Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agroforestry Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.663
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 15  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0167-4366 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9680
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Abundance and richness of invertebrates in shade-grown versus sun-exposed
           coffee home gardens in Indonesia

    • Abstract: Abstract Complex agroforestry systems are suggested as a possible solution to reduce the effects of deforestation in the tropics while enhancing the livelihoods of local human populations. Coffee (Coffea spp.) is one of the most important commodity crops in the world that can easily be cultivated in complex agroforestry systems. Coffee agroforestry systems usually sustain higher biodiversity levels than sun-exposed fields while keeping similar levels of productivity considering the several benefits of growing coffee under a complex system. We aim to explore the richness and abundance of invertebrates in coffee home gardens in West Java, Indonesia by comparing 14 sun-exposed and 14 shade-grown gardens. We collected data in March/April 2019 via pitfall traps, pan traps, and beating tray in each field. We ran generalised linear models to assess whether the number of species and the number of individuals of insects differed between sun-exposed vs. shade-grown coffee gardens, and tested associations between main taxa. Overall, there was no difference in the richness (sun-exposed: 19.86 ± SE1.19; shade-grown: 19.71 ± SE1.19; Z-value = 0.12, p value = 0.904) and abundance (sun-exposed: 141.93 ± SE 3.18; shade-grown: 139.93 ± SE3.16; Z-value = 0.35, p value = 0.706) of invertebrates in coffee gardens, although taxa specific differences were present. Sun-exposed fields had a higher abundance of invertebrates considered as pests (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae, Ectobiidae; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Lycidae and Tenebrionidae; Diptera: Anisolabididae, Drosophilidae and Sarcophagidae). Camponotus spp. were the most dominant ants in shade-grown gardens while Dolichoderus spp. and Myrmicaria spp. were more abundant in sun-exposed gardens. Despite the fact that sun-exposed coffee fields registered higher abundance of invertebrate pests than shade-grown coffee fields, the richness of invertebrates did not substantially vary between sun-exposed and shade-grown coffee, suggesting that the matrix of gardens offers advanced ecosystem services. It is important to keep the complexity of agroforestry systems that provide key habitats for biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
  • Moderate shading did not affect barley yield in temperate silvoarable
           agroforestry systems

    • Abstract: Abstract With climate change and an increasing global human population, the concept of agroforestry is gaining economic and environmental interest. The practice of growing trees and crops on the same land is mainly applied in (sub)tropical climate and rarer in temperate areas where farmers fear decreased understorey crop yields due to competition with trees. However, whether competition is stronger below- (soil moisture, nutrients) or aboveground (light) in a temperate silvoarable agroforestry system (AFS) is not clear. The effects of different treatments of light, water and nutrient availability on crop production in two temperate AFS in Central Switzerland were investigated, where summer barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown as understorey crop under 90%, 40% and 0% shade nets, with and without irrigation and/or fertilisation in a fully factorial design. Yield was reduced by 26% under heavy shade; yield reductions under moderate shade were not significant. Fertilisation and irrigation increased crop yield by 13% and 6–9%, respectively, independent from shade. Individual seed mass was significantly increased by fertilisation from an average of 0.041 g (± 0.008 SD) in unfertilised treatments to an average of 0.048 g (± 0.010) in fertilised treatments. Fertilisation had the biggest impact on total seed number (p < 0.001) with on average 36 (± 26) seeds per individual in unfertilised plots and 61 (± 33) in fertilised plots. This study demonstrates that moderate shade (as can be expected in modern AFS) was not a major limiting factor for barley yield in these two AFS in Switzerland, indicating that AFS with appropriate management combined with suitable selection of understorey crops are an option for agricultural production in temperate regions without significant yield losses.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
  • Economic outcomes of rubber-based agroforestry systems: a systematic
           review and narrative synthesis

    • Abstract: Abstract A systematic review was conducted to examine expected economic outcomes of rubber-based agroforestry systems during mature rubber stage in comparison with monoculture rubber farming. Twelve studies were identified for a narrative synthesis of economic outcomes of the mature rubber production systems. The review found that whilst monoculture rubber production may produce higher income in some cases, particularly when rubber prices are high, profitable diversified rubber agroforestry systems were reported in all but one study. Rubber agroforestry has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of smallholders to volatile markets for rubber, particularly if the share of income from secondary species is substantial. Shade-tolerant crops with small canopies (e.g. coffee, bamboo and tea) are reported as ideal intercrops for rubber. Economically advantageous systems reported appeared to be rubber combined with species which provide additional income in the medium to long term (e.g. sheep and high value timber) and/or enhance ongoing cash flow with a lengthy productive lifespan and regular harvests (e.g. durian and gnetum). However, these systems are subject to many constraints such as labour availability, investment and management capacity and market conditions for secondary products. The review showed an absence of farm portfolio studies aimed at finding risk reducing enterprise combinations. Future research on economic outcomes of rubber agroforestry systems should firstly distinguish traditional jungle rubber from rubber agroforestry systems which use clonal rubber similar to those used in monoculture rubber, and secondly consider the full value of secondary products even if they are grown for own consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
  • Support trees in vanilla agroforests of Madagascar: diversity, composition
           and origin

    • Abstract: Abstract Trees in agroforestry systems provide multiple ecological and economic functions. Smallholder vanilla agroforests include shade trees common across agroforestry systems, and small-statured support trees carrying the vanilla vine. Support trees have received little scientific attention so far. The objectives of our study were to assess the diversity, composition and geographic origin of support trees in vanilla agroforestry systems of north-eastern Madagascar. The region is a global biodiversity hotspot, has been undergoing a rapid land-use change and produces a large share of the globally traded vanilla spice. The studied vanilla agroforests differed in land-use history: established either directly inside forest (forest-derived) or on land previously used for slash-and-burn agriculture (fallow-derived). Among the support trees, we found 122 species of which 25% were endemic to Madagascar. The species richness per plot was four times higher in forest-derived than in fallow-derived vanilla agroforests. The species distribution was particularly uneven in fallow-derived vanilla agroforests with one species (Jatropha curcas) comprising 52% of all individuals. In forest-derived vanilla agroforests, 44% of all trees were native or endemic to Madagascar, whereas in fallow-derived vanilla agroforests only 11% were native or endemic. We conclude that there is a considerable diversity among support trees in Malagasy vanilla agroforestry. The support tree diversity is strongly affected by land-use history. Fallow-derived vanilla agroforests currently have a comparatively low species richness, yet they can play an important role in land rehabilitation, and more emphasis on growing native and endemic tree species would contribute to aligning production with conservation goals.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00733-y
  • Structure and management of traditional agroforestry vineyards in the high
           valleys of southern Bolivia

    • Abstract: Abstract In the south of Bolivia, a group of traditional wine growers are distinguished by the cultivation of grapevines on native trees that serve as tutors. These growers currently represent one of the few examples of agroforestry vineyards in the world. They offer an opportunity to analyze the structure and management of these cropping systems, and to identify the ecosystem services provided by the combination of grapevines that are trained on trees. We characterize 29 agroforestry vineyards located in three high valleys in southern Bolivia, describing the main farm features, the structure and management of the vineyards, and the advantages of on-tree vine staking as recorded by the farmers. Farms were small (2.2 ha on average), with about half viticulture and half other crops and forage. The workforce was about half family and half employees. The most commonly used tree species were the molle tree (Schinus molle) and chañar tree (Geoffroea decorticans), and the majority of grape varieties grown were landraces such as “Negra criolla” and “Vicchoqueña.” The main cultivation techniques were pruning of the trees and vines, application of manure more than mineral fertilizers, gravity irrigation, and application of few pesticides. The main services farmers expected from trees were protection against climate hazards and flooding, disease control, maintenance of soil fertility, and higher yields. Agroforestry is a promising option for the agroecological transition of viticulture, which deserves further studies at both plot and farm scales.
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00725-4
  • Modelling greenhouse gas emissions of cacao production in the Republic of
           Côte d’Ivoire

    • Abstract: Abstract The current expansion of cacao cultivation in the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire is associated with deforestation, forest degradation, biodiversity loss and high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global concerns about emissions that are associated with tropical commodity production are increasing. Consequently, there is a need to change the present cacao-growing practice into a more climate-friendly cultivation system. A more climate-friendly system causes lower GHG emissions, stores a high amount of carbon in its standing biomass and produces high cacao yields. GHG emissions and carbon stocks associated with the present cacao production, as assessed in 509 farmers’ fields, were estimated by using the Perennial GHG model and the Cool Farm Tool. On average, the production of 1 kg cacao beans is associated with an emission of 1.47 kg CO2e. Deforestation contributed largely to GHG emissions, while tree biomass and residue management contributed mainly to carbon storage. The collected data combined with the model simulations revealed that it is feasible to produce relatively high yields while at the same time storing a high amount of carbon in the standing biomass and causing low GHG emissions. The climate-friendliness of cacao production is strongly related to farm management, especially the number of shade trees and management of residues. Calculated emissions related to good agricultural practices were 2.29 kg CO2e per kg cacao beans. The higher emissions due to the use of more agro-inputs and other residue management practices such as recommended burning of residues for sanitary reasons were not compensated for by higher yields. This indicates a need to revisit recommended practices with respect to climate change mitigation objectives.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00729-8
  • Analyzing influencing factors to scale up agroforestry systems in
           Colombia: A comparative ex-ante assessment of cacao farming and cattle
           ranching in two regions

    • Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry systems (AFS) are proved to enhance sustainable land management. Thus, there is increasing demand for effective ways to scale up AFS so that more people can benefit. Consequently, this study assesses the scaling-up potential of agroforestry systems (AFS) using cacao farming and cattle ranching in Caquetá and Cesar, Colombia, as examples. An ex-ante assessment using the ScalA tool is conducted through interviews with AFS experts from institutions promoting AFS. Using a comparative approach, results reveal that AFS have different scaling-up potential depending on the type of farming system and location characteristics. In our case, it is slightly higher for cacao farming than for cattle ranching in both regions and it is higher in Caquetá than in Cesar for both systems. Factors hindering the scaling-up potential for both regions are economic conditions at the local and regional levels since there is a lack of stable and differentiated markets to absorb AFS products. In contrast, the scaling-up potential in both regions is increased by the factors related to the capacity of the organizations that promote AFS and the attitudes of local communities toward them. The study generates information about factors that may hinder or foster AFS scaling-up, including not just the capacities and mechanisms to promote them but also the enabling conditions. This contributes to prioritizing AFS interventions and better allocating their resources to increase their chances of successful scaling-up.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-022-00730-1
  • Certification of açaí agroforestry increases the conservation potential
           of the Amazonian tree flora

    • Abstract: Abstract The harvesting of açaí berries (palm fruits from the genus Euterpe) in Amazonia has increased over the last 20 years due to a high local and global market demand and triggered by their widely acclaimed health benefits as a ‘superfood’. Although such increase represents a financial boom for local communities, unregulated extraction in Amazonia risks negative environmental effects including biodiversity loss through açai intensification and deforestation. Alternatively, the introduction of certified sustainable agroforestry production programs of açaí has been strategically applied to reduce the exploitation of Amazonian forests. Local açaí producers are required to follow principles of defined sustainable management practices, environmental guidelines, and social behaviors, paying specific attention to fair trade and human rights. In this study we investigate whether sustainable agroforestry and certification effectively promotes biodiversity conservation in Amazonia. To address this question, we conducted a forestry inventory in two hectares of long-term certified açai harvesting areas to gain further knowledge on the plant diversity and forest structure in açaí managed forests and to understand the contribution of certification towards sustainable forest management. On average, we found that certified managed forests harbor 50% more tree species than non-certified açaí groves. Trees in certified areas also have significantly higher mean basal area, meaning larger and hence older individuals are more likely to be protected. Certified harvesting sites also harbor dense populations of threatened species as classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (e.g. Virola surinamensis, classified as ‘endangered’). Besides increasing the knowledge of plant diversity in açaí managed areas, we present baseline information for monitoring the impact of harvesting activities in natural ecosystems in Amazonia.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00727-2
  • Silvopastoral and conventional management of extensive livestock and the
           diversity of bats in fragments of tropical dry forest in Córdoba,

    • Abstract: Abstract The establishment of extensive livestock systems in the Colombian Caribbean Region has historically generated a strong loss of the tropical dry forest (TDF) with negative effects on biodiversity. Currently, the implementation of silvopastoral systems (SPS) has been proposed with strategy to curb the loss of biodiversity caused by the conventional management system (CS). The objective was to evaluate the effect of SPS and CS of extensive livestock on the assemblage of bats associated with fragments of TDF. During a continuous year and a sampling effort of 30,240 h-net/night, the structure and composition of bat assemblage between SPS and CS were compared. 2788 bats belonging to six families, 23 genera, and 39 species were captured. The Phyllostomidae family presented the highest species richness (S = 30), with the greatest abundance in the Stenodermatinae subfamily (n = 1543). Bat assemblage in the SPS fragments was more equitable; and the relative abundance per species, per genera, and per foraging guilds was also significantly higher. The capture success showed significant variations between the climatic seasons (dry and rainy). The rate of species turnover was higher in the CS fragments. The species Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Carollia castanea, Phyllostomus discolor, Dermanura phaeotis, Uroderma convexum, Glossophaga soricina, C. brevicauda, and Sturnira lilium accounted for 92% of the captures. In conclusion, frugivorous bats were more abundant in the SPS, type of extensive livestock management that can generate greater temporal stability of bat assemblage. This research provides the first scientific evidence of the positive effect of silvopastoral management on the diversity of bats in tropical dry forest areas of the Colombian Caribbean region.
      PubDate: 2022-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00698-4
  • Seasonal dynamics on nutritive value, chemical estimates and in vitro dry
           matter degradability of some woody species found in rangelands of South

    • Abstract: Abstract Unlocking browse species in semi-arid regions can be a key to improving the livestock productivity. The research was conducted to assess the browse species variation in chemical composition and in vitro dry matter degradability as influenced by seasonal (summer and winter) changes. Leaves from ten randomly selected browsable trees from sixteen species (Vachellia karroo, Senegalia nigrescens, Vachellia nilotica, Balanites maughamii, Berchemia discolor, Berchemia zeyheri, Bridelia mollis, Combretum collinum, Combretum imberbe, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Dichrostachys cinerea, Grewia monticola, Grewia occidentalis, Melia azedarach, Ormocarpum kirkii and Ziziphus mucronata) were harvested before defoliation from the site in two seasons (summer and winter) and dried at room temperature and then ground for analysis. Two-way analysis was used to analyse chemical composition and in vitro ruminal dry matter degradability. Melia azedarach (343.7 g/kg DM) had the highest (p < 0.0001) CP content in summer. In winter, B. maughamii (210.3 g/kg DM) had the highest (p < 0.05) crude protein content. Combretum collinum (2.90 Mcal/kg) had a highest (p < 0.0001) metabolizable energy value in summer. Bridelia mollis, B. maughamii, B. discolor, C. collinum, C. imberbe, O. kirkii, S. nigrescens, V. nilotica, G. occidentalis and B. zeyheri had the same (p > 0.0001) dry matter degradability (DMD) 48 values across two seasons. In both seasons, most of these browse species have the potential to supplement low quality natural grasses because they go beyond the minimum requirement of protein and have coherent amounts of fibre concentration. There is a need to assess the bioactive compounds found in these browse species for the amelioration and also to maximize browsing of these species.
      PubDate: 2021-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00683-x
  • Importance of environmental factors on plantings of wild-simulated
           American Ginseng

    • Abstract: Abstract American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an herbaceous perennial plant native to the forests of eastern North America with a long history of use and harvest, and with a significant international market. To supply international demand, the plant is grown in the USA and Canada under artificial shade cloth. However, wild and wild-appearing ginseng roots command prices up to 100 times greater than roots cultivated in a field: $550–2200 (US$ dry kg) vs. $20–70 (US$ dry kg). Growing ginseng in a forested environment using a “wild-simulated” forest farming approach, where growers introduce ginseng into a forested environment and then let it grow with little to no intervention, allows forest farmers to access these higher prices and meet international demand. As climate change shifts growing conditions globally, there will be increasing opportunities for the forest farming of American ginseng internationally. In this study, we examined the main drivers of ginseng growth and development in a wild-simulated ginseng forest farm. We measured the range of environmental conditions and built statistical models to examine which factors were most important for ginseng vigor. We found that the amount of sunlight, even under highly shaded conditions, was the most important driver of ginseng establishment on the landscape, as well as ginseng plant size and development. Prior research indicates that additional factors including soil nutrient levels, moisture, and texture are important for the survival, growth, and development of wild and planted American ginseng, but our study did not show significant patterns of importance at this site. Our findings suggest that integrating silvicultural techniques such as forest thinning may enhance the productivity of wild-simulated ginseng operations while providing additional forest-based income with minimal impact on natural forest ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00705-8
  • Evaluating tree growth factors into species-specific functional soil maps
           for improved agroforestry system efficiency

    • Abstract: Abstract Agroforestry systems play an important role in sustainable agroecosystems. However, accurately and adequately quantifying the relationships between environmental factors and tree growth in these systems are still lacking. Objectives of this study were to quantify environmental factors affecting growth of four tree species and to develop functional soil maps (FSM) for each species in an agroforestry site. The diameter at breast height, absolute growth rate (AGR), and neighborhood competition index of 259 trees from four species (northern red oak [Quercus rubra], pecan [Carya illinoinensis], cottonwood [Populus deltoides], and sycamore [Platanus occidentalis]) were determined. A total of 51 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed, and 12 terrain attributes were derived from the digital elevation model. The relationships between AGR, soil, topography, and tree size were analyzed using Spearman correlation. Based on correlation analysis, FSM for each species were generated using the k-means cluster method by overlaying correlated soil and terrain attribute maps. Results showed tree size and terrain attributes were driving factors affecting tree growth rate relative to soil properties. The spatial variations in AGR among functional units were statistically compared within tree species and the areas with larger AGR were identified by the FSM. This study demonstrated that FSM could delineate areas with different AGR for the oak, cottonwood, and sycamore trees. The AGR of pecan trees did not vary among functional units. The generated FSM may allow land managers to more precisely establish and manage agroforestry systems.
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00693-9
  • Virtual pruning of 3D trees as a tool for managing shading effects in
           agroforestry systems

    • Abstract: Abstract Light is a limiting resource for crops within integrated land use systems especially those including woody perennials. The amount of available light at ground level can be modified by artificially pruning the overstory. Aiming to increase the understanding of light management strategies, we simulated the pruning of wild cherry trees and compared the shading effects of the resulting tree structures over a complete growing season, with fine spatiotemporal resolution. Original 3D-tree structures were retrieved employing terrestrial laser scanning and quantitative structure models, and subjected to two pruning treatments at low and high intensities. By using the ‘shadow model’, the analogous tree structures created diverse shaded scenarios varying in size and intensity of insolation reduction. Conventional pruning treatments reduced the crown structure to the uppermost portion of the tree bole, reducing the shading effects, and thus, shrinking the shaded area on the ground by up to 38%, together with the shading intensity. As an alternative, the selective removal of branches reduced the shading effects, while keeping a more similar spatial distribution compared to the unpruned tree. Hence, the virtual pruning of tree structures can support designing and selecting adequate tending operations for the management of light distribution in agroforestry systems. The evidence assembled in this study is highly relevant for agroecosystems and can be strategically used for maintaining, planning and designing integrated tree-crop agricultural systems.
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00697-5
  • Cacao, copoazu and macambo: Exploring Theobroma diversity in smallholder
           agroforestry systems of the Peruvian Amazon

    • Abstract: Abstract Over the past decades, the general trend towards shade reduction and intensification of cacao management has led to biodiversity losses. In the Peruvian Amazon, the regional government is heavily promoting crop conversion to shift from regionally marketed foods towards cacao (Theobroma cacao) and copoazu (Theobroma grandiflorum). While this shift is already visibly impacting the farming landscape and the lives of many smallholder farmers, little is known about the reasons that drive farmers to choose certain types of Theobroma species or cacao varieties over others. In this paper, we addressed how cacao farmers perceive and manage specific and varietal Theobroma diversity. We interviewed cacao farmers (n = 20) during a seed-exchange fair and adapted a version of the four-square analysis to explore which Theobromas are currently adopted by farmers and why. The native cacao variety (cacao chuncho) was the one cultivated by most farmers, followed by the more industrial clonal varieties. The source of seeds and seedlings for the most cultivated varieties was a mix of donations by public institutions (for clonal varieties) and informal exchange among farmers (mainly for native and criollo varieties, and species i.e. macambo (Theobroma bicolor) and cacauillo (Theobroma speciosum)). The cacao varieties incentivized by public institutions were the least desired for future investment. The motivations for farmers to plant Theobromas was mainly based on the perceived current and potential market, but their desire to invest in a given species or variety was also based on pest resistance, traditional use, farm diversification and taste. Copoazu and CCN cacao varieties are produced by many households in large areas, while macambo, cacauillo and the cacao varieties TSH and porcelana are produced by few households in small areas. Our study suggests that agroforestry systems that include alternative Theobroma species are multi-strata and more diverse than cacao-based systems. It highlights the risks of agrobiodiversity loss associated with the promotion of industrial cacao varieties, and the importance of seed and seedling access for the development of diverse farming systems. We recommend the expansion of local seed-sharing networks and the extension of public cacao-donation campaigns to neglected and underutilized Theobromas with socio-economic and environmental benefits, in order to make the local farming systems more diverse and resilient.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00610-0
  • Farmer-led approaches to increasing tree diversity in fields and farmed
           landscapes in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract Increasing tree cover and managing trees better on farms in Ethiopia supports livelihoods and the environment but most tree-planting schemes promote only a few species. This research aimed to understand farmers’ tree planting priorities in Oromia, Ethiopia and address challenges involved in meeting them. Tree species and planting niches were elicited through focus group discussions. Participatory trials compared 17 tree species across seven on-farm planting niches and seedling survival and growth patterns were evaluated. Farmers suggested a high diversity of tree species suitable for each niche with fruit species mainly selected for homesteads. The diversity of desired tree species is much higher than that typically available in nurseries or promoted by tree planting projects. Meeting planting demands was difficult because the existing seedling supply does not support diversity. Evaluation of tree survival showed striking differences among species, farms, agroecologies and planting niches. There was high variation in seedling survival amongst the tree species planted on 1893 farm/planting niche locations, indicating impact of local level risk factors attributable to management, biotic and abiotic causes. Growth differences of the six shared species common to both agroecologies across different niches, showed that the effects of species and niche were significant on growth. A farmer-led approach to increasing tree cover that couples understanding of species and planting niche preferences with appropriate seedling supply and management is proposed as a means to increase the diversity of trees in farmed landscapes.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-020-00520-7
  • Exploring transformational outcomes from donor investments in agroforestry
           research for development

    • Abstract: Abstract While many agroforestry research projects contribute to improving food security, livelihoods and management of natural resources, few have had a significant role in achieving transformational development outcomes. Evaluating the achievements and impacts of multiple research for development (R4D) projects improves understanding of how and why different development interventions work or don’t work. This paper evaluates the relative success of 15 completed agroforestry R4D projects, funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and analyses key success factors and other aspects that have contributed to differential project success. The evaluation found that six projects had achieved both high achievement of planned activities and had high impacts. The two key success factors considered by project scientists to have the greatest influence on project success were “good leadership and project management” and “collaborative scoping and design”, but the factor “links to impact pathways and user benefits” was also found to be a determinant of high achievement-high impact projects. The paper examines aspects of three most successful agroforestry projects, implemented in Eastern Africa, Vietnam and Papua New Guinea, that have enabled these projects to contribute to transformational development outcomes. These aspects included the development of simple farmer-friendly, locally-appropriate agroforestry technologies, the existence of supportive government policies and programs including effective mechanisms for dissemination of germplasm and tree-growing knowledge to farmers, the engagement of non-government organisations and private sector entities, and the willingness of the donor to invest in value-added product development, effective value-chains and market research.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-020-00516-3
  • Using a multi-stakeholder approach to increase value for traditional
           agroforestry systems: the case of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in
           Kilifi, Kenya

    • Abstract: Abstract The baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) is an integral component of many dryland farming systems in sub-Sahara Africa. Such traditional agroforestry systems can foster a variety of benefits; besides positive livelihood implications baobab can particularly address food security objectives due to its highly nutritious fruits. However, many bottlenecks persist inhibiting the broader potential of indigenous trees in farming systems and their increased utilisation and commercialisation. We suggest that traditional farming systems with baobab trees can be advanced by stimulating the emergence of local markets for baobab products while promoting businesses and innovations aimed at meeting the arising market demand. Increasing the perceived value of local agroforestry products in combination with facilitating additional commercialisation pathways will in turn lead to food security and livelihood benefits. Using a multi-stakeholder approach such considerations were put into practice in Kilifi, Kenya, by initiating a community-based enterprise development producing high-quality baobab powder and oil. Initial results demonstrate behavioural changes, an improved practical knowhow with regard to baobab management and utilisation, and an increased consumption of baobab, which may already contribute to food security objectives. Baobab is increasingly seen as a valuable resource as opposed to ‘food for the poor’ and a tree possessed by evil spirits. This may lay the groundwork for further value addition activities and enterprise development in the communities. With baobab being a common, yet so far underutilised feature of local farming systems in Kilifi, activities based on its increasing commercialisation can be complementary and easily integrable to prevailing livelihood strategies.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-020-00562-x
  • Farmers’ perception and reasons for practicing farmer managed natural
           regeneration in Tigray, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) is a rapid, low cost and easily replicated approach to restore and improve degraded agricultural, forest and pasture lands. The study was conducted in low (500–1500 m.a.s.l) and mid (1500–2300 m.a.s.l) altitude agro-ecologies of Tigray region assessing farmer’s perception and reasons to practice FMNR. Purposive sampling was used to select three peasant associations (PA’s) from each agro-ecology. Simple random sampling was used to select respondents from household heads practicing FMNR. There were 15 respondents from each PA. Total respondents used for the study in both agro-ecologies were 90. All the data required for the study was collected through in-depth household survey and group discussions. Forty two percent (42.2%) of the respondents had 21–30 years of FMNR experience. Seventeen percent of the respondents with FMNR experience were from lowland and 26% were from mid land agro-ecology. FMNR has been practiced for more than two decades in the study areas. In both low and midland agro-ecologies, motivation of the respondents to practice FMNR was the training received from expert’s (37.1%) and neighbors’ success (29.2%). In the lowland, respondent’s main purpose to practice FMNR was fuel wood and fruit collection (49%) while in the midland the objectives were for fuel wood (50%), soil conservation (47%) and fodder (47%). FMNR has enormous importance in the livelihoods of the rural people especially in providing fuel wood, food/fruits, construction materials and farm equipment.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-020-00546-x
  • Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) fodder cutting management in the Guinea Savanna
           Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana

    • Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the effect of cutting regime on biomass yield and nutrient composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) fodder in the Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana. Three cutting regimes (12, 16 and 20 Week After Planting [WAP]) in RCBD were imposed on Cajanus cajan at both initial establishment and regrowth. At each harvest, biomass yield was estimated after which samples of the fodder were separated into leaf and stem botanical fractions for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Cutting regime significantly affected plant height, number of branches and stem diameter in both the initial establishment and regrowth. Biomass yield was significantly affected by cutting regime in the initial establishment but not the regrowth. The biomass yield was highest in the harvest at 20WAP (6515kgDM/ha) while 12WAP (3175 kg/ha) recorded the lowest biomass yield in the initial establishment. All chemical composition parameters were significantly affected by cutting regime and botanical fractions except hemicellulose in the initial establishment. Cutting regime also significantly affected DM, CP and ash concentrations in the regrowth with botanical fraction significantly (P < 0.05) influencing CP, NDF, ADF and ash. The highest CP was obtained in the leaf fraction harvested at 12 WAP and 20 WAP in the initial establishment and regrowth respectively. Cutting regime, botanical fraction and their interaction were significant in gas produced at 24 h, SCFA and ME in both the initial establishment and regrowth stages. In conclusion, harvest at 20WAP produced the highest biomass yield but lower CP in the initial establishment whiles in the regrowth, harvest at 20WAP produced higher biomass yield, CP and ME.
      PubDate: 2021-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00679-7
  • Stakeholders’ engagement platform to identify sustainable pathways for
           the development of multi-functional agroforestry in Guadeloupe, French
           West Indies

    • Abstract: Abstract Social innovation is critical in shaping human-forest relationships and how farmers and scientists engage with each other to design sustainability transitions. This paper reports on the outputs of a participatory stakeholders’ engagement platform that was designed to draw on local farmers’ knowledge and experience in identifying sustainable pathways for the development of multi-functional agroforestry in Guadeloupe. Two participatory workshops were organised that aimed to gain insights into the reality faced by farmers, in particular: (i) their vision of the future, needs and aspirations; (ii) their understanding of barriers and enablers in relation to the sustainability challenges they are confronted with and; (iii) their framing of human–environment relationships in socio-ecological systems. Outputs of the activities were synthetized by the research team and represented graphically for analysis. Results show that while farmers envision prosperous multifunctional forest farms in the future, they have to face complex challenges that require solutions at multiple scales and suggest different types of innovation: social, institutional, market-based and technical. Farmers saw themselves as being part of the socio-ecological system and as custodians of the natural environment. We discuss the implications of those results in the context of the absence of a system of innovation for agroforestry in Guadeloupe and highlight the opportunity for a innovation ecosystem thinking approach that integrates better the agricultural and forestry sectors, but also between actors and scales of governance. Implementation of a Stewardship status would enable farmers achieve their vision and embrace a custodian role vis-à-vis the agroforest. Embededment of the stakeholders’ engagement platform and its enabling processes in the innovation ecosystem is key to achieve those objectives.
      PubDate: 2021-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10457-021-00663-1
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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