Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Forestry Reports
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2198-6436
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Wood Protection for Carbon Sequestration — a Review of Existing
           Approaches and Future Directions

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Wood can be protected from biological deterioration thereby prolonging its longevity and contribution to carbon sequestration. Wood protection is only useful if it is inexpensive and can be done at scale, and with minimal adverse environmental impacts. It is difficult to meet all these criteria but some approaches come close. They are described in this paper with an emphasis on new research findings and directions to inform current research on carbon sequestration by wood. Recent Findings Research on wood protection with the exception of nano-wood preservatives is gradually shifting away from the use of synthetic biocidal chemical treatments to the use of naturally durable wood or protectants and treatments that deny organisms access to wood (barriers) or restrict essential requirements for their growth. The latter approach is attracting attention, and welcome new entrants to the field of wood protection, because of its potential to enhance carbon sequestration at a meaningful scale. Summary We expect increasing regulatory and cost pressure on traditional approaches to wood protection using synthetic biocides and an acceleration of the trend evident in the recent past of protecting wood by modifying its molecular structure to exclude water, or growing trees in plantations that produce naturally durable wood. The strengthening of this trend will create many opportunities to research the properties and applications of ‘new’ durable wood products. In addition, we predict a major reorientation of the field to develop, test and model novel approaches to wood protection for atmospheric carbon sequestration. We conclude that future work will likely include research on protection of: (1) novel cellulose or lignin composites used as replacements for plastic; (2) massive timber composites used in tall buildings and other large infrastructure; (3) huge quantities of low-quality wood used specifically for carbon containment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • Managing Mediterranean Forests for Multiple Ecosystem Services: Research
           Progress and Knowledge Gaps

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Forests provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) to society, and the demand for ES is growing at the global level. However, how to manage forests for the provision of multiple and sometimes conflicting services is a complex and still unresolved issue. In this study, we reviewed the scientific literature for the period 2010–2020 dealing with forest management and multiple ES in Mediterranean forests, with the aim of (1) outlining the progress in research, (2) identifying knowledge gaps and research needs, and (3) discussing management approaches considering multiple ES. The selected literature was analyzed considering different aspects of multiple ES (e.g., drivers of changes, modeling approaches, trade-offs, and synergies). Recent Findings Our results show that wood production is still one of the main management objectives, with an increasing attention toward non wood forest products. Carbon sequestration and biodiversity were the most investigated regulating functions, but also specific aspects are gaining attention (e.g., lichens for microclimate regulation). Changes in stand structure and density, the impact of coppice vs. high forest, and the effect of management practices vs. abandonment were considered as drivers of change at the stand/management unit scale, while the impact of climate changes and disturbances were considered at the landscape/regional scale using modeling. Summary Despite the progress made in the last decade, our review highlights that further research is needed to fill the gaps in the scientific literature regarding how forest management influences the provision of multiple ES in the Mediterranean region. From a conceptual point of view, there is the need for a shift to a new paradigm based on an adaptable, flexible management, and planning approach to sustain self-organization, adaptive capacity, and overall resilience of Mediterranean forests, overcoming the ecosystem “service” approach; operatively, research should move toward a transdisciplinary approach, which considers problems from a diversity of points of view and involves extended peer communities not only in the dissemination of research results, but also in the research process itself.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
       
  • Anthropogenic Disturbances and the Emergence of Native Diseases: a Threat
           to Forest Health

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Human-caused global change is fundamentally altering natural forest ecosystems. More trees are exhibiting a wide range of symptoms indicative of poor vigour, particularly stressed species at the edge of their native ranges and stands growing on marginal sites. This review will focus on complex tree diseases (declines) caused by native pathogens and the key environmental drivers that contribute to this phenomenon. These systems are frequently complex, with multiple drivers at work. Recent Findings Using four cases studies on different continents, we explored the direct and indirect environmental drivers underlying these decline syndromes. Although climate and weather events seem to be usually associated with forest decline, we found that environmental disturbance by either forest management or land-use changes is also a global predisposing factor of decline which deserves more attention. Changes in land use have directly benefited pathogens such as root rots in the Pyrenees (Spain) or indirectly by making the environment more conducive for canker and foliar diseases in Australia and the USA. Focus on land-use changes could improve understanding of current decline problems such as those affecting Araucaria in Chile. Summary The next century will almost certainly see an unprecedented rise in forest pathogen epidemics, requiring a proactive rather than reactive response. Diseases caused by native pathogens with complex aetiologies will become more common, and recognising, characterising and managing these epidemics are difficult because native pathogens are frequently already widespread, and eradication is not feasible. We need to start approaching these issues from a ‘whole ecosystem’ perspective, highlighting the many aspects and entanglements of forest declines and allowing us to respond with management options tailored to each scenario. The approach proposed here provides logical steps based on six questions to untangle the direct and indirect environmental drivers of tree declines.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Use of Individual Tree and Product Level Data to Improve Operational
           Forestry

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Individual tree detection (ITD) methods and technologies for tracking individual forest products through a smart operational supply chain from stump to mill are now available. The purpose of this paper is to (1) review the related literature for audiences not familiar with remote sensing and tracking technologies and (2) to identify knowledge gaps in operational forestry and forest operations research now that these new data and systems are becoming more common. Recent Findings Past research has led to successful development of ITD remote sensing methods for detecting individual tree information and radio frequency identification (RFID), branding, and other product tracing methods for individual trees and logs. Blockchain and cryptocurrency that allow independent verification of transactions and work activity recognition based on mobile and wearable sensors can connect the mechanized and motor-manual components of supply chains, bridging gaps in the connectivity of data. However, there is a shortage of research demonstrating use of location-aware tree and product information that spans multiple machines. Summary Commercial products and technologies are now available to digitalize forest operations. Research should shift to evaluation of applications that demonstrate use. Areas for improved efficiencies include (1) use of wearable technology to map individual seedlings during planting; (2) optimizing harvesting, skidding and forwarder trails, landings, and decking based on prior knowledge of tree and product information; (3) incorporation of high-resolution, mapped forest product value and treatment cost into harvest planning; (4) improved machine navigation, automation, and robotics based on prior knowledge of stem locations; (5) use of digitalized silvicultural treatments, including microclimate-smart best management practices; and (6) networking of product tracking across multiple, sensorized machines.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • The Intertwined Problems of Wildfire, Forest Disease, and Climate Change
           Interactions

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review I aim to contextualize wildfire-disease interactions with the goal of building a better understanding of where these may be of ecological importance and problems for sustainable forest management. Recent Findings While wildfire-disease interactions have been documented, they are not well represented in the ecological literature, probably because they require considerable effort or serendipity to rigorously quantify. Examples of disease-fire interactions are relatively limited and tend to be clearer in systems where fire and disease are management problems. The most resolved systems include Phytophthora pathogens although wildfire-disease interactions are not limited to these pathogens. Documented interactions encompass a range of effects which include the magnification of problems associated with each disturbance. Wildfire-disease interactions are also likely to shape basic ecological function in systems where both wildfire and disease are common but not necessarily critical management problems. Climate change has altered the fundamental controls on both fire and disease suggesting it will also alter the magnitude and likelihood (occurrence or detection) of disease-fire interactions. Summary I present a framework for linking wildfire-disease interactions and highlight the importance of host community/fuels structure on linking and mediating these interactions. I provide a series of examples where understanding interactive effects, interfacing with climate change, and the magnitude of changes to wildfire and disease intensification are of practical value and/or advance basic ecological knowledge. While much remains to be understood about these interactions, I make the argument that, in some cases, management can address both problems simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
       
  • Bibliometric Analysis of the Structure and Evolution of Research on
           Assisted Migration

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Assisted migration is increasingly proposed as a proactive management strategy to mitigate the consequences of maladaptation predicted under climate change. Exploring the social and academic structure of the field, its research gaps, and future research directions can help further the understanding and facilitate the implementation of assisted migration strategies. Here we used bibliometric analysis to examine the intellectual, social, and conceptual structures of assisted migration research to identify gaps and opportunities for future research. Bibliometric data based on publications on assisted migration were collected from Scopus and Web of Science databases using assisted migration and climate change or their synonyms as queries. Metadata were merged, processed and several networks were constructed. Recent Findings Co-citation and keyword co-occurrence networks identified three major clusters focused on (i) theory and risk of assisted migration of threatened and endangered species, (ii) impact of climate change on realized and fundamental climate and geographic niches, and (iii) assisted population migration. Collaboration network analysis identified three social core hubs: North America, Europe, and Australia, with the USA and Canada being the most productive and the most collaborative countries. Summary We conclude that future research is expected to concern mainly the assessment of physiological response of species and populations to extreme climate events such as drought and frost, and the contribution of non-climatic factors and biotic interactions in local adaptation and population performance under climate change. Social core hubs distinguished in this work can be used to identify potential international research and training collaborators necessary to address gaps and challenges underlying assisted migration implementation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
       
  • Genomics-Based Systems and Multi-disciplinary Approaches to Unlock Complex
           Gene Networks Underlying Wood Formation

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Wood represents an important economic natural resource and the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying its formation are best studied through biotechnological approaches, of which genomics forms an important branch. The evolution of technologies employed to examine wood formation at the molecular level has led to the development of novel methods in the field of wood genomics. The goal of this paper is to summarize the important advancements made in recent years to study wood genomics. Recent Findings Breakthroughs in sequencing technologies and the availability of additional assembled and functionally annotated plant genomes have broadened the scope of organisms for investigating the distinct wood formation patterns among seed plants. The study of non-coding RNAs and epigenetic interactions has become an important part of research on the expression regulation of genes implicated in wood formation. Systems genetics coupled with network graph theory have been used to integrate multiple layers of molecular data to study wood formation as a complex biological process. In terms of wood improvement, genomics-enabled breeding has produced similar or even better results compared to traditional selection approaches. Summary Over the past 5 years, the field of wood genomics has seen a shift to an increasingly holistic approach to help decipher wood formation as a complex biological process. In the future, the field of wood genomics will see major contributions from evolutionary developmental biology, epigenomics, and the study of additional interactions between biomolecules. The resulting knowledge will further improve genomic prediction models in support of tree germplasm enhancement.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
       
  • Invasion Frameworks: a Forest Pathogen Perspective

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Within the discipline of invasion science, researchers studying different taxonomic groups have developed distinct ways of investigating the phenomenon of biological invasions. While there have been efforts to reconcile these differences, a lack of knowledge of diversity, biogeography and ecology hampers researchers seeking to understand invasive microorganisms, including invasive forest pathogens (IFPs). Recent Findings Advances in molecular technologies such as gene and genome sequencing and metagenomics studies have increased the ‘visibility’ of microorganisms, providing opportunities to better integrate forest pathology and invasion science. The two fields have much to gain from closer collaboration. Summary We propose a modified version of the Unified Framework for Biological Invasions to accommodate IFPs, recognising the challenges and limitations, and suggest options for tackling these issues. We explore the pathways by which IFPs are transported and in doing so highlight the need for the refinement of current pathway frameworks to better accommodate IFPs. With a clearer understanding of how microorganisms move around and the stages they pass through to become invasive, we hope that forest pathologists will better understand how and why invasions occur and, importantly, where, when, and how invasions can be stopped or mitigated. We call for a broader incorporation of ecological and evolutionary concepts to address the complex challenges of identifying and managing IFPs.
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00157-4
       
  • Advances in Brazil Nut Tree Ecophysiology: Linking Abiotic Factors to Tree
           Growth and Fruit Production

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      Abstract: Purpose of the Review The Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is a symbolic tree in the Brazilian Amazonian. In a broad sense, it plays a crucial role in its social, economic, and environmental importance. This species contributes on a large scale to the equilibrium of the biological processes related to the biogeochemical cycles in the Amazon biome, and its nuts sustain a multi-million-dollar extractive economy, which supports small farmers and traditional populations. Brazil nut is also becoming one of the most important species in silviculture and is increasingly used in agroforestry systems and the recovery of degraded areas. In this review, we deepened our understanding of the growth performance of the Brazil nut tree and its ecophysiological traits, both in native trees and commercial forest plantations. Based on the literature for this species, we discuss the concepts of plasticity and other functional traits that may help to increase Brazil nut plantation and conservation, which in turn will increase nut production, forest sustainability, and social welfare. Recent Findings The Brazil nut tree is a dominant species and is found throughout the Amazon region. Due to its ecophysiological traits, it can be cultivated as a commercial monoculture, in the enrichment of forest plantations, used in the recovery of degraded areas and the implementation of agroforestry systems. Recent evidence suggests that their dominance of natural forests and their high functional performance under cultivated conditions may be associated with their physiological plasticity and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Summary Aspects related to phenotypic variation, genetic diversity, population characteristics, cultivation, and ecophysiological performance of Bertholletia excelsa are revised and linked to growth and nut production. We demonstrate that Brazil nut exhibits phenotypical plasticity in response to light, water, and nutrient availability. This trait can be explored for improvements in nut production in native trees and agroforestry plantations. In both cases, the availability of these resources influences population structure, tree growth, and fruit production. These results reinforce the importance of the use of Brazil nut tree as an attractive alternative for improving programs that involve the recovery of degraded areas in the continental Amazon. Lastly, the ecophysiological performance of the Brazil nut tree suggests its resilience to environmental change.
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-022-00158-x
       
  • Mechanised Harvesting of Broadleaved Tree Species in Europe

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      Abstract: Purpose of the Review The application of cut-to-length (CTL) technology for harvesting and processing timber from broadleaved tree species is a challenging process, due to thick branches, stem sweep, forks and high wood density. The objective of this review was to describe the current state of harvester use and characterise the effectiveness of mechanised forest operations for broadleaved and mixed forest stands in Europe, paying particular attention to productivity and product quality aspects. An additional aim was to identify the greatest difficulties associated with harvesting broadleaved tree species today and to indicate future challenges and areas for improvement. Recent Findings An interest in wider harvester use for broadleaved tree species started after the storm Lothar in France in 1999. Early experiences demonstrated that lower productivity is common when harvesting broadleaved tree species, due to limitations in delimbing and the high frequency of sweep. Initially, modifications were made to harvester heads, while a newly designed head (CTL 40 HW) was later developed within a European project in 2005–2007. Using various heads, very high productivity was achieved in some cases, but log recovery was unsatisfactory, with large tree tops left without delimbing. The delimbing was of lower quality and log length inaccuracy was observed, as well as economic losses due to damage to plywood caused by feed rollers. These issues resulted in a change in harvester head construction, including work on a patent for a head designed specifically for harvesting broadleaved tree species. Summary The harvester heads that have been developed to date for broadleaved tree species have mainly been used within Central Europe, where the high incidence of broadleaved tree species and their particular morphological features (thick branches and sweep) are a major challenge for CTL technology. There have been many research projects related to this issue: in the last 15 years, there were a few larger initiatives leading to the design and development of harvester heads for broadleaved tree species, with participation from institutions and universities in France, Germany and Poland. There are currently no ongoing initiatives, but the formation of new ones is strongly recommended because today’s forests have a growing share of broadleaved tree species and are being managed to an increasing extent with CTL technology.
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00154-7
       
  • Correction to: Trafficability Prediction Using Depth-to-Water Maps: the
           Status of Application in Northern and Central European Forestry

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      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-022-00159-w
       
  • Factors Affecting Operational Cost and Productivity of Ground-Based Timber
           Harvesting Machines: a Meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Optimization of cost and productivity is an important aspect of sustainable timber harvesting which have global level implications on renewable energy, climate change, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity. Major operational level managerial decisions associated with stump-to-truck timber harvesting activities are made at the stand-level. The primary goal of this study was to identify and estimate the relationship between cost and productivity of ground-based mechanical harvesting with key variables and evaluate the variance composition at the stand, country, and continental scales. We followed a meta-analysis approach to gather data for 439 individual machines from 53 scientific studies conducted in 19 countries. Boosted regression trees and hierarchical mixed-effects regression were used to identify and determine the effect of the major variables. Recent Findings Average stem size (cm), harvest unit size (ha), and harvesting process were important variables that influenced both harvesting cost and productivity. In addition, harvesting cost (US$ m−3) varied significantly with tree height and country, while harvesting productivity (m3 PMH−1) was mostly influenced by machine rate (US$ PMH−1) and utilization (%). Higher tree height reduced harvesting cost. High stem size and machine rate both increased harvesting productivity even after accounting for the geographical variations. Summary The variability in harvesting cost decreased with changing geographical scale from stand to continent, whereas the productivity variation was highest at the continent-level and least at the country-level. This study provides insights for forestry stakeholders and future research indicating that the variance structure and stand-level characteristics of harvesting cost and productivity should be considered for comparisons and decision-making in timber harvesting operations.
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00156-5
       
  • Strategies to Mitigate the Effects of Soil Physical Disturbances Caused by
           Forest Machinery: a Comprehensive Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Ground-based mechanized forest operations can cause severe soil disturbances that are often long lasting and detrimental to the health of forested ecosystems. To reduce these soil disturbances, focus is being increasingly directed at identifying and using appropriate mitigation techniques. This systematic review considered 104 scientific articles and reported the main findings according to four core themes: terrain-related factors, operational planning, machine modifications, and types of amendments used to mitigate machine-induced soil impacts. Recent Findings For terrain-related factors, most severe disturbances occur on machine operating trails exceeding 20% slope and that soil bulk density and rut depth show greater increases in fine-textured soils. When considering operational planning, trafficability maps proved to be helpful in reducing the frequency and magnitude of soil damages as well as the length of trails needed within harvest sites, especially if they are regularly updated with weather information. Machine modifications, through high flotation tires, use of extra bogie axle, lower inflation pressure, and use of steel flexibles tracks, are highly researched topics because of the considerable upside in terms of machine ground pressure distribution and increased traction. Two main types of amendments emerged to mitigate soil disturbances: brush mats and mulch cover. Brush mats created from harvesting debris can spread the load of a machine to a greater area thereby lowering peak loads transferred to the soil. Brush mats of 15–20 kg m−2 are being recommended for adequate soil protection from harvesting operations. Summary To conclude, we outline recommendations and strategies on the use of soil mitigation techniques within cut-to-length forest operations. New research opportunities are also identified and discussed. Considering single factors causing machine-induced soil disturbances remains important but there is a pressing need for having a multi-disciplinary approach to tackle the complex problems associated with machine/soil/plant interactions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00155-6
       
  • Trafficability Prediction Using Depth-to-Water Maps: the Status of
           Application in Northern and Central European Forestry

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Mechanized logging operations with ground-based equipment commonly represent European production forestry but are well-known to potentially cause soil impacts through various forms of soil disturbances, especially on wet soils with low bearing capacity. In times of changing climate, with shorter periods of frozen soils, heavy rain fall events in spring and autumn and frequent needs for salvage logging, forestry stakeholders face increasingly unfavourable conditions to conduct low-impact operations. Thus, more than ever, planning tools such as trafficability maps are required to ensure efficient forest operations at reduced environmental impact. This paper aims to describe the status quo of existence and implementation of such tools applied in forest operations across Europe. In addition, focus is given to the availability and accessibility of data relevant for such predictions. Recent Findings A commonly identified method to support the planning and execution of machine-based operations is given by the prediction of areas with low bearing capacity due to wet soil conditions. Both the topographic wetness index (TWI) and the depth-to-water algorithm (DTW) are used to identify wet areas and to produce trafficability maps, based on spatial information. Summary The required input data is commonly available among governmental institutions and in some countries already further processed to have topography-derived trafficability maps and respective enabling technologies at hand. Particularly the Nordic countries are ahead within this process and currently pave the way to further transfer static trafficability maps into dynamic ones, including additional site-specific information received from detailed forest inventories. Yet, it is hoped that a broader adoption of these information by forest managers throughout Europe will take place to enhance sustainable forest operations.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00153-8
       
  • Materiality Assessment of Natural Capital Risks in Australian Forestry

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Natural capital is a term for the stocks of natural assets (e.g. natural resources and ecosystems) that yield flows of ecosystem services that benefit the economy and human well-being. Forestry is one of the industries with the greatest dependencies on natural capital, as well as having the potential for substantial positive or negative impacts on natural capital. These dependencies and impacts create direct risks to a forestry enterprise’s ongoing financial viability, which translate into indirect risks for investors and society. There are growing demands from a variety of stakeholders for more reliable information to assess such risks, but at present, these risks are not always well understood, assessed or communicated in a consistent and comparable way. This paper addresses this problem by applying a standardized methodology to develop the first systematic, evidence-based review and financial materiality assessment of natural capital risks for the Australian forestry sector. Recent Findings The vast potential scope of forestry impacts and dependencies on natural capital can be reduced to twenty key areas of relevance to Australian forestry, of which only seven to nine have been assessed as highly financially material for each of the sub-sectors of softwood plantations, hardwood plantations and native forestry. The majority of risks assessed as highly financially material are related to dependencies on natural capital. This is in part due to the fact that current regulations and certification schemes focus on managing impacts, but tend to overlook dependencies. Nearly all of the natural capital risks rated as highly material are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. Summary An improved understanding of natural capital risks is an important input to better decision-making by forestry enterprises, as well as their lenders and investors, forestry regulators and other relevant stakeholders. This paper contributes to the preparedness of the forestry industry and its stakeholders to address questions about vulnerability to future changes and declining trends in natural capital.
      PubDate: 2021-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00147-6
       
  • Growth Equations in Forest Research: Mathematical Basis and Model
           Similarities

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Growth equations have been widely used in forest research, commonly to assess ecosystem-level behavior and forest management. Nevertheless, the large number of growth equations has obscured the growth-rate behavior of each of these equations and several different terms for referring to common phenomena. This review presents a unified mathematical treatment of growth-rates besides several well-known growth equations by giving their mathematical basis and representing their behavior using tree growth data as an example. Recent Findings We highlight the mathematical differences among several growth equations that can be better understood by using their differential equations forms rather than their integrated forms. Moreover, the assumed-and-claimed biological basis of these growth-rate models has been taken too seriously in forest research. The focus should be on using a plausible equation for the organism being modelled. We point out that more attention should be drawn to parameter estimation strategies and behavior analysis of the proposed models. Thus, it is difficult for a single model to capture all possible shapes and rates that such a complex biological process as tree growth can depict in nature. Summary We pointed out misleading concepts attributed to some growth equations; however, the differences come from their mathematical properties rather than pure biological reasoning. Using the tree growth data, we depict those differences. Thus, comparisons of some functional forms (at least simple ones) must be carried out before selecting a function for drawing scientific findings.
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00145-8
       
  • Exploring Forest Sector Research Subjects and Trends from 2000 to 2019
           Using Topic Modeling

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review aims to discover the most common topics and trends in international scientific forest sector research between January 2000 and December 2019 and to test the suitability of a quantitative topic-modeling method to extract topics from the data. The results will be helpful for both researchers and policy decision-makers in identifying emerging research topics and possible research gaps. The analysis framework covers the complete forest wood chain (FWC) with PESTE factors. PESTE is applied to analyze political, economic, social, technological, and ecological/environmental factors affecting the FWC. Recent findings In the last two decades, forests and the forest sector have been impacted by several global changes, policies, and megatrends. Previous systematic syntheses of forest sector research reveal that economic, policy, and social research have remained underrepresented in the forest sector literature. Research areas related to forest ecology and climate change have been increasing. More recently, growth has also been detected in social aspects especially related to the increasing literature on forest ecosystem services. Results A total of 160 topics were extracted from 14,470 abstracts of 15 leading international peer-reviewed forest science journals. The ecological topics of forest resources and technological topics of industry and products were by far the two largest subject areas. Ecological topics increased, while technological topics slightly decreased, during the period between 2000 and 2019. A clear decline in the share of topics concerning end-product markets was detected. Indeed, changes in end markets drive changes in the entire forest wood chain. To support the goal of a transition from a fossil-based economy to a bioeconomy, it will be important to increase academic research on policy impacts, as well as social and ecological sustainability issues to cover all the stages of the FWC more evenly. The topic-modeling method was a useful tool in data mining, but human intelligence is needed to interpret and classify the topics extracted by this approach.
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00152-9
       
  • The Management Response to Wind Disturbances in European Forests

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      Abstract: Purpose of the Review The review synthesises the current knowledge of post-windstorm management in selected European countries in order to identify knowledge gaps and guide future research. Recent Findings Despite the differences in forest ownership and national regulations, management experiences in Europe converge at (1) the need for mechanization of post-windthrow management to ensure operator safety, (2) the importance to promote operator training and optimise the coordination between all the actors involved in disturbance management and (3) the need to implement measures to consolidate the timber market while restoring forest ecosystem services and maintain biodiversity. Summary Windstorms are natural disturbances that drive forest dynamics but also result in socio-economic losses. As the frequency and magnitude of wind disturbances will likely increase in the future, improved disturbance management is needed. We here highlight the best practices and remaining challenges regarding the strategic, operational, economic and environmental dimensions of post-windthrow management in Europe. Our literature review underlined that post-disturbance management needs to be tailored to each individual situation, taking into account the type of forest, site conditions, available resources and respective legislations. The perspectives on windthrown timber differ throughout Europe, ranging from leaving trees on site to storing them in sophisticated wet storage facilities. Salvage logging is considered important in forests susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks, while no salvage logging is recommended in forests protecting against natural hazards. Remaining research gaps include questions of balancing between the positive and negative effects of salvage logging and integrating climate change considerations more explicitly in post-windthrow management.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00144-9
       
  • Forest Carbon Management: a Review of Silvicultural Practices and
           Management Strategies Across Boreal, Temperate and Tropical Forests

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Carbon sequestration and storage in forest ecosystems is often promoted as a solution for reducing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. Yet, our understanding is lacking regarding how forest management strategies affect the net removal of greenhouse gases and contribute to climate change mitigation. Here, we present a review of carbon sequestration and stock dynamics, following three strategies that are widely used in boreal, temperate and tropical forests: extensive forest management, intensive forest management and old-growth forest conservation. Recent Findings Several studies show that specific forest management strategies can improve carbon sequestration capacity and soil carbon storage. Within these studies, the old-growth forest conservation strategy results in greater carbon storage in soils than do extensive and intensive forest management. Intensive forest management enhances forest carbon sequestration capacity through afforestation using fast-growing species, mechanical soil preparation from low to moderate intensity and N fertilization. Extensive forest management is an intermediate compromise regarding carbon sequestration and soil carbon storage, between conservation and intensive forest management strategies. With respect to silvicultural treatments, partial cutting is a practice that increases forest carbon sequestration rates and maintains higher carbon storage in soils compared to clear-cuts. Each silvicultural practice that is discussed in this review showed a similar effect on forest carbon in all biomes, although the magnitude of these effects differs mainly in terms of heterotrophic respiration. Summary To achieve sustainable management and fulfill industrial demand and profitability, specific gaps must be dealt with to improve our scientific knowledge regarding forest carbon sequestration in a climate change context, mainly through the integration of the three aforementioned strategies in a functional zoning approach at the landscape scale. We present a review with promising strategies for guiding sustainable forest management in such a global context.
      PubDate: 2021-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00151-w
       
  • What Is Known About the Management of European Beech Forests Facing
           Climate Change' A Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This paper aims to retrace the most significant management strategies adopted across European beech forests over the last 25 years, highlighting those that are most efficient and promising. We investigate five main topics including forest management, forest models, species mixture, genetic, and regeneration. Recent Findings European beech is one of the most widespread and important tree species for the European forest sector. In the light of the ongoing climate crisis, understanding the growth dynamics and the response of beech forests to climate change is crucial to identify advantageous management strategies. Ecology, growth, management, distribution, interaction with other species, genetic, and regeneration aspects of European beech were investigated in different geographical areas of Europe. Despite recent researches focusing on climate change issues, how adaptation and mitigation measures can be integrated into silvicultural guidelines to improve the resilience of European beech forests remains unclear. Summary To answer this question, we collected and reviewed articles about the management of European beech facing climate change, which were published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 25 years. Articles were grouped into five geographic European areas, according to the classification used by the State of Europe’s forests. Obtained articles were further clustered into five main topics: management, mixed forest, modelling, genetic, and regeneration. The review highlighted the importance of using long-term monitoring plots to understand the effect of climate change on the stability of European beech forests, suggesting climate-smart measures that would help these forests adapt to climate change.
      PubDate: 2021-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00149-4
       
 
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