Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal of Forest Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.994
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-4677 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4669
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Correction to: Establishing a soil quality index to assess the effect of
           thinning on soil quality in a Chinese fir plantation

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      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Balancing stand productivity and wood quality in chestnut coppices using
           chronosequence approach and productivity model

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      Abstract: Abstract Trade-offs between high stand productivity and good wood quality exist for chestnut coppices and related wood-based products. The main objective of this study was to determine the most suitable duration (in years) of cutting cycles that maximizes stand productivity and preserve wood quality of chestnut coppices in a Mediterranean setting. To this aim, a stand-level growth model was developed to verify if wood quality of chestnut coppices at different stand ages varies when the rotation period is modified. Wood quality and stand productivity were analysed, using a chronosequence approach, in coppice stands in Southern Italy characterized by four cutting cycles (15, 25, 30, and 50 years). Results implied that the culmination of the mean annual increment occurs at 28 years, while the current annual increment culminates 10 years earlier. The MOEd values revealed a negative correlation with shoot age; however, a cutting cycle between 25 and 30 years might represent the best compromise for balancing stand productivity and wood quality. Results are discussed in the context of adaptive forest management.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Establishing a soil quality index to assess the effect of thinning on soil
           quality in a Chinese fir plantation

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      Abstract: Abstract Better knowledge and comprehensive evaluation of soil quality have important implications for developing sustainable forest management practices. The objective of the present study was to establish a soil quality index (SQI) that can be used to assess soil quality under different thinning intensities in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook) plantation in southeastern China. We sampled the soil in different seasons of the year from four plots subjected to different thinning intensities: low-intensity thinning (LIT, 30%), moderate-intensity thinning (MIT, 50%), high-intensity thinning (HIT, 70%), and control (0%). We analyzed 16 physical, chemical, and biological soil properties. The SQI was calculated based on total data set (TDS) and minimum data set (MDS) using different scoring functions (linear and nonlinear), integrating procedures (additive, weighted additive, and Nemoro), and weight assignment methods (communality and variation of principal component analysis (PCA)). The SQI calculated by the nonlinear weighted additive method with variation explained by the PCA performed better than the other methods. The SQI values were in the range of 0.26–0.64 under different thinning intensities. A significant increase in the SQI values was observed in MIT (53.2%) and HIT (40.8%) compared with that in CK. The SQI values also showed strong seasonal variability, with the highest values in the summer and the lowest values in the winter. Microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), soil organic carbon (SOC), and pH were found to be the most crucial indicators of soil quality. Our results confirmed that thinning exerts a strong effect on soil quality, and the studied SQI based on MDS was found to be an effective tool for assessing soil quality.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Comparison of single tree detection methods to extract support trees for
           cable road planning

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      Abstract: Abstract For the provision of various ecosystem services in steep terrain, such as protection against natural hazards, a forest must be managed, which often requires the use of cable yarders. The design of a cable road is a complex and demanding task that also includes the search for appropriate support and anchor trees. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and with what reliability potential support trees for cable yarding can be detected using remote sensing data. The detection of potential support trees was tested using 48 method combinations on 10 test plots of the Experimental Forest Management project in cable yarder terrain in the Swiss Alps in the Canton of Grisons. The most suitable method combinations used a Gaussian filter and a local maxima algorithm. On average, they had an extraction rate of 108.9–124.5% (root mean square, RMS) and a mean commission error of 66.0–67.2% (RMS). The correctly detected trees deviated horizontally by an average of 1.8 to 1.9 m from the position of the reference trees. The difference in tree heights was 1.1 to 1.6 m. However, for the application of single tree detection to support cable road planning in steep and complex terrain, too few potential support trees were detected. Nonetheless, the accuracy of the extracted tree parameters would already be sufficient for cable road planning.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • The effect of forest floor on soil microbial and enzyme indices after
           forest harvesting operations in Hyrcanian deciduous forests

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      Abstract: Abstract Changes in vegetation and forest floor are among the factors affecting the variability of ecological indicators of soil organic and mineral layers. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the effect of forest floor on soil microbial properties and enzyme activities of skid trails after skidding operations. A total of 216 soil samples were taken from three litter treatments (B; beech, B-H; beech-hornbeam, B-H-O; mixed beech with maple and alder species) on skid trails that were each assigned to three time periods (6, 10 and 20 years after harvesting). All combinations were replicated three times. 20-years since harvest, the values of TP, N, available nutrients, NH4+, NO3−, fulvic and humic acid were highest in the B-H-O treatment and then B-H > B. In contrast, BD, C and C/N ratio were at the lowest level in the B-H-O treatment followed by B-H < B. The highest value of soil microbial characteristics and enzyme activity belonged to B-H-O treatment followed by > B-H > B and 20-years since harvest followed by > 10 years > 6 years. Values of soil microbial respiration (15%), microbial biomass carbon (8.7%), microbial biomass nitrogen (15.4%), urease (10.2%), acid phosphatase (4.4%), arylsulfatase (8.8%) and invertase (6.9%) in the B-H-O treatment measured 20 years after harvesting were less than the values of the undisturbed area. According to the results, as an ecological response to soil disturbance after skidding operations in skid trails, planting a mixture of trees with proper litter quality improves soil properties.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Combined retention of large living and dead trees can improve provision of
           tree-related microhabitats in Central European montane forests

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      Abstract: Abstract Retention of habitat trees is a common biodiversity conservation practice in continuous cover forests of temperate Europe. Commonly, living habitat trees are selected on the basis of their tree-related microhabitats (TreMs) such as cavities or crown deadwood. Owing to the increasing frequency and intensity of climate change-related disturbances, habitat trees in particular are expected to experience increased mortality rates. This may impact the long-term provisioning of TreMs. Here, we compared the TreM occurrence on living and dead trees to investigate whether dead trees support more and other TreMs than living trees. We also hypothesized that a combination of living and dead trees results in the most diverse stand-level TreM composition. We surveyed the TreM composition of living and dead habitat trees in 133 one-hectare plots in the Black Forest region managed according to a continuous cover approach. We fitted generalized linear mixed models to identify the main predictors of TreM occurrence to predict their abundance and richness. Tree identity (as a combination of species and vitality status) and diameter were the main drivers of TreM abundance and richness, which were highest on dead Abies alba. Even though dead A. alba and Picea abies supported TreM numbers similar to those provided by large living trees, their TreM composition was significantly different. This suggests that dead trees cannot substitute the habitat functions of living habitat trees, but they can complement them to increase the overall stand-level TreM diversity, in particular through decayed, large snags.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Genetic variability of indigenous (Quercus robur L.) and late flushing oak
           (Quercus robur L. subsp. slavonica (Gáyer) Mátyás) in adult stands
           compared with their natural regeneration

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      Abstract: Abstract Slavonian oak (Quercus robur subsp. slavonica (Gáyer) Mátyás) is currently gaining interest in forestry due to forest restructuring in Germany caused by climate change. Slavonian oaks originating from Croatia have been introduced into Germany mainly in the Münsterland region of North Rhine-Westphalia since the second half of the nineteenth century. They are characterized by their late bud burst, long clear bole, stem straightness and faster height and diameter growth compared to indigenous oaks in Germany. In this study, the genetic differentiation of adult trees and their respective progeny of two Slavonian and two indigenous stands in Hamm-Westtünnen, was evaluated. Genetic diversity and structure were estimated using 23 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSRs) and 5 maternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs). The mean expected heterozygosity of 0.545 and allelic richness of 6.23 indicate high genetic diversity in the studied populations. The group of progenies (AR = 8.40, Ho = 0.524, He = 0.559, FIS = 0.064) shows similar levels of genetic variation as the adult stands (AR = 8.37, Ho = 0.513, He = 0.554, FIS = 0.075). The genetic differentiation between adult stands and progeny was low (FST = 0.013). Genetic assignment of individuals using STRUCTURE revealed that the studied populations were divided into two clusters. There was no evidence of extensive hybridization or gene flow between Slavonian and native populations, possibly due to the different timing of bud burst of the two taxa.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Growth performance and G × E interactions of Liriodendron tulipifera
           half-sib families across ages in eastern China

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      Abstract: Abstract To select genotypes with stable growth in diverse environments, tree breeders use multisite trials to evaluate genotypic stability and adaptation. Since genotype-by-environment (G × E) interaction effects vary with age, most multisite trials focus only on site effects, ignoring age effects. Liriodendron tulipifera trees are valuable due to their rapid growth and high-quality wood. Currently, multisite trials involving L. tulipifera plants are rare and the lack of data on G × E interaction effects impedes its selection. In this study, to explore the better performance and G × E pattern of L. tulipifera across ages, the growth traits (tree height, H; and diameter at breast height, DBH) of trees that were of five consecutive ages and grown on progeny-testing plantations were studied for 27 open-pollinated families at three sites. The results showed that the heritability of DBH was greater than that of H at almost all ages, and the individual breeding value ranking differed across sites and ages. The additive genetic correlations (rA) between different site pairs were relatively small and varied with age, indicating an age trend for G × E, and showed a difference in traits. It was found that the absolute differences in some monthly average climatic indicators correlated with the G × E. Based on a comprehensive analysis considering stability and productivity, four elite families were identified. These results could aid in selecting stable, adaptable L. tulipifera genotypes and provide a reference for evaluating G × E interaction effects in multiage, multisite trials of other tree species.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Large-scale geostatistical mapping and occupancy-abundance patterns of
           Cerambyx species threatening SW Spain oak forests

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      Abstract: Abstract Wood-boring insects are considered potential contributing/inciting factors to oak decline. Cerambyx cerdo (Cc) and C. welensii (Cw) are two sympatric oak-living large sapro-xylophagous longhorn beetles with different pest/legal status, whose larvae bore into living wood of healthy/decayed trees, and whose impact has increased alarmingly in recent years. We conducted a regional-scale multi-year (2017–2020) field study to model Cc and Cw distribution and to explore species-specific occupancy-abundance patterns. Records were obtained with 1650 feeding traps placed throughout the region of Extremadura (SW Spain) (41,634 km2) in holm, cork and pyrenean oak woodlands. Catch number (a proxy of abundance) was analysed through GLMMs, LMs and geostatistical interpolation (IK algorithm) to generate catch probability maps. Catch number was extremely variable between trees (traps), stands and years (Cc: 0–252, Cw: 0–219 adults/trap) with no repulsive interspecific association at the tree scale. Explanatory factors in the models (species, sex, year and host oak) and several interactions among them significantly affected catch number. As a whole, Cw was more abundant than Cc, but catch number greatly depended on host tree (Cw: cork > holm > pyrenean oak, Cc: holm > cork > pyrenean oak). Occupancy-abundance patterns were positive with significant occupancy x species interaction. Niche breadth was more than double in Cw (Levins’ BA = 0.42) than in Cc (BA = 0.19) and niche overlap almost complete (Pianka’s O = 0.98). Our large-scale pioneer study shows that Cc and Cw are widespread in SW Spain, but with huge host-mediated intra- and interspecific geographic variation in abundance, which has critical implications in population management/control strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Early-succession secondary forests following agropastoral abandonment are
           key winter habitats for the conservation of a priority bird in the
           European Alps

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      Abstract: In contrast to old-growth forests, early-successional stands remain understudied despite potentially harbouring species of conservation interest. With this work, focused on hazel grouse Tetrastes bonasia, a cryptic and indicator species known to select for close-to-natural forests, we evaluated winter densities, home range, microhabitat selection and diet, combining DNA-based mark-recapture and metabarcoding from faecal samples. In total, 216 droppings, collected over 2 years along forest transects in the Italian Alps, were successfully genotyped and 43 individuals were identified. Density estimates were similar to values reported by other studies in the Alps with an average of 4.5 and 2.4 individuals/km2 in the first and second study year, respectively, and mean home ranges estimated at 0.95 km2. According to habitat selection models and eDNA-based diet analysis, hazel grouse selected early-succession secondary-growth forests formed after the abandonment of traditional agropastoral activities. These forests, mostly composed of hazel Corylus avellana, Norway spruce Picea abies and Sorbus spp., provided winter food resources and shelter. The diet analysis also highlighted forest arthropods as a non-negligible source of food. Birds avoided areas subject to intensive browsing by ungulates; small forest roads seasonally closed to traffic had positive influence on hazel grouse (i.e. higher abundance of droppings), while roads open to traffic had no effect. Importantly, despite the high coverage of mature forest habitats of Community Interest (53% of our study area), droppings were more abundant in non-listed early-succession secondary forests with similar plant composition. Our results suggest that forest succession after agropastoral abandonment may be beneficial for some forest birds of conservation interest, while acknowledging its negative effects on the previous grassland biodiversity. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Guild-dependent effects of forest fragmentation in canopy arthropod
           diversity associated to Quercus deserticola

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      Abstract: Abstract Forest fragmentation is one of the main factors leading to biodiversity loss and negatively affecting arthropod communities. We analyzed the effects of forest fragment size and habitat type (forest edge x interior) on the canopy arthropod diversity of Quercus deserticola in the Cuitzeo Basin in Mexico. Six forest fragments where Q. deserticola occurs were selected and classified as (i) small (≤ 10 ha); (ii) medium (≥ 25 ha); and (iii) large (≥ 65 ha). In each forest fragment, ten trees were randomly selected: five at the edge and five in the interior of the fragment to sampled canopy arthropods using fogging techniques. We collected 12,739 arthropods representing 716 morphospecies grouped into 155 families and 16 orders. Differences in canopy arthropod community and species diversity were detected between fragment sizes. Canopy arthropod diversity was greater in Q. deserticola individuals from small fragments and the edges of fragments than in larger fragments and in the interior of fragments. Small fragments had highest phytophages diversity and lowest parasitoids and predator’s diversity. The opposite pattern was observed in large fragments. Our results confirm that fragment size and edge effects modify canopy arthropod diversity of Q. deserticola, disrupting interactions between guilds and trophic levels probably by bottom-up and top-down forces. We highlight the importance to conserving large fragments to maintain the unique arthropod community that is sensitive to the disruption of ecological interactions and functions in Mexican temperate ecosystems, which constitute the main center of diversification and endemism of oaks in the northern hemisphere.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
       
  • Species-mixing effects on crown dimensions and canopy packing in a young
           pine–birch plantation are modulated by stand density and irrigation

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      Abstract: Abstract Mixed-species plantation forests are of high interest both because of their potentially superior productivity and multi-functionality benefits over monocultures. However, how trees of different species interact at the canopy level in mixed forests remains unclear, even at young growth stages. We tested whether crown shape and size and stand-level canopy packing were affected by stand composition and how mixture effects varied with stand density and irrigation. We measured crown attributes in pure and mixed plots of two light-demanding species, silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a 10-year-old tree diversity experiment (ORPHEE). This allowed us to estimate tree-level crown volumes and stand-level canopy packing. We found that (i) at the tree level, stand composition influenced crown-stem allometric relationships in pine but not in birch, (ii) mixture led to greater crown and tree dimensions in pine, but to the opposite for birch, (iii) the changes in crown volume resulted in a higher canopy packing in mixed stands, only at high density and with no irrigation, i.e., under highest constraints for light availability but also soil water availability, contrary to initial expectations. This study sheds light on the effects of water constraints on the aboveground mechanistic processes that explain greater productivity in young mixed plantations, and improves our understanding of canopy packing in mixed stands.
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
       
  • Genetic diversity, genetic structure, and germplasm source of Chinese pine
           in North China

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      Abstract: Abstract Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.) is an important ecological and timber coniferous species endemic to China. In northern China, there are vast areas of plantations and natural forests of Chinese pine, but it is unclear the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and germplasm sources of artificial populations, as well as the genetic relationship between them. Here, using nine nuclear simple sequence repeats markers, we analyzed 1310 individuals representing 38 populations of main natural and artificial populations in northern China (Shanxi, Hebei, and Liaoning provinces). The results suggested that the population from “Taiyueshan” was the core of the natural populations of Shanxi Province. We found that there were geographical effects among Chinese pine populations, and there was a relatively stronger gene flow among Chinese pine populations with close distances (between natural and artificial populations). We confirmed that most of the germplasm of the plantation populations of Hebei and Liaoning probably came from the Shanxi natural populations, and the new adaptive variations and the strong gene flow “driving force” from local natural populations had brought the opportunity for Shanxi germplasm to invade Hebei and Liaoning provinces successfully. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for the scientific allocation, management, and utilization of Chinese pine germplasm resources and promote the efficient cultivation of artificial populations.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
       
  • Effects of climate and competition on crown width: a case of Korean pine
           plantations

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      Abstract: Abstract Crown width (CW) is an important individual tree variable commonly used to assess tree vigor and the production efficiency of stands. However, our understanding of the effects of climate and the combined effects of climate with competition on the variation of CW remains unknown. Therefore, this study developed CW models by nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) to explore these effects. Data were obtained from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc.) plantations in five forestry agencies in northeastern China. The results showed that stand basal area (BA), height to crown base (HCB), isothermality (BIO3), and annual precipitation (BIO12) were significantly related to the variations of CW. CW increased with increasing BIO12, while decreased with increasing BA, HCB, and BIO3. The hierarchical partitioning (HP) analysis showed that the relative importance of BIO3 was larger than BA, HCB, and BIO12. In addition, we found that competition altered the variations of CW responses to climate. Competition, tree size, and climate CW model (CC-CWM) performed the best performance in model fitting and prediction accuracy. Therefore, CC-CWM was selected to predict CW under future climate change. By comparing the eleven sampling methods with eighteen sample sizes, it was reasonable to select six medium-trees to estimate the random effect parameters. Our study provides evidence of the effects of climate and the combined effects of competition and climate on the variations of CW, potentially useful for the development of rational and scientific forest management decisions under future climate changes.
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
       
  • Effects of light transmittance on growth and biomass of understory
           seedlings in mixed pine-beech forests

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      Abstract: Abstract Seedling growth as well as aboveground and belowground biomass allocation is mostly influenced by Light Transmittance (LT) (%) through the canopy. The knowledge of how understory light conditions affect seedling growth and biomass of different species in mixed forests is not well documented. Thus, it is essential to quantify the effects of light on the growth and biomass of understory seedlings. Given their advantages over pure forests, these quantitative understandings are especially crucial in mixed forests with species whose light demand and shade tolerance vary. This research examined the growth responses of natural-origin Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.) and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) seedlings to LT (%) through the canopy in their mixed stands. Linear mixed-effect models were utilized to examine the influence of LT (%) on the seedlings. Moreover, allometric equations for estimating the aboveground biomass and belowground biomass of seedlings were developed for each species. Seedling height, and aboveground and belowground biomass after five years of germination were most significantly affected by LT (%) and tree species in the mixed pine-beech stand (p < 0.001). Biomass models for each species included different variable combinations of seedling height, root-collar diameter, LT (%), and their interactions. This study demonstrates the importance of canopy structure and overstory disturbances for the maintenance of mixed pine-beech forests since canopy structure significantly contributes to the understory light environment.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
       
  • Does leaf mass per area (LMA) discriminate natural pine populations of
           different origins'

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      Abstract: Abstract Tree provenance trials are believed to be a valuable tool for assessing the adaptive potential of a population to a changing environment and ultimately for predicting the populations that are best adapted to global warming. Here, the phenotypic plasticity of morphometric traits of needles and lateral shoots of pines growing in a provenance plot in central Poland was examined to assess the inter- and intra-population variability. No significant differences were found in the measured and counted morphometric features, i.e., needle length (NL), cumulative needles length (CNL), thickness (ST), volume (SV) and shoot density (SD), number of needles per 5 cm fragment of shoot (NN), dry weight of needles (NDW) and shoot (SDW), thickness of bark (BT) and wood (WT), pith diameter (PD), and needle dry mass per area (LMA) among three pine populations while accounting for their region of origin (inter-population variability). In terms of the above-mentioned features, individual populations differed significantly from each other, except for NN and ST. We also noticed a positive, significant relationship between LMA and ST in all studied populations and based on Euclidean distances of measurable or counted traits, three population groups were identified. We concluded that LMA, which is commonly used to quantify leaf structure, is helpful in differentiating intra-population variability.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
       
  • Tree neighbourhood-scale variation in topsoil chemistry depends on species
           identity effects related to litter quality

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      Abstract: Abstract Trees have a large impact on the topsoil chemistry and the strength and direction of this impact depend on the identity of the tree species. Tree species with nutrient-poor litter have the potential to degrade soil fertility, which is characterized by high acidity, low availability of essential nutrients for plant growth, and high levels of available Al and Fe. In contrast, species with more easily decomposing, nutrient-rich litter can ameliorate the soil quality. In this study, we are investigating the effects of tree species identity on topsoil chemistry on a small spatial scale. Our study site, situated in Białowieża Forest in Poland, replicates mature monocultures and two-species mixtures, using a pool of four tree species. Soil was sampled at a metre distance to the base of a tree and in the centre along a transect between two trees. We found that the total C concentration, plant available P and base cation concentration, and C/N ratio were all larger close to the tree. The pH was unaffected by the distance. We identified clear species identity effects on this distance effect. In particular, we found that the pH and base cations were affected more negatively by the proximity to a tree nearby nutrient-poor trees in comparison with nutrient-rich trees. However, no non-additive diversity effects in mixtures could be distinguished. Our results highlight the ameliorating effects of admixing nutrient-rich species with nutrient-poor species and the importance of tree species choice in regard to the topsoil chemical composition on a small within-stand scale.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
       
  • The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem evapotranspiration
           in boreal and temperate forests: a literature review and analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract In the context of increasing heat periods and recurrence of droughts, and thus higher soil water depletion, we explored and quantified the role of understorey vegetation in ecosystem evapotranspiration in boreal and temperate forests. We reviewed and analysed about 200 papers that explicitly gave figures of understorey vegetation evapotranspiration relative to different stand features and traits. Understorey vegetation accounted on average for one-third of total ecosystem evapotranspiration during the growing season. Overstorey leaf area index (LAI) is the main variable that drives understorey evapotranspiration through radiation interception. Most data show that below an overstorey LAI of 2–3, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem evapotranspiration increases exponentially, following the exponential increase of the climatic demand, i.e. potential evapotranspiration. Different factors have the potential to modulate this effect such as species composition and phenology, root distribution, and interaction with droughts. Consequently, managers must be aware that depending on understorey species present on site and stand structure, understorey vegetation can contribute significantly to a negative stand water balance.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
       
  • The quadratic relationship between tree species richness and topsoil
           organic carbon stock in a subtropical mixed-species planted forest

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      Abstract: Abstract Despite recent evidence from inventories and experimental forests indicating that high species richness among trees increases productivity and further improves soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, the mechanisms controlling the richness–SOC relationship are inconsistent. Hence, the optimal tree species richness required to increase SOC stocks needs to be further explored. Based on field observations from a subtropical mixed-species planted forest, which was established 40 years ago through a mosaic pattern of afforestation and natural regeneration, we examined the effects of tree species richness on the SOC stock and the chemical composition of SOC in the topsoil (top 10 cm layer). We found a quadratic relationship between tree species richness and SOC stocks. The threshold of tree species richness appeared between four and five. Tree species richness affected the SOC stocks primarily by increasing the quantity of leaf litter, and while decreasing the quality of leaf litter and fine root. In addition, tree species richness changed the chemical composition of SOC by affecting the chemical composition of the plant carbon, and soil bacterial α-diversity, thereby affecting the SOC stock. The trade-off between leaf litter and fine root C sources contributed to the quadratic relationship between tree species richness and SOC stocks. These results show that the mixing of 4–5 tree species can achieve a higher SOC level than having fewer or more tree species in a planted subtropical forest.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
  • First trial of a prototype chainflail delimber for the European short
           rotation poplar plantations

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      Abstract: Abstract Small tree size represents a main challenge for single-tree handling techniques and caps harvesting productivity in short rotation poplar (SRP) plantations. That challenge is best met by a shift towards mass-handling. Chainflail delimbing is one of the best solutions for multi-tree processing, but commercially available equipment is often too heavy and expensive for European operations. Therefore, an Italian company developed a compact chainflail delimber-debarker (CFDD) specifically designed for small-scale SRP. The machine was tested in Western Slovakia in early March 2022. The test included a five-days endurance trial and a controlled experiment on 16 carefully measured wood piles representing “strong” and “weak” trees, i.e. trees with a mean diameter at breast height (DBH) of 12 and 10 cm, respectively. The endurance trial was quite successful since no mechanical problems were recorded during the five-days period. Delimbing and crosscutting quality were as good as those obtained with a standard processor head, while log yield was generally better, averaging 42% and 68% for the “weak” and the “strong” trees, respectively. Productivity was on a par with the alternative cut-to-length technology options and can be significantly increased once the prototype will be further developed. In general, the new compact CFDD may become the best option for handling the small trees offered by underdeveloped SRP plantations, which cannot be efficiently harvested with the cut-to-length system.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
 
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