Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal of Forest Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.994
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-4677 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4669
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Anthropogenic deforestation and climate dryness as drivers of demographic
           decline and genetic erosion in the southernmost European fir forests

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      Abstract: Abstract A better understanding of long-term effects of climate and historical anthropogenic changes is needed to define effective conservation measures of endangered forest inhabiting managed landscapes. Diversification and distribution of Mediterranean firs are attributed to the global climate change during the Miocene and Quaternary as well as to the effects of human-driven deforestation. We evaluated the impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities in shaping the genetic diversity and structure of Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae), a relict fir endemic from SW Spain. We genotyped a total of 440 individuals from 44 populations by using two different molecular markers (cpSSRs and nSSRs). Overall, low genetic structure was found; however, incipient differentiation appeared within mountain ranges. Analyses suggest that the effects of isolation by distance and lithological or topographical diversity were not enough to structure the populations of the different mountain ranges. The combined role of genetic drift in the small populations and the anthropogenic action associated with forest management has shaped the current genetic pattern of this fir species in the study area. Demographic inference analyses pointed to a very recent synchronic divergence (eleventh–sixteenth century) of the ancestral A. pinsapo population into its current scattered distribution range. Although population bottlenecks were supported by several analyses, the conservation of this endangered species seems not to be limited by lacking genetic diversity, while threats of current climate change and habitat loss must be regarded.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • Distribution, hybridisation and morphological variation in Alnus rohlenae
           (Betulaceae) an endemic species of the Balkan Peninsula

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      Abstract: Abstract The diploid A. glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. is widespread throughout the European continent, except in the Iberian and Balkan Peninsulas where tetraploid populations have been discovered. We focused on the tetraploid species described as A. rohlenae Vít, Douda and Mandák that occupies the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, where it has likely completely replaced the diploid species. While the distribution range of the diploid A. glutinosa s. str. is well known, the exact distribution range of the tetraploid A. rohlenae is unknown. Here, we report the first exact distribution of the tetraploid A. rohlenae and the anticipated hybrid zones in which it is in contact with diploid populations using flow cytometry and morphometrics. Tetraploids are located primarily in the mountainous parts of the study area and towards the lowlands are gradually being replaced by diploids, forming a contact zone. We compare the main morphological characteristics of both species. Due to the geographical proximity of the study species, the morphological differences between them are clear outside the contact zones. However, within the contact zones, we recorded hybridisations that obscure the morphological differences between species, probably due to the presence of triploid hybrids.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
       
  • Clear-cutting without additional regeneration treatments can trigger
           successional setbacks prolonging the expected time to compositional
           recovery in boreal forests

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      Abstract: Abstract Clear-cutting is one of the most widespread forestry practices used in boreal forests. Clear-cutting of boreal forests in late successional stages could trigger reversion of successional trajectories back toward forests of earlier stages. Such successional setbacks could generate sustainability issues by prolonging the expected time to compositional recovery after clear-cutting. This could lead to overestimation of allowable cuts of economically important late-successional species if the occurrence of successional setbacks remains unassessed. Our objective was to assess whether clear-cutting without additional regeneration treatments has triggered successional setbacks. We studied post-clearcut successional trajectories by using forest inventory data in post-clearcut stands, in light of conceptual successional dynamics models. These data covered the actively managed boreal forest region of Quebec, eastern Canada, which is classified into two ecological regions, themselves subdivided into eastern (cool–wet) and western (warm–dry) sub regions. Clear-cutting triggered successional setbacks in half of these regions. Such setbacks could prolong, by at least an additional century, the expected time to compositional recovery after clear-cutting. To prevent the overestimation of allowable cuts of economically important late-successional species, foresters could monitor post-clear-cut successional trajectories to assess whether setbacks were triggered. Post-clear-cut successional setbacks occurred in the two western ecological regions where climatic conditions are warmer and drier than in their eastern counterpart where no setbacks occurred. Hence, sustainability issues brought on by successional setbacks may be exacerbated by climate change. Finally, furthering our understanding of the transformation of successional dynamics by anthropogenic disturbances will be essential to insure sustainable forestry practices.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • Morphological and genetic variation of Melolontha spp. from pine stands
           with different composition and proportion of admixed tree species

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      Abstract: Abstract Increasing areas of gradation, making it difficult or impossible to perform restorations and forestations, and as causing tree crown damage, result in the need to intensify monitoring of beetle populations. In order to support control activities, the study assessed the species structure, morphological traits and genetic variation in Melolontha spp. from five pine stands with different composition and proportion of admixed tree species. The study applied ISSR and COI methods and identified minor variabilities between the analyzed populations, which may be the effect of high gene flow and absence of complete geographic isolation. Our research indicated high population dynamics and the degree of its migration, as evidenced by the gene flow rate. Given the rapid spreading potential, current methods of countering pest expansion are rather ineffective. The species, morphological and genetic structures were found to be associated with the area of beetles’ occurrence, which may depend on the proportion and composition of admixed tree species, which beetles use for supplementary and reference feeding. This species showed higher values of the genetic variation parameter in areas dominated by M. hippocastani compared to M. melolontha. However, the opposite situation was observed in the area with M. melolontha dominance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Influence of volcanic ash deposits on the radial growth of trees in
           Central Mexico: the case of Parícutin volcano

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      Abstract: Abstract The impact of volcanic eruptions on humans and infrastructure has been significant and widely documented. However, the impact on forests covered by ash or tephra has not been as widely known or documented. This research evaluated the ashfall effects of the 1943–1952 Parícutin eruption on the radial growth of trees located near the top and flanks of the Tancítaro stratovolcano, ca.10 km southwest of the Parícutin volcano. We carried a dendrochronological sampling out in a temperate forest dominated by Pinus hartwegii and Abies religiosa trees. A ring-width chronology was built with 68 increment cores from 47 trees showed two statistically significant suppression events. The first event occurred from 1943 to 1946; it was caused by falling ash of the eruptive columns from Parícutin during the first 6 months of its eruption (February–June 1943). The second event occurred from 1818 to 1823, and it is attributed to the 1818 eruption of Volcán de Colima. The 1943–1946 suppression event observed in the tree rings demonstrates that trees are useful as palaeoenvironmental archives to evaluate the influence of volcanic eruptions in recent centuries in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results indicate that falling ash immediately impacted the growth of trees in intertropical mountain zones of the Michoacan state located in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field. Such impact means that future eruptions may cause damage to crops and trees at the local and regional levels. Our findings contribute to evaluating volcanic hazards and risks in areas with active volcanoes and monogenetic volcanic fields.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Effects of long-term nitrogen addition and precipitation reduction on the
           fine root dynamics and morphology in a temperate forest

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      Abstract: Abstract Fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) are the main organ for obtaining resources from the belowground part of forest and also act as a hub linking the ecological processes of plant and soil. However, in the context of global climate change, it remains unclear how fine root dynamics and morphology in temperate forests respond to increased nitrogen deposition and reduced precipitation in growing season on a year-round time scale. In this study, the minirhizotrons were used to observe the response of fine root dynamics (production, mortality, turnover and life span) and morphology (diameter, single root surface area, single root length) to long-term nitrogen addition (N, 50 kg N ha−1 yr−1), precipitation reduction (W, −200 mm yr−1) and their interactive treatments (NW) in a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains over a two-year period. The results showed that N significantly increased the average diameter of fine roots. Compared to the control treatment, all treatments significantly reduced the average monthly number and surface area of live root. However, the morphological traits of the individual root in each treatment differed between the growing and non-growing seasons. All three treatments (N, W, NW) reduced annual production of fine root over the two observation periods, while the effect on annual mortality varied between years. N, W and the interaction of NW did not significantly change the annual turnover of fine root in the first observation period but increased significantly in the second. The median life span of fine root born in both non-growing seasons was significantly lower than that of fine root born in the growing season. Our results show that changes in the growth strategy of fine root depend on the complex interrelationship between their own morphology, soil layer and seasonal climatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Crown allometry and growing space requirements of four rare domestic tree
           species compared to oak and beech: implications for adaptive forest
           management

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      Abstract: Abstract Rare domestic tree species are increasingly being viewed as promising alternatives and additions to current main tree species in forests facing climate change. For a feasible management of these rare species, it is, however, necessary to know their growth patterns and space requirements. This information has been lacking in management and science up to now. Our study investigated the basic crown allometries of four rare domestic tree species (European hornbeam, European white elm, field maple and wild service tree) and compared them to the more established and assessable European beech and oak (sessile oak and pedunculate oak). For our analysis, we used data from eight temporary research plots located on seven sites across south-eastern Germany, augmented by data from long-term plots. Using quantile regression, we investigated the fundamental relationships between crown projection area and diameter, and height and diameter. Subsequently, we used a mixed-effect model to detect the dependence of crown allometry on different stand variables. We derived maximum stem numbers per hectare for each species at different stand heights, thus providing much-needed practical guidelines for forest managers. In the early stages of stand development, we found that European white elm and field maple can be managed with higher stem numbers than European beech, similar to those of oak. European hornbeam and wild service tree require lower stem numbers, similar to European beech. However, during first or second thinnings, we hypothesise that the rare domestic tree species must be released from competitors, as shade tolerance and competitiveness decrease with age. Furthermore, we argue that thinnings must be performed at a higher frequency in stands with admixed European beech because of the species’ high shade tolerance. When properly managed, rare species can reach target diameters similar to oak and beech.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
       
  • Long-term assessment of soil physicochemical properties and seedlings
           establishment after skidding operations in mountainous mixed hardwoods

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      Abstract: Abstract One of the basic requirements for sustainable forest management in mixed broadleaved stands is to provide suitable conditions for natural regeneration of trees. These conditions include, but are not limited to, the frequency, quality and the composition of seedling species. Compacted soil layers caused by forest machinery traffic are the most common problem affecting seedling establishment and growth after skidding operations. In this study, we evaluated the frequency, quality, diversity of seedling species and physicochemical properties of soil on 10-, 20- and 30-year-old abandoned skid trails. Further comparison to the values of the mentioned above parameters in control areas allowed for the evaluation in terms of natural recovery processes, under varying traffic intensity and the longitudinal slope of the skid trails in a mixed broadleaved forest. Results showed that there is a significant positive trend of recovery for soil physicochemical properties and ecological characteristics (density and quality) of seedling growing on the skid trails. The time required to recover soil properties and ecological attributes of seedlings increased with increasing traffic intensity and slope of the skid trail. Our results showed that it takes 20 and 30 years to fully recover the chemical and physical properties of the soil, respectively. On the 30-year-old skid trails, density and species diversity indices were fully recovered, but the quality of the seedlings was not restored to the control conditions. The results suggest the importance of a proper planning of the skid trail network, avoiding in particular skid trails with a slope gradient higher than 20%.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
       
  • Funding for planting missing species financially supports the conversion
           from pure even-aged to uneven-aged mixed forests and climate change
           mitigation

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      Abstract: Abstract Mountain spruce forests in Central Europe decline under storms and bark beetle calamities driven by climate change. A stabilisation by planting rare or missing tree species is expensive and requires funding. A funding policy should mitigate climate change and support biodiversity. The goal of this study was to identify a conversion strategy of even-aged spruce-dominated forest stands to uneven-aged mixed stands with spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and fir (Abies alba Mill.). A simultaneous nonlinear optimisation of the number of planted trees and harvested trees per species and per period schedules stand treatments aiming to maximise the long-term financial outcome. Planting modelling extends a density-dependent stand-level matrix transition model based on diameter classes with an age-class-based model for artificial regeneration. An optimal conversion strategy was applied for five funding policy schemes, each for five initial states representing different stages of age and species composition typical for spruce forest conversion in the mountain zone of the Western Carpathians. Only 50% and higher funding of planting costs for the minor/missing fir and beech species facilitates a substantial increase of their shares in stand volume. Funding decreases the volume failure due to mortality. Funding increases the standing and harvested volume, which mitigates climate change by increasing the carbon sequestration. Funding causes unintended effects on ecosystem services by lowering harvest diameters, decreasing the volume of less profitable beech, and temporarily reducing the stand density aimed at supporting plantings and their diameter increments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Natural regeneration potential of Andaman Padauk (Pterocarpus
           dalbergioides) in sustaining the tropical forests of Andaman & Nicobar
           Islands, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural regeneration potential is an important indicator for any forest ecosystem and Andaman Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) is the principal timber tree endemic to Andaman & Nicobar Islands. This study analyzed the natural regeneration potential of Andaman Padauk under different disturbance regimes across its distribution range with regard to population dynamics, growth pattern, population structure, population status and allometry. Contrary to the perception that it is a poor regenerator, the species showed a luxuriant growth. While ephemerals, seedlings, saplings, poles and total regenerates are significantly high at the leading edge of its habitat, trees are significantly high at the trailing edge. Their heights are mostly positively skewed and normally distributed. With a reverse-J shaped demography, the species is in its most dominant form in the stand. Though its population status is declining, the prospects of population stabilization are high. There exists a strong proportionality between DBH and height of regenerates. Hence, the species should be assisted through considered disturbance to realize its natural regeneration potential. As all the species under the pantropical Pterocarpus genus share a number of growth and reproductive traits, the path breaking findings of this study emanated from refined methodologies will help assess the natural regeneration potential of other species whose existence is threatened by either unstable or declining population in their habitat.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Soil fungal communities in young Norway spruce-dominant stands: footprints
           of former land use and selective thinning

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      Abstract: Abstract Forestry practices such as afforestation of former agricultural lands and early forest thinning are applied in several countries. These management strategies increase wood production potential and expand forest areas. However, knowledge of the impact of these practices on the diversity and resilience of soil fungal communities is scarce. This study investigated soil fungal community composition of young (21–40 years-old) Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated stands located in Latvia and Estonia. The study includes data from 62 sampling sites and 2480 soil cores. Fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region) of DNA extracted from forest floor and fine soil fractions were sequenced using the PacBio sequencing platform. 3176 quality filtered OTUs were detected, and 73.9% of these were identified as fungi. Fungal community composition was mainly differentiated based on soil pH and sampling site. Regarding former land use, relative abundance of the genus Solicoccozyma was higher in samples from former agricultural sites and some species from genera Cortinarius and Russula were identified as more indicative of particular former land use. Litter saprotrophic fungi and fungi of the genus Thelephora were significantly more highly represented in unmanaged sites than in sites where thinning was performed. In conclusion, differences among soil fungal communities are mainly influenced by soil pH and sampling site. Former land use and management have a significant effect on specific genera of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Relation of pine crop damage to species-specific density in a
           multi-ungulate assemblage

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      Abstract: Abstract Deer management in forest ecosystems requires information on deer densities and impacts to inform culling decisions with a known target density for acceptable damage levels. In multi-ungulate assemblages, managers need knowledge of relative impacts by different species or guilds. In an extensive (195 km2) conifer forest in eastern England, we related Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) leader damage (% dominant shoots browsed) in 48 restocked stands (1–3 years growth) over multiple years (n = 79 observations) to species-specific annual muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), roe (Capreolus capreolus), fallow (Dama dama) and “large deer” densities (composite of annual fallow and multi-year mean red deer Cervus elaphus) using generalized mixed effects models. Forest-wide density surface models were calibrated through intensive annual thermal imaging distance transects and local densities around stands resampled within confidence bounds. Models also examined effects of ground vegetation and hare presence (Lepus europaeus). More pine leaders were browsed at higher fallow or large deer densities (22% and 18%, respectively, increased leader damage across inter-quartile range). Leader damage intensity was not influenced by ground vegetation, hares, muntjac (across the range 8.3–41.6 individuals km−2) or roe deer density (1.7–19.4 individuals km−2). To reduce pine crop damage to economically acceptable levels, managers need to reduce fallow deer to a density as low as 0.6 individuals km−2 (CI = 0.06–1.44, which is considered impractical) or reduce combined large deer density to 2.3 (CI = 1.18–3.46) individuals km−2. Reducing muntjac or roe abundance would minimally affect leader damage in this system, but may be important for other tree species. Multi-species deer management requires species-specific understanding of impacts and robust density estimates.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
       
  • Allometric scaling of leaf mass based on the pipe model theory for woody
           plant species

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      Abstract: Abstract There is an exceptional case in which Shinozaki’s pipe model predictions should not explain that the allometric scaling exponent between foliage mass and stem diameter at the crown base is bigger than 2 empirically. This study proposes an allometric scaling model with components f and b, which are the scaling exponent between the sapwood area and stem cross-sectional area and foliage mass and the stem cross-sectional area at crown base, respectively. The scaling exponent f of sapwood area versus stem diameter at the crown base has no effect on leaf mass versus stem diameter at the crown base, while the scaling exponent b has effects on leaf mass versus stem diameter at the crown base. Because the value of b is greater than unity, this scaling model predicts that the diameters of conduits at the crown base widen with tree size, indicating tip–base widening of conduits. Because the proportion of sapwood area remains constant (or f = 0) across sizes, the assumption of Shinozaki’s pipe model theory appears to apply to the case f = 0.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
       
  • The distribution of carbon stocks between tree woody biomass and soil
           differs between Scots pine and broadleaved species (beech, oak) in
           European forests

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      Abstract: Abstract While the impacts of forest management options on carbon (C) storage are well documented, the way they affect C distribution among ecosystem components remains poorly investigated. Yet, partitioning of total forest C stocks, particularly between aboveground woody biomass and the soil, greatly impacts the stability of C stocks against disturbances in forest ecosystems. This study assessed the impact of species composition and stand density on C storage in aboveground woody biomass (stem + branches), coarse roots, and soil, and their partitioning in pure and mixed forests in Europe. We used 21 triplets (5 beech-oak, 8 pine-beech, 8 pine-oak mixed stands, and their respective monocultures at the same sites) in seven European countries. We computed biomass C stocks from total stand inventories and species-specific allometric equations, and soil organic C data down to 40 cm depth. On average, the broadleaved species stored more C in aboveground woody biomass than soil, while C storage in pine was equally distributed between both components. Stand density had a strong effect on C storage in tree woody biomass but not in the soil. After controlling for stand basal area, the mixed stands had, on average, similar total C stocks (in aboveground woody biomass + coarse roots + soil) to the most performing monocultures. Although species composition and stand density affect total C stocks and its partitioning between aboveground woody biomass and soil, a large part of variability in soil C storage was unrelated to stand characteristics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Analysis of structure from motion and airborne laser scanning features for
           the evaluation of forest structure

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      Abstract: Abstract Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is widely extended in forest evaluation, although photogrammetry-based Structure from Motion (SfM) has recently emerged as a more affordable alternative. Return cloud metrics and their normalization using different typologies of Digital Terrain Models (DTM), either derived from SfM or from private or free access ALS, were evaluated. In addition, the influence of the return density (0.5–6.5 returns m-2) and the sampling intensity (0.3–3.4%) on the estimation of the most common stand structure variables were also analysed. The objective of this research is to gather all these questions in the same document, so that they serve as support for the planning of forest management. This study analyses the variables collected from 60 regularly distributed circular plots (r = 18 m) in a 150-ha of uneven-aged Scots pine stand. Results indicated that both ALS and SfM can be equally used to reduce the sampling error in the field inventories, but they showed differences when estimating the stand structure variables. ALS produced significantly better estimations than the SfM metrics for all the variables of interest, as well as the ALS-based normalization. However, the SfM point cloud produced better estimations when it was normalized with its own DTM, except for the dominant height. The return density did not have significant influence on the estimation of the stand structure variables in the range studied, while higher sampling intensities decreased the estimation errors. Nevertheless, these were stabilized at certain intensities depending on the variance of the stand structure variable.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • A comparison of radial increment and wood density from beech provenance
           trials in Slovenia and Hungary

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      Abstract: Abstract Provenance trials are a valuable source of information, especially in species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which will likely increase its distribution due to global warming. The current study compares radial increment and wood density of beech provenances in the juvenile development stage from contrasting environments in Europe (Belgium, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Italy) planted at a mesic to wet site in Slovenia and a xeric site in Hungary. Existing data (past measurements of diameters and height) were combined with new measurements of tree height, diameter, dendrochronological and resistance drilling density measurements to assess differences in provenance radial growth. The wood density data were evaluated using a Bayesian general linear model. In order to study the differences in radial increment in more detail, two weather-wise contrasting years (2014 and 2017) were selected from the last decade, based on calculations of the 12-month Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index. The differences in average tree-ring width among provenances at each sampled site appeared to be relatively small when averaged over a whole decade of data. However, according to year-to-year data, some provenances grew faster than others, especially in favorable weather conditions. In unfavorable conditions, the differences in tree-ring widths among provenances were smaller. For most provenances, variation in tree-ring widths within the same provenance increased in unfavorable conditions. The difference between the provenances with the highest and lowest wood densities at both locations did not exceed 5%. The model results indicate that the Idrija (Slovenia) provenance probably has a higher median wood density than other studied provenances at both sites. Although the current study confirmed some differences in wood density between provenances and trial locations, the differences are negligible in practice due to their low magnitude and the fact that the analyzed trees were still juvenile. As beech has a diffuse-porous wood, negligible differences in wood density would also be expected in adult trees. Beech provenances for planting in relation to changing weather should probably be chosen for their ability to survive more extreme weather events rather than to improve radial increment or wood density, especially as the differences in wood density of juvenile trees are relatively small.
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
       
  • Long-term response of soil and stem wood properties to repeated nitrogen
           fertilization in a N-limited Scots pine stand

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      Abstract: Abstract Nitrogen is the nutrient mainly limiting forest growth on mineral soil sites in the boreal regions. The objective of this study was to find out the response of stem wood N to repeated fertilizations and to find out their long-lasting effects on soil organic matter composition, focusing on C and N cycling processes and concentrations of condensed tannins. The site was located in a relatively unfertile Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in eastern Finland. The treatments were three levels of N fertilization (0, 150, 300 kg/ha) applied four times at 5-year intervals with the last addition 29 years ago. The N additions had not changed the pH of the humus layer but resulted in higher availability of N. The C-to-N ratio of organic matter decreased with increasing N addition. The treatment of 300 kg/ha increased the net N mineralization rate and the ratio of net N mineralization/microbial biomass N and decreased the amount of C in the microbial biomass and its C-to-N ratio and the concentration of condensed tannins. Net nitrification and extractable nitrate were negligible in all soils. In soil diffusive fluxes, NH4-, NO3- and amino acid-N were all detected by in situ microdialysis sampling; the results showed large variation but supported higher N availability in N fertilized soil. The N fertilization increased tree-ring widths and the effect lasted for about 10 years after the last fertilization event. Nitrogen content and the N isotopic ratio 15N/14N (δ15N) in tree-rings increased both after the first N addition in the treatment of 300 kg/ha. In conclusion, soil properties still indicated higher N availability in the N fertilized soil after three decades since the latest fertilization, but the response of tree diameter growth had faded out after a much shorter period.
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10342-022-01448-6
       
  • Pollution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in forest soils
           with changes in the leaf traits and membrane integrity of Vaccinium
           myrtillus L.

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      Abstract: Abstract Vaccinium myrtillus L. is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals that can grow in polluted and disturbed forest habitats and is a reliable pollution indicator. We aimed to assess the heavy metal bioaccumulation capacity of bilberry leaves, to assess the leaf traits and the ecophysiological responses to heavy metal stress in this species. We determined the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus from four differently heavy metal-polluted forest sites. The highest Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were found in bilberry leaves that had been exposed to emissions from a zinc smelter. Moreover, we found the highest levels of Cd, Pb and Zn in the soil at the same study site. The ecological risk was quantified using the potential ecological risk index (RI), taking into account the concentrations of heavy metals, the ecological risk factors and the toxic response factors. Generally, an extremely high ecological risk was estimated for two sampling sites (Miasteczko Śląskie and Bukowno) and a considerable ecological risk was estimated for one sampling site (Łosień). Additionally, we demonstrated that Cd is the metal that poses the highest ecological threat in the studied areas. The investigated heavy metals have significantly affected the area, width, perimeter, aspect ratio and roundness index of the studied bilberry leaves. Specifically, an increase of Mn in the blueberry leaves significantly reduced these parameters (apart from the aspect ratio). We observed that an increased bioaccumulation of the selected heavy metals in the leaves caused cell membrane damage and a higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The results and methods that were used in this study could be suitable for improving biomonitoring and can be widely applied in forest ecosystems, including heavy metal-polluted areas.
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10342-022-01446-8
       
  • Uncertainty of biomass stocks in Spanish forests: a comprehensive
           comparison of allometric equations

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      Abstract: Abstract Biomass and carbon content are essential indicators for monitoring forest ecosystems and their role in climate action, but their estimation is not straightforward. A typical approach to solve these limitations has been the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data, using either allometric equations or biomass expansion factors. Many allometric equations exist, but very few studies have assessed how the calculation methods used may impact outcomes and how this impact depends on genera, functional group, climate or forest structural attributes. In this study we evaluate the differences in biomass estimates yielded by the most widely used biomass equations in Spain. We first quantify the discrepancies at tree level and among the main forest tree species. We observed that the divergences in carbon estimations between different equations increased with tree size, especially in the case of hardwoods and for diameters beyond the range used to calibrate the equations. At the plot level, we found considerable differences between the biomass values predicted using different methods (above 25% in one out of three plots), which constitutes a warning against the uncritical choice of equations to determine biomass or carbon values. The spatial representation of the differences revealed geographical patterns related to the dominance of fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus or Pinus pinaster, with a minor effect of forest structure, and almost no effect of climate. Finally, we observed that differences were mostly due to the data source rather than the modelling approach or equation used. Based on our results, BEF equations seem a valid and unbiased option to provide nation-level estimations of carbon balance, although local equations should preferably be used if they are available for the target area.
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10342-022-01444-w
       
  • Using tree-ring width and earlywood vessel features to study the decline
           of Quercus brantii Lindl in Zagros forests of Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract Dieback has affected oak forests ecosystems of Iran in recent years. In order to understand this phenomenon, we selected 12 healthy and 16 dead trees of Quercus brantii Lindl in Dalab forest of Ilam. The responses of ring width chronologies to climatic factors were investigated in the living and dead trees. We also established the interrelationships between earlywood vessel features including vessel density, average vessel lumen area, the percentage of total vessel lumen area within the surface analyzed, the hydraulically weighted diameter, and ring width for 6 living and 6 dead trees. The results of crossdating showed that death occurred from 2008 onwards in most decayed trees. We found important differences in the effects of climatic factors on ring width chronologies between the living and dead trees, whereby water availability was the main factor controlling the radial growth of dead trees, which were more sensitive to drought. The analysis of earlywood vessels showed that the hydraulically weighted diameter and the vessel density are the anatomical features differing most strongly between the living and dead trees. From the difference of the hydraulically weighted diameter and the vessel density series between the living and dead trees, we concluded that dead individuals had the higher vulnerability to water stress. Moreover, by monitoring the annual variations of xylem anatomical features in the years before tree death, we propose the most critical timings of processes related to dieback.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10342-022-01450-y
       
 
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