full value of secondary products even if they are grown for own consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00734-x
  • Support trees in vanilla agroforests of Madagascar: diversity, composition
           and origin

    • Abstract: Abstract Trees in agroforestry systems provide multiple ecological and economic functions. Smallholder vanilla agroforests include shade trees common across agroforestry systems, and small-statured support trees carrying the vanilla vine. Support trees have received little scientific attention so far. The objectives of our study were to assess the diversity, composition and geographic origin of support trees in vanilla agroforestry systems of north-eastern Madagascar. The region is a global biodiversity hotspot, has been undergoing a rapid land-use change and produces a large share of the globally traded vanilla spice. The studied vanilla agroforests differed in land-use history: established either directly inside forest (forest-derived) or on land previously used for slash-and-burn agriculture (fallow-derived). Among the support trees, we found 122 species of which 25% were endemic to Madagascar. The species richness per plot was four times higher in forest-derived than in fallow-derived vanilla agroforests. The species distribution was particularly uneven in fallow-derived vanilla agroforests with one species (Jatropha curcas) comprising 52% of all individuals. In forest-derived vanilla agroforests, 44% of all trees were native or endemic to Madagascar, whereas in fallow-derived vanilla agroforests only 11% were native or endemic. We conclude that there is a considerable diversity among support trees in Malagasy vanilla agroforestry. The support tree diversity is strongly affected by land-use history. Fallow-derived vanilla agroforests currently have a comparatively low species richness, yet they can play an important role in land rehabilitation, and more emphasis on growing native and endemic tree species would contribute to aligning production with conservation goals.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00733-y
  • Structure and management of traditional agroforestry vineyards in the high
           valleys of southern Bolivia

    • Abstract: Abstract In the south of Bolivia, a group of traditional wine growers are distinguished by the cultivation of grapevines on native trees that serve as tutors. These growers currently represent one of the few examples of agroforestry vineyards in the world. They offer an opportunity to analyze the structure and management of these cropping systems, and to identify the ecosystem services provided by the combination of grapevines that are trained on trees. We characterize 29 agroforestry vineyards located in three high valleys in southern Bolivia, describing the main farm features, the structure and management of the vineyards, and the advantages of on-tree vine staking as recorded by the farmers. Farms were small (2.2 ha on average), with about half viticulture and half other crops and forage. The workforce was about half family and half employees. The most commonly used tree species were the molle tree (Schinus molle) and chañar tree (Geoffroea decorticans), and the majority of grape varieties grown were landraces such as “Negra criolla” and “Vicchoqueña.” The main cultivation techniques were pruning of the trees and vines, application of manure more than mineral fertilizers, gravity irrigation, and application of few pesticides. The main services farmers expected from trees were protection against climate hazards and flooding, disease control, maintenance of soil fertility, and higher yields. Agroforestry is a promising option for the agroecological transition of viticulture, which deserves further studies at both plot and farm scales.
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00725-4
  • Modelling greenhouse gas emissions of cacao production in the Republic of
           Côte d’Ivoire

    • Abstract: Abstract The current expansion of cacao cultivation in the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire is associated with deforestation, forest degradation, biodiversity loss and high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global concerns about emissions that are associated with tropical commodity production are increasing. Consequently, there is a need to change the present cacao-growing practice into a more climate-friendly cultivation system. A more climate-friendly system causes lower GHG emissions, stores a high amount of carbon in its standing biomass and produces high cacao yields. GHG emissions and carbon stocks associated with the present cacao production, as assessed in 509 farmers’ fields, were estimated by using the Perennial GHG model and the Cool Farm Tool. On average, the production of 1 kg cacao beans is associated with an emission of 1.47 kg CO2e. Deforestation contributed largely to GHG emissions, while tree biomass and residue management contributed mainly to carbon storage. The collected data combined with the model simulations revealed that it is feasible to produce relatively high yields while at the same time storing a high amount of carbon in the standing biomass and causing low GHG emissions. The climate-friendliness of cacao production is strongly related to farm management, especially the number of shade trees and management of residues. Calculated emissions related to good agricultural practices were 2.29 kg CO2e per kg cacao beans. The higher emissions due to the use of more agro-inputs and other residue management practices such as recommended burning of residues for sanitary reasons were not compensated for by higher yields. This indicates a need to revisit recommended practices with respect to climate change mitigation objectives.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00729-8
  • Analyzing influencing factors to scale up agroforestry systems in
           Colombia: A comparative ex-ante assessment of cacao farming and cattle
           ranching in two regions

    • Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry systems (AFS) are proved to enhance sustainable land management. Thus, there is increasing demand for effective ways to scale up AFS so that more people can benefit. Consequently, this study assesses the scaling-up potential of agroforestry systems (AFS) using cacao farming and cattle ranching in Caquetá and Cesar, Colombia, as examples. An ex-ante assessment using the ScalA tool is conducted through interviews with AFS experts from institutions promoting AFS. Using a comparative approach, results reveal that AFS have different scaling-up potential depending on the type of farming system and location characteristics. In our case, it is slightly higher for cacao farming than for cattle ranching in both regions and it is higher in Caquetá than in Cesar for both systems. Factors hindering the scaling-up potential for both regions are economic conditions at the local and regional levels since there is a lack of stable and differentiated markets to absorb AFS products. In contrast, the scaling-up potential in both regions is increased by the factors related to the capacity of the organizations that promote AFS and the attitudes of local communities toward them. The study generates information about factors that may hinder or foster AFS scaling-up, including not just the capacities and mechanisms to promote them but also the enabling conditions. This contributes to prioritizing AFS interventions and better allocating their resources to increase their chances of successful scaling-up.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00730-1
  • Certification of açaí agroforestry increases the conservation potential
           of the Amazonian tree flora

    • Abstract: Abstract The harvesting of açaí berries (palm fruits from the genus Euterpe) in Amazonia has increased over the last 20 years due to a high local and global market demand and triggered by their widely acclaimed health benefits as a ‘superfood’. Although such increase represents a financial boom for local communities, unregulated extraction in Amazonia risks negative environmental effects including biodiversity loss through açai intensification and deforestation. Alternatively, the introduction of certified sustainable agroforestry production programs of açaí has been strategically applied to reduce the exploitation of Amazonian forests. Local açaí producers are required to follow principles of defined sustainable management practices, environmental guidelines, and social behaviors, paying specific attention to fair trade and human rights. In this study we investigate whether sustainable agroforestry and certification effectively promotes biodiversity conservation in Amazonia. To address this question, we conducted a forestry inventory in two hectares of long-term certified açai harvesting areas to gain further knowledge on the plant diversity and forest structure in açaí managed forests and to understand the contribution of certification towards sustainable forest management. On average, we found that certified managed forests harbor 50% more tree species than non-certified açaí groves. Trees in certified areas also have significantly higher mean basal area, meaning larger and hence older individuals are more likely to be protected. Certified harvesting sites also harbor dense populations of threatened species as classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (e.g. Virola surinamensis, classified as ‘endangered’). Besides increasing the knowledge of plant diversity in açaí managed areas, we present baseline information for monitoring the impact of harvesting activities in natural ecosystems in Amazonia.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00727-2
  • Silvopastoral and conventional management of extensive livestock and the
           diversity of bats in fragments of tropical dry forest in Córdoba,

    • Abstract: Abstract The establishment of extensive livestock systems in the Colombian Caribbean Region has historically generated a strong loss of the tropical dry forest (TDF) with negative effects on biodiversity. Currently, the implementation of silvopastoral systems (SPS) has been proposed with strategy to curb the loss of biodiversity caused by the conventional management system (CS). The objective was to evaluate the effect of SPS and CS of extensive livestock on the assemblage of bats associated with fragments of TDF. During a continuous year and a sampling effort of 30,240 h-net/night, the structure and composition of bat assemblage between SPS and CS were compared. 2788 bats belonging to six families, 23 genera, and 39 species were captured. The Phyllostomidae family presented the highest species richness (S = 30), with the greatest abundance in the Stenodermatinae subfamily (n = 1543). Bat assemblage in the SPS fragments was more equitable; and the relative abundance per species, per genera, and per foraging guilds was also significantly higher. The capture success showed significant variations between the climatic seasons (dry and rainy). The rate of species turnover was higher in the CS fragments. The species Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Carollia castanea, Phyllostomus discolor, Dermanura phaeotis, Uroderma convexum, Glossophaga soricina, C. brevicauda, and Sturnira lilium accounted for 92% of the captures. In conclusion, frugivorous bats were more abundant in the SPS, type of extensive livestock management that can generate greater temporal stability of bat assemblage. This research provides the first scientific evidence of the positive effect of silvopastoral management on the diversity of bats in tropical dry forest areas of the Colombian Caribbean region.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00698-4
  • Evaluating tree growth factors into species-specific functional soil maps
           for improved agroforestry system efficiency

    • Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry systems play an important role in sustainable agroecosystems. However, accurately and adequately quantifying the relationships between environmental factors and tree growth in these systems are still lacking. Objectives of this study were to quantify environmental factors affecting growth of four tree species and to develop functional soil maps (FSM) for each species in an agroforestry site. The diameter at breast height, absolute growth rate (AGR), and neighborhood competition index of 259 trees from four species (northern red oak [Quercus rubra], pecan [Carya illinoinensis], cottonwood [Populus deltoides], and sycamore [Platanus occidentalis]) were determined. A total of 51 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed, and 12 terrain attributes were derived from the digital elevation model. The relationships between AGR, soil, topography, and tree size were analyzed using Spearman correlation. Based on correlation analysis, FSM for each species were generated using the k-means cluster method by overlaying correlated soil and terrain attribute maps. Results showed tree size and terrain attributes were driving factors affecting tree growth rate relative to soil properties. The spatial variations in AGR among functional units were statistically compared within tree species and the areas with larger AGR were identified by the FSM. This study demonstrated that FSM could delineate areas with different AGR for the oak, cottonwood, and sycamore trees. The AGR of pecan trees did not vary among functional units. The generated FSM may allow land managers to more precisely establish and manage agroforestry systems.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00693-9
  • Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) fodder cutting management in the Guinea Savanna
           Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana

    • Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the effect of cutting regime on biomass yield and nutrient composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) fodder in the Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana. Three cutting regimes (12, 16 and 20 Week After Planting [WAP]) in RCBD were imposed on Cajanus cajan at both initial establishment and regrowth. At each harvest, biomass yield was estimated after which samples of the fodder were separated into leaf and stem botanical fractions for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Cutting regime significantly affected plant height, number of branches and stem diameter in both the initial establishment and regrowth. Biomass yield was significantly affected by cutting regime in the initial establishment but not the regrowth. The biomass yield was highest in the harvest at 20WAP (6515kgDM/ha) while 12WAP (3175 kg/ha) recorded the lowest biomass yield in the initial establishment. All chemical composition parameters were significantly affected by cutting regime and botanical fractions except hemicellulose in the initial establishment. Cutting regime also significantly affected DM, CP and ash concentrations in the regrowth with botanical fraction significantly (P < 0.05) influencing CP, NDF, ADF and ash. The highest CP was obtained in the leaf fraction harvested at 12 WAP and 20 WAP in the initial establishment and regrowth respectively. Cutting regime, botanical fraction and their interaction were significant in gas produced at 24 h, SCFA and ME in both the initial establishment and regrowth stages. In conclusion, harvest at 20WAP produced the highest biomass yield but lower CP in the initial establishment whiles in the regrowth, harvest at 20WAP produced higher biomass yield, CP and ME.
      PubDate: 2021-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00679-7
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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