Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Selbyana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  


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iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.533
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1971-7458
Published by Società Italiana di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Research Articles: Response to climate and influence of ocean-atmosphere
           phenomena on annual radial increments of Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl.
           & Cham in the Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Chiapas, Mexico

    • Authors: Ponce-Calderón LP; Villanueva-Díaz J, Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Bilbao BA, Álvarez-Gordillo GDC
      Abstract: Ponce-Calderón LP, Villanueva-Díaz J, Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Bilbao BA, Álvarez-Gordillo GDCRESPONSE TO CLIMATE AND INFLUENCE OF OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE PHENOMENA ON ANNUAL RADIAL INCREMENTS OF PINUS OOCARPA SCHIEDE EX SCHLTDL. & CHAM IN THE LAGUNAS DE MONTEBELLO NATIONAL PARK, CHIAPAS, MEXICOAbstract: The Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Chiapas, Mexico, is one of the most important protected areas in terms of ecology and the provision of ecosystem services in the state of Chiapas; however, it lacks long-term climate information to support comprehensive plans for the conservation of endangered species and ecosystem restoration actions. The objectives of this work were to analyze: (i) the interannual variability of the annual rings of Pinus oocarpa Schiede in the Lagunas de Montebello National Park, as influenced by climate; and (ii) the ocean-atmosphere phenomena influence on both the interannual variability of the total ring-width series. A dendrochronological series of P. oocarpa was built for the period 1857-2018 (162 years), which indicates the presence of extreme hydroclimatic events in the region. Of these, the 1998 drought was a milestone for the management of this natural area due to the high-intensity fires that affected the area and caused unprecedented ecological, social, and economic damage in the site history. The climatic variables with the greatest influence on the annual radial increase of the species are precipitation and maximum temperature in winter-spring, when growth is positively associated with precipitation and negatively associated with temperature, attributed to increases in evapotranspiration. El Niño Southern Oscillation was the phenomenon with the highest correlation with climatic variability and the radial growth of the species, in frequencies of less than five years, although the positive influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation was also assessed annually. Global warming, characterized by increasing temperature, threatens the persistence of plant communities in the study area; therefore, knowing its impact on the growth of species of economic importance is essential to support conservation actions.Keywords: Dendrochronology, Hydroclimatic Variability, Drought, Pinus oocarpaiForest 16 (1): 174-181 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4112-016'id=ifor4112-016
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4112-016
  • Research Articles: Identification of the ambrosia beetle Anisandrus dispar
           (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae) using TaqMan™ probe
           assay on biological samples

    • Authors: Rizzo D; D’Agostino A, Stabile I, Ranaldi C, Marrucci A, Zubieta CG, Da Lio D, Bartolini L, Pennacchio F, Rossi E, Garonna AP
      Abstract: Rizzo D, D’Agostino A, Stabile I, Ranaldi C, Marrucci A, Zubieta CG, Da Lio D, Bartolini L, Pennacchio F, Rossi E, Garonna APIDENTIFICATION OF THE AMBROSIA BEETLE ANISANDRUS DISPAR (FABRICIUS) (COLEOPTERA CURCULIONIDAE SCOLYTINAE) USING TAQMAN™ PROBE ASSAY ON BIOLOGICAL SAMPLESAbstract: The European shot-hole borer Anisandrus dispar (Fabricius) (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae) is a well-known ambrosia beetle living on shrubs and several ornamental and fruiting trees where it can cause heavy damages. Like other harmful xyleborine species, A. dispar can represent a potential threat outside its native region. Molecular diagnostic tools can lead to accurate identification of xylophagous species hidden in wooden matrix in phytosanitary surveys at entry points. A molecular assay based on qPCR TaqMan™ Probes was developed for the identification of A. dispar from different matrices. To setup and perform the test, DNA extraction was carried out from adults, larvae, and artificial samples of wood chips from oak healthy plants whose lysates were contaminated with a known amount of DNA of A. dispar adults. The assay has proven inclusive for A. dispar, and exclusive towards the non-target organisms, showing 100% analytical specificity. The limit of detection was 0.32 pg µL-1 for the samples of insect adult DNA of A. dispar, and at 0.8 pg µL-1 for the samples containing lysates of Quercus spp. and 0.1 ng µL-1 of A. dispar adult DNA. Repeatability and reproducibility showed low values independently from the matrix used for DNA extraction, confirming the possible use in diagnostics of biological samples even if not directly related to the presence of A. dispar developmental stages. The presented approach may be adjusted and applied for phytosanitary purposes to other quarantine pests and rapidly detect possible infestations in vegetal matrices globally traded.Keywords: European Shot-hole Borer, Xyleborini, Quarantine Species, Molecular Diagnostics, Biological TracesiForest 16 (1): 182-187 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4287-016'id=ifor4287-016
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4287-016
  • Research Articles: Climate-wise models of biomass productivity for hybrid
           poplar clones in Europe

    • Authors: Bianchi S; Lee D, Bergante S, Facciotto G, Hynynen J, Nervo G
      Abstract: Bianchi S, Lee D, Bergante S, Facciotto G, Hynynen J, Nervo GCLIMATE-WISE MODELS OF BIOMASS PRODUCTIVITY FOR HYBRID POPLAR CLONES IN EUROPEAbstract: Renewable bioenergy has the potential to contribute sustainably to the energy sector. Forestry is the main source of biomass for energy in Europe, and poplar (genus Populus) is widely used for short rotation coppice (SRC). Many studies have assessed poplar clones’ productivity but there is a lack of regional studies and links with the climate. We investigated the biomass productivity of twenty hybrid poplar clones for SRC. Clones were planted in sixteen locations across nine countries in Europe, although not all clones were replicated in all locations. In each location, clones were planted in three replicated plots. All plots were harvested after four years, and the aboveground dry biomass estimated. We fitted clone-specific linear mixed models of total aboveground dry biomass production at plot level as function of climatic variables. For many clones (eight) only annual heat moisture deficit negatively affected productivity, in few cases (3) together with a quadratic term for a smoother relationship. In some other clones (five) only the mean summer precipitation positively and linearly affected productivity. On average, the variance explained by the fixed effects in those models was 56%. For the remaining clones (seven), no climate variables resulted significant. Our study explicitly investigated the quantitative link between water availability and poplar SRC productivity, one of the most important known factors but not often studied with a modelling approach. Further, we show the most productive clones in dried conditions. We also highlight the need to larger scale regional experiments to produce models that can be used in climate change scenarios.Keywords: Hybrid Poplar, Short Rotation Coppice, Aridity Index, Water Availability, Above Ground BiomassiForest 16 (3): 188-194 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4211-016'id=ifor4211-016
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4211-016
  • Research Articles: Exposure elevation and forest structure predict the
           abundance of saproxylic beetles’ communities in mountain managed beech

    • Authors: Parisi F; Mazziotta A, Vangi E, Tognetti R, Travaglini D, Marchetti M, D’Amico G, Francini S, Borghi C, Chirici G
      Abstract: Parisi F, Mazziotta A, Vangi E, Tognetti R, Travaglini D, Marchetti M, D’Amico G, Francini S, Borghi C, Chirici GEXPOSURE ELEVATION AND FOREST STRUCTURE PREDICT THE ABUNDANCE OF SAPROXYLIC BEETLES’ COMMUNITIES IN MOUNTAIN MANAGED BEECH FORESTSAbstract: In the managed beech forests of Central Italy (Molise), the diversity of saproxylic species is potentially under threat by intensive management. To evaluate the impact of forestry on the biodiversity of these ecosystems, we analyzed the relationship between abundance of saproxylic beetles and (i) forest stand exposure and elevation, (ii) deadwood availability (coarse woody debris - CWD - and stumps), (iii) abundance of microhabitats. Four sampling sectors with different altitudes and exposure were identified in a 400-ha study area in the Appenine mountains. Fifteen circular plots (13 m radius) were established in each sector where deadwood and microhabitats were surveyed and saproxylic beetles sampled. We fitted joint species distribution models to quantify the relationship between forest attributes and saproxylic species’ abundance, including the interactions with their family and trophic category. Overall, 2334 specimens belonging to 64 species of saproxylic beetles were collected. Both abundance and species richness were higher in the sectors with high elevation (respectively, 55% and 44%) and South exposure (respectively, 28% and 44%). Average deadwood volumes were low (stumps: 7.6 m3 ha-1; CWD: 0.3 m3 ha-1; snags: 0.4 m3 ha-1), and insect galleries were the most abundant microhabitat (380 records over a total of 434). The most important variables affecting abundance were stump characteristics (model deviance = 81.2), elevation (deviance = 64.7), and CWD characteristics (deviance = 58.0). Our results show that topographical variables and forest structure jointly affect the abundance patterns of saproxylic beetle communities in managed beech forests. These ecological interactions imply that management has different impacts on the saproxylic communities in different topographic conditions. To acknowledge this complexity we advocate for a landscape-level forest management supporting the local beetle diversity maintaining a mosaic of semi-natural forest characteristics in different topographic contexts. The ecological value of the forest landscape will be further enhanced by the application of closer-to-nature management interventions based on deadwood retention, microhabitat creation and tree retention, in line with the guidelines of the new EU Forest Strategy for 2030.Keywords: Deadwood, Forest Heterogeneity, Fourth-corner Problem, Italy, Joint Species Distribution Models, Microhabitats, Trophic CategoriesiForest 16 (3): 155-164 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4264-016'id=ifor4264-016
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4264-016
  • Research Articles: Fine root morphological traits and production in
           coniferous- and deciduous-tree forests with drained and naturally wet
           nutrient-rich organic soils in hemiboreal Latvia

    • Authors: Bardule A; Polmanis K, Krumšteds LL, Bardulis A, Lazdinš A
      Abstract: Bardule A, Polmanis K, Krumšteds LL, Bardulis A, Lazdinš AFINE ROOT MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND PRODUCTION IN CONIFEROUS- AND DECIDUOUS-TREE FORESTS WITH DRAINED AND NATURALLY WET NUTRIENT-RICH ORGANIC SOILS IN HEMIBOREAL LATVIAAbstract: Fine root production is one of the key elements of carbon (C) turnover in soil in afforested peatlands and forest lands with organic soils. We estimated variability in fine root morphology traits and annual production in hemiboreal forests dominated by coniferous trees (Norway spruce) and deciduous trees (silver birch and black alder) with nutrient-rich organic soils in Latvia. In total, 23 research sites were established in drained and naturally wet forests of different ages, and ingrowth core techniques were used to sample fine roots and subsequently determine fine root morphology traits and annual production, and calculate C input through fine root litter. Significant differences in several fine root morphological traits between coniferous- and deciduous-trees-dominated stands were found. Fine root production tended to be higher in coniferous-trees-dominated stands and positively correlated with several forest stand characteristics: stand age, average tree diameter at breast height, basal area and average tree height, but negatively correlated with nitrogen and phosphorus content in soil. C input through fine root litter ranged up to 0.46 ± 0.16 t ha-1 yr-1. It is necessary to conduct further research, including multi-annual estimates in a wider set of forest stands with diverse dominant tree species and growing conditions, to improve estimates, patterns and understanding of C flows through fine root litter in drained and naturally wet organic soils.Keywords: Fine Roots, Hemiboreal Forests, Drained Organic Soil, Naturally Wet Organic Soil, Fine Root Production, MorphologyiForest 16 (3): 165-173 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4186-016'id=ifor4186-016
      PubDate: 2023-06-08
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4186-016
  • Research Articles: A primary evaluation of Syrian forest damage since
           2011: a case study of Alhamam and Alboz forest sites

    • Authors: Aldakhil M; Abdullateef S, Mahmoud F, Alhasan A, Lakmes A, Al Abdullah M, Watmough GR
      Abstract: Aldakhil M, Abdullateef S, Mahmoud F, Alhasan A, Lakmes A, Al Abdullah M, Watmough GRA PRIMARY EVALUATION OF SYRIAN FOREST DAMAGE SINCE 2011: A CASE STUDY OF ALHAMAM AND ALBOZ FOREST SITESAbstract: Forests and trees make vital contributions to well-being, economic activities, ecosystem functioning and global system dynamics. There has been a lack of studies on the evaluation of the drivers of Syrian forest damage during the current conflict. This study estimated the damage since 2011 in the Alhamam and Alboz forest sites in Idlib province of Syria and evaluated the drivers of this damage. A multidimensional approach to damage assessment was developed which combined forest plot inventories, remotely sensed satellite image analysis, questionnaires and focus groups to enable a comparison of the forest from 2011 and 2017. The plot inventory data and remote sensing analysis provided estimates of forest damage and loss whilst focus groups and questionnaires provided vital information on the drivers of forest loss which is required for developing reforestation programmes. Overall, forest inventory data and satellite image analysis results indicated a reduction in tree cover, density and plant diversity. The results indicate a much higher loss of forest than is available from global products such as Global Forest Watch due to the prevalence in Syria of low-density Oak forests such as Alhamam not being classed as forest. The results of questionnaires and focus groups showed that the main cause of damage was an increased demand for fire-wood driven by a lack of fuel oil and increased unemployment, reduced household incomes and general price rises, making fuel more unaffordable. Respondents to surveys generally understood the importance of trees and forests and overtime the local knowledge of the importance of forest resources had not changed. This multidimensional approach indicates a reduced capacity of institutions to protect forests and will help to establish strategic plans to serve and protect the forest in the future.Keywords: Global Forest Watch, Conflict, Deforestation, SyriaiForest 16 (3): 144-154 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4032-016'id=ifor4032-016
      PubDate: 2023-05-30
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4032-016
  • Research Articles: Evaluation of urban forest spatial distribution
           characteristics in Guangdong - Hong Kong - Macao Greater Bay Area

    • Authors: Zhao Q; Zhang C, Hu R, Qian W, Wei Y
      Abstract: Zhao Q, Zhang C, Hu R, Qian W, Wei YEVALUATION OF URBAN FOREST SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS IN GUANGDONG - HONG KONG - MACAO GREATER BAY AREAAbstract: To understand the health and ecological benefits of scenic recreational forests, we elucidated their spatial distribution characteristics, which can be used to create guidelines and reveal strategic issues regarding the spatial distribution of tree species. We randomly set up 900 m2 quadrats in scenic recreational forest communities in Guangzhou, Foshan, and Zhuhai, and surveyed each tree using LiDAR. We then calculated the living vegetation volume (LVV) and amount of recreational space on the forest floor (RSFF), and analyzed the differences in spatial distribution characteristics across cities, locations, and forest types. The spatial distribution characteristics of trees differed between different cities, but were similar among different locations and forest types. Urban scenic recreational forest areas are thus configured based on aesthetics, recreational functions, and the spatial distribution characteristics of different tree species. Additionally, the relationship between the tree crown LVV and the RSFF was generally synergistic, yet contradictory. Although an increase in LVV can effectively improve ecological benefits, it may also reduce RSFF and other benefits provided by tree crowns to urban residents.Keywords: Urban Forests, Living Vegetation Volume, Forest Floor Recreational Space, Spatial Distribution StrategyiForest 16 (3): 136-143 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4268-016'id=ifor4268-016
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4268-016
  • Research Articles: Effects on soil physicochemical properties and seedling
           growth in mixed high forests caused by cable skidder traffic

    • Authors: Naghdi R; Tavankar F, Solgi A, Nikooy M, Marchi E, Picchio R
      Abstract: Naghdi R, Tavankar F, Solgi A, Nikooy M, Marchi E, Picchio REFFECTS ON SOIL PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN MIXED HIGH FORESTS CAUSED BY CABLE SKIDDER TRAFFICAbstract: The use of wheel skidders for timber extraction from tree stump to roadside landing has become more and more widespread. Although the use of wheel skidders has the advantages of high production and reduced extraction costs, it also damages the soil and impedes forest regeneration. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of machine traffic using the Timberjack 450C (two, six and 15 passes) on two slope classes (SC) of skid trails. A low slope is considered to be 20%. The effects on soil physicochemical properties and seedling growth (alder, Alnus subcordata C.A. Mey. and maple, Acer velutinum Boiss.) in natural mixed beech stands in the Hyrcanian forests in Northern Iran were observed and studied. The results showed that the different factors of traffic intensity (TI) and SC had a significant impact on soil physicochemical properties and subsequent seedling growth. After two machine passes in a low TI on both low and high slopes, soil bulk density (BD) increased by 49.3% and 59.2% and penetration resistance increased by 30.5% and 38.5%, while total porosity decreased by 19.5% and 23.5%. The forest floor decreased by 30.9% and 42%, organic carbon decreased by 25.6% and 39.4%, nitrogen decreased by 18.5% and 26.3%, phosphorus decreased by 14.1% and 23%, and potassium decreased by 10.7% and 24.2%, respectively as compared with the control area. Our results indicated additional BD increments after two, six and 15 machine passes of 49.3%, 17.9% and 8.3% in the low slope, respectively, and 59.2%, 16.5% and 7.1% in the high slope, respectively. The mean of the germination rate (GR) of alder and maple seedlings in the control area was 58.3% and 46.1%, respectively, while after two, six and 15 passes, the GR of alder seedlings reduced to 50%, 46.4% and 37.5%, respectively, while that of maple seedlings reduced to 36.1%, 28.6% and 25.6%, respectively. Additionally, after two machine passes, stem length, main root length, and total dry biomass decreased by 28.7%, 34.9% and 34% in alder seedlings, respectively, and 27.9%, 27.6% and 33.3% in maple seedlings, respectively. Comparison of the response of the two seedling species to soil compaction showed that although alder had a higher GR than maple, the root growth of maple was higher than that of alder.Keywords: Forest Regeneration, Soil Compaction, Trail Gradient, Wheel SkidderiForest 16 (2): 127-135 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4103-016'id=ifor4103-016
      PubDate: 2023-04-23
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4103-016
  • Research Articles: Spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stock in
           tropical dry forest in Brazil

    • Authors: Viana Santos HK; Borges De Lima R, Figueiredo De Souza RL, Cardoso D, Moonlight PW, Teixeira Silva T, Pereira De Oliveira C, Alves Júnior FT, Veenendaal E, Paganucci De Queiroz L, Rodrigues PM, Dos Santos RM, Sarkinen T, De Paula A, Barreto-Garcia PAB, Pennington T, Phillips OL
      Abstract: Viana Santos HK, Borges De Lima R, Figueiredo De Souza RL, Cardoso D, Moonlight PW, Teixeira Silva T, Pereira De Oliveira C, Alves Júnior FT, Veenendaal E, Paganucci De Queiroz L, Rodrigues PM, Dos Santos RM, Sarkinen T, De Paula A, Barreto-Garcia PAB, Pennington T, Phillips OLSPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS STOCK IN TROPICAL DRY FOREST IN BRAZILAbstract: Climate change is being intensified by anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gasses, highlighting the value of forests for carbon dioxide storing carbon in their biomass. Seasonally dry tropical forests are a neglected, threatened, but potentially critical biome for helping mitigate climate change. In South America, knowing the amount and distribution of carbon in Caatinga seasonally dry vegetation is essential to understand its contribution to the global carbon cycle and subsequently design a strategic plan for its conservation. The present study aimed to model and map the spatial distribution of the potential forest biomass stock across 32 forest fragments of Caatinga, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, using regression kriging and Inverse Square of Distance techniques, building from point measurements of vegetation biomass made on-the-ground in ecological plots. First, a model for estimating biomass was fitted as a function of environmental variables to apply regression kriging, and then applied to the maps of the selected components. Elevation, temperature, and precipitation explained 46% of the biomass variations in the Caatinga. The model residuals showed strong spatial dependence and were mapped based on geostatistical criteria, selecting the spherical semivariogram model for interpolation by ordinary kriging. Biomass was also mapped by the Inverse Square of Distance approach. The quality of the regression model suggests that there is good potential for estimating biomass here from environmental variables. The regression kriging showed greater detail in the spatial distribution and revealed a spatial trend of increasing biomass from the north to south of the domain. Additional studies with greater sampling intensity and the use of other explanatory variables are suggested to improve the model, as well as to maximize the technique’s ability to capture the actual biomass behavior in this newly studied seasonally dry ecosystem.Keywords: Geostatistics, Regression Kriging, Spatial Analysis, Forest InventoryiForest 16 (2): 116-126 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4104-016'id=ifor4104-016
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4104-016
  • Research Articles: Ecological factors affecting the recent Picea abies
           decline in Slovenia: the importance of bedrock type and forest naturalness

    • Authors: Kermavnar J; Kutnar L, Pintar AM
      Abstract: Kermavnar J, Kutnar L, Pintar AMECOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECENT PICEA ABIES DECLINE IN SLOVENIA: THE IMPORTANCE OF BEDROCK TYPE AND FOREST NATURALNESSAbstract: Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has been at the centre of controversy for many decades. Recent evidence of its profound disturbance-induced damage and consequent stock depletions across forest landscapes in Europe has reinforced doubts regarding the sustainability and prospects of this tree species in the future. Like many other European countries, Slovenia has experienced significant Norway spruce mortality and a decrease in growing stock primarily as the result of several disturbance agents (bark beetle outbreaks, an ice storm, windthrows). We investigated a countrywide spruce growing stock decline based on data between 2010 and 2018. Particular focus was placed on identifying the main ecological drivers of this decline, namely geological conditions, climatic parameters, soil attributes, topographic factors and forest stand characteristics. The effects of potential predictors on the relative change (%) in spruce volume (m3 ha-1) during the period 2010-2018 were analysed with Generalized Additive Models. Based on a national dataset including forest compartments (n = 6355) with a spruce growing stock decline > 10%, we found mixed support for ecology-based hypotheses. While spruce decline responded to bedrock type as predicted (i.e., greater relative decline in carbonate compared to silicate compartments), higher forest naturalness (preservation of tree species composition) was not associated with a lower decline. Spruce decline was amplified by higher potential evapotranspiration and soil clay content but showed a strong negative relationship with spruce proportion in the year 2010. General trends along the gradients of other selected predictors (stoniness/rockiness and heat load index) were less pronounced. The results suggest that most of these ecological predictors interact with geology and forest naturalness in affecting Norway spruce decline. Our analysis reveals that bedrock type can play an important role due to its mitigating effects. However, forest naturalness is of secondary significance as intensified large-scale forest disturbances likely override its buffering potential.Keywords: Norway Spruce, Bark Beetle Outbreaks, Ice Storm, Soil-geology Relationship, Tree Species Composition, SloveniaiForest 16 (2): 105-115 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4168-016'id=ifor4168-016
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4168-016
  • Research Articles: Amazon forest biomass: intra- and interspecific
           variability in wood density drive divergences in Brazil’s far north

    • Authors: Farias HLS; Pequeno PACL, Silva WR, Melo VF, Carvalho LCDS, Perdiz RDO, Citó AC, Fearnside PM, Barbosa RI
      Abstract: Farias HLS, Pequeno PACL, Silva WR, Melo VF, Carvalho LCDS, Perdiz RDO, Citó AC, Fearnside PM, Barbosa RIAMAZON FOREST BIOMASS: INTRA- AND INTERSPECIFIC VARIABILITY IN WOOD DENSITY DRIVE DIVERGENCES IN BRAZIL’S FAR NORTHAbstract: Wood density (WD) is an important functional trait of tree species. Understanding spatial WD variability as a function of environmental determinants improves our ability to estimate carbon stocks in the woody biomass of tropical forests. However, the role of each environmental variable affecting the intra- and interspecific variability of WD is not entirely clear for most forest ecosystems. In Amazonia there are recurrent uncertainties in estimates of regional woody biomass. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of environmental conditions on the intra- and interspecific variability of WD for tree assemblages in forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon. A single sample was extracted from each of 680 individuals (108 species, 82 genera, 38 families; stem diameter ≥10 cm) dispersed among 129 plots distributed along a hydro-edaphic gradient. General community-averaged WD (0.703 ± 0.133 g cm-3; range: 0.203 to 1.102 g cm-3) was high in relation to other Amazonian areas because 62% of the species and 69% of the sampled individuals had high WD values (>0.650 g cm-3). Altitude (a proxy for drainage), clay and soil micronutrient content explained 23% of the spatial variation in WD. Partitioning WD variation into species-substitution (turnover) and intraspecific-variation components slightly increased the explanatory power to 26%. The analysis of interspecific variability showed that forests occurring in seasonally flooded areas are characterized by tree assemblages with species tolerant to P-poor soils, where mean WD (0.742 g cm-3) is about 4% higher than the mean (0.713 g cm-3) for tree assemblages on unflooded uplands where soils have less limitations from nutrient poverty. Our results represent an improvement in the estimates of biomass because they promote adjustments (1.4%-16.3%) to the previous estimates of woody biomass in the northern Brazilian Amazon forests considering different environmental conditions.Keywords: Basic Density, Maracá, Roraima, Seasonal Forests, Wood Specific GravityiForest 16 (2): 95-104 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4137-016'id=ifor4137-016
      PubDate: 2023-03-21
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4137-016
  • Research Articles: Factors of soil CO2 emission in boreal forests:
           evidence from Central Siberia

    • Authors: Makhnykina AV; Tychkov II, Prokushkin AS, Pyzhev AI, Vaganov EA
      Abstract: Makhnykina AV, Tychkov II, Prokushkin AS, Pyzhev AI, Vaganov EAFACTORS OF SOIL CO2 EMISSION IN BOREAL FORESTS: EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL SIBERIAAbstract: Soils of boreal forests are crucial carbon reserves. The response of soil carbon emission to climate change significantly affects the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Soil carbon emission models frequently show a nonlinear response to temperature, but soil moisture is an important limiting factor, often overlooked in energy limited ecosystems. We suggest a statistical model of soil CO2 emission constrained by soil moisture and temperature for different ecosystems in the boreal zone. We tested this modelling strategy using direct measurements of seasonal soil CO2 emission near the research observatory ZOTTO near the Bor settlement, Central Siberia, Russia, in 2012-2017. Soil moisture explained a significant amount of variability of soil emission: the adjusted R2 was twice higher than in the baseline model. Although the temperature-only model describes the annual variability of carbon dioxide emissions quite well, the addition of moisture measurement significantly refines the quality of prediction of the seasonal component dynamics. Models including both temperature and soil moisture could serve as a promising tool to analyze the carbon cycle in boreal forest ecosystems.Keywords: Boreal Forests, Soil CO2 Emission, Soil Temperature, Soil Moisture, Carbon Cycle, Climate Change, Exponential ModeliForest 16 (2): 86-94 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4097-016'id=ifor4097-016
      PubDate: 2023-03-19
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4097-016
  • Research Articles: The nurse-plant effect under the dislodgement stress of

    • Authors: Yang JH; Chang LW, Hsu KC, Fan CC, Doley D, Song GZM
      Abstract: Yang JH, Chang LW, Hsu KC, Fan CC, Doley D, Song GZMTHE NURSE-PLANT EFFECT UNDER THE DISLODGEMENT STRESS OF LANDSLIDESAbstract: While the mitigating effects of trees on shallow landslide occurrence are well recognised, the impact of landslides on tree community structure and tree-tree interactions have received much less research attention. The structures of tree communities before and after landslides were compared in a 25-ha subtropical forest plot. Tree-tree interactions were examined by analysing the pre- and post-landslide spatial point patterns of large (DBH ≥ 20 cm) and small (1 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm) tree cohorts. In landslide scarps, 35 (34%) of 104 large trees and 467 (13%) of 3.072 small trees survived. Large (L) and small (S) tree cohorts were paired together for spatial analyses, including pre-landslide (PL) (LPL-SPL), surviving (S) (LS-SS), and missing (M) large-small tree paired cohorts (LM-SM). We randomly selected trees from the pre-landslide tree cohorts to create two virtual paired cohorts, the L34%-S13% and L66%-S87% paired cohorts, whose population sizes were identical to the field-observed LS-SS and LM-SM paired cohorts respectively, but with random spatial patterns. Post-landslide survival rates of trees increased monotonically with DBH. Large trees dislodged by landslides scarcely reduced small-tree survival. Evidence for this included: (i) the distance from small trees to the nearest large trees of the LM-SM paired cohort did not differ significantly from that of the virtual L66%-S87% paired cohort; (ii) survival rates of small trees near LM individuals did not differ significantly from those without large trees nearby. Surviving large trees had positive effects on the survival of small trees, indicated by: (i) the distance from small trees to the nearest large trees of the LS-SS paired cohort was significantly lower than that of the virtual L34%-S13% paired cohort; (ii) SS individuals clumped around LS individuals, whereas the virtual L34%-S13% spatial relationship was random. Large trees prevent landslide dislodgement of adjacent small trees through the nurse-plant effect. Our study suggests that landslide damage in sloping forests may be reduced simply by constantly maintaining a critical density of large trees.Keywords: Facilitation, Forest Dynamics Plot, Nurse-plant Effect, Point Pattern Analysis, Slope StabilityiForest 16 (2): 78-85 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4017-015'id=ifor4017-015
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4017-015
  • Research Articles: Co-benefits of biomass and biodiversity in a protected
           mountain forest of West Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: Rozak AH; Kusuma YWC, Junaedi DI
      Abstract: Rozak AH, Kusuma YWC, Junaedi DICO-BENEFITS OF BIOMASS AND BIODIVERSITY IN A PROTECTED MOUNTAIN FOREST OF WEST JAVA, INDONESIAAbstract: Tropical mountain forests are relatively less disturbed and store a large amount of carbon in tree biomass. A high level of species diversity compared to the boreal and temperate forests is also maintained and indicates a positive relationship with tree biomass on a small scale or at plot level. This study aimed to estimate above-ground biomass stocks (AGB) and disentangle the influence of forest structure and attributes on AGB in a small mountain forest. Forty 400 m² plots were randomly established in Takokak Nature Reserve (TNR), a 60-ha protected area at an elevation between 1150-1560 m a.s.l., located in West Java, Indonesia. All trees within the plot were identified, and their respective diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured. AGB was calculated using a global allometric model. Five independent variables, i.e., stem density, stem density of large trees (DBH >50 cm), community weighted mean wood density, rarefied species richness, and Fisher’s alpha index, were analysed using a linear model. Our results showed that AGB in TNR was comparable to other forest types in Indonesia and acted as carbon storage in the mountain regions. AGB in the TNR reached 486 Mg ha-1, of which 75% was contributed by large trees (DBH >50 cm). Three species, i.e., Liquidambar excelsa (Altingiaceae), Schima wallichii (Theaceae), and Lithocarpus sp. (Fagaceae), represent at least 70% of the total biomass in the study site. We also found that forest structures and traits, i.e., stem density, stem density of large trees, and community weighted mean wood density, drive AGB variations but not tree diversity indices. However, although diversity indices were not correlated to AGB, we found that TNR is home for endemic and threatened species on the IUCN Red List. Therefore, we suggest that the management strategies of the tropical forests should include both the conservation of the carbon stock and biodiversity.Keywords: Carbon Balance, Climate Change, Climate Mitigation, Endemic Tree, Nature Reserve REDD+, Threatened SpeciesiForest 16 (2): 62-69 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4068-015'id=ifor4068-015
      PubDate: 2023-03-05
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4068-015
  • Review Papers: Carbon neutrality of forest biomass for bioenergy: a
           scoping review

    • Authors: Selivanov E; Cudlín P, Horáček P
      Abstract: Selivanov E, Cudlín P, Horáček PCARBON NEUTRALITY OF FOREST BIOMASS FOR BIOENERGY: A SCOPING REVIEWAbstract: The exploitation of forest biomass for bioenergy is commonly perceived as part of a broad strategy for climate change mitigation due to the view that forest biomass is carbon neutral. The aims of this study are to distinguish the most widely used definition of carbon neutrality and to identify the most frequently discussed aspects of the concept of carbon neutrality. This research is conducted in the form of a scoping review. The results of the scoping review demonstrated that there is no generally accepted definition of carbon neutrality. Eight main concepts of carbon neutrality were identified. The most frequently discussed aspects of the carbon neutrality concept were temporal and spatial boundaries, scenario-based assumptions, and the source of biomass feedstock. This research provides a comprehensive summary of the concept of carbon neutrality and contributes to the debate regarding forest biomass exploitation for bioenergy.Keywords: Bioenergy, Biofuels, Carbon Cycle, Climate Change, Forest Residues, Life Cycle AssessmentiForest 16 (2): 70-77 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4160-015'id=ifor4160-015
      PubDate: 2023-03-05
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4160-015
  • Research Articles: Fluctuation of the ecological niche of Moringa
           peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori with topoclimatic heterogeneity in southern Iran

    • Authors: Piri Sahragard H; Karami P, Ajorlo M
      Abstract: Piri Sahragard H, Karami P, Ajorlo MFLUCTUATION OF THE ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF MORINGA PEREGRINA (FORSSK.) FIORI WITH TOPOCLIMATIC HETEROGENEITY IN SOUTHERN IRANAbstract: Heterogeneity can be studied for any dynamic or fixed environmental factors over time. However, determining the extent of heterogeneity occurrence in terms of habitat suitability, variability of dynamic and fixed factors, as well as landform role is an issue that has received less attention. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of Moringa peregrina at two climate change scenarios, to identify the Region of High Heterogenetic (ROHH) of the habitats in those scenarios and to ascertain the heterogeneity of habitat variables of the species in southern Iran. The current and potential distributions of the species in mild and severe climate change scenarios of 2050 and 2070, respectively, were modeled through the Ensemble technique using the climatic and topographic (topoclimatic) variables. The current distribution with four predictions of mild to severe Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.5, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) were entered into the principal component analysis (PCA) each year to achieve the heterogeneity of distribution. Then, the ROHH was calculated for areas with fluctuations of more than 50%. The topoclimatic variables in the ROHH were compared with the value of each variable in the current distribution in different landforms. The climatic variables of temperature seasonality and mean diurnal range had the greatest impact on M. peregrina distribution. There was more than 90% spatial agreement between the species current and potential distributions under different climate change scenarios (minimum Kappa = 0.9). In climate change scenarios, increase in species distribution is mainly limited by reduced rainfall, high temperature and altitude. The heterogeneity of habitat variables varied greatly in the ROHH and current presence points, indicating the species attempt to occupy new ecological niches. The highest distribution of the species was in the canyons and mountain tops, and the species seeks to occupy these areas in the ROHH. The magnitude of fluctuations of habitat variables at the presence points and the ROHH was different, indicating the species crossing the current niche range to establish in new niche. The mean diurnal range (Bio2) and annual precipitation (Bio12) variables had the lowest heterogeneity in 2050 and 2070 scenarios. This study reports that the fluctuation of habitat variables in areas with high heterogeneity was different from the current distribution range of M. peregrina. No significant fluctuation was found in the distribution range of the species in climate change scenarios.Keywords: Environmental Heterogeneity, Climate Change, Region of High Heterogenetic, Climatic VariablesiForest 16 (1): 53-61 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4196-015'id=ifor4196-015
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4196-015
  • Research Articles: Yield of forests in Ankara Regional Directory of
           Forestry in Turkey: comparison of regression and artificial neural network
           models based on statistical and biological behaviors

    • Authors: Bolat F; Ercanli I, Günlü A
      Abstract: Bolat F, Ercanli I, Günlü AYIELD OF FORESTS IN ANKARA REGIONAL DIRECTORY OF FORESTRY IN TURKEY: COMPARISON OF REGRESSION AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODELS BASED ON STATISTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORSAbstract: Models of forest growth and yield provide important information on stand and tree developments and the interactions of these developments with silvicultural treatments. These models have been developed based on assumptions such as independence of observations, uncorrelated error terms, and error terms with constant variance; if these factors are absent, there may be problems with multicollinearity, autocorrelation, or heteroscedasticity, respectively. These problems, which have several adverse effects on parameter estimates, are statistical phenomena and must be avoided. In recent years, the artificial neural network (ANN) model, thanks to its superior features such as the ability to make successful predictions and the absence of the requirement for statistical assumptions, has been commonly used in forestry modeling. However, while goodness-of-fit measures were taken into consideration in the assessment of ANN models, the control of the biological characteristics of model predictions was ignored. In this study, variable-density yield models were developed using nonlinear regression and ANN techniques. These modeling techniques were compared based on some goodness-of-fit measures and the principles of forest yield. The results showed that ANN models were more successful in meeting expected biological patterns than regression models.Keywords: Bayesian, Machine Learning, Gompertz, OverfittingiForest 16 (1): 30-37 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4116-015'id=ifor4116-015
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4116-015
  • Research Articles: Modeling compatible taper and stem volume of pure Scots
           pine stands in Northeastern Turkey

    • Authors: Saygili B; Kahriman A
      Abstract: Saygili B, Kahriman AMODELING COMPATIBLE TAPER AND STEM VOLUME OF PURE SCOTS PINE STANDS IN NORTHEASTERN TURKEYAbstract: Compatible taper and volume equations for pure and natural Scots pine stands in the northeastern part of Turkey (Ardahan Province) were developed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. Experimental data were obtained from 137 felled sample trees in different diameter and height classes. The most successful model (Jiang et al. 2005) explained 98.3% of the variance in stem diameter estimation and the RMSE, ME, MAE, AIC and BIC value obtained using this model were 1.955 cm, 0.043 cm, 1.300 cm, 9783.8 and 9812.6, respectively. Considering the criterion values of AIC, BIC and -2LnL, the model with random-effects in two parameters (b1 and b3) was the most successful for Scots pine. While the mixed model including random parameters did not completely solved the problem of the autocorrelation of errors in this study, the use of the autoregressive error structure AR(1) eliminated the autocorrelation in the residuals. In addition, the best estimation results among 20 different calibration options were obtained using the option of measuring two tree diameters at d1.30 and d5.30 with validation data. The most successful model explained 99.18% of the total variance in stem volume estimation in Scots pine.Keywords: Nonlinear Mixed-effects Model, Segmented Polynomial Taper Models, Calibration, Random Parameters, Autocorrelation, Stem VolumeiForest 16 (1): 38-46 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4099-015'id=ifor4099-015
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4099-015
  • Research Articles: Logging residue chipping options for short rotation
           poplar plantations

    • Authors: Spinelli R; Mihelič M, Kováč B, Heger P, Magagnotti N
      Abstract: Spinelli R, Mihelič M, Kováč B, Heger P, Magagnotti NLOGGING RESIDUE CHIPPING OPTIONS FOR SHORT ROTATION POPLAR PLANTATIONSAbstract: Short rotation poplar plantations grow on flat and even terrain, and the interrow spacing is wide enough for easy machine access. If the terrain is firm enough, one may consider moving the classic roadside chipping operation directly into the field (i.e., terrain chipping), thus saving on wood extraction cost. This study compared the efficiency and cost of roadside and terrain chipping conducted with exactly the same equipment, to assess the benefits offered by the versatile deployment of a standard chipping operation, whereby the operation can be moved inside the stand whenever terrain conditions are suitable. The study was conducted at 12 sample plots, containing about one truck load of chips each (i.e., approximately 11 bone-dry tons or BDT). Plots were arranged as alternate windrows on a 8.5 ha field. Data was collected for the whole supply chain, from field to factory. The factory was located 14 km from the field. Delivered cost was 53 € BDT-1 and 70 € BDT-1 for roadside and terrain chipping, respectively, i.e., terrain chipping was 1/3 more expensive than roadside chipping, even if the latter included the additional cost of forwarding the residues to the roadside. The chipper-truck used for the test could not cope with small scattered residue piles (32 BDT ha-1), and the cumbersome reposition maneuver became the main hurdle to efficient operation. Further improvements might be achieved by pre-bunching the residues, introducing a dedicated terrain chipper or bundling the residues and taking the bundles to the factory for centralized chipping.Keywords: Forestry, Efficiency, Productivity, CostiForest 16 (1): 23-29 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4130-015'id=ifor4130-015
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4130-015
  • Research Articles: Heat treatment of poplar plywood: modifications in
           physical, mechanical and durability properties

    • Authors: Marcon B; Viguier J, Candelier K, Thevenon MF, Butaud JC, Pignolet L, Gartili A, Denaud L, Collet R
      Abstract: Marcon B, Viguier J, Candelier K, Thevenon MF, Butaud JC, Pignolet L, Gartili A, Denaud L, Collet RHEAT TREATMENT OF POPLAR PLYWOOD: MODIFICATIONS IN PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND DURABILITY PROPERTIESAbstract: Plywood made of poplar are limited to indoor usages since poplar exhibits a rather low natural durability. Recently, wood heat treatments have been applied to improve properties such as decay susceptibility and dimensional stability. This study examines the potential of exposing poplar plywood to heat treatment to extend the potential of applications of this engineered wood product to outdoor end uses, and new markets accordingly. Plywood panels were glued with two different adhesive formulations based on the same melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resin to compare their respective ability to resist to the heat treatment. These different plywoods were thermally modified in saturated steam conditions at 215 °C for 2 hours following the ThermoWood® process, up to reach 14% in mass loss. The durability improvement brought by the heat treatment was assessed in order to evaluate any possible outdoor uses for such plywood. After all the conducted analyses, the potential to use heat treated poplar plywoods in humid interior and protected exterior service conditions was confirmed.Keywords: Heat Treatment, Plywood, Poplar, Bending Modulus of Elasticity, Bending Strength, Bond Quality, Fungal Durability, Termite ResistanceiForest 16 (1): 1-9 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4159-015'id=ifor4159-015
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor4159-015
  • Review Papers: Problems and solutions to cork oak (Quercus suber L.)
           regeneration: a review

    • Authors: Mechergui T; Pardos M, Boussaidi N, Jacobs DF, Catry FX
      Abstract: Mechergui T, Pardos M, Boussaidi N, Jacobs DF, Catry FXPROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS TO CORK OAK (QUERCUS SUBER L.) REGENERATION: A REVIEWAbstract: This study aimed to review the requirements and difficulties of natural and artificial regeneration of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) in the Mediterranean Basin. Cork oak regeneration is achieved naturally by means of sexual or vegetative reproduction (by seeds or by sprouting), or artificially through direct seeding, or seedling planting. Both natural and artificial regeneration of cork oak frequently encounter numerous difficulties which limit the ecological conditions for cork oak regeneration, including acorn predation, slow growth, vegetative competition, browsing of seedlings, fires, pests and diseases, and summer drought. We reviewed the state of the art of these difficulties and summarize the potential solutions for each regeneration form.Keywords: Natural Regeneration, Artificial Regeneration, Direct Seeding, Plantation, Stump SproutsiForest 16 (1): 10-22 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3945-015'id=ifor3945-015
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3945-015
  • Research Articles: Facilitating objective forest land use decisions by
           site classification and tree growth modeling: a case study from Vietnam

    • Authors: Cuong ND; Volker M, Köhl M
      Abstract: Cuong ND, Volker M, Köhl MFACILITATING OBJECTIVE FOREST LAND USE DECISIONS BY SITE CLASSIFICATION AND TREE GROWTH MODELING: A CASE STUDY FROM VIETNAMAbstract: Onsite information pertaining to forest growth potential is a significant prerequisite for selecting suitable forest plantation locations and safeguards sustainable timber production and income generation. In the scope of forest landscape restoration, the selection of the most suitable sites for reforestation remains a major issue. The current study introduces an operational, objective, and straightforward methodology for the identification and prioritization of sites that are suitable for forest plantations. The methodology is based on an approach that combines land use suitability assessment with site-specific growth and yield predictions. The land use suitability assessment is based on a methodological framework presented by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In a study area in Vietnam four different suitability classes are defined for the species Acacia mangium (A. mangium). Field assessments in existing A. mangium plantations were utilized to develop yield models. Among the Korf, Gompertz, and Chapman-Richards growth equations Korf performed the best for all suitability classes. Prioritization of sites is realized by the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Our study offers a pragmatic approach for selecting the most suitable sites for large-scale forest restoration activities. Integrating growth and yield predictions supports reforestation practices and promotes sustainable timber production.Keywords: Acacia mangium, Suitability, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Volume Growth, VietnamiForest 12 (6): 542-550 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2945-012'id=ifor2945-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-17
  • Research Articles: Relationships between leaf physiognomy and sensitivity
           of photosynthetic processes to freezing for subtropical evergreen woody

    • Authors: Cheng D; Zhang Z, Zhou S, Peng Y, Zhang L
      Abstract: Cheng D, Zhang Z, Zhou S, Peng Y, Zhang LRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEAF PHYSIOGNOMY AND SENSITIVITY OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PROCESSES TO FREEZING FOR SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN WOODY PLANTSAbstract: Subtropical and tropical species in high altitude suffer from low temperature more frequently than those from temperate regions. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis can measure the primary photochemical processes of photosystem II (PSII) and help evaluate the sensitivity of evergreen woody plants to low temperature. Coupled with leaf physiognomy, it has allowed to examine the potential thermal regulation of evergreens in response to extreme coldness. The leaf physiognomy (length, width, thickness and ratio of length/width) and chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, maximum potential photochemical efficiency of PSII; NPQ, non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence; and Y(II), effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II) under natural freezing and recovery conditions of nine evergreen woody trees were measured to analyze their relationships. Results showed that the changes of Fv/Fm under freezing versus recovery had a positive relationship with leaf length and width, while a negative relationship with leaf thickness. Similar to leaf size, leaf shape also influenced the photoinhibition levels of evergreens by regulating the leaf boundary layer thickness. Leaves with an oval-like shape suffered less from freezing than leaves with a lanceolate-like shape. A relatively weaker relationship between NPQ and Y(II) was found at freezing than after recovery for species with larger and lanceolate-like leaves. Our findings are helpful to understand the adaptation strategy of evergreen woody species to extreme low temperature in subtropical areas and to provide guidance for the management of evergreen plants introduced in botanical gardens.Keywords: Leaf Size, Leaf Shape, Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, Photoinhibition, Low Temperature Stress, EvergreensiForest 12 (6): 551-557 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3196-012'id=ifor3196-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-17
  • Research Articles: Dust collection potential and air pollution tolerance
           indices in some young plant species in arid regions of Iran

    • Authors: Javanmard Z; Kouchaksaraei Tabari M, Bahrami H, Hosseini SM, Sanavi SAMM, Struve D
      Abstract: Javanmard Z, Kouchaksaraei Tabari M, Bahrami H, Hosseini SM, Sanavi SAMM, Struve DDUST COLLECTION POTENTIAL AND AIR POLLUTION TOLERANCE INDICES IN SOME YOUNG PLANT SPECIES IN ARID REGIONS OF IRANAbstract: Dust is one of the main environmental challenges in most arid zone cities of Iran. Tree plantation and forest belts can provide a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution to mitigate dust pollution. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) based on a combination of total chlorophyll (TChl), relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid (AsA), and leaf pH is considered as one of the most important means for determining sensitive and tolerant plant species for greening. The present study aimed to evaluate the dust capturing efficiency and APTI of Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill., Morus alba L., Celtis caucasica Willd., and Melia azedarach L., four tree species commonly used in urban green areas of most cities in Iran. As a completely randomized design, 256 saplings were grown in four plastic sheets (64 saplings of four species in each chamber) and the dust was applied at concentrations of 0, 300, 750, and 1500 μg m-3 once a week for 70 days. The results revealed that dust accumulation was greatest in the 750 and 1500 μg m-3 treatment in the following order: M. alba > C. caucasica > F. rotundifolia > M. azedarach. In all species, pH, RWC, AsA, and TChl diminished with increasing dust concentration. A decline in APTI of 0 to 1500 μg m-3 was observed in all species. At 750 μg m-3, only M. alba was tolerant to dust and the other species were intermediate. At 1500 μg m-3, M. alba and M. azedarach showed to be intermediate while two other species were sensitive. The greatest relationship was found between APTI and RWC (R2= 0.85), followed by APTI and AsA (R2 = 0.82). Although C. caucasica showed a high capacity for dust accumulation at 1500 μg m-3, it was found to be sensitive and can, therefore, be used as a dust pollution bioindicator. F. rotundifolia and C. caucasica are not suitable for plantation in urban green spaces where dust concentration is 1500 μg m-3. M. alba appeared to be a tolerant species adaptable to arid urban environments with a potential for reducing dust levels by sinking its particles.Keywords: APTI, Ascorbic Acid, Dust Pollution, Persian Lilac, White MulberryiForest 12 (6): 558-564 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3063-012'id=ifor3063-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-17
  • Research Articles: Effect of stand density on longitudinal variation of
           wood and bark growth in fast-growing Eucalyptus plantations

    • Authors: Ramalho FMG; Pimenta EM, Goulart CP, De Almeida MNF, Vidaurre GB, Hein PRG
      Abstract: Ramalho FMG, Pimenta EM, Goulart CP, De Almeida MNF, Vidaurre GB, Hein PRGEFFECT OF STAND DENSITY ON LONGITUDINAL VARIATION OF WOOD AND BARK GROWTH IN FAST-GROWING EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONSAbstract: The influence of tree spacing on the wood/bark ratio is unknown in young fast-growing Eucalyptus trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant spacing on the wood and bark production along the Eucalyptus stem. Four genetic materials were planted in four spacings: 3×1 m, 3×2 m, 3×3 m and 3×4 m. Three 5-year-old trees from each clone and in each plant spacing were harvested. Cross-sectional discs (thickness: 30 mm) were cut from each tree along the stem (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the total tree height) and at 1.3 m above ground, totaling 288 disks (4 spacings × 4 clones × 3 replicates × 6 axial positions). The wood thickness was measured at six random and equidistant points around the perimeter using a gauge and means were calculated from each disc. Six cross diameters were measured for each debarked disc. After obtaining the averaged bark thickness and wood diameter, the bark content was calculated as the ratio between the surface area occupied by the bark and the total area of the stem in each level. In the narrowed plant spacing (3×1), the trees had a mean diameter of 7.4 cm, while at the spacing 3×4 the diameter of the trees was 91% higher (14.11 cm) at breast height. The increase in plant spacing from 3 to 12 m2 per tree resulted in an increase in bark thickness (56.7%) from 1.94 mm to 3.04 mm, but caused a reduction of bark content (16%) from 9.66% to 8.11%. Our findings show that trees grown under wider spacing tend to produce thicker bark. The bark thickness and the effect of plant spacing on the bark thickness decreased in the base-top direction. The correlation between bark thickness and wood diameter increases from 0.682 to 0.825 with the increase of spacing between trees. In contrast, the bark thickness to bark content correlation decrease from 0.735 to 0.15 with increased plant spacing. The stand density significantly affected the variation of the stem diameter, bark thickness and bark content of Eucalyptus plantations.Keywords: Stand Density, Timber, Bark, Silvicultural Treatment, Forest ProductivityiForest 12 (6): 527-532 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3082-012'id=ifor3082-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Research Articles: Estimating biomass and carbon sequestration of
           plantations around industrial areas using very high resolution stereo
           satellite imagery

    • Authors: Hosseini Z; Naghavi H, Latifi H, Bakhtiari Bakhtiarvand S
      Abstract: Hosseini Z, Naghavi H, Latifi H, Bakhtiari Bakhtiarvand SESTIMATING BIOMASS AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF PLANTATIONS AROUND INDUSTRIAL AREAS USING VERY HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO SATELLITE IMAGERYAbstract: Plantations established in highly-pollutant industrial areas have a crucial role to absorb greenhouse gases, particularly CO2. A thorough monitoring of their aboveground biomass and carbon balance is essential to ensure their beneficial effects. This can be operationally supported by using a combination of field and multispectral stereo remote sensing data to provide surface height information with high resolution and wide coverage. We estimated the fresh and dry aboveground biomass and the carbon sequestration from pairs of Pléiades satellite imagery of 25-year-old monoculture plantations of Pinus eldarica Medw., Cupressus arizonica Greene, Morus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., around the Mobarakeh Steel Complex near the megacity Isfahan. This complex is the largest-scale of its kind in semi-arid Iran. Tree heights were derived from a Canopy height model (CHM) at plantation management unit level. Parsimonious regression models were developed, and the accuracy was assessed by the coefficient of determination, bias and root mean square errors (RMSEs) at plot level. This resulted in R2 of total biomass, dry biomass, carbon sequestration, tree height and tree count of 0.90, 0.90, 0.91, 0.89, and 0.88, respectively. Moreover, mixed bias (with lowest value of -0.12 m for tree height) and NRMSE% (with lowest value of 5.93 % for tree carbon sequestration) values were obtained. The results demonstrated that pairs of stereo imageries can be effectively used for predicting forest biomass and carbon sequestration across semi-arid plantations, hence enabling a continuous monitoring of vegetation established around pollutant industrial areas.Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, Biomass, Plantation, Industrial Areas, VHR Stereo ImagesiForest 12 (6): 533-541 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3155-012'id=ifor3155-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Research Articles: Analysis of canopy temperature depression between
           tropical rainforest and rubber plantation in Southwest China

    • Authors: Tay Zar Myo S A; Zhang Y, Song QH, Deng Y, Fei X, Zhou R, Lin Y, Zhou L, Zhang P
      Abstract: Tay Zar Myo S A, Zhang Y, Song QH, Deng Y, Fei X, Zhou R, Lin Y, Zhou L, Zhang PANALYSIS OF CANOPY TEMPERATURE DEPRESSION BETWEEN TROPICAL RAINFOREST AND RUBBER PLANTATION IN SOUTHWEST CHINAAbstract: Temperature change is an important environmental variable for global change sciences since it largely affects the physiology of plants in forest ecosystems. Canopy temperature depression (CTD) - the result of the deviation of the air temperature (Ta) from the plant canopy surface temperature (Tc) - varies depending on the meteorological and environmental conditions of the forests. Here, we evaluated the differences in CTD between a rubber plantation (RP) and a tropical rainforest (TR) in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China across the various time series of the period of 2011 to 2015. The mean maximum CTD values at the TR site and the RP site were 2.4°C and 0.6°C at diurnal level, 1.3°C and -0.5°C at monthly level, 0.6°C and -0.8°C at seasonal level and 5.6°C and 0.2°C at yearly time series level, respectively, while they were only significant (p < 0.01) in the diurnal time series. There was a significant (p < 0.01) negative linear relationship between CTD and global radiation (Q) in both sites at diurnal level and a significant (p < 0.05) negative linear relationship in the RP site at monthly time series level. A significant (p < 0.05) positive linear relationship between CTD and precipitation (P) at the RP site was found at diurnal level, as well as a significant (p < 0.01) positive linear relationship in the TR site at monthly time series level. The variation of CTD was critical for these two sites and largely depended on the amount of global radiation and the precipitation, while it will mainly affect the physiological variables. This study may prove useful for assessing the physiological response in terms of high temperature and drought conditions to regional and global change.Keywords: Canopy Temperature Depression, Global Radiation, Precipitation, Tropical Rainforest, Rubber PlantationiForest 12 (6): 518-526 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3101-012'id=ifor3101-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
  • Review Papers: Accuracy of determining specific parameters of the urban
           forest using remote sensing

    • Authors: Ciesielski M; Sterenczak K
      Abstract: Ciesielski M, Sterenczak KACCURACY OF DETERMINING SPECIFIC PARAMETERS OF THE URBAN FOREST USING REMOTE SENSINGAbstract: This paper reviews the current state of knowledge in the field of urban forest inventory and specific tree parameters derived by remote sensing. The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of using remote sensing to determine the following characteristics of individual trees acquired during the inventory: position (coordinates), tree height, breast height diameter, tree crown parameters (crown span, height of tree crown basis, crown projection surface), health condition, and tree species. A total of 543 papers published in scientific databases (Scopus® and ScienceDirect®) from the year 2000 to December 2017 have been analyzed; 86 of them were used for the review. The most important outcomes are: (a) the integration of many datasets, in particular spectral data (aerial images and satellite imageries) and structural data (LIDAR), allows the most complex use of remote sensing data and helps to improve the accuracy of parameter estimations as well as the correct identification of tree species; (b) the highest precision of measurement is characteristic of TLS, while ALS data has the largest operating system; (c) remote sensing data applications are associated with a large number of sophisticated processing on very large datasets using often proprietary elaborations; (d) the use of remote sensing data makes it possible to determine the characteristics of urban vegetation at various levels of detail and at different scales.Keywords: Urban Forestry, Remote Sensing, Green Inventory, Laser Scanning, Hyperspectral Imaging, Satellite ImagingiForest 12 (6): 498-510 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3024-012'id=ifor3024-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
  • Research Articles: Impacts of Norway spruce (Picea abies L., H. Karst.)
           stands on soil in continental Croatia

    • Authors: Perković I; Pernar N, Roje V, Bakšić D, Baneković M
      Abstract: Perković I, Pernar N, Roje V, Bakšić D, Baneković MIMPACTS OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES L., H. KARST.) STANDS ON SOIL IN CONTINENTAL CROATIAAbstract: A quantitative analysis of pedo-physiological indicators aimed at determining changes in the soil attributable to the effects of spruce plantations was done. The study was conducted at eight sites in central and north-western Croatia where spruce plantations were planted in the late 20th century. At each site, a pedological profile was opened within the spruce plantation and the endo-morphological parameters of the soil were determined. Composite soil samples from two depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) and from the forest floor were taken in the spruce plantation and compared with samples taken at plots covered by natural vegetation (natural stands) located in the surroundings. The following pedo-physiographic indicators were measured on the collected soil samples: quantity of forest floor, particle size distribution of soil, pH values in H2O and in CaCl2 aqueous solution (concentration 0.01 mol dm-3), content of Corg, content of Ntot and content of bioavailable nutrients (using the Mehlich III method). The results showed that the forest floor had a higher mass in the spruce plantations than in natural stands. The mineral soil showed clear trends of influence of the spruce plantations on soil in terms of reduced pH values. Most plots in the spruce plantations showed a lower nitrogen content in the soil, a higher C/N ratio and lower content of bioavailable phosphorus. This study provides an insight into the amelioration effects of spruce plantations on soil, and represent a reliable basis for decision-making in planning specific interventions in terrestrial ecosystems, such as the establishment of new forest plantations.Keywords: Spruce Plantation, Forest Soil, Chemical Properties of Soil, Forest FlooriForest 12 (6): 511-517 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3023-012'id=ifor3023-012
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
  • Editorials: Present challenges to global forests and the role of IUFRO

    • Authors: Parrotta JA
      Abstract: Parrotta JAPRESENT CHALLENGES TO GLOBAL FORESTS AND THE ROLE OF IUFROAbstract: The new IUFRO President 2019-2024 Dr. John Parrotta, US Forest Service, summarizes his vision of the present challenges to global forests and the role of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). This paper is drawn from his acceptance speech at the XXV IUFRO World Congress held in Curitiba, Brazil, on 29 Sept - 5 Oct 2019.Keywords: IUFRO, Global Forests, Forest ChallengesiForest 12 (6): 488-490 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor0066-012'id=ifor0066-012
      PubDate: 2019-11-02
  • Research Articles: Role of serotiny on Pinus pinaster Aiton germination
           and its relation to mother plant age and fire severity

    • Authors: Cruz O; García-Duro J, Casal M, Reyes O
      Abstract: Cruz O, García-Duro J, Casal M, Reyes OROLE OF SEROTINY ON PINUS PINASTER AITON GERMINATION AND ITS RELATION TO MOTHER PLANT AGE AND FIRE SEVERITYAbstract: Serotiny degree may hypothetically depend on mother plant age and fire severity, and fire severity can strongly affect the regeneration of Pinus pinaster Aiton, which is an obligate seeder species with aerial seed banks stocked in cones showing a certain degree of serotiny. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of serotiny and mother plant age on seed germination of P. pinaster in relation to fire severity. For this purpose, cones were collected in two stands from mother trees of different ages. Serotinous cones were opened in oven at increasing temperatures to determine the number of seeds released. The length of cones and the number and weight of seeds were measured. Seeds from both classes of mother plant age were subjected to 34 different treatments simulating different fire severity levels, and their germination was recorded. The results showed that serotiny was significantly higher in cones from young mother trees. Seed germination in the control groups from serotinous cones was always higher than that from non-serotinous cones without thermal shock. Fire severity decreased seed germination as fire severity increases in both mother age classes. Mother plant age was related to the serotiny level, which was higher in young than in old trees, suggesting a strong selection in the population due to a recent fire.Keywords: Fire Severity, Germination, Mother Plant Age, Pinus pinaster, Plantation Management, SerotinyiForest 12 (6): 491-497 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2968-012'id=ifor2968-012
      PubDate: 2019-11-02
  • Research Articles: Bioactivity of ethanol extracts from Eucalyptus
           bosistoana F. Muell. heartwood

    • Authors: Mishra G; Garrill A, Altaner CM
      Abstract: Mishra G, Garrill A, Altaner CMBIOACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS FROM EUCALYPTUS BOSISTOANA F. MUELL. HEARTWOODAbstract: Variability in bioactivity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus bosistoana F. Muell. heartwood extracts between individual trees from two different sites were investigated. Combining the results of fungal assays and quantitative gas chromatography (GC) of the extracts allowed the investigation of bioactive compounds. The bioactivity of extracts was assessed against white rot (Trametes versicolor [L.] Lloyd) and brown rot (Coniophora cerebella Pers.). Ethanol extracts from E. bosistoana heartwood were less effective on the white rot than against the brown rot. Variability in the bioactivity of extracts against the two fungi was observed between the trees. A site effect in the bioactivity was found for the white rot but not the brown rot. Bioactivity of the extracts against the white rot was not correlated to that against the brown rot. The absence of a relationship between of effects of the extracts on the relative growth rates of the white rot and the brown rot indicated that the two fungi were affected by different compounds. Thirty two compounds were quantified in E. bosistoana ethanol extracts by GC, of which six (benzoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 1,5-dihdroxy-12-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-anthra[2,3-c]pyran-6,11-dione, octadecanoic acid, polyphenol and beta-sitosterol) were identified. Significant variability in eight compounds was found between the two sites. Multivariate (PLSR) analysis identified compounds at the retention times 10.2 and 11.5 min (hexadecanoic acid) to be most related to the bioactivity of the E. bosistoana heartwood extracts against white rot and brown rot.Keywords: Brown Rot, Extractives, Fungal Assays, Gas Chromatography, Heartwood, White RotiForest 12 (5): 467-473 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3072-012'id=ifor3072-012
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
  • Research Articles: The influence of age and crown position on growth
           efficiency along a Scots pine chronosequence

    • Authors: Turski M; Kwasna H, Beker C, Jaszczak R, Kazmierczak K, Najgrakowski T, Borzyszkowski W
      Abstract: Turski M, Kwasna H, Beker C, Jaszczak R, Kazmierczak K, Najgrakowski T, Borzyszkowski WTHE INFLUENCE OF AGE AND CROWN POSITION ON GROWTH EFFICIENCY ALONG A SCOTS PINE CHRONOSEQUENCEAbstract: The study deals with the effects of age and crown position (either dominant or intermediate, as determined by Kraft’s social class) on stemwood growth efficiency (GE), which is viewed as the ratio of annual stemwood volume increment of the previous five years to needle volume of the entire tree, in eight even-aged pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The highest GE was observed in the youngest stands, and the lowest in the oldest ones. There was no clear interdependence of GE on the age of intermediate stands. GE was most variable in the youngest, the 25-year-old stand, and was the least variable in the 74-year-old stand. GE in dominant trees was lower in 25- 74- and 85-year-old stands and higher in 33-, 44-, 56-, 64- and 93-year-old stands. The GE ratios of dominant trees to intermediate trees in 25-, 33-, 44-, 56-, 64-, 74-, 85- and 93-year-old stands were 0.47:1, 1:0.93, 1:0.87, 1:0.81, 1:0.86, 0.88:1, 0.90:1 and 1:0.61, respectively. Tree age had a statistically significant effect on GE; however, the contribution of the age factor to GE was assessed as weak. Generally, the position of trees (whether dominant or intermediate) had no effect on GE, while age × position of trees had a statistically significant effect on GE, which means that the two factors interacted. The correlation between GE and tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and the needle volume of the entire empirical material was statistically significant with a negative sign; however, the situation varied among the particular stands.Keywords: Pine, Needle Volume, Growth Efficiency, Dominant Trees, Intermediate TreesiForest 12 (5): 474-479 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2953-012'id=ifor2953-012
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
  • Research Articles: Classification and mapping of Spanish Mediterranean
           mixed forests

    • Authors: Sánchez de Dios R; Velázquez JC, Sainz Ollero H
      Abstract: Sánchez de Dios R, Velázquez JC, Sainz Ollero HCLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPANISH MEDITERRANEAN MIXED FORESTSAbstract: Mixed forests play an important role in promoting forest functions and services, and showed better resilience to perturbations than monospecific forests. In the Mediterranean Basin they constitute an important share of the total forest area. However, although mixed forests have been described, classified and mapped in most of the Mediterranean regions around the world, in the Mediterranean Basin they remain neglected, with direct negative consequences for forest management and conservation strategies. Our objective is to present a reliable, uniform classification along with a map of the Spanish Mediterranean Mixed Forests (MMF) as a tool for their management and conservation in Spain. The digital Spanish Forest Map was analyzed to identify MMF. The most frequent tree species combinations were identified and their representativeness in terms of the total forest area was analyzed. In addition, to ensure environmental homogeneity in the proposed classification, the arrangement of each tree species combination within the Spanish Mediterranean ecoregions was evaluated using the Pearson Chi-square test. Based on our results, Spanish MMF currently cover 27.07% of the Mediterranean natural forest area. They were divided into 9 main ecological groups and 23 subtypes. The classification of Spanish MMF and the distribution map represent a first step towards recognizing the importance of mixed forests in the vegetation of the Mediterranean Basin. Together they may provide a valuable basis to improve future forest management, monitoring and conservation strategies both at national and European level.Keywords: Mixed Forests, Mediterranean Forests, Vegetation Classification, Forest Map, Mediterranean Mixed ForestiForest 12 (5): 480-487 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2817-012'id=ifor2817-012
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
  • Research Articles: Distribution and abundance of the alien Xylosandrus
           germanus and other ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae,
           Scolytinae) in different forest stands in central Slovenia

    • Authors: Hauptman T; Pavlin R, Grošelj P, Jurc M
      Abstract: Hauptman T, Pavlin R, Grošelj P, Jurc MDISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF THE ALIEN XYLOSANDRUS GERMANUS AND OTHER AMBROSIA BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE, SCOLYTINAE) IN DIFFERENT FOREST STANDS IN CENTRAL SLOVENIAAbstract: The East Asian ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus germanus - Blandford 1894) is an invasive species that has become successfully established in Europe and North America. In Slovenia, X. germanus was first recorded in 2000 in the western part of the country, and since 2008 the species has also been identified in other parts of Slovenia. The first economic damage was recorded in 2016 after a massive attack on recently felled logs of different tree species, spurring research into this non-native invasive species. To examine the distribution and abundance of X. germanus compared to other ambrosia beetles and to determine voltinism and the flight period of the species in our climatic conditions, we deployed 19 ethanol-baited traps from March to November 2017 in oak-, beech- and fir-dominated forest stands in central Slovenia. To verify the vertical distribution of X. germanus, traps were installed at altitudes ranging from 303 m to 941 m a.s.l. Furthermore, the impact of the ice storm that hit Slovenia in 2014 on the abundance of X. germanus was also studied. Non-native X. germanus represented 71.8% of the total catch and was significantly more abundant than the other five most common species: Xyleborinus saxesenii (20.0%), Xyleborus monographus (3.6%), Anisandrus dispar (2.5%), Trypodendron domesticum (1.2%) and Trypodendron signatum (0.6%). X. germanus was most abundant in beech-dominated stands, but the differences between forest types were not significant. The species was found along the entire altitudinal gradient. Our results indicate that the swarming of X. germanus in lowland forests may already occur by the middle of March. Maximum flying activity was observed in May and early June in forests below 600 m a.s.l. and at the end of May and in June in forests above 700 m a.s.l. Only one generation per year was observed. The ice storm positively affected the abundance of X. germanus, especially in areas where sanitary logging was delayed. Xyleborinus attenuatus was detected for the first time in Slovenia.Keywords: Xylosandrus germanus, Ambrosia Beetles, Black Timber Bark Beetle, Invasive Species, Habitat Preference, Monitoring, Ethanol-baited TrapsiForest 12 (5): 451-458 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3114-012'id=ifor3114-012
      PubDate: 2019-09-29
  • Research Articles: Preliminary study on genetic variation of growth traits
           and wood properties and superior clones selection of Populus ussuriensis

    • Authors: Jin J; Zhao X, Liu H, Wang S, Song Z, Ma X, Li K
      Abstract: Jin J, Zhao X, Liu H, Wang S, Song Z, Ma X, Li KPRELIMINARY STUDY ON GENETIC VARIATION OF GROWTH TRAITS AND WOOD PROPERTIES AND SUPERIOR CLONES SELECTION OF POPULUS USSURIENSIS KOM.Abstract: In this study the genetic variation of growth traits and wood properties was assessed in 45 clones of Populus ussuriensis Kom. grown in a 10-year-old experimental forest located in Northeastern China and a preliminary selection of superior clones was performed based on multi-trait selection index. The following traits were analyzed: tree height, H; diameter at breast height, DBH; volume, V; basic wood density, BWD; fiber length, FL; fiber length-width ratio, FL/W; microfibril angle, MA; cell wall percentage, CWP; fiber double wall thickness, FWT; vessel proportion, VP; wood fiber proportion, FP; wood ray proportion, RP; holocellulose content, HC. The results revealed significant differences (P
      PubDate: 2019-09-29
  • Research Articles: Spatial structure of the vertical layers in a
           subtropical secondary forest 57 years after clear-cutting

    • Authors: Li Y; He J, Yu S, Zhu D, Wang H, Ye S
      Abstract: Li Y, He J, Yu S, Zhu D, Wang H, Ye SSPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE VERTICAL LAYERS IN A SUBTROPICAL SECONDARY FOREST 57 YEARS AFTER CLEAR-CUTTINGAbstract: Stratification is an important phenomenon in natural forests. The mixed pine-oak forests along the Nanpan River in southwest China was clearly formed by two layers in the vertical direction. These forests developed in an area where the virgin forests suffered clear-cutting. After excluding habitat heterogeneity, we divided two plots into upper and lower layers according to the tree height, and then analyzed the spatial pattern, species distribution, and size differentiation using the pair correlation function g(r) and the mark correlation function (MCF) kmm (r), respectively. The following key results were obtained: (1) the upstory was slightly clustered, whereas the understory had an intensively clumped pattern. An uneven pattern of germplasm resources in the early stages of succession and seed dispersion limitation may have contributed to the aggregation of tree species. (2) The spatial correlation among the main populations in each layer, and between both layers, had a largely random association, suggesting that differences in tree growth and physiological characteristics play an important role in species association. (3) Species aggregation decreased as the observation scale increased; however, the aggregation intensity of the understory was significantly higher than that of the upstory, which may be related to negative density dependence and niche complementarity. (4) Size differentiation in the upstory was significant, with small trees gathered together. There were no obvious differences in tree size in the lower layer, indicating a higher competitive pressure among trees in the upper layer. In conclusion, the spatial structure of trees in terms of vertical stratification differs, which is of great significance for investigating the mechanisms by which species coexist.Keywords: Clear Cut, Secondary Forest, Size Differentiation, Spatial Pattern, StratificationiForest 12 (5): 442-450 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2975-012'id=ifor2975-012
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
  • Research Articles: Essential environmental variables to include in a
           stratified sampling design for a national-level invasive alien tree survey

    • Authors: Kotze JD; Beukes HB, Seifert T
      Abstract: Kotze JD, Beukes HB, Seifert TESSENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES TO INCLUDE IN A STRATIFIED SAMPLING DESIGN FOR A NATIONAL-LEVEL INVASIVE ALIEN TREE SURVEYAbstract: There is a direct relationship between the abundance of biological invasions and their impact, which means that it is important to capture spatial patterns in their abundance and use this information to focus management actions. However, protocols to objectively determine invasive alien plant (IAP) distributions and abundance are lacking at a national level, resulting in the inability to determine and monitor changes in spatial extent and density over time. A complete inventory of IAP spatial distribution across an extensive area such as South Africa is not possible and so requires an efficient sampling approach. A simple random sampling design would not be efficient, so monitoring of IAP species at a national level requires an appropriate sampling design such as a stratified sampling. The selection of environmental variables to be included in such a stratification should be based on the relationship between IAP species and their physical environment to successfully summarize variance in their abundance within the different strata. A further objective is to obtain all possible combinations of environmental variables or a full rank design in the stratification to allow for the comparison of different strata based on actual field sampled data. This raises the question of which predictive environmental variables as well as how many to include in the stratification. For this purpose, three invasive tree species, namely Acacia cyclops, Acacia mearnsii and Prosopis glandulosa were selected as they cover the maximum possible area at the highest density with the least amount of geographic overlap. A total of 26 environmental variables that included climatic, soil and topographic type variables were tested with linear regressions against correlations with the abundance of those tree species. The results showed that a combination of average precipitation, soil depth, clay content in the B-horizon and terrain morphological units will serve as a suitable stratification at a national level to explain IAP abundance variation sufficiently well whilst retaining a full rank design. These results will be applied as the first phase in the formation of a regional level IAP monitoring programme for South Africa on a scientific basis.Keywords: Invasive Alien Plant (IAP) Species, Monitoring, Sampling Design, Stratification, Environmental VariablesiForest 12 (5): 418-426 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2767-012'id=ifor2767-012
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Research Articles: Evaluation of hydrological and erosive effects at the
           basin scale in relation to the severity of forest fires

    • Authors: Coschignano G; Nicolaci A, Ferrari E, Cruscomagno F, Iovino F
      Abstract: Coschignano G, Nicolaci A, Ferrari E, Cruscomagno F, Iovino FEVALUATION OF HYDROLOGICAL AND EROSIVE EFFECTS AT THE BASIN SCALE IN RELATION TO THE SEVERITY OF FOREST FIRESAbstract: This study aimed to assess the hydrological and erosive effects of different levels of the fire severity in the drainage basin of the Trionto River (Calabria, southern Italy), which was partially burned by intense fires during the summer 2017. The analysis focused on the identification of wildfire areas using a supervised classification of remote sensing images with the minimum distance algorithm. The level of severity of each fire was then discriminated based on a procedure proposed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and adapted to the study area. To evaluate how wildfire occurrence affects the hydrological behaviour at the basin scale, the SCS-Curve Number model was used to document pre- and post-fire conditions in relation with the level of fire severity. Finally, the influence on erosion was analysed for analogous conditions at the basin scale using the RUSLE equation. The effects on hydrological balance and soil loss were evaluated by comparing the pre-fire value with three different post-fire scenarios: (a) different levels of severity on the surface covered by the fire (real case); (b) maximum level of severity on the surface covered by the fire; (c) total loss of the canopy and formation of a hydrophobic layer on the surface soil. The results confirmed that the level of severity of the forest fires, combined with climatic factors, morphological conditions, and the pedological characteristics of the basin, significantly influence changes to the hydrology and rates of erosion. Moreover, these impacts proved to be mainly dependent on the consequent, often notable, heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of burned areas with different severity.Keywords: Forest Fire Severity, Hydrological Impacts, Soil Loss Estimation, Remote SensingiForest 12 (5): 427-434 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2878-012'id=ifor2878-012
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Research Articles: Accuracy assessment of different photogrammetric
           software for processing data from low-cost UAV platforms in forest

    • Authors: Brach M; Chan JCW, Szymanski P
      Abstract: Brach M, Chan JCW, Szymanski PACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SOFTWARE FOR PROCESSING DATA FROM LOW-COST UAV PLATFORMS IN FOREST CONDITIONSAbstract: To obtain precise cartometric measurements of forests is always a challenge and high-resolution data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is currently the quickest method. Generation of a fine quality orthomosaic of the acquired image series is a pre-requisite for full exploitation of such data. This study examines six of the most frequently used photogrammetric software for popular and inexpensive UAV systems. It is assumed that ground control points (GCPs) are not required. The average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for raw orthophoto was 1.24 m and around 0.2 m precision for both X and Y axes. Additionally, the accuracy of UAV internal GNSS receiver was checked on reference points which slightly exceeds 2 m RMSE. The range of accuracy and precision of orthomosaic are provided as a valuable reference for the use of low-cost UAV in forest inventory.Keywords: UAV, GNSS, Orthomosaic, Accuracy, Precision, ForestiForest 12 (5): 435-441 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2986-012'id=ifor2986-012
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Research Articles: Photosynthetic parameters of urban greening trees
           growing on paved land

    • Authors: Wang X; Wang X, Chen Y, Berlyn GP
      Abstract: Wang X, Wang X, Chen Y, Berlyn GPPHOTOSYNTHETIC PARAMETERS OF URBAN GREENING TREES GROWING ON PAVED LANDAbstract: Two common urban greening trees, ash (Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.) and maple (Acer truncatum Bunge.), were planted in arranged pervious and impervious land pavements to clarify the response in the photosynthetic processes of the urban tree under different types of pavement. Leaf light and CO2 response curves of the net photosynthetic rate were constructed based on in situ measurements in the 4th year after planting, and additional photosynthetic parameters were obtained. The surface temperature and soil temperature significantly increased while the soil moisture significantly decreased in the land pavement, and these changes varied with types of pavement. The light-saturated net photosynthetic rates of both ash and maple, the saturated intercellular CO2 concentration of ash, and the light saturation point, CO2-saturated net photosynthetic rate and maximum carboxylation rate of maple significantly decreased in impervious pavement, indicating that both the capacity of leaf photosynthesis and utilization of high light and CO2 concentrations were significantly reduced by land pavement. The down-regulation of photosynthesis in the impervious pavement was mainly due to the reduction of available soil water. Photosynthetic parameters of maple showed more sensitivity to the land pavement than those of ash. There was less impact from pervious pavement than impervious pavement on the photosynthetic parameters of ash and maple.Keywords: Impervious Pavement, Pervious Pavement, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic Parameter, Urban TreeiForest 12 (4): 403-410 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2939-012'id=ifor2939-012
      PubDate: 2019-08-13
  • Research Articles: Fungal community of necrotic and healthy galls in
           chestnut trees colonized by Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae)

    • Authors: Muñoz-Adalia EJ; Rodríguez D, Casado M, Diez J, Fernández M
      Abstract: Muñoz-Adalia EJ, Rodríguez D, Casado M, Diez J, Fernández MFUNGAL COMMUNITY OF NECROTIC AND HEALTHY GALLS IN CHESTNUT TREES COLONIZED BY DRYOCOSMUS KURIPHILUS (HYMENOPTERA, CYNIPIDAE)Abstract: Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a non-native pest that has recently spread through Europe with a special incidence along the Mediterranean Basin. The presence of this exotic wasp (originally from Asia) threatens stands and orchards of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) as it reduces tree growth and consequently fruit production. In this study the living mycobiota in leaves, healthy and necrotic galls collected from two sites in Cantabria (Northern Spain) was investigated. A total of twenty-two fungal taxa based on morphological and molecular traits were determined. In addition, we calculated fungal diversity and identified the dominant taxa among members of the mycobiota. Seven log-linear models were used to analyse whether fungal abundance varied between sites, types of plant material or fungal taxa. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between plant hosts, insect and the endophytic community, and are of potential interest in relation to the biological control of this important pest.Keywords: ACGW, Biological Control, Castanea sativa, Endophytic Fungi, Entomopathogens, Fungal Community, Necrotic GalliForest 12 (4): 411-417 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3014-012'id=ifor3014-012
      PubDate: 2019-08-13
  • Research Articles: Wintertime photosynthesis and spring recovery of Ilex
           aquifolium L.

    • Authors: Wachendorf M; Schloz M, Küppers M, Güney A, Veste M
      Abstract: Wachendorf M, Schloz M, Küppers M, Güney A, Veste MWINTERTIME PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND SPRING RECOVERY OF ILEX AQUIFOLIUM L.Abstract: Former studies using the chlorophyll fluorescence technique on evergreen Ilex aquifolium L. showed that its photosynthetic potential for electron transport in winter recovers quickly when exposed to more favorable conditions. Since little is known, however, about its photosynthetic carbon gain in winter, we investigated its leaf gas exchange over an entire winter and spring period. Measurements were made rotationally in the field and in the laboratory to also investigate if I. aquifolium profits from warmer phases during winter in terms of net carbon gain. From the end of autumn until the end of spring, three different climate-driven phases of photosynthetic responses could be distinguished: first, an acclimation phase which lasted until February and was characterized by a gradually decreasing light-saturated gross photosynthesis (Amax(gross)), decreasing apparent quantum yield of CO2-assimilation (ΦΦi) and a decreasing ability of these parameters to recover overnight inside the laboratory. At the same time, maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could fully regenerate. In this phase, single warmer days had a positive effect on carbon assimilation. Second, a phase of relatively constant but low photosynthesis which was virtually unaffected by temperature, lasting for almost two months occurred. Here, Amax(gross) and Φi had lost their ability to recover from winter conditions in the field, while Fv/Fm was much less affected. I. aquifolium was still able to conduct positive light-saturated net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of -0.5 °C, but during this time it could not profit from milder temperatures in terms of carbon gain. Third, a phase of increasing photosynthesis (spring recovery) occurred, starting in March when the 5-day average temperature was above 5 °C and radiation in the field increased, and where all parameters slowly recovered from winter depressions. Our findings show that I. aquifolium is photosynthetically active over the whole winter, even at temperatures around 0 °C. In terms of carbon gain, however, I. aquifolium does not profit from warmer phases during winter, despite the fast recovery seen in chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.Keywords: Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Frost, Leaf Gas Exchange, Photosynthetic Induction, Quantum Yield, RespirationiForest 12 (4): 389-396 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2983-012'id=ifor2983-012
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
  • Research Articles: Near zero mortality in juvenile Pinus hartwegii Lindl.
           after a prescribed burn and comparison with mortality after a wildfire

    • Authors: Hernández-Correa R; Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Cruz-Reyes A
      Abstract: Hernández-Correa R, Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Cruz-Reyes ANEAR ZERO MORTALITY IN JUVENILE PINUS HARTWEGII LINDL. AFTER A PRESCRIBED BURN AND COMPARISON WITH MORTALITY AFTER A WILDFIREAbstract: Fire is considered a relevant ecological factor, however, human alterations of fire regime facilitate more destructive wildfires. The aims of this work were to model probability of tree mortality and to identify the factors associated with leader shoot growth in a prescribed burn area and in a nearby wildfire area in a juvenile Pinus hartwegii Lindl. stand in central Mexico. A prescribed burn was carried out in 10-ha stand in March 2012, and compared with a close area affected by a wildfire occurred one week later, as well as with a nearby unburned area taken as control. A logistic model was used to estimate the probability of mortality, and a linear regression model was employed to investigate factors related to leader shoot growth. No tree mortality was recorded in the unburned control. In contrast, mortality was 6% in the prescribed burn and 66.9% in the wildfire area. The probability of mortality was influenced by stem char height (positively, p
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
  • Research Articles: Carbon and nutrient contents in the miscellaneous
           fraction of litterfall under different thinning intensities in a semiarid
           Pinus halepensis afforestation

    • Authors: Segura C; Fernández-Ondoño E, Jiménez MN, Navarro FB
      Abstract: Segura C, Fernández-Ondoño E, Jiménez MN, Navarro FBCARBON AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS IN THE MISCELLANEOUS FRACTION OF LITTERFALL UNDER DIFFERENT THINNING INTENSITIES IN A SEMIARID PINUS HALEPENSIS AFFORESTATIONAbstract: Litterfall evaluation and the effects caused by forestry practices provide valuable information on nutrient-cycle dynamics in managed forests. So far, most of the studies have focused on leaf-fall, omitting other litterfall fractions that can be also relevant for forest and soil modelling in a global change context. With this aim the miscellaneous fraction was quantified in a Pinus halepensis afforestation in the semiarid SE of Spain five years after four different thinning regimes were applied (T75: 75% of mean basal area removed; T60: 60%; T48: 48%; and T0: no thinning). Concentrations and pools (kg ha-1) of carbon and nutrients in the miscellanea fraction were monthly analysed for C and N (June 2010-May 2013), and for P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Mn (June 2011-May 2013). No differences in concentrations of carbon and nutrients were found among treatments with the exception of N, which showed significant differences between T75 and T60 plots. For pools, a high variability was found over time with maximum C and N pools found during spring, likely reflecting the influence of Thaumetopoea pityocampa attacks. Thinning affected C, N, Mn, and Zn pools in 2011-2012 period, and P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zn pools in 2012-2013. Significant differences were mainly found between the most intensive treatment (T75) and unthinned plots (T0). The percentage of annual mean C and nutrient pools in miscellanea showed the importance of its monitoring, with pools that represented from 43.0% to 57.9% of the total litterfall for C (278.81-746.01 kg ha-1 yr-1), N (4.18-10.44 kg ha-1 yr-1), and P (0.37-1.43 kg ha-1 yr-1). Our results stress the high relevance of miscellany monitoring in order to gain a better understanding of nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems.Keywords: Mediterranean Region, Aleppo Pine, Micro- and Macronutrient Concentrations, Nutrient Dynamics, C Inputs, Pine ProcessionaryiForest 12 (4): 375-382 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2907-012'id=ifor2907-012
      PubDate: 2019-07-12
  • Research Articles: Impact of forest management on threatened epiphytic
           macrolichens: evidence from a Mediterranean mixed oak forest (Italy)

    • Authors: Paoli L; Benesperi R, Fačkovcová Z, Nascimbene J, Ravera S, Marchetti M, Anselmi B, Landi M, Landi S, Bianchi E, Di Nuzzo L, Lackovičová A, Vannini A, Loppi S, Guttová A
      Abstract: Paoli L, Benesperi R, Fačkovcová Z, Nascimbene J, Ravera S, Marchetti M, Anselmi B, Landi M, Landi S, Bianchi E, Di Nuzzo L, Lackovičová A, Vannini A, Loppi S, Guttová AIMPACT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ON THREATENED EPIPHYTIC MACROLICHENS: EVIDENCE FROM A MEDITERRANEAN MIXED OAK FOREST (ITALY)Abstract: Forest management practices may heavily affect epiphytic cryptogams. This study was conceived in March 2016, as soon as we were informed about an authorized logging for timber within a Mediterranean mixed oak forest in Tuscany (central Italy), which threatened a large population of the forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., composed of hundreds of fertile thalli. Lobaria pulmonaria is often used as an ecological indicator of high quality habitats hosting rare lichens, and in general, cryptogams worthy of conservation. The species has suffered a general decline throughout Europe as a consequence of air pollution and intensive forest management, and currently it is red-listed in several countries, where it is considered also as a “flag species”. We estimated that 40% of the lichen biomass (8.5-12.3 kg ha-1) has been lost due to logging operations (in the core area, up to 1.8 kg every 100 m2), in particular large and fertile thalli. One year after the conclusion of logging operations, the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence emission (indicator of the photosynthetic performance of the lichen photobionts), revealed a significant reduction of the vitality of the thalli on retained-isolated trees. The article provides issues for conservation in Mediterranean oak forests and outlines the outmost importance of ensuring the safeguard of forest ecosystems hosting fertile populations of this model species, especially in the case of unprotected forests.Keywords: Biomass Loss, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Flag Species, Legal Protection, Lobaria pulmonaria, Red ListsiForest 12 (4): 383-388 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2951-012'id=ifor2951-012
      PubDate: 2019-07-12
  • Research Articles: Spatio-temporal modelling of forest monitoring data:
           modelling German tree defoliation data collected between 1989 and 2015 for
           trend estimation and survey grid examination using GAMMs

    • Authors: Eickenscheidt N; Augustin Nicole H, Wellbrock N
      Abstract: Eickenscheidt N, Augustin Nicole H, Wellbrock NSPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELLING OF FOREST MONITORING DATA: MODELLING GERMAN TREE DEFOLIATION DATA COLLECTED BETWEEN 1989 AND 2015 FOR TREND ESTIMATION AND SURVEY GRID EXAMINATION USING GAMMSAbstract: Spatio-temporal modelling of tree defoliation data from the German forest condition survey is statistically challenging, particularly due to irregular grids. In the present study, generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) were used to estimate the spatio-temporal trends in defoliation of the main tree species spruce, pine, beech and oak from 1989 to 2015 and to examine the suitability of different monitoring grid resolutions (standard 16 × 16 km grid and denser grids). Although data has been collected since 1989, this is the first time spatio-temporal modelling for all of Germany has been carried out. GAMMs proved to be a statistically sound and highly flexible choice for spatio-temporal modelling of defoliation data. In addition to the space-time component, stand age showed a significant effect on defoliation. The mean age and the species-specific relation between defoliation and age determined the general level of defoliation. However, further investigations are necessary in order to understand what is behind the age effect. Adjustment for stand age was carried out for identifying hotspots of high defoliation that are not merely the result of the age effect. Fluctuations in defoliation were most likely related to weather conditions. South-western Germany has emerged as the region with the highest defoliation since the drought year 2003. This region was characterized by the strongest water deficits in 2003 compared to the long-term reference period (1961-1990). Furthermore, the spatio-temporal model was used to carry out a simulation study to compare different survey grid resolutions in terms of prediction error. The model-based approach for grid analysis turned out to be appropriate for the given data and sample design. The grid analysis indicated that an 8 × 8 km grid instead of the standard 16 × 16 km grid is necessary for spatio-temporal trend estimation and for detecting hotspots in defoliation in space and time, especially regarding oaks.Keywords: Age Effect, Drought Stress, Forest Condition Survey, Generalized Additive Mixed Models, Grid Examination, Spatio-temporal Model, Survey Design, Tensor Product SmoothiForest 12 (4): 338-348 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2932-012'id=ifor2932-012
      PubDate: 2019-07-05
  • Research Articles: Geographic determinants of spatial patterns of Quercus

    • Authors: Rendenieks Z; Brumelis G, Nikodemus O, Elferts D
      Abstract: Rendenieks Z, Brumelis G, Nikodemus O, Elferts DGEOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF SPATIAL PATTERNS OF QUERCUS ROBUR FOREST STANDS IN LATVIA: BIOPHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND PAST MANAGEMENTAbstract: Most of the forest area dominated by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in Latvia was lost to arable land several centuries ago and the remnant patches of Q. robur stands are small and spatially scattered. We hypothesized that a large part of the present Q. robur stands in the Eastern Baltic area of the hemiboreal forest zone developed around the past manor houses in the period of social and political turmoil and subsequent agricultural land abandonment. Our aim was to determine the relationship of Q. robur stand occurrence with soil properties, climatic conditions and proximity to past manor houses. Our study area was the entire territory of Latvia (64.589 km2), divided into 16 landscape regions. We used the State Forest Inventory database to filter out all stands dominated by Q. robur (n=3746). Spatial aggregation of the stands was tested by multi-distance spatial clustering analysis (Ripley’s K method). Mean stand area and Euclidean nearest-neighbour distance for stands were calculated for landscape regions. Binary logistic regression with the calculation of autocovariates showed that winter temperature, soil texture, carbonate concentration and distance to closest manor house were the independent factors significantly (p
      PubDate: 2019-07-05
  • Research Articles: Effect of different dolomitic limestone dosages on soil
           respiration in a mid-altitudinal Norway spruce stand

    • Authors: Rosíková J; Darenova E, Kučera A, Volarík D, Vranová V
      Abstract: Rosíková J, Darenova E, Kučera A, Volarík D, Vranová VEFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE DOSAGES ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN A MID-ALTITUDINAL NORWAY SPRUCE STANDAbstract: The study focuses on the effect of chemical amelioration of dolomitic limestone (doses of 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 26 t ha-1) on soil respiration in a Norway spruce monoculture in mid-altitudinal elevation during one-year period after application. Firstly, the soil respiration was measured in situ as monthly CO2 efflux from the soil surface horizon in the period May to October 2016. Secondly, basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon and metabolic quotient of the organic H and organo-mineral A horizons were assessed under laboratory conditions within one year after the treatment. Soil CO2 efflux increased by 3 to 31% and by 29 to 98% for the ameliorant of 2 and 26 t ha-1, respectively, compared to the unlimed control treatment. The CO2 efflux was significantly driven by external conditions such as soil moisture and temperature, especially in the last seasonal months. Basal respiration of the H horizon increased up to a dose of 9 t ha-1 but decreased at 26 t ha-1. In the A horizon, microbial activity increased in all the limed variants compared to the non-limed variant. A similar trend was observed in microbial carbon and the metabolic quotient of the soil. Our results prove that the ameliorant doses commonly used in the forestry sector (3-4 t ha-1) substantially increase the soil microbial activity during (soil CO2 efflux) and after (laboratory data) the first year after application. This results in the accelerated mineralization of soil organic material and subsequent loss from the forest ecosystem.Keywords: Amelioration, Basal Respiration, Liming, Picea abies, Soil CO2 EffluxiForest 12 (4): 357-365 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2894-012'id=ifor2894-012
      PubDate: 2019-07-05
  • Research Articles: Large scale semi-automatic detection of forest roads
           from low density LiDAR data on steep terrain in Northern Spain

    • Authors: Prendes C; Buján S, Ordoñez C, Canga E
      Abstract: Prendes C, Buján S, Ordoñez C, Canga ELARGE SCALE SEMI-AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF FOREST ROADS FROM LOW DENSITY LIDAR DATA ON STEEP TERRAIN IN NORTHERN SPAINAbstract: While forest roads are important to forest managers in terms of facilitating the exploitation of wood and timber, their role is far more multifunctional. They permit access to emergency services in the case of forest fires as well as acting as fire breaks, enhance biodiversity, and provide access to the public to enjoy recreational activities. Detailed maps of forest roads are an essential tool for better and more timely forest management and automatic/semi-automatic tools allow not only the creation of forest road databases, but also enable these to be updated. In Spain, LiDAR data for the entire national territory is freely available, and the capture of higher density data is planned in the next few years. As such, the development of a forest road detection methodology based on LiDAR data would allow maps of all forest roads to be developed and regularly updated. The general objective of this work was to establish a low density LiDAR data-based methodology for the semi-automatic detection of the centerline of forest roads on steep terrain with various types of canopy cover. Intensity and slope images were generated using the currently available LiDAR data of the study area (0.5 points m-2). Two image classification approaches were evaluated: pixel-based and object-oriented classification (OBIA). The LiDAR-derived centerlines obtained with the two approaches were compared with the real centerlines which had previously been digitized in the field. The road width, type of surface and type of vegetation cover were also recorded. The effectiveness of the two approaches was evaluated through three quality indicators: correctness, completeness and quality. In addition, the accuracy of the LiDAR-derived centerlines was also evaluated by combining GIS analysis and statistical methods. The pixel-based approach obtained higher values than OBIA for two of the three quality measures (correctness: 93% compared to 90%; and quality: 60% compared to 56%) as well as in terms of positional accuracy (± 5.5 m vs. ± 6.8 for OBIA). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that producing road maps is among the most valuable and easily attainable products of LiDAR data analysis.Keywords: GIS, Pixel-based Classification, OBIA, Quality Measures, Forest Roads Network, Accuracy AssessmentiForest 12 (4): 366-374 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2989-012'id=ifor2989-012
      PubDate: 2019-07-05
  • Research Articles: Prediction of stem diameter and biomass at individual
           tree crown level with advanced machine learning techniques

    • Authors: Malek S; Miglietta F, Gobakken T, Næsset E, Gianelle D, Dalponte M
      Abstract: Malek S, Miglietta F, Gobakken T, Næsset E, Gianelle D, Dalponte MPREDICTION OF STEM DIAMETER AND BIOMASS AT INDIVIDUAL TREE CROWN LEVEL WITH ADVANCED MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUESAbstract: Knowledge about the aboveground biomass (AGB) and the diameters at breast height (DBH) distribution can lead to a precise estimation of carbon density and forest structure which can be very important for ecology studies especially for those concerning climate change. In this study, we propose to predict DBH and AGB of individual trees using tree height (H) and crown diameter (CD), and other metrics extracted from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data as input. In the proposed approach, regression methods, such us support vector machine for regression (SVR) and random forests (RF), were used to find a transformation or a transfer function that links the input parameters (H, CD, and other ALS metrics) with the output (DBH and AGB). The developed approach was tested on two datasets collected in southern Norway comprising 3970 and 9467 recorded trees, respectively. The results demonstrate that the developed approach provides better results compared to a state-of-the-art work (based on a linear model with the standard least-squares method) with RMSE equal to 81.4 kg and 92.0 kg, respectively (compared to 94.2 kg and 110.0 kg) for the prediction of AGB, and 5.16 cm and 4.93 cm, respectively (compared to 5.49 cm and 5.30 cm) for DBH.Keywords: Aboveground Biomass, Diameter at Breast Height, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Remote Sensing (RS), Support Vector Machine for Regression (SVR), Random Forests (RF)iForest 12 (3): 323-329 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2980-012'id=ifor2980-012
      PubDate: 2019-06-14
  • Research Articles: Pollen contamination and mating patterns in a Prosopis
           alba clonal orchard: impact on seed orchards establishment

    • Authors: D’Amico I; Vilardi JC, Saidman BO, Ewens M, Bessega C
      Abstract: D’Amico I, Vilardi JC, Saidman BO, Ewens M, Bessega CPOLLEN CONTAMINATION AND MATING PATTERNS IN A PROSOPIS ALBA CLONAL ORCHARD: IMPACT ON SEED ORCHARDS ESTABLISHMENTAbstract: Prosopis alba (Leguminosae) is an important species from ecologic and economical points of view in arid and semi-arid regions of Argentina. In several open-pollinated species, pollen contamination from off-orchard parents and selfing have been proven to reduce orchard seed quality. In 2002, the first clonal orchard of Prosopis alba was established in Fernández (Santiago del Estero, Argentina) with 12 trees phenotypically selected from a progeny trial, based on height, pod production per year and pod sweetness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mating patterns and pollen contamination rate in the orchard using ten SSR markers and paternity analysis. All the clones together with the progeny of a single clone (open-pollinated seeds) were genotyped. Data was processed by two different methods based on likelihood and Bayesian approaches, respectively. A high consistency (89%) of results was observed between the two methods, and pollen contamination rate was estimated between 27% and 37%. The minimum number of different pollen donors per mother plant varied from three to five and selfing occurrence was low (
      PubDate: 2019-06-14
  • Research Articles: Changes in forest diversity over a chronosequence of
           fluvial islands

    • Authors: Brumnich F; Marchetti ZY, Pereira MS
      Abstract: Brumnich F, Marchetti ZY, Pereira MSCHANGES IN FOREST DIVERSITY OVER A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF FLUVIAL ISLANDSAbstract: The high environmental heterogeneity of large fluvial systems is reflected by the co-existence of contrasting plant communities and landforms. The main objective of this study was to assess the forest diversity changes in islands of the Middle Paraná River (Argentina) in order to discuss an integrative question: how synchronized are the major changes in the features of islands and forests' Persistence age, elevation and flood regime of 11 main channel islands were determined. Variables related to the vascular plant community and the tree stand structure of forests were also measured in 400 m2 plots. Islands were classified as young or old (YIs or OIs), according to their persistence age, which ranged from two to 108 years. Both island classes differed in their elevation but not in the proportion of low water phase. Only three out of nine tree species were dominant: Tessaria integrifolia and Croton urucurana (restricted to YIs and OIs, respectively), and Salix humboldtiana (distributed in both island classes). Alpha diversity was positively correlated with the age of the YIs and reach the highest value in the oldest island forest. Beta diversity was mainly due to processes of species replacement which differentiate floodplain forests. Gamma diversity reached 101 species, being the perennial herbs a clear majority. The stand structure and the complete floristic composition were significantly different between YIs and OIs, with three and seven indicator species of each island class, respectively. Considering integrative models of succession, our findings suggest that the biogeomorphic phase, recognised by the fluvial biogeomorphic model, prevailed in the whole range of island persistence ages. Therefore, it seems that the increase in forest diversity in a large river is restricted to spatial refugia defined by major hydrogeomorphic shifts.Keywords: Middle Paraná River, Fluvial Biogeomorphic Succession, Vegetation Dynamics, Environmental Heterogeneity, Sand Bars, Hydrogeomorphic DynamicsiForest 12 (3): 306-316 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2737-012'id=ifor2737-012
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
  • Research Articles: Mechanical and physical properties of Cunninghamia
           lanceolata wood decayed by brown rot

    • Authors: Li S; Gao Y, Brunetti M, Macchioni N, Nocetti M, Palanti S
      Abstract: Li S, Gao Y, Brunetti M, Macchioni N, Nocetti M, Palanti SMECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA WOOD DECAYED BY BROWN ROTAbstract: The relationship between the mechanical properties of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) wood and the development of fungal decay was investigated with the aim of implementing a statistical model useful as a non-destructive and a fast method for determining the state of conservation of in-service timber structures. Artificial decay due to brown rot fungi was induced on wood specimens and physical and mechanical test were performed periodically, as well as anatomical observation of wood, FT-IR spectroscopic and XRD diffraction analysis. As a result, Chinese fir was confirmed to have a good durability against fungi, showing a mass loss percentage of 7.21% on average after 14 weeks of exposure. On the contrary, the mechanical properties reduced dramatically during the decay test: a 19% decrease was observed for compression strength and 21% for tensile strength. The mechanism of decay was explored and the corresponding damage constitutive model was proposed.Keywords: Wooden Construction, Brown Rot, Mass Loss Rate, Wood Decay, Wood StrengthiForest 12 (3): 317-322 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2922-012'id=ifor2922-012
      PubDate: 2019-06-06
  • Research Articles: Tree-ring-based reconstruction of larch budmoth
           outbreaks in the Central Italian Alps since 1774 CE

    • Authors: Cerrato R; Cherubini P, Büntgen U, Coppola A, Salvatore MC, Baroni C
      Abstract: Cerrato R, Cherubini P, Büntgen U, Coppola A, Salvatore MC, Baroni CTREE-RING-BASED RECONSTRUCTION OF LARCH BUDMOTH OUTBREAKS IN THE CENTRAL ITALIAN ALPS SINCE 1774 CEAbstract: The larch budmoth (Zeiraphera diniana Gn. - LBM) offers a unique example of cyclic fluctuations in insect populations. During regular LBM mass outbreaks, defoliation of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) subalpine trees results in distinct ring-width reductions in the host trees. Although several observations, reconstructions and models suggest that LBM outbreaks travel from the southwest to the northeast along the Alpine arc, gaps in the underlying data still hamper our mechanistic understanding of the spatio-temporal system dynamics. Evidence of historical LBM outbreaks before 1964 is generally associated with uncertainty and is particularly scarce for the Central Italian Alps. Here, we introduce four new larch ring-width chronologies from Val di Sole in the Central Italian Alps and use time-series analyses and comparisons with non-host trees (Picea abies Karst.) to reconstruct LBM mass outbreaks. We identify distinct fingerprints of 15 spatially-synchronized LBM events that occurred between 1774 and 1964 CE. Our results are important for improving qualitative space-time models to simulate travelling wave dynamics of insect populations, and for correcting ring-width-based summer temperature reconstructions from this part of the Alpine arc.Keywords: European Larch, Insect Outbreaks, Larch Bud Moth, Tree-rings, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.iForest 12 (3): 289-296 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2533-012'id=ifor2533-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
  • Review Papers: Should the silviculture of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis
           Mill.) stands in northern Africa be oriented towards wood or seed and cone
           production' Diagnosis and current potentiality

    • Authors: Jaouadi W; Naghmouchi S, Alsubeie M
      Abstract: Jaouadi W, Naghmouchi S, Alsubeie MSHOULD THE SILVICULTURE OF ALEPPO PINE (PINUS HALEPENSIS MILL.) STANDS IN NORTHERN AFRICA BE ORIENTED TOWARDS WOOD OR SEED AND CONE PRODUCTION' DIAGNOSIS AND CURRENT POTENTIALITYAbstract: The aim of this work is to review studies on the silviculture of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in North Africa and the Mediterranean basin over a period of 50 years. The study presents a synthesis of: (i) silviculture; (ii) wood productivity and growth; (iii) cone and seed production; and (vi) the socio-economic role of Aleppo pine. The results show that the production of the Aleppo pine is enhanced by the potential of the site, which is closely related to the bioclimatic stage and soil fertility. For instance, production increased from 0.4 to 4 m3 ha-1 yr-1 in an Aleppo pine stand with a dominant height varying between 9.7 and 22.8 m. Previous studies confirmed that the average maximum volume in annual growth of Aleppo pine is 3.3 m3 ha-1 yr-1 for 40-year old stands at good-fertility sites. The lowest values (100-year old stands. There is high demand for Aleppo pine seeds in North Africa, making their production profitable, and this represents an important sector for the sustainable development and improvement of living-standards of the local populations. There has been a steady increase in the demand for seeds across years, with seed production becoming a very promising niche. Silviculture oriented towards the commercial production of seeds is expected to enhance this species, as well as facilitate its preservation.Keywords: Aleppo Pine, Pinus halepensis Mill., Silviculture, Wood Production, Seed Production, Socio-economic RoleiForest 12 (3): 297-305 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2965-012'id=ifor2965-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
  • Research Articles: Methods for predicting Sitka spruce natural
           regeneration presence and density in the UK

    • Authors: Bianchi S; Hale S, Gibbons J
      Abstract: Bianchi S, Hale S, Gibbons JMETHODS FOR PREDICTING SITKA SPRUCE NATURAL REGENERATION PRESENCE AND DENSITY IN THE UKAbstract: Natural regeneration is crucial for silvicultural approaches based on the continuous presence of a forest cover, or Continuous Cover Forestry (CCF). Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) is the main commercial species in the United Kingdom (UK), and its potential for CCF has been demonstrated in various studies. However, there are no quantitative models available to predict its natural regeneration in the country. We describe models for Sitka spruce seedlings presence and density under canopy cover in the UK forests, to be used as a substitution of a regeneration survey. Using a natural regeneration dataset comprised of 340 plots, a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) was calibrated to estimate the likelihood of regeneration presence at plot level. Seedling density was simulated in a subsequent step using only the subset of data with regeneration presence (138 plots): we compared methods based on GLMMs calibrated to the observed seedling density, and the simple generation of random numbers similar in distribution to the observed values. We validated the models with a cross-validation method using the calibration dataset and with an independent dataset of 78 plots collected in forests already in the process of transformation to CCF. The best GLMM for regeneration presence included age of the plantation, time after last thinning, favourable ground cover and basal area. After the cross-validation, 73% of the plots were correctly estimated (76% for presence of regeneration and 71% for the absence). After the independent validation process, 82% of the plots were correctly estimated, although 100% for presence of regeneration and only 12% for the absence. Both methods for estimating seedling density had a poor performance, both with the cross-validation and independent validation. The results showed that the tools here described are appropriate for estimating regeneration presence in traditional Sitka spruce plantations. However, alternative methods are required for forests already in an advanced stage of transformation to CCF systems.Keywords: Sitka Spruce, Natural Regeneration, Regeneration Occurrence, Logistic Modelling, Seedling DensityiForest 12 (3): 279-288 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2888-012'id=ifor2888-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-23
  • Research Articles: Tree aging does not affect the ranking for water use
           efficiency recorded from δ13C in three Populus deltoides × P. nigra

    • Authors: Rasheed F; Dreyer E, Le Thiec D, Zafar Z, Delagrange S
      Abstract: Rasheed F, Dreyer E, Le Thiec D, Zafar Z, Delagrange STREE AGING DOES NOT AFFECT THE RANKING FOR WATER USE EFFICIENCY RECORDED FROM δ13C IN THREE POPULUS DELTOIDES × P. NIGRA GENOTYPESAbstract: A large variability of water use efficiency (assessed from the carbon isotopic discrimination in leaves and leaf soluble sugars) has been detected among poplar genotypes. Checking whether such differences detected in young trees (1-2 years old) remain stable with tree age is a prerequisite to use this trait with confidence for breeding purposes. In this study, a synchronic approach was used to test the age-related stability of the genotypic ranking of carbon isotopic discrimination in wood (Δ13C) until tree maturity. We sampled 376 trees between 4 and 20 years from three Populus deltoides × P. nigra genotypes growing in 41 common-garden trials across France. Carbon and nitrogen percentages along with δ13C was measured in the bulk wood of the year 2009 and used to compute the Δ13C. Basal area increment between 2008 and 2009 was also measured. Results showed that Δ13C increased (i.e., water use efficiency decreased) between ages 4 to 6 and remained stable later on. Significant differences among genotypes were found but the ranking among genotypes remained stable with age during the assessed life span. Furthermore, basal area increment and Δ13C were positively correlated interannually. This large-scale survey shows that despite crossing over in the temporal trend, water use efficiency remained stable with age across 3 poplar genotypes. However, further studies with a large number of genotypes are required to confirm whether this trait can be used to maintain or even improve productivity of poplar plantations, while lowering water consumption.Keywords: Water Use Efficiency, Age, Wood, Tree Ring, Populus × euramericana, Basal Area Increment, Synchronic ApproachiForest 12 (3): 272-278 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2896-012'id=ifor2896-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-21
  • Research Articles: Species-specific responses of wood growth to flooding
           and climate in floodplain forests in Central Germany

    • Authors: Heklau H; Jetschke G, Bruelheide H, Seidler G, Haider S
      Abstract: Heklau H, Jetschke G, Bruelheide H, Seidler G, Haider SSPECIES-SPECIFIC RESPONSES OF WOOD GROWTH TO FLOODING AND CLIMATE IN FLOODPLAIN FORESTS IN CENTRAL GERMANYAbstract: With ongoing climate change, episodes of severe flooding are predicted to become more frequent despite a general trend towards increasing summer drought. We investigated how wood growth of adult trees of two species characteristic of floodplain forests in Central Germany (Fraxinus excelsior L., Quercus robur L.) and two less-typical species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L.) responded to both maximum stream water level and climate, with a special focus on the effects of the extraordinary flood of the Saale River in June 2013 and the extreme drought in summer 1976. Tree-ring widths were measured on wood cores, and standardized ARSTAN tree-ring chronologies were produced. Using variance partitioning as well as linear mixed-effects models, we compared the effects of monthly values for maximum water level, temperature and precipitation sum on tree-ring width. Further, we calculated resistance, resilience and recovery of the tree species to the extreme events of flooding in 2013 and drought in 1976. Wood growth of all species studied, and particularly of F. excelsior, responded positively to the extraordinary flooding in June 2013. However, in the best models for the characteristic floodplain forest species (F. excelsior and Q. robur), mainly precipitation (F. excelsior) or a combination of precipitation and wood growth of the previous year (Q. robur) acted as drivers of wood growth of the current year. In contrast, growth of the less habitat-specific species (A. pseudoplatanus) mainly showed a significant response to the combination of temperature and wood growth of the previous year. C. betulus was the only species studied that benefited from the extreme drought in 1976. However, two years afterwards, only the wood growth of A. pseudoplatanus was still reduced, while F. excelsior and Q. robur fully recovered. In comparison to other regions in Central Europe, the moderate flood regime of the Saale River seems to have the potential to mitigate effects of summer drought in this region, which is one of the driest in Germany. Thus, increased flooding frequency might, to some degree, reduce drought effects brought about by climate change as well.Keywords: Tree-ring Width, Floodplain Forest, Flooding, Drought, Dendroecology, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanusiForest 12 (3): 226-236 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2845-012'id=ifor2845-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-03
  • Research Articles: Using soil-based and physiographic variables to improve
           stand growth equations in Uruguayan forest plantations

    • Authors: Rachid-Casnati C; Mason EG, Woollons RC
      Abstract: Rachid-Casnati C, Mason EG, Woollons RCUSING SOIL-BASED AND PHYSIOGRAPHIC VARIABLES TO IMPROVE STAND GROWTH EQUATIONS IN URUGUAYAN FOREST PLANTATIONSAbstract: Information provided by traditional growth models is an essential input in decision making processes for managing planted forests. They are generally fitted using inventory data guaranteeing robustness and simplicity. The introduction of explanatory factors affecting tree development in age-based sigmoidal growth and yield equations attempts not only to improve the quality of predictions, but also to add useful information underpinning forest management decisions. This study aimed to assess the use of the following soil-based and physiographic predictors: potentially available soil water (PASW), elevation (Elev), aspect (α) and slope (β) in a system of empirical stand equations comprising: dominant height (hdom), basal area (G), maximum diameter at breast height (dmax), and standard deviation of diameters (SDd). Augmented models were compared with the base models through precision and bias of estimations for two contrasting species: Pinus taeda (L.), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex. Maiden), planted commercially in Uruguay. Soil-based and physiographic information significantly improved predictions of all the state variables fitted for E. grandis, but just hdom and G for P. taeda. Only PASW was consistently significant for the augmented models in P. taeda and E. grandis, while the contribution of other predictors varied between species. From a physiological point of view, predictors on the augmented models showed consistency. Models with such augmentation produced decrease of errors between 3 to 10.5%, however decreases in the prediction errors calculated with the independent dataset were lower. Results from this study contributed to add information to the decision-making process of plantations’ management.Keywords: Forest Modelling, Soil Variables, Physiographic Variables, Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus grandisiForest 12 (3): 237-245 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2926-012'id=ifor2926-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-03
  • Research Articles: Disentangling the effects of age and global change on
           Douglas fir growth

    • Authors: Ravaioli D; Ferretti F, Magnani F
      Abstract: Ravaioli D, Ferretti F, Magnani FDISENTANGLING THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND GLOBAL CHANGE ON DOUGLAS FIR GROWTHAbstract: Recent changes commonly observed in forests growth could be the result of a combination of different climatic and non-climatic factors, such as rising atmospheric [CO2], temperature changes, atmospheric N deposition and drought stress. These effects are difficult to assess, however, due to the superimposition of age-related changes. After removing age effects through a novel approach, this study quantifies the effects on tree growth of global change, and assesses the relationship with individual environmental drivers and their relative importance. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) were applied to decouple the non-linear effects of age and co-occurring environmental changes on basal area increments (BAI) series, as derived from tree rings in a Pseudotsuga menziesii stand chronosequence of four different age classes (65-, 80-, 100- and 120-year-old). The model could explain about 57% of the overall variation in BAI as a function of age and a selected set of predictors, including water availability in the current summer and at the end of previous growing season; together with age, winter-spring mean temperature was found to be the most important predictor. After accounting for age-related effects, a significant decrease in BAI was observed in Douglas fir over the last decades. No significant impact of atmospheric [CO2] and atmospheric N deposition were detected.Keywords: Pseudotsuga menziesii, Basal Area Increments, Long-term Trends, Global Change, GAMM, ChronosequenceiForest 12 (3): 246-253 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2620-012'id=ifor2620-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-03
  • Research Articles: Responses of Taxus chinensis and Phoebe chekiangensis
           seedlings to controlled-release fertilizer in various formulations and
           application rates

    • Authors: Chu X; Wang X, Zhang D, Wu X, Zhou Z
      Abstract: Chu X, Wang X, Zhang D, Wu X, Zhou ZRESPONSES OF TAXUS CHINENSIS AND PHOEBE CHEKIANGENSIS SEEDLINGS TO CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZER IN VARIOUS FORMULATIONS AND APPLICATION RATESAbstract: Decline of species population, low natural regeneration, and heavy competition on field sites require the planting of large seedling stocks to restore Taxus chinensis and Phoebe chekiangensis in tropical China. In this study, we examined the effects of different formulations and application rates of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on nursery seedling growth and nutritional attributes. The objective was to determine optimum formulation (N:P2O5 ratio) and application rate to increase nutrient reserves of the seedlings before transplanting to the field. Four formulations (17-9-13 to 19-6-14 N-P2O5-K2O ratios) and four application rates (1.5 kg m-3 to 4.5 kg m-3) were used in a double-factors factorial design with 3 replications. The results showed that CRF formulation can affect nutritional attributes, while application rate modified seedling growth and nutritional attributes. The optimum seedling response occurred with the 17-6-16 formulation at the rate of 3.5kg m-3. These findings will guide nursery practice in the production of high-quality seedlings for optimum survival and growth in the field.Keywords: Taxus chinensis, Phoebe chekiangensis, Controlled-Release Fertilizer, Formulation and Application Rate, Nutrient Utilization EfficiencyiForest 12 (3): 254-261 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2714-012'id=ifor2714-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-03
  • Research Articles: Diurnal surface fuel moisture prediction model for
           Calabrian pine stands in Turkey

    • Authors: Bilgili E; Coskuner KA, Usta Y, Saglam B, Kucuk O, Berber T, Goltas M
      Abstract: Bilgili E, Coskuner KA, Usta Y, Saglam B, Kucuk O, Berber T, Goltas MDIURNAL SURFACE FUEL MOISTURE PREDICTION MODEL FOR CALABRIAN PINE STANDS IN TURKEYAbstract: This study presents a dynamic model for the prediction of diurnal changes in the moisture content of dead surface fuels in normally stocked Calabrian pine stands under varying weather conditions. The model was developed based on several empirical relationships between moisture contents of dead surface fuels and weather variables, and calibrated using field data collected from three Calabrian stands from three different regions of Turkey (Mugla, southwest; Antalya, south; Trabzon, north-east). The model was tested and validated with independent measurements of fuel moisture from two sets of field observations made during dry and rainy periods. Model predictions showed a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.19% for litter and 0.90% for duff at Mugla, and 3.62% for litter and 14.38% for duff at Antalya. When two rainy periods were excluded from the analysis at Antalya site, the MAE decreased from 14.38% to 4.29% and R2 increased from 0.25 to 0.83 for duff fuels. Graphical inspection and statistical validation of the model indicated that the diurnal litter and duff moisture dynamics could be predicted reasonably. The model can easily be adapted for other similar fuel types in the Mediterranean region.Keywords: Fuel Moisture Content, Modeling, Drying Rate, Vapor Pressure DeficitiForest 12 (3): 262-271 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2870-012'id=ifor2870-012
      PubDate: 2019-05-03
  • Research Articles: Estimation of forest biomass components using airborne
           LiDAR and multispectral sensors

    • Authors: Hernando A; Puerto L, Mola-Yudego B, Manzanera JA, García-Abril A, Maltamo M, Valbuena R
      Abstract: Hernando A, Puerto L, Mola-Yudego B, Manzanera JA, García-Abril A, Maltamo M, Valbuena RESTIMATION OF FOREST BIOMASS COMPONENTS USING AIRBORNE LIDAR AND MULTISPECTRAL SENSORSAbstract: In order to consider forest biomass as a real alternative for energy production, it is critical to obtain accurate estimates of its availability using non-destructive sampling methods. In this study, we estimate the biomass available in a Scots pine-dominated forest (Pinus sylvestris L.) located in Spain. The biomass estimates were obtained using LiDAR data combined with a multispectral camera and allometric equations. The method used to fuse the data was based on back projection, which assures a perfect match between both datasets. The results present estimates for each of the seven different biomass components: above ground, below ground, log, needles, and large, medium and small branches. The accuracy of the models varied between R2 values of 0.46 and 0.67 with RMSE% ranging from 15.72% to 35.43% with all component estimates below 20%, except for the model estimating biomass of big branches. The models in this study are suitable for the estimation of biomass and demonstrate that computation is possible at a fine scale for the different biomass components. These remote sensing methods are sufficiently accurate to develop biomass resource cartography for multiple energy uses.Keywords: Biomass Components, Forest Inventory, Airborne Laser Scanning, Multispectral Imagery, Data Fusion, Nearest NeighboriForest 12 (2): 207-213 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2735-012'id=ifor2735-012
      PubDate: 2019-04-25
  • Research Articles: Genetic control of intra-annual height growth in
           6-year-old Norway spruce progenies in Latvia

    • Authors: Matisons R; Zeltinš P, Danusevičius D, Džerina B, Desaine I, Jansons A
      Abstract: Matisons R, Zeltinš P, Danusevičius D, Džerina B, Desaine I, Jansons AGENETIC CONTROL OF INTRA-ANNUAL HEIGHT GROWTH IN 6-YEAR-OLD NORWAY SPRUCE PROGENIES IN LATVIAAbstract: Coupling growth with periods of favourable weather conditions minimizes risks of frost damage and maximizes annual height increment. The phenology of the formation of height increment is therefore a trait related to the adaptability of trees to annual weather fluctuations. Strong genetic control of the timing of the onset and cessation of shoot elongation has been reported for Norway spruce, but little is known about its fluctuations that occur during the growth period. The strength of the genetic control of the height growth rate was assessed for young (6 years old) Norway spruce progenies originating from six open-pollinated stands from two local provenance regions. In 2010, the length of the growing period for the studied trees was ca. 60 days. Trees from the more continental provenance region, which had later onset and cessation of height growth (by ca. 2.5 days), exhibited slightly lower increments (by ca. 1%). Accordingly, the provenance region had a significant effect on height growth at the beginning and end of the growing period. Nevertheless, considerable genetic control of the growth rate was found throughout the entire growing period (particularly at the beginning and cessation, ha2 ≥ 0.20), except for a week-long interval around mid-summer (ha2 = 0.07). Similarly, the coefficient of additive genetic variation suggested that breeding could be applied for the improvement of height growth intensity throughout the season. The phenotypic correlations between weekly growth rates and tree height (before growth) were mostly non-significant, suggesting varying mechanisms of control, hence possibility for simultaneous improvement of the traits by breeding.Keywords: Height Growth Rate, Growing Period, Heritability, Picea abies, Local PopulationsiForest 12 (2): 214-219 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2777-012'id=ifor2777-012
      PubDate: 2019-04-25
  • Research Articles: Matching seedling size to planting conditions:
           interactive response with soil moisture

    • Authors: Oliet JA; Ortiz de Urbina E, Sánchez-Pinillos M, Tardío-Cerrillo G
      Abstract: Oliet JA, Ortiz de Urbina E, Sánchez-Pinillos M, Tardío-Cerrillo GMATCHING SEEDLING SIZE TO PLANTING CONDITIONS: INTERACTIVE RESPONSE WITH SOIL MOISTUREAbstract: Seedling size is a very important issue when producing plants for restoration projects. Scientific evidence on the appropriate size for drylands is contradictory. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seedling size during first establishment by conducting a short term greenhouse experiment with Pinus canariensis containerized seedlings. A selection of large (mean height: 33.7 cm) and small (14.3 cm) one-year-old seedlings were planted in pots under two volumetric water content regimes: dry (7%) and wet (15%). Midday shoot water potential was measured in two periods: 10 (prior to root protrusion) and 30 (once the roots had protruded from the plug) days after planting. The length of protruding roots was measured after 30 days. One month after planting, the large seedlings under the dry regime produced more new roots than the small seedlings, but also showed the highest midday water potential values. Therefore, the greater root growth of the former did not offset the higher transpiration demand when planted in dry soils. These results suggest that under uncertainty about the soil humidity levels of dry areas, using small seedlings can improve their short-term survival after planting.Keywords: Planting Survival, Root Water Uptake, Seedling Size, Seedling Ecophysiology, Transpiration Demand, Water Potential, Seedling MorphologyiForest 12 (2): 220-225 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2801-012'id=ifor2801-012
      PubDate: 2019-04-25
  • Research Articles: The manipulation of aboveground litter input affects
           soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical liquidambar forest in China

    • Authors: Yan W; Peng Y, Zhang C, Chen X
      Abstract: Yan W, Peng Y, Zhang C, Chen XTHE MANIPULATION OF ABOVEGROUND LITTER INPUT AFFECTS SOIL CO2 EFFLUX IN A SUBTROPICAL LIQUIDAMBAR FOREST IN CHINAAbstract: Litters on the forest floor represent an important organic carbon (C) sources from aboveground plants to the soil, which therefore have a significant influence on belowground processes such as soil respiration. In this study, dynamic property of soil respiration was investigated under aboveground litter manipulation treatments in a liquidambar forest in subtropical China. The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of changing aboveground litter inputs on soil CO2 emission in forests. The litter manipulation included litter addition (LA), litter removal (LR) and litter control (LC) treatments. Each litter treatment had six replications. Soil respiration rates were measured using an infrared gas analyzer system (LI-COR 8100) with soil chambers. The results showed that mean soil respiration rates increased significantly in LA plots (mean ± SE: 2.21 ± 0.44 μmol m-2 s-1; P
      PubDate: 2019-04-10
  • Research Articles: Retaining unlogged patches in Mediterranean oak forests
           may preserve threatened forest macrolichens

    • Authors: Fačkovcová Z; Guttová A, Benesperi R, Loppi S, Bellini E, Sanità di Toppi L, Paoli L
      Abstract: Fačkovcová Z, Guttová A, Benesperi R, Loppi S, Bellini E, Sanità di Toppi L, Paoli LRETAINING UNLOGGED PATCHES IN MEDITERRANEAN OAK FORESTS MAY PRESERVE THREATENED FOREST MACROLICHENSAbstract: Forest management practices may heavily impact epiphytic (tree inhabiting) organisms. Retaining tree patches and buffer strips in logged stands may contribute to preserve ecosystem functioning and the vitality of epiphytic organisms in managed forests. To test these statements, the threatened forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. was used as a model species, since it is a “flag” indicator species of forest ecosystems with long ecological continuity. To this purpose, photosynthetic performances, thallus anatomy and water holding capacity (WHC) of samples of L. pulmonaria were investigated in a logged mixed oak forest (Tuscany, Italy), confronting lichen thalli from retained-forest patches and retained-isolated trees, 18 months after logging. Compared with those of retained-forest patches, thalli on the trunks of retained-isolated trees were thinner and showed lower vitality (as indicated by the potential quantum yield of primary photochemistry - FV/FM and the index of overall photosynthetic performance - PIABS), as well as lower water holding capacity. In contrast, thalli from forest patches had performances comparable to those of healthy samples from unlogged forests.Keywords: Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services, Forest Logging, Lobaria pulmonaria, Photosynthetic Performance, Water Holding CapacityiForest 12 (2): 187-192 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2917-012'id=ifor2917-012
      PubDate: 2019-04-10
  • Short Communications: Detection and quantification of the air inoculum of
           Caliciopsis pinea in a plantation of Pinus radiata in Italy

    • Authors: Botella L; Bačová A, Dvorák M, Kudláček T, Pepori AL, Santini A, Ghelardini L, Luchi N
      Abstract: Botella L, Bačová A, Dvorák M, Kudláček T, Pepori AL, Santini A, Ghelardini L, Luchi NDETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE AIR INOCULUM OF CALICIOPSIS PINEA IN A PLANTATION OF PINUS RADIATA IN ITALYAbstract: Caliciopsis pinea has been historically described as a secondary pathogen of pines. However, it has recently been associated with severe damages on Pinus radiata in Italy. Our study focused on the description of the seasonal spore dispersal of C. pinea and its relation to meteorological conditions (temperature, leaf wetness, relative humidity and precipitations). For this experiment one infected P. radiata plantation was sampled in Tuscany (Italy). A rotating arm spore trap together with a weather station were installed to sample the aerospora for 24 h every week from May to November 2016. Exposed tapes from spore traps were directly analyzed after DNA extraction by qPCR using specific primers and TaqMan MGB probe. The study shows an irregular occurrence of the inoculum of C. pinea throughout the whole sampling period with peak levels in mid-June and early August. The statistical analysis of the DNA and climatic data clearly show the strong influence of precipitation on the spore production of this pathogen. Furthermore, the very low detection limit of the qPCR experiment shows the efficacy and suitability of rotating arm spore traps for early detection of this pathogen.Keywords: Caliciopsis Canker, Monterey Pine, Aerospora, qPCRiForest 12 (2): 193-198 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2866-012'id=ifor2866-012
      PubDate: 2019-04-10
  • Research Articles: Dielectric properties of paraffin wax emulsion/copper
           azole compound system treated wood

    • Authors: Liao Y; Ma E, Liu R
      Abstract: Liao Y, Ma E, Liu RDIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PARAFFIN WAX EMULSION/COPPER AZOLE COMPOUND SYSTEM TREATED WOODAbstract: In order to investigate the interactions among the waterproof agent, preservative and wood, the dielectric relaxation was measured for untreated wood and wood samples treated with different paraffin wax emulsion/copper azole (CA) compound systems at oven-dried and air-dried state, respectively. The Cole-Cole plot analysis was then conducted and the results were as follow. At oven-dried state (-60 °C), the dielectric characteristics of paraffin wax emulsion treated wood were basically the same as those of untreated wood; CA treatment increased the dielectric constant but decreased the dielectric loss factor and the trends of these two characteristic parameters were more remarkable at higher CA concentration; the dielectric properties of compound system treated wood under C4A grade were similar to those of CA treated wood but an increase in impregnation of paraffin wax emulsion gave rise to decreased dielectric constant and increased loss factor. At air-dried state (20 °C, 65% RH), compared with untreated samples, both the dielectric constant and loss factor were lower in waterproofing agent treated wood and these parameters reduced with increasing waterproofing agent concentration; for CA treated samples, the values of dielectric parameters increased and the trend was similar to those treated with the compound system under C4A grade.Keywords: Wood, Paraffin Wax Emulsion, Copper Azole, Dielectric PropertiesiForest 12 (2): 199-206 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2879-012'id=ifor2879-012
      PubDate: 2019-04-10
  • Research Articles: Equations for estimating belowground biomass of Silver
           Birch, Oak and Scots Pine in Germany

    • Authors: Röhling S; Demant B, Dunger K, Neubauer M, Oehmichen K, Riedel T, Stümer W
      Abstract: Röhling S, Demant B, Dunger K, Neubauer M, Oehmichen K, Riedel T, Stümer WEQUATIONS FOR ESTIMATING BELOWGROUND BIOMASS OF SILVER BIRCH, OAK AND SCOTS PINE IN GERMANYAbstract: In this study we derived allometric functions for estimating the belowground biomass (BGB) of Silver Birch (Betula pendula Roth), Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.), Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Germany. To assess the impact on German greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting, these new functions were further compared with BGB functions currently used in France and Sweden. For developing new BGB functions 48 Silver Birches, 39 Pedunculate and Sessile Oaks and 54 Scots Pines were destructively sampled. The sampled trees spanned a DBH range from 8.2 to 52.9 cm for Silver Birch, from 7.4 to 42.0 cm for Oak and from 7.2 to 53.2 cm for Scots Pine. After fitting the data, the following values of model efficiency were achieved: 0.81 for Silver Birch, 0.98 for Oak and 0.95 for Scots Pine. The model root mean square error varies between 5.2 kg for Oak, 13.7 kg for Scots pine and 26.9 kg for Silver Birch. Comparison with the currently applied BGB functions in the German GHG inventory from France and Sweden showed that the use of these functions results in systematically different estimates for the BGB of Silver Birch and Oak. Thus, our findings indicate that BGB functions recommended for other European countries (in particular France and Sweden) are not appropriate for estimating the BGB for the tree species concerned in Germany. Currently, the derived data-set for BGB of Silver Birch, Oak and Scots Pine is the largest in Germany and the developed functions are thus the best available for estimating national BGB stock and stock change in Germany at the moment.Keywords: Belowground Biomass, Allometric Equations, National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Pinus sylvestrisiForest 12 (2): 166-172 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2862-012'id=ifor2862-012
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Research Articles: Reviewing climatic traits for the main forest tree
           species in Italy

    • Authors: Pecchi M; Marchi M, Giannetti F, Bernetti I, Bindi M, Moriondo M, Maselli F, Fibbi L, Corona P, Travaglini D, Chirici G
      Abstract: Pecchi M, Marchi M, Giannetti F, Bernetti I, Bindi M, Moriondo M, Maselli F, Fibbi L, Corona P, Travaglini D, Chirici GREVIEWING CLIMATIC TRAITS FOR THE MAIN FOREST TREE SPECIES IN ITALYAbstract: The future dynamics of forest species and ecosystems depend on the effects of climate change and are related to forest management strategies. The expected impacts of climate change are linked to forest growth and productivity. An increase in the length of the growing season and greater productivity are likely as well as shifts in average climatic values and more variable frequencies, intensities, durations and timings of extreme events. The main aim of this work is to assess and describe the climatic requirements for Italian forest tree species. We used 7,272 field observations from Italian National Forest Inventory plots and average annual temperatures and precipitation as interpolated from raster maps with 1 km spatial resolution. On this basis we evaluated the current observed distributions of the 19 most important tree species in Italy with respect to potential climatic limits based on expert knowledge and the available literature. We found that only 46% of the observations fall within the potential joint temperature and precipitation limits as defined by expert knowledge. For precipitation alone, 70% of observations were within the potential limits, and for temperature alone, 80% of observations were within the potential limits. Similarity between current observed and potential limits differ from species-to-species with broadleaves in general more frequently distributed within the potential climatic limits than conifers. We found that ecological requirements and potential information should be revised for some species, particularly for the Pinus genus and more frequently for precipitation. The results of the study are particularly relevant given the threat of climate change effects for Italian forests which are broadly acknowledged to be a biodiversity hotspot. Further investigations should be aimed at modelling the effects of climate changes on Italian forests as a basis for development of mitigation and adaptation forest management strategies.Keywords: National Forest Inventory, Sustainable Forest Management, Spatial Analysis, Forest Monitoring, Climatic DriversiForest 12 (2): 173-180 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2835-012'id=ifor2835-012
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Research Articles: Hemlock woolly adelgid niche models from the invasive
           eastern North American range with projections to native ranges and future

    • Authors: Kantola T; Tracy JL, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Saarenmaa H, Coulson RN, Trabucco A, Holopainen M
      Abstract: Kantola T, Tracy JL, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Saarenmaa H, Coulson RN, Trabucco A, Holopainen MHEMLOCK WOOLLY ADELGID NICHE MODELS FROM THE INVASIVE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN RANGE WITH PROJECTIONS TO NATIVE RANGES AND FUTURE CLIMATESAbstract: The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand - HWA) is invasive in eastern North America where it causes extensive mortality to hemlock communities. The future of these communities under projected climate change is an issue of landscape ecological interest and speculation. We employed the MaxEnt algorithm with the random subset feature selection algorithm (RSFSA) in creating HWA niche models. Final models were ensembles of 12 statistically best models with six predictors each. Out of 119 climatic, topographic, and soil variables, 42 were used in at least one final model. Soil features, followed by climate and topographic features, were most common in selected models. The three most important variables among all models were November potential evapotranspiration, slope, and percent Ochrepts soil. The potential distributions of HWA within eastern North America were projected under historical and four future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2070 under low and high CO2 emissions. The mean of the minimum values for the minimum temperature of the coldest month from the 12 MaxEnt model projections in eastern North America was -15.8°C. This value was close to -15°C, the extreme minimum temperature found for both HWA occurrence points and previously reported HWA cold temperature limits. These results indicate that HWA may be close to equilibrium distribution in eastern North America under current climate. We also reverse-casted the eastern North American MaxEnt model back onto the HWA native ranges in eastern Asia and western North America. The projections match best with native ranges in Asian islands, such as Japan, and the Cascade Mountains in western North America. Statistically significant HWA range shifts of 221-468 km northwards and 110-164 km eastwards were projected by the 12 models for 2050-2070. The 2070 high CO2 emission scenario models projects HWA suitability throughout most of the northern range of eastern hemlock.Keywords: Ecological Niche Modeling, Climate Change, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Invasive Species, MaxEnt, Feature SelectioniForest 12 (2): 149-159 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2883-012'id=ifor2883-012
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • Research Articles: Lenticel infection in Fraxinus excelsior shoots in the
           context of ash dieback

    • Authors: Nemesio-Gorriz M; McGuinness B, Grant J, Dowd L, Douglas GC
      Abstract: Nemesio-Gorriz M, McGuinness B, Grant J, Dowd L, Douglas GCLENTICEL INFECTION IN FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR SHOOTS IN THE CONTEXT OF ASH DIEBACKAbstract: Common ash (Faxinus excelsior L.) in Europe is declining on a continental scale due to the action of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, an invasive forest pathogen that causes ash dieback disease leading to the collapse and eventual death of ash trees through shoot infection in the crown and through stem collar infection. This study confirms for the first time lenticels as entry points for pathogens to enter shoot bark. Results show the impact of lenticel infection at a very early stage of invasion by H. fraxineus in a F. excelsior provenance trial and its correlation values with other factors such as shoot dieback, canker-like lesions and bud burst. No significant provenance effects were observed for incidence of shoot dieback, lenticel necrosis or canker-like lesions on shoots, but provenance effects were significant for bud burst phenology. The strongest correlation was observed between lenticel necrosis and canker-like lesions on the lenticels of shoots. Boheremia spp. were most frequently isolated from necrotic ash lenticels and confirmed by ITS sequencing, but also species of Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Aspergillus, Neonectria, Didymella and Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Finally, lenticel density was similar in sets of ash genotypes that were characterized as having a high and low susceptibility to ash dieback.Keywords: Ash Dieback, Lenticel, ADB, PhenologyiForest 12 (2): 160-165 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2897-012'id=ifor2897-012
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • Research Articles: Allelopathic effects of dominant ground vegetation
           species on initial growth of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in response to
           different temperature scenarios

    • Authors: Sirgedaite-Šežiene V; Baležentiene L, Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas V, Baliuckas V
      Abstract: Sirgedaite-Šežiene V, Baležentiene L, Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas V, Baliuckas VALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF DOMINANT GROUND VEGETATION SPECIES ON INITIAL GROWTH OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE SCENARIOSAbstract: The dominant species of ground vegetation cover in clear-cuts impact the regeneration of Scots pine forests due to the biochemical properties of these dominant species. Environmental conditions in clear-cuts, specifically increased light and temperature, can alter the biochemical impact of dominant species on subsequent Scots pine regeneration processes. To investigate this, plant species diversity, frequency and cover were estimated in order to identify the dominant species of ground vegetation in clear-cut areas over a two-year period. Afterward, the impact of dominant species extracts on pine seed germination and seedling physiology at different temperature scenarios was evaluated. The species Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull were recorded as dominant in 1-yr-old clear-cut areas, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Rumex acetosella L., and Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth were dominant in 2-yr-old clear-cut areas. The prepared aqueous extracts of all dominant species exhibited strong inhibitory effects on pine seed germination and seedling morpho-physiological traits (the length of the radicle and hypocotyl; chlorophyll a, b, a/b and carotenoid content), resulting in the reduction of ex situ pine adaptive capacity at higher air temperature (24°C) compared to that at lower temperature (20°C). Significantly (p
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Research Articles: Influence of pH, nitrogen and sulphur deposition on
           species composition of lowland and montane coniferous communities in the
           Tatrzanski and Slowinski National Parks, Poland

    • Authors: Uzieblo AK; Staszewski T, Chmura D
      Abstract: Uzieblo AK, Staszewski T, Chmura DINFLUENCE OF PH, NITROGEN AND SULPHUR DEPOSITION ON SPECIES COMPOSITION OF LOWLAND AND MONTANE CONIFEROUS COMMUNITIES IN THE TATRZANSKI AND SLOWINSKI NATIONAL PARKS, POLANDAbstract: Nitrogen and sulphur deposition is considered as a negative factor for biodiversity, usually leading to changes in species composition and structure of plant communities, and ultimately to the impoverishment of biodiversity. In this study we investigated the variation over time (2001, 2006, 2011) in species composition and structure of the understory vegetation at varying levels of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in two conifer plantations (>100 year-old) growing in different climate areas of Poland (Scots pine at the Slowinski National Park, northern seaside; Norway spruce at the Tatrzanski National Park, southern mountains). The structure of the floor vegetation at both sites changed markedly during the studied decade, as clearly confirmed by principal component analysis. Among the environmental variables analyzed (NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, pH in the throughfall and in soil solution sampled at two different depths), only nitrates were non-significantly correlated with PC axes. The results confirmed the negative effects of the concentration of both elements on undergrowth and tree recruitment in the coastal stand (Empetro nigri-Pinetum). On the other hand, in the mountain stand (Abieti-Piceetum) we observed an increase over time of nitrophilous species typical of the beech forest, which represent the natural vegetation of this area, suggesting a gradual natural restoration of the native vegetation in the long run.Keywords: Nitrogen Deposition, Sulphur Deposition, Climatic Changes, Coniferous Communities, BiodiversityiForest 12 (1): 141-148 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2203-012'id=ifor2203-012
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Research Articles: Big data and evaluation of cultural ecosystem services:
           an analysis based on geotagged photographs from social media in Tuscan
           forest (Italy)

    • Authors: Bernetti I; Chirici G, Sacchelli S
      Abstract: Bernetti I, Chirici G, Sacchelli SBIG DATA AND EVALUATION OF CULTURAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON GEOTAGGED PHOTOGRAPHS FROM SOCIAL MEDIA IN TUSCAN FOREST (ITALY)Abstract: The paper presents a methodology to quantify the suitability of forest stands for the potential delivery of cultural ecosystem services (CES). The quantification of CES represents a complicated task in the framework of ecosystem service valuation. Compared to traditional investigations, focusing on the study of the aesthetic appreciation of a particular territory, the use of geotagged photographs seems to be a promising alternative to appraise CES. Thus, in order to analyse CES with a particular focus on the aesthetic appreciation of forest stands, this study exploits big data through the analysis of photos shared on the Flickr social network. Crowdsourced datasets are used to depict the geographic location and density of pictures - expressed as the number of photos per unit of surface - as well as their relationship to forest variables and logistic characteristics. The implemented geostatistical model is used to spatialise the results at the regional level (Tuscany forests, Italy). Among the outputs, high values of CES are stressed for high forest and protected areas. From a forest species viewpoint, silver fir, coastal Mediterranean pine, beech and mixed forests seem to be more appreciated compared to other stand typologies such as oaks (e.g., pubescent or Turkey oak) and thermophilic broad-leaved species. Additional quantitative parameters (e.g., elevation, biomass stock and distance to main roads) were significant to the CES assessment. The potential applications of the technique to support forest planning and management are discussed.Keywords: Forest Aesthetic Value, Social Network, Maximum Entropy Models, Tag-cloud, Geographic Information SystemsiForest 12 (1): 98-105 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2821-011'id=ifor2821-011
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
  • Research Articles: Seven spruce species on a mountain site - performance,
           foliar nutrients, and forest floor properties in stands 20 years old

    • Authors: Špulák O; Kacálek D, Balcar V
      Abstract: Špulák O, Kacálek D, Balcar VSEVEN SPRUCE SPECIES ON A MOUNTAIN SITE - PERFORMANCE, FOLIAR NUTRIENTS, AND FOREST FLOOR PROPERTIES IN STANDS 20 YEARS OLDAbstract: Norway spruce is often considered to have a negative impact on a site, yet it is native to many mountain regions of Europe. The relative influence of Norway spruce on site properties has frequently been compared with that of both broadleaved and other coniferous tree species. In our study, growth, as well as needle, forest floor, and topsoil chemistry were compared between Norway spruce and introduced spruce species (white, black, red, Serbian, Sitka, and blue spruce), all growing on the same, formerly polluted mountain site. There were few differences in needle nutrient status between the introduced spruce species and native Norway spruce. The chemistry of forest floor horizons beneath some of the non-native species showed less acidity and better conditions of the soil sorption complex. There were no significant differences in the nutrient pools, indicating that the influence of the various spruce species on the site was comparable. Given the small differences observed in the various nutritional characteristics, it appears that, under the conditions of the study site, the alternative spruces had substituted for the role of Norway spruce before its recovery in the 2000s. The six spruces grew quite consistently during 2001-2012, while the mean height of Norway spruce shifted from the lowest 176 cm (2001) to one of the tallest. At 710 cm (2012), its height had become comparable with that of Sitka. The poorest performing were black spruce (due to bark beetle attack) and blue spruce (due to bud blight infestation and decline).Keywords: Spruce, Performance, Foliar Nutrients, Forest Floor, SoiliForest 12 (1): 106-113 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2731-011'id=ifor2731-011
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
  • Short Communications: Gliding patterns of Siberian flying squirrels in
           relation to forest structure

    • Authors: Suzuki KK; Yanagawa H
      Abstract: Suzuki KK, Yanagawa HGLIDING PATTERNS OF SIBERIAN FLYING SQUIRRELS IN RELATION TO FOREST STRUCTUREAbstract: It is widely accepted that the evolution of gliding ability is correlated with forest environments, but differences in gliding locomotion in relation to forest structure remains poorly elucidated in mammals. Although the cost of gliding locomotion decreases with increasing glide distance per unit vertical drop (glide ratio), gliding mammals often use costly low-ratio glides and seldom exploit maximum-ratio glides. In this study, we evaluated our hypothesis that low-ratio glides are related to forest structure by measuring glide distance, vertical drops and landing tree heights in Siberian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans), and we also recorded their behaviour in landing trees. Glide ratio decreased with increasing landing tree height. Squirrels landed on taller trees using low-ratio glides and tended to depart from them quickly without spending much time there, but used high-ratio glides to land on shorter trees for foraging or nesting. Thus, flying squirrels use two different gliding behaviours depending on their immediate objective, where inefficient low-ratio glides are used to move to higher trees for continued gliding. This approach might be necessary for efficiency and safety in subsequent glides, because taller trees facilitate long-distance glides and significantly decrease energy costs and landing impact. Therefore, the location of tall trees in forests and/or average canopy height might alter glide path routes. This study provides important evidence that forest structure affects gliding patterns and provides insight on how forest management could influence the gliding locomotion of Siberian flying squirrels.Keywords: Behaviour, Forest Structure, Forest Management, Gliding, Locomotion, Mammal, Tree HeightiForest 12 (1): 114-117 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2954-011'id=ifor2954-011
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
  • Research Articles: Assessment of presence and distribution of Armillaria
           and Heterobasidion root rot fungi in the forest of Vallombrosa (Apennines
           Mountains, Italy) after severe windstorm damage

    • Authors: Dálya LB; Capretti P, Ghelardini L, Jankovský L
      Abstract: Dálya LB, Capretti P, Ghelardini L, Jankovský LASSESSMENT OF PRESENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ARMILLARIA AND HETEROBASIDION ROOT ROT FUNGI IN THE FOREST OF VALLOMBROSA (APENNINES MOUNTAINS, ITALY) AFTER SEVERE WINDSTORM DAMAGEAbstract: One of the main problems for the management and conservation of silver fir stands has long been pathogens causing root rot, in particular Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion annosum s.l. These opportunistic pathogens are especially threatening now that climate change related stress is increasing tree susceptibility to disease and vulnerability to windstorms. The northern Apennines Mountains (central Italy) are forecast to be one of the areas with the highest temperature increase in the next future. However, no systematic assessment exists of the risk posed by the disturbance due to secondary pathogens in the Apennine forests. In the Nature Reserve of Vallombrosa (northern Apennines), where silver fir forests have been managed and conserved for centuries since the Middle Ages, making it an ideal site for studying these parasites, the high presence of H. annosum was reported already in 1990, while only sporadic observations are available on Armillaria species. The aim of this work was to examine the occurrence of both pathogens, since detailed knowledge about their distribution may assist forest management planning and decision-making. Systematic sampling was undertaken at the intersection of 52 grid points covering the whole forest. Different fungal species from soil and fungal samples (fruiting bodies or rhizomorphs) were identified by combining morphological descriptions with molecular methods. The analyses confirmed the presence of H. abietinum in about 70% of the investigated points. The fungus was detected at two new localities above 1000 metres suggesting a possible expansion of the parasite at upward elevation, which might be associated with climate change. Armillaria was widespread: almost 90% of the samples resulted positive, and four different Armillaria species were successfully identified. The most frequent species were A. cepistipes, whose rhizomorphs were especially abundant, and A. ostoyae, which was often detected just in soil samples. At sites where A. cepistipes was found to coexist with A. gallica, these two species might specialize themselves to necrotrophic and saprotrophic lifestyle, respectively. Besides, there were unexpected findings of A. mellea, supposed to be a residual from the previous rotation of broadleaves.Keywords: Abies alba, Armillaria spp., Butt Rot, Climate Change Disturbances, Heterobasidion annosum, Root Rot, Silver Fir, Windstorm DamageiForest 12 (1): 118-124 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2929-012'id=ifor2929-012
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
  • Research Articles: Fuel consumption comparison of two forwarders in
           lowland forests of pedunculate oak

    • Authors: Pandur Z; Šušnjar M, Bačić M, Ðuka A, Lepoglavec K, Nevečerel H
      Abstract: Pandur Z, Šušnjar M, Bačić M, Ðuka A, Lepoglavec K, Nevečerel HFUEL CONSUMPTION COMPARISON OF TWO FORWARDERS IN LOWLAND FORESTS OF PEDUNCULATE OAKAbstract: Fuel consumption of forest machinery and vehicles depends mainly on terrain conditions, working methods, drivers’ skills, engine load under working conditions, engine speed, type and technical characteristics of the machine. In timber harvesting operations, fuel consumption is significant for both, economic (costs), and environmental issues (80-95% of exhaust emissions and soot particles are associated with fuel consumption). The objective of this study was to compare fuel consumption in two different forwarders and to analyse two different measuring devices for fuel consumption. Fuel consumption was measured on a 6-wheeled Valmet 840.2 forwarder and an 8-wheeled Valmet 860.4 during roundwood and energy wood extraction in winter period. A differential fuel flow meter and a fuel measuring probe were used for measuring fuel consumption as well as a Fleet Management System (FMS) for transmitting measured data. Fuel consumption was expressed in six different ways depending on the stage of the working cycle, time, travelled distance, load volume and load mass. Finally, both the advantages and disadvantages of the used fuel measuring devices were gained. The results indicated higher fuel consumption of the smaller Valmet 840.2 forwarder due to lower soil bearing capacity and longer extraction distances. For both forwarders, higher fuel consumption (expressed in l t-1 km-1) was observed while extracting energy wood due to its lower overall mass.Keywords: Forwarder, Fuel Measuring, Timber Extraction, Load, Roundwood, Energy WoodiForest 12 (1): 125-131 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2872-011'id=ifor2872-011
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
  • Research Articles: Use of δ13C as water stress indicator and potential
           silvicultural decision support tool in Pinus radiata stand management in
           South Africa

    • Authors: Fischer PM; du Toit B
      Abstract: Fischer PM, du Toit BUSE OF δ13C AS WATER STRESS INDICATOR AND POTENTIAL SILVICULTURAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOL IN PINUS RADIATA STAND MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICAAbstract: In this study, the carbon isotope ratio in tree rings was investigated as a potential measure of water availability and drought stress in Pinus radiata stands in South Africa. An understanding of water availability and its variation in space is fundamental to the implementation of increasingly site-specific management regimes that have the potential to improve stand productivity. Fourteen plantation compartments, situated on water shedding (convex) terrain were identified where reliable weather data existed and a water balance model could be run. This output was used to derive water stress indicators: (a) relative canopy conductance (gc/gcmax) and (b) the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration (ETa/ETp). The water stress indicators (calculated per year of growth) were related to δ13C values in five tree rings formed in the five years before mid-rotation thinning took place. The water balance model used adequately described soil water availability throughout each growing season and indicated that most severe stand water stress occurred during the summer months of the study period (November to April). The ETa/ETp ratio for this period as well as the relative canopy conductance proved to be good measures of water stress. The 5-year averages of the ETa/ETp ratios (taken over the driest 6 month period) ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 (winter rainfall zone) and 0.44 to 0.70 (all-year rainfall zone). The 5-year averages of ETa/ETp ratios could be accurately predicted (p< 0.0001; adjusted r2 = 0.83) with multiple regression using δ13C values in whole-wood samples (i.e., earlywood and latewood) and the site index of stands (where site index is the average height of the dominant 20% trees in the stand at base age 20). The δ13C values in tree rings across the planted range of P. radiata in South Africa can therefore be used to identify broad categories of water availability for purposes of increasingly site-specific silvicultural management.Keywords: Stable Carbon Isotope, Tree Rings, Water Availability, Drought Stress, Site-specific Forest Management, Monterey PineiForest 12 (1): 51-60 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2628-011'id=ifor2628-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
  • Research Articles: Gas exchange, biomass allocation and water-use
           efficiency in response to elevated CO2 and drought in andiroba (Carapa
           surinamensis, Meliaceae)

    • Authors: Oliveira MF; Marenco RA
      Abstract: Oliveira MF, Marenco RAGAS EXCHANGE, BIOMASS ALLOCATION AND WATER-USE EFFICIENCY IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED CO2 AND DROUGHT IN ANDIROBA (CARAPA SURINAMENSIS, MELIACEAE)Abstract: Prolonged droughts are predicted for some parts of the Amazon; however, it is still unclear how Amazonian trees will respond to water stress under the ongoing increase in CO2 concentration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and drought on photosynthetic rates, water-use efficiency, and biomass allocation in andiroba (Carapa surinamensis). The plants were grown in pots at ambient (400 ppm CO2) and eCO2 (700 ppm) at two water regimes, soil at 50% field capacity, FC (drought) and soil at 100% FC for 163 days. We measured light saturated photosynthesis on a mass basis (Asat-mass), stomatal conductance to CO2 on a mass basis (gsCO2-mass), whole-plant water-use efficiency (WUEP), biomass accumulation, specific leaf area (SLA) and total leaf area. At eCO2, Asat-mass increased 28% in well-watered plants and 93% under drought, whereas gsCO2-mass declined 39% in well-watered plants at eCO2, with no effect of drought on gsCO2-mass at eCO2. The total biomass gain improved 73% at eCO2 and over CO2 levels it was reduced (54%) by drought. WUEP improved (188%) at eCO2 in well-watered plants and 262% under drought. SLA declined 23% at eCO2, but the effect of drought on SLA was null. On the contrary, total leaf area was greatly reduced (67%) by drought, but it was not affected by eCO2. The large increase in total biomass and the substantial improvement in WUEP under eCO2, and the sharp decline in leaf area under water stress widen our knowledge on the physiology of this important species for the forest management of large areas in the Amazon region.Keywords: Carboxylation Efficiency, Nonstructural Carbohydrates, Specific Leaf Area, Shoot-root Ratio, Tree GrowthiForest 12 (1): 61-68 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2813-011'id=ifor2813-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
  • Research Articles: Allometric models for estimating biomass, carbon and
           nutrient stock in the Sal zone of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Mahmood H; Siddique MR, Costello L, Birigazzi L, Abdullah SR, Henry M, Siddiqui BN, Aziz T, Ali S, Al Mamun A, Forhad MI, Akhter M, Iqbal Z, Mondol FK
      Abstract: Mahmood H, Siddique MR, Costello L, Birigazzi L, Abdullah SR, Henry M, Siddiqui BN, Aziz T, Ali S, Al Mamun A, Forhad MI, Akhter M, Iqbal Z, Mondol FKALLOMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING BIOMASS, CARBON AND NUTRIENT STOCK IN THE SAL ZONE OF BANGLADESHAbstract: Allometric models are commonly used to estimate biomass, nutrients and carbon stocks in trees, and contribute to an understanding of forest status and resource dynamics. The selection of appropriate and robust models, therefore, have considerable influence on the accuracy of estimates obtained. Allometric models can be developed for individual species or to represent a community or bioregion. In Bangladesh, the nation forest inventory classifies tree and forest resources into five zones (Sal, Hill, Coastal, Sundarbans and Village), based on their floristic composition and soil type. This study has developed allometric biomass models for multi-species of the Sal zone. The forest of Sal zone is dominated by Shorea robusta Roth. The study also investigates the concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Carbon in different tree components. A total of 161 individual trees from 20 different species were harvested across a range of tree size classes. Diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H) and wood density (WD) were considered as predictor variables, while total above-ground biomass (TAGB), stem, bark, branch and leaf biomass were the output variables of the allometric models. The best fit allometric biomass model for TAGB, stem, bark, branch and leaf were: ln (TAGB) = -2.460 + 2.171 ln (DBH) + 0.367 ln (H) + 0.161 ln (WD); ln (Stem) = -3.373 + 1.934 ln (DBH) + 0.833 ln (H) + 0.452 ln (WD); ln (Bark) = -5.87 + 2.103 ln (DBH) + 0.926 ln (H) + 0.587 ln (WD); ln (Branch) = -3.154 + 2.798 ln (DBH) - 0.729 ln (H) - 0.355 ln (WD); and ln (Leaf) = -4.713 + 2.066 ln (DBH), respectively. Nutrients and carbon concentration in tree components varied according to tree species and component. A comparison to frequently used regional and pan-tropical biomass models showed a wide range of model prediction error (35.48 to 85.51%) when the observed TAGB of sampled trees were compared with the estimated TAGB of the models developed in this study. The improved accuracy of the best fit model obtained in this study can therefore be used for more accurate estimation of TAGB and carbon and nutrients in TAGB for the Sal zone of Bangladesh.Keywords: Common Model, Forest Inventory, Phytomass, Tropical ForestiForest 12 (1): 69-75 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2758-011'id=ifor2758-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
  • Research Articles: Biodiversity conservation and wood production in a
           Natura 2000 Mediterranean forest. A trade-off evaluation focused on the
           occurrence of microhabitats

    • Authors: Santopuoli G; di Cristofaro M, Kraus D, Schuck A, Lasserre B, Marchetti M
      Abstract: Santopuoli G, di Cristofaro M, Kraus D, Schuck A, Lasserre B, Marchetti MBIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND WOOD PRODUCTION IN A NATURA 2000 MEDITERRANEAN FOREST. A TRADE-OFF EVALUATION FOCUSED ON THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROHABITATSAbstract: The most significant European forest-related strategies highlight the importance of multifunctional forests for human wellbeing, due to the provision of a wide range of goods and services. However, managing competing aims, such as timber production, economic drivers and biodiversity conservation is often difficult for practitioners. In order to assess the loss and gain of ecosystem services caused by forestry, trade-off evaluation has been increasingly used to aid decision-making. In this study, four silvicultural scenarios are simulated using the Marteloscope approach to evaluate the trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and timber production. Tree-related Microhabitats (TreMs) are used as a proxy to evaluate forest habitat value, while timber production is assessed by the number of harvested trees, biomass removal and economic income. This study takes an innovative approach by investigating TreMs using the Marteloscope in mixed Mediterranean forest. The main findings from this paper confirm that tree-related microhabitats can be considered ecological indicators effective in identifying important habitat trees, to assess forest habitat value and support tree marking for thinning operations and management.Keywords: Biodiversity Conservation, Sustainable Forest Management, Microhabitats, Habitat Tree, Marteloscope, Timber Production, Precision ForestryiForest 12 (1): 76-84 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2617-011'id=ifor2617-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
  • Research Articles: Assessing food sustainable intensification potential of
           agroforestry using a carbon balance method

    • Authors: Crous-Duran J; Graves AR, Garcia-de-Jalón S, Paulo JA, Tomé M, Palma JH
      Abstract: Crous-Duran J, Graves AR, Garcia-de-Jalón S, Paulo JA, Tomé M, Palma JHASSESSING FOOD SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION POTENTIAL OF AGROFORESTRY USING A CARBON BALANCE METHODAbstract: Food security, climate change mitigation, and land use challenges are interlinked and need to be considered simultaneously. One possible solution is sustainable intensification, which is the practice of increasing food production per area of land whilst also reducing the environmental impacts associated with this. Agroforestry has been stated to be a practice that meets this definition. In this study, a new methodology is presented to assess the potential of different management options as sustainable intensification practices. The methodology is based on comparing the carbon emissions associated with the production of food and the carbon sequestered for that same activity for a particular quantity of food produced over a specific area and over a specific time. The resulting indicator, the “carbon balance” is the difference between the greenhouse gasses emitted (considered as negative values) and carbon sequestered (positive values) estimated in Mg CO2eq per Mg of food produced on one hectare of land for one year. The carbon balance quantifies the global warming potential associated with sustainable intensification by integrating a process-based model with life cycle analysis and is able to estimate above- and below-ground biomass and soil carbon content. This methodology is tested in Portugal for wheat production under crop monoculture and agroforestry systems. The results show agroforestry to be a suitable practice for sustainable intensification compared to a crop monoculture as it just slightly decreased wheat yields whilst providing a positive carbon balance from year 50 onwards of approximately 1 Mg of CO2eq sequestered per Mg of wheat produced.Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, Food Security, Land-use Occupation, Regulating Ecosystem Services, Soil Fertility, Life Cycle Analysis, Yield-SAFE, Clipick, Carbon SequestrationiForest 12 (1): 85-91 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2578-011'id=ifor2578-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
  • Research Articles: Changes in moisture exclusion efficiency and
           crystallinity of thermally modified wood with aging

    • Authors: Tarmian A; Mastouri A
      Abstract: Tarmian A, Mastouri ACHANGES IN MOISTURE EXCLUSION EFFICIENCY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD WITH AGINGAbstract: This study aimed to investigate whether aging affects moisture exclusion efficiency and crystallinity of thermally modified wood. For this purpose, wood blocks of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and oak (Quercus castanifolia), modified at 180 °C for 3 hours inside a ThermoWood kiln were exposed to a six-cycle artificial aging procedure. Aging reduced the efficiency and crystallinity of the modified woods. A significant negative correlation was found between the wood crystallinity and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) which indicates that change in the crystallinity index (CrI) measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) affects the affinity of wood to moisture. The increased affinity of the modified wood to moisture after aging is probably due to the leaching of thermal degradation products as observed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy.Keywords: Aging, Crystallinity, Moisture Exclusion Efficiency, Thermally Modified WoodiForest 12 (1): 92-97 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2723-011'id=ifor2723-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
  • Review Papers: Quantifying and modeling water availability in temperate
           forests: a review of drought and aridity indices

    • Authors: Speich MJR
      Abstract: Speich MJRQUANTIFYING AND MODELING WATER AVAILABILITY IN TEMPERATE FORESTS: A REVIEW OF DROUGHT AND ARIDITY INDICESAbstract: Climatic water availability is a major determinant of forest structure and composition, while drought events may severely impact forest dynamics. In recent decades, an increasing number of severe drought events has been reported in forests around the world. In the future, climate models project increasingly dry conditions in many temperate regions. Various tools have been applied to better understand the effects of drought on forests, such as dendrochronological analyses, climatic trend analyses and dynamic models. With these approaches, water availability is often summarized as a single scalar, termed a drought or aridity index. As droughts are complex phenomena, such indices are always associated with a loss of information. Many different such indices exist, and have been developed for various purposes. This review asks whether some of these indices are more suitable than others to quantify water availability in temperate forests. In a first step, the rationale and theoretical background of different drought indices are spelled out and compared among each other. Then, evaluations and intercomparisons of drought indices from the literature are reviewed. The implementation of drought indices in dynamic forest models is also discussed. Finally, two current research questions are identified: the role of dry air for physiological drought, and the suitability of various drought indices under climate change. It appears from this review that indices accounting for evaporative demand generally perform better than indices based on precipitation alone. When comparing sites with different edaphic conditions, indices accounting for soil moisture storage are more suitable. Nevertheless, results from intercomparisons show considerable divergence, and it is not possible to clearly favor one index. Furthermore, a differential response of tree species to different drought indices is often observed, although no clear pattern emerges from this comparison. More intercomparisons of indices, across climates and species, might provide valuable knowledge. Another key finding is that the properties of indices also depend on choices regarding, e.g., the calculation of evaporative demand, or the underlying water balance model. Reporting such methodological details could greatly increase the value of future evaluations of drought indices.Keywords: Drought Indices, Water Availability, Soil Moisture, Climate Change, Dynamic Forest ModelingiForest 12 (1): 1-16 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2934-011'id=ifor2934-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
  • Research Articles: Patterns of forest dynamics in a secondary old-growth
           beech-dominated forest in the Jizera Mountains Beech Forest Reserve, Czech

    • Authors: Lábusová J; Morrissey RC, Trotsiuk V, Janda P, Bače R, Cada V, Mikoláš M, Mrhalová H, Schurman JS, Svobodová K, Mateju L, Synek M, Svoboda M
      Abstract: Lábusová J, Morrissey RC, Trotsiuk V, Janda P, Bače R, Cada V, Mikoláš M, Mrhalová H, Schurman JS, Svobodová K, Mateju L, Synek M, Svoboda MPATTERNS OF FOREST DYNAMICS IN A SECONDARY OLD-GROWTH BEECH-DOMINATED FOREST IN THE JIZERA MOUNTAINS BEECH FOREST RESERVE, CZECH REPUBLICAbstract: Restoring the structural characteristics of secondary old-growth forests that were previously managed is increasingly debated to help increase the area of more complex forests which provide a broader array of forest services and functions. The paucity of long-term data sets in Central Europe has limited our ability to understand the ongoing ecological processes required for effective restoration programs for old-growth forests. To address this, we used repeated census data from eight permanent plots to evaluate forest structural dynamics over a 12-year period in the largest complex of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Czech Highlands without intensive forestry intervention for almost 50 years. Our results showed that previously managed forests can exhibit structural qualities typically associated with old-growth forests after management has ceased for a period. The stand structural characteristics (e.g., density of large and old trees) is comparable with protected reserves of old-growth European beech-dominated forests. The average stand age was 196 years, but the oldest tree was 289 years old. The annual mortality rate was 0.43% for all species, and the U-shaped distribution indicating size-dependent mortality is likely an important process that is balanced by the turnover of new tree recruitment. During the study period, we detected that the diameter distribution tended towards a rotated sigmoid distribution. The lasting effects of the most recent forest management are evident in the scarcity of dead wood, and a prolonged process of dead wood accumulation has begun. Thus, the abandonment of all management activities in near-natural forest reserves, including dead wood removal, will ensure that the forests will develop characteristics typical of old-growth forests.Keywords: Dead Wood, Diameter Distribution, Fagus sylvatica, Forest Reserve, Forest Structure, Mortality, Old-growth ForestiForest 12 (1): 17-26 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2702-011'id=ifor2702-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
  • Research Articles: Effects of mild drought on the morphology of sun and
           shade needles in 20-year-old Norway spruce trees

    • Authors: Gebauer R; Volarík D, Urban J, Børja I, Nagy NE, Eldhuset TD, Krokene P
      Abstract: Gebauer R, Volarík D, Urban J, Børja I, Nagy NE, Eldhuset TD, Krokene PEFFECTS OF MILD DROUGHT ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SUN AND SHADE NEEDLES IN 20-YEAR-OLD NORWAY SPRUCE TREESAbstract: Several studies have looked at how individual environmental factors influence needle morphology in conifer trees, but interacting effects between drought and canopy position have received little attention. In this study, we characterized morphological responses to experimentally induced drought stress in sun exposed and shaded current-year Norway spruce needles. In the drought plot trees were suffering mild drought stress, with an average soil water potential at 50 cm depth of -0.4 MPa. In general, morphological needle traits had greater values in sun needles in the upper canopy than in shaded needles in the lower canopy. Needle morphology 15 months after the onset of drought was determined by canopy position, as only sun needle morphology was affected by drought. Thus, canopy position was a stronger morphogenic factor determining needle structure than was water availability. The largest influence of mild drought was observed for needle length, projected needle area and total needle area, which all were reduced by ~27% relative to control trees. Needle thickness and needle width showed contrasting sensitivity to drought, as drought only affected needle thickness (10% reduction). Needle dry mass, leaf mass per area and needle density were not affected 15 months after the onset of mild drought. Our results highlight the importance of considering canopy position as well as water availability when comparing needle structure or function between conifer species. More knowledge about how different canopy parts of Norway spruce adapt to drought is important to understand forest productivity under changing environmental conditions.Keywords: Canopy Position, Drought, Crown Light Gradient, Needle Structure, Picea abies, TranspirationiForest 12 (1): 27-34 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2809-011'id=ifor2809-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
  • Research Articles: Dimensionless numbers for the net present value and the
           perpetual value of sustainable timber harvests from a monospecific
           uneven-aged forest

    • Authors: López Torres I; Belda Fullana C
      Abstract: López Torres I, Belda Fullana CDIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS FOR THE NET PRESENT VALUE AND THE PERPETUAL VALUE OF SUSTAINABLE TIMBER HARVESTS FROM A MONOSPECIFIC UNEVEN-AGED FORESTAbstract: This paper proposes a simple and direct method to provide reliable approximations of the net present value (NPV) and the perpetual value (PV) of sustainable timber harvests from a monospecific uneven-aged forest based on dimensionless numbers. In addition, two new dimensionless numbers ρNPV and ρPV are introduced. These use the NPV or PV derived from the sale of timber throughout a harvest cycle, plus the final stocking value (as numerator), and the fair value of standing timber under IAS 41 (as denominator). They can be interpreted as economic performance indicators for forest management, inspired by the return on assets accounting concept, showing how profitable the forest is, relative to its total value, with sustainability and stability criteria. Those approximations to the variables NPV, PV, ρNPV and ρPV, were obtained under conditions of stable equilibrium from a matrix model. In order to exemplify and test the results, the model used data from uneven-aged managed Pinus nigra stands, considering three levels of tree diameter growth, six levels of basal area and 33 levels of recruitment, creating a total of 594 planning scenarios. Furthermore, the study revealed the existence of strong linear correlations between those variables and a dimensionless number.Keywords: Dimensionless Numbers, NPV/PV, Equilibrium, Sustainable Harvesting, Matrix Model, IAS 41iForest 12 (1): 35-42 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2715-011'id=ifor2715-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
  • Research Articles: Ectomycorrhizae of Norway spruce from its southernmost
           natural distribution range in Serbia

    • Authors: Katanić M; Orlović S, Grebenc T, Bajc M, Pekeč S, Drekić M, Kraigher H
      Abstract: Katanić M, Orlović S, Grebenc T, Bajc M, Pekeč S, Drekić M, Kraigher HECTOMYCORRHIZAE OF NORWAY SPRUCE FROM ITS SOUTHERNMOST NATURAL DISTRIBUTION RANGE IN SERBIAAbstract: Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) reaches its southernmost limit in the mountainous regions of south Serbia and Bulgaria. The species is a regionally important timber species for the wood industry and a significant host for various ectomycorrhizal fungi, including edible species. We analysed ectomycorrhizal community and fine root parameters of high continental / subalpine Norway spruce stands at three sites (Stara planina, Kopaonik, Tara) located in protected areas in Serbia. In addition, we assessed the potential effects of altitude and growing season on the ectomycorrhizal diversity and fine root parameters. Using standardised sampling in combination with morpho-anatomical and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae, we recorded 29 different anatomorphotypes. None of the identified fungi belonged to commercial edible fungal species. Compared to other Norway spruce ectomycorrhiza studies in central Europe, sites in Serbia exhibited lower species diversity and different dominant species composition, with Cenococcum spp. and Russula spp. as the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungi. A number of ectomycorrhizal types and the value of the species richness index differed between Stara planina and Tara in the autumn, but the influence of site and season on the studied diversity indices was not significant. The total number of fine roots increased in the spring, while percentage of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips increased in the autumn. This study was the first examination of Norway spruce ectomycorrhizal communities at the edge of the natural geographical range of the species.Keywords: Ectomycorrhiza, Picea abies Karst., Community Structure, Diversity, Fine RootsiForest 12 (1): 43-50 (2019) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2729-011'id=ifor2729-011
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
  • Research Articles: Assessing the relative role of climate on litterfall in
           Mediterranean cork oak forests

    • Authors: Andivia E; Bou J, Fernández M, Caritat A, Alejano R, Vilar L, Vázquez-Piqué J
      Abstract: Andivia E, Bou J, Fernández M, Caritat A, Alejano R, Vilar L, Vázquez-Piqué JASSESSING THE RELATIVE ROLE OF CLIMATE ON LITTERFALL IN MEDITERRANEAN CORK OAK FORESTSAbstract: Litterfall plays a key role in the dynamic of forest ecosystems, ultimately determining forest productivity and carbon and nutrient cycling. Increasing our understanding on the role of structural and environmental factors controlling litterfall amount and seasonality is of paramount importance for modelling and estimating soil carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling under climate change scenarios. However, the effect of climatic conditions on litterfall has been scarcely studied, especially in Mediterranean ecosystems. Here, we used nine years of seasonally collected litterfall data in two contrasting Mediterranean cork oak forests to evaluate the effect of climatic variables on leaf fall and litterfall. First, we isolated the litterfall seasonal trend and the between-sites differences in production by using linear mixed models. Then, we evaluated the effect of climatic variables and whether this effect was site-specific. We found a consistent litterfall seasonal pattern, mainly determined by leaf shedding (70% of litterfall). Leaf fall mainly occurs in spring with a second but much smaller peak in autumn some years. Mean temperature, precipitation and mean wind speed strongly influenced litterfall, but this effect was site-specific. In the forest site located at higher latitude and altitude, leaf fall increased linearly with temperature and showed a positive quadratic response to precipitation. In the water-limited site, leaf fall was reduced as temperature increased and did not respond to precipitation. These results have implications for modelling and predicting soil carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, and the forest ecosystem productivity. Specifically, carbon and nutrient cycling models can be improved by incorporating idiosyncratic forest sites responses to climatic variability.Keywords: Climate, Leaf Fall, Litterfall, Modelling, Plant-soil Interactions, Quercus suber, SeasonalityiForest 11 (6): 786-793 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2825-011'id=ifor2825-011
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
  • Research Articles: Effect of exogenous nitrogen and phosphorus inputs on
           the microbe-soil interaction in the secondary Castanopsis sclerophylla
           forest in east China

    • Authors: Teng Z; Cui J, Wang J, Fu X, Xu X
      Abstract: Teng Z, Cui J, Wang J, Fu X, Xu XEFFECT OF EXOGENOUS NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS INPUTS ON THE MICROBE-SOIL INTERACTION IN THE SECONDARY CASTANOPSIS SCLEROPHYLLA FOREST IN EAST CHINAAbstract: Soil microbes play a key role in the formation and decomposition of organic materials and in the improvement of the ecological environment. Despite continuous increases in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs due to the atmospheric deposition or fertilization, the response of soil to exogenous inorganic nutrients inputs remains elusive. By a manipulative experiment we simulated N and P depositions in a subtropical secondary Castanopsis sclerophylla forest in east China over the period 2011-2015, to evaluate the impact of inorganic nutrient addition on soil bacterial communities. Four treatments were administered (control and nutrient-enrichment: N, P, and N+P), with N added at a total of 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the form of NH4NO3, and P at 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1 in Ca(H2PO4)2, sprayed near the soil surface at the end of each trimester. Quantitative PCR technique and Illumina platform-based sequencing analysis of the V3-V4 16S rRNA gene region were performed on total DNA extracted from soil samples to characterize the soil bacterial community abundance and diversity. As Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all conditions, treatments did not alter the distribution of bacterial phyla, while their relative abundances responded differently to N, P additions. A GLMM analysis showed that N input significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Acidobacteria (13.11%), Bacteroidetes (0.6%), Elusimicrobia (0.21%), Nitrospirae (0.1%) and TM6 (0.04%). Relative abundance after P treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased for Nitrospirae (0.07%), and pronounced interactive effects of N and P additions (N:P) were observed on phylum Nitrospirae (P < 0.01) and TM6 (P < 0.05). Moreover, redundancy analysis revealed that soil pH was closely related to the bacterial community (r2 = 0.622, P = 0.015). Our findings suggest that exogenous N and P inputs affected the relative abundances and caused compositional shifts in the local bacterial community that closely associated with soil pH, thus providing the evidence that microbe-soil interactions are influenced by N and P availability in subtropical forest ecosystem of east China.Keywords: 16S rRNA, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions, Bacterial Populations, Soil PH, Subtropical Secondary Castanopsis sclerophylla ForestiForest 11 (6): 794-801 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2673-011'id=ifor2673-011
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
  • Research Articles: Diversity and distribution patterns of medium to large
           mammals in a silvicultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil

    • Authors: Campos BM; Charters JD, Verdade LM
      Abstract: Campos BM, Charters JD, Verdade LMDIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF MEDIUM TO LARGE MAMMALS IN A SILVICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN SOUTH-EASTERN BRAZILAbstract: Agricultural landscapes cover approximately 35% of Brazil and are the second greatest threat to biodiversity worldwide. In Brazil, seven millions hectars of land is covered with Eucalyptus plantations, which is considered to have low conservation value. However, studies have shown that heterogeneous silvicultural landscapes, made up of Eucalyptus matrices and patches dedicated to conservation, are able to support a considerable diversity of wild mammals. This study aims to assess the diversity and distribution patterns of medium-to-large-sized mammals in a silvicultural landscape in Angatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. Nineteen species were detected by camera traps within the study area. Diversity indices did not vary among habitat types (i.e., native vegetation, abandoned pasture and Eucalyptus plantations), suggesting that the species use the landscape as a whole. A relatively diverse range of predator species was found in the area, suggesting that future monitoring programs should focus on predator-prey relationships. A low diversity of frugivores was detected, indicating that management actions should be taken to facilitate their local recovery. Our results stress the fundamental importance of the conservation areas (Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserve) in silvicultural landscapes, as these areas help maintain complexity of the landscape structure.Keywords: Agroecosystem, Wildlife Management, Mammals, Eucalyptus, Camera-trappingiForest 11 (6): 802-808 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2721-011'id=ifor2721-011
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
  • Research Articles: Environmental factors affecting formation of lammas
           shoots in young stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) in Latvia

    • Authors: Katrevics J; Neimane U, Dzerina B, Kitenberga M, Jansons J, Jansons A
      Abstract: Katrevics J, Neimane U, Dzerina B, Kitenberga M, Jansons J, Jansons AENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING FORMATION OF LAMMAS SHOOTS IN YOUNG STANDS OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST.) IN LATVIAAbstract: Norway spruce is a relatively fast-growing tree species that is primarily regenerated by planting, which requires significant investments. The formation of lammas shoots (i.e., second flushing in late summer) have been proven to affect the quality and productivity of Norway spruce stands. The aim of our study was to assess the proportion of trees with lammas shoots in young stands of Norway spruce and to investigate the factors affecting their formation. Data have been collected at the end of 2011 in 102 three- to seven-year-old Norway spruce plantations randomly selected across different forest types in the central part of Latvia, and a subset of 21 stands were inventoried again at the end of 2012. In each stand, 20 sample plots were systematically established where trees with and without lammas shoots were counted and micro-environmental factors (moisture, competition, and browsing) were assessed on a three-grade scale. On average, the proportion of trees with lammas shoots was 6.5%. There was no significant effect of the stand age (from 3 to 7 years) on the proportion of trees with lammas shoots nor was there any age-related trend. The effect of forest type on the presence of lammas shoots was not significant. Micro-environmental factors had an important influence on the proportion of trees with lammas shoots. The proportion of lammas shoots in stands with no competition was significantly higher (14.5%) compared to stands with medium and high competition (6.0% and 2.2%, respectively). Similarly, a significantly higher proportion of trees with lammas shoots (11.7%) was observed in sites with normal moisture regime than in sites with slight or notable excess moisture, reaching 4.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Although the influence of browsing damage was not statistically significant, its trend was similar to that observed for competition and moisture regime. Overall, the proportion of trees with lammas shoots was highest in stands showing the most suitable micro-environmental conditions for Norway spruce.Keywords: Second Flushing, Vegetation Competition, Tending, Moisture Excess, Browsing DamageiForest 11 (6): 809-815 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2539-011'id=ifor2539-011
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
  • Research Articles: Distribution and habitat suitability of two rare
           saproxylic beetles in Croatia - a piece of puzzle missing for
           South-Eastern Europe

    • Authors: Rukavina I; Kostanjšek F, Jelaska SD, Pirnat A, Šerić Jelaska L
      Abstract: Rukavina I, Kostanjšek F, Jelaska SD, Pirnat A, Šerić Jelaska LDISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT SUITABILITY OF TWO RARE SAPROXYLIC BEETLES IN CROATIA - A PIECE OF PUZZLE MISSING FOR SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAbstract: Due to habitat loss and fragmentation, the hermit beetle, Osmoderma eremita species complex (Coleoptera; Scarabidae) and the European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are considered threatened in many European countries. Their presence in a large part of South-Eastern Europe has been sporadically recorded and these findings are mainly historical. Here we present the most recent findings of both species, assembled mainly throughout this first systematic study aiming to collect data on the hermit beetle within mapping and monitoring activities of saproxylic species protected by the European Habitat Directive (Annexes II and IV of Council Directive 92/43/EEC) within the Mediterranean, Continental and Alpine biogeographical regions of Croatia, and current literature data. To facilitate mapping activities and species range monitoring to improve the proper management of suitable habitats, we created habitat suitability maps using recent findings for both species, and predicted distribution were overlapped and analysed with historical data and protected areas. Most of the individuals were captured using flight intercept cross-vein funnel traps baited with pheromone for the hermit beetle placed within natural forest dominated by oak, beech and montane beech-fir forests, on sites with and without any forest management. Among set of 11 environmental variables, autumn precipitation, spring mean temperature and slope contributed most to the beetle distribution models. Data analyses indicated that the European red click beetle has much wider environmental envelope in which it can occur and that the hermit beetle can be used as surrogate species for the European red click beetle.Keywords: European Red Click Beetle, Hermit Beetle, Mapping and Monitoring, MaxEnt, Natura 2000, Nature Conservation, Protected AreasiForest 11 (6): 765-774 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2753-011'id=ifor2753-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • Research Articles: Is Tuber brumale a threat to T. melanosporum and T.
           aestivum plantations'

    • Authors: Ori F; Leonardi P, Stagnini E, Balestrini V, Iotti M, Zambonelli A
      Abstract: Ori F, Leonardi P, Stagnini E, Balestrini V, Iotti M, Zambonelli AIS TUBER BRUMALE A THREAT TO T. MELANOSPORUM AND T. AESTIVUM PLANTATIONS'Abstract: True truffles in the genus Tuber are the most valuable ectomycorrhizal fungi and their cultivation has become widespread around the world. Competition with other ectomycorrhizal fungi and especially with undesired Tuber species, like T. brumale, can threaten the success of a truffle plantation. In this work, the competitiveness of T. brumale towards T. melanosporum and T. aestivum was assessed in a 14 year-old plantation carried out planting seedlings inoculated with these three truffle species in adjacent plots. Analyses of both truffle ectomycorrhizas and extra-radical mycelium were carried out in the transects separating the T. brumale plot from T. melanosporum and T. aestivum plots. The results confirm the competitiveness of T. brumale against T. aestivum and T. melanosporum due to its major ability to colonize the soil around its ectomycorrhizas. However, its competitiveness is limited to the transect areas and it was never found inside T. melanosporum plot. These results remark that, in presence of optimal conditions for T. melanosporum and T. aestivum, the greatest risk of contamination with T. brumale is due to wrong greenhouse activity.Keywords: Competition, Black Truffles, Extra-Radical Mycelium, Ectomycorrhizas, Species-Specific PrimersiForest 11 (6): 775-780 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2785-011'id=ifor2785-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • Short Communications: Culturable fungi associated with wood decay of Picea
           abies in subalpine forest soils: a field-mesocosm case study

    • Authors: Oliveira Longa CM; Francioli D, Gómez-Brandón M, Ascher-Jenull J, Bardelli T, Pietramellara G, Egli M, Sartori G, Insam H
      Abstract: Oliveira Longa CM, Francioli D, Gómez-Brandón M, Ascher-Jenull J, Bardelli T, Pietramellara G, Egli M, Sartori G, Insam HCULTURABLE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH WOOD DECAY OF PICEA ABIES IN SUBALPINE FOREST SOILS: A FIELD-MESOCOSM CASE STUDYAbstract: Fungi are the principal wood decomposers in forest ecosystems and their activity provides wood necromass to other living organisms. However, the wood decay mechanisms and the associated microbial community are largely unknown, especially in Alpine areas. In this study, the culturable fraction of fungal communities associated with the decomposition of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) deadwood in subalpine forest soils were determined using microbiological methods coupled with molecular identification. Fungal communities were evaluated using in-field mesocosms after one year of exposition of P. abies wood blocks along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1200 up to 2000 m a.s.l. comprising eight subalpine sites, four of them located at north- and other four at south-facing slopes. Although many saprotrophic species were isolated from the wood blocks, several white-rot species as the pathogenic fungi Armillaria cepistipes and Heterobasidion annosum, along with soft-rot fungi such as Lecytophora sp. were identified. Our results further indicated that the wood-inhabiting fungal community was mainly influenced by topographic features and by the chemical properties of the wood blocks, providing first insights into the effect of different slope exposure on the deadwood mycobiome in the subalpine forest ecosystem.Keywords: Wood-inhabiting Fungi, Basidiomycota, Subalpine Forest, Wood Decomposition, Norway Spruce, Slope ExposureiForest 11 (6): 781-785 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2846-011'id=ifor2846-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • Research Articles: Prediction of ozone effects on net ecosystem production
           of Norway spruce forest

    • Authors: Jurán S; Edwards-Jonášová M, Cudlín P, Zapletal M, Šigut L, Grace J, Urban O
      Abstract: Jurán S, Edwards-Jonášová M, Cudlín P, Zapletal M, Šigut L, Grace J, Urban OPREDICTION OF OZONE EFFECTS ON NET ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTION OF NORWAY SPRUCE FORESTAbstract: Future ground-level concentrations of phytotoxic ozone are projected to grow in the Northern Hemisphere, at a rate depending on emission scenarios. We explored the likely changes in net ecosystem production (NEP) due to the increasing concentration of tropospheric ozone by applying a Generalized Additive Mixed Model based on measurements of ozone concentration ([O3]) and stomatal ozone flux (FsO3), at a mountainous Norway spruce forest in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. A dataset covering the growing period (May-August 2009) was examined in this case study. A predictive model based on FsO3 was found to be marginally more accurate than a model using [O3] alone for prediction of the course of NEP when compared to NEP measured by the eddy covariance technique. Both higher [O3] and FsO3 were found to reduce NEP. NEP simulated at low, pre-industrial FsO3 (0.5 nmol m-2 s-1) was higher by 24.8% as compared to NEP assessed at current rates of FsO3 (8.32 nmol m-2 s-1). However, NEP simulated at high FsO3 (17 nmol m-2 s-1), likely in the future, was reduced by 14.1% as compared to NEP values at current FsO3. The interaction between environmental factors and stomatal conductance is discussed in this paper.Keywords: Carbon, CO2 Assimilation, Model, Stomatal Ozone FluxiForest 11 (6): 743-750 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2805-011'id=ifor2805-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
  • Research Articles: The responses of soil microbial community and enzyme
           activities of Phoebe zhennan cultivated under different soil moisture
           conditions to phosphorus addition

    • Authors: Olatunji OA; Pan K, Tariq A, Zhang L, Wu X, Sun X, Luo H, Song D, Li N
      Abstract: Olatunji OA, Pan K, Tariq A, Zhang L, Wu X, Sun X, Luo H, Song D, Li NTHE RESPONSES OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF PHOEBE ZHENNAN CULTIVATED UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MOISTURE CONDITIONS TO PHOSPHORUS ADDITIONAbstract: The importance of conservation and ecological restoration of the rare and economically important tree Phoebe zhennan is increasingly recognized. To this purpose, phosphorus (P) addition has been proposed to improve soil biological attributes and face the anticipated drought under climate change, though few studies have investigated its effect on the interaction between the soil microorganisms and plant host, as well as on ecosystem productivity. We investigated the effect of P addition on soil chemical properties, microbial communities, and enzyme activities in a soil planted with P. zhennan under two levels of water treatments (optimum water and drought treatments). P additions had no significant effect on microbial communities, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), pH and soil moisture (SM), though the available P (aP) increased. Compared with no P treatment, alkaline phosphate and β-fructofuranosidase activities increased with P additions in the drought treatment. Drought decreased the total phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs), arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), and fungi PLFAs compared to the well-watered. These findings indicated that P additions does not ameliorate the impact of drought on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities, except alkaline phosphate and β-fructofuranosidase, and P may not be responsible for regulating biochemical processes essential for maintaining the fertility of soil planted with P. zhennan under drought conditions. It is hypothesized that the lack of effects of P addition on the majority of the microbial properties could be due to the soil mechanism employed by P. zhennan to tolerate harsh conditions.Keywords: Alkaline Phosphatase, Biomass, Drought, Enzymes, Microbial, Phoebe zhennaniForest 11 (6): 751-756 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2725-011'id=ifor2725-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
  • Research Articles: Post-fire recovery of Abies cephalonica forest
           communities: the case of Mt Parnitha National Park, Attica, Greece

    • Authors: Christopoulou A; Kazanis D, Fyllas NM, Arianoutsou M
      Abstract: Christopoulou A, Kazanis D, Fyllas NM, Arianoutsou MPOST-FIRE RECOVERY OF ABIES CEPHALONICA FOREST COMMUNITIES: THE CASE OF MT PARNITHA NATIONAL PARK, ATTICA, GREECEAbstract: Mountain coniferous forests of Southern Europe seem to be increasingly affected by large fires. Endemic Greek fir (Abies cephalonica) forests were among the most affected ecosystems by the 2007 extreme wildfires in Greece. The aim of this study is to investigate the pattern of post-fire regeneration of fir forest plant communities of Mount Parnitha National Park, in Attica (Greece), after a large wildfire. A network of 8 severely burned sites across the mountain ridge was established in order to monitor natural regeneration of A. cephalonica as well as post-fire floristic composition and species richness. Field campaigns took place in two distinct time periods, one close to the fire event and one 8 to 10 years after. Generalized linear models were used to explore the effects of distance and microhabitat variables on the post-fire regeneration of the Greek fir. Distance from the unburned patches, slope and cover of woody species significantly affected A. cephalonica seedling establishment and hence its natural post-fire regeneration. Floristic composition and plant species richness of the recovering fir communities changed through time. During the initial phase, high species richness was recorded, mainly because of the high contribution of herbaceous species. During the second period, species richness was lower and similar to that recorded in the unburned fir communities. It is during this period when the first seedlings of the Greek fir managed to establish, although their density is rather low to ensure full recovery of the forest.Keywords: Greek Fir, Mountain Forests, Post-fire Regeneration, Vegetation Dynamics, Secondary SuccessioniForest 11 (6): 757-764 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2744-011'id=ifor2744-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
  • Research Articles: Soil CO2 efflux in uneven-aged and even-aged Norway
           spruce stands in southern Finland

    • Authors: Kumpu A; Mäkelä A, Pumpanen J, Saarinen J, Berninger F
      Abstract: Kumpu A, Mäkelä A, Pumpanen J, Saarinen J, Berninger FSOIL CO2 EFFLUX IN UNEVEN-AGED AND EVEN-AGED NORWAY SPRUCE STANDS IN SOUTHERN FINLANDAbstract: Even-aged forests usually act as carbon sinks during most of their rotation. However, after clearcut they become sources of carbon for a period of several years. Applying uneven-aged forest management with selective cuttings will maintain tree cover and reduce the environmental impact on forest floor. The aim of this study was to compare the soil CO2 efflux between uneven-aged and even-aged Norway spruce stands with similar site properties, to investigate the effect of management practices on soil CO2 efflux and its possible correlation with soil environmental and chemical properties. We measured soil CO2 efflux in even- and uneven-aged Norway spruce stands (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in southern Finland during the summer of 2013 using closed chamber method on fixed measuring points. The study included two uneven-aged stands and two even-aged stands (a clearcut site and a mature even-aged stand). Soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at the same time as soil CO2 efflux. Soil cores were collected from the topsoil of each study plot to determine soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations. Mean soil CO2 efflux through the summer was highest in the clearcut plot (0.367 mg m-2 s-1) followed by the uneven-aged stands (0.298 and 0.257 mg m-2 s-1, respectively) and the smallest fluxes were measured in the mature even-aged stand (0.224 mg m-2 s-1). There was no statistically significant difference in soil CO2 efflux between the even- and uneven-aged stands of the same site fertility. Even- and uneven-aged stands did not differ significantly in soil moisture or soil temperature. Soil CO2 efflux increased steadily with soil temperature, whereas increasing soil moisture considerably increased soil CO2 efflux at lower moisture levels but only moderately at higher soil moisture levels. Soil carbon and nitrogen concentration did not differ between the study plots of the same fertility. Uneven-aged structure forestry did not prevent the increase in soil CO2 efflux after cuttings. However, the large variation in soil CO2 efflux rates within the uneven-aged stands suggests that the stand level CO2 efflux can be controlled with the intensity of the cutting.Keywords: Uneven-aged Forest Structure, Even-aged Forest Structure, Soil CO2 Efflux, Norway spruceiForest 11 (6): 705-712 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2658-011'id=ifor2658-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
  • Research Articles: Relationship between volatile organic compounds
           released and growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata roots under low-phosphorus

    • Authors: Lai H; Wu K, Wang N, Wu W, Zou X, Ma X, Wu P
      Abstract: Lai H, Wu K, Wang N, Wu W, Zou X, Ma X, Wu PRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS RELEASED AND GROWTH OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA ROOTS UNDER LOW-PHOSPHORUS CONDITIONSAbstract: To understand whether Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) can conserve energy by reducing root volatiles to maintain growth under low phosphorus (P) conditions, we cultivated two half-sib families of Chinese fir that display high and low P use efficiency under conditions of normal P supply and total P deficiency. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine the content of root volatiles, and the relationships among root volatiles and root growth index, P content, and distribution were analyzed. There were significantly fewer volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the rhizosphere of these two fir families, No. 25 and No. 32, under P deficiency. Low P supply significantly promoted root growth in No. 25, increasing both average diameter and volume. A negative correlation was found between the volatiles and the increment of root average diameter and surface area. The belowground P distribution and the root to shoot P concentration (Pr/Ps) were higher in No. 25 than in No. 32. The total amount of VOCs, as well as the amount of 18 individual volatiles were positively correlated with P accumulation, aboveground P distribution, and belowground P distribution, but the opposite pattern was seen in Pr/Ps for family No. 25 seedlings. We conclude that the content and types of VOCs differ among the Chinese fir genotypes. Under low-P stress, the roots of Chinese fir reduce the release of VOCs to maintain seedling growth.Keywords: Cunninghamia lanceolata, Low-phosphorus Stress, Root Growth, Root Volatile Organic Compounds, Energy BalanceiForest 11 (6): 713-720 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2797-011'id=ifor2797-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
  • Research Articles: Distribution of aluminium fractions in acid forest
           soils: influence of vegetation changes

    • Authors: Pavlu L; Drabek O, Stejskalova S, Tejnecky V, Hradilova M, Nikodem A, Boruvka L
      Abstract: Pavlu L, Drabek O, Stejskalova S, Tejnecky V, Hradilova M, Nikodem A, Boruvka LDISTRIBUTION OF ALUMINIUM FRACTIONS IN ACID FOREST SOILS: INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION CHANGESAbstract: This study examines aluminium as a potentially phytotoxic element in acidic forest soils. Concentrations of Al forms in soils are generally controlled by soil chemical conditions, such as pH, organic matter, base cation contents, etc. Moreover, soil conditions are influenced by the vegetation cover. This study analyzed the distribution of Al forms in soils after changes in vegetation. HPLC/IC was used for the separation of three Al fractions in two soil extracts according to their charge. An aqueous extract (AlH2O) simulated the natural soil conditions and bioavailable Al fractions. Potentially available Al form was represented by a 0.5 M KCl extract (AlKCl). We demonstrated that the vegetation type influences the concentrations of different Al fractions, mainly in the surface organic horizons. Differences were more common in the KCl extract. The trivalent fraction was less influenced by vegetation changes than the mono- and divalent fractions. Afforestation increased the concentrations of AlKCl and AlH2O. In contrast, grass expansion after deforestation led to significantly decreased concentrations of AlKCl and AlH2O. Concentrations of AlH2O in organic horizons were higher in spruce forest than in beech forest. A long-term effect of liming on soil pH and concentrations of potentially toxic Al fractions was not apparent. The results provide information on the variations of Al fractions distributions following vegetation type changes and indicate the existence of some natural mechanisms controlling Al toxicity. Furthermore, the results can be used in the management of forested areas endangered by soil acidification.Keywords: Aluminium Fractionation, Forest Soil, Afforestation, Deforestation, HPLC/ICiForest 11 (6): 721-727 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2498-011'id=ifor2498-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
  • Research Articles: Drought tolerance in cork oak is associated with low
           leaf stomatal and hydraulic conductances

    • Authors: Rzigui T; Jazzar L, Baaziz Khaoula B, Fkiri S, Nasr Z
      Abstract: Rzigui T, Jazzar L, Baaziz Khaoula B, Fkiri S, Nasr ZDROUGHT TOLERANCE IN CORK OAK IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW LEAF STOMATAL AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTANCESAbstract: To investigate the role of seeds origin in drought tolerance, the response to water deprivation of cork oak seedlings differing in climatic conditions at their geographical origin was compared. Gaâfour is the provenance from the driest site and Feija is the provenance from the wettest site. Net photosynthesis (An), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential were measured during dehydration. A delayed decrease in leaf water potential is observed after water withholding in Gaâfour as compared to Feija leaves. At the onset of dehydration, An and gs were higher in Feija. After withholding watering, Gaâfour leaves were able to maintain a higher An and gs than Feija leaves. Most likely, drought tolerance in Gaâfour leaves is associated to their lower gs under well-hydrated conditions. The stomatal density (Ds) and specific leaf area (SLA) were not different in well-watered leaves but, leaf hydraulic conductance was lower in Gaâfour leaves when compared to Feija leaves. Our results suggested that lower stomatal and hydraulic conductances of Gaâfour leaves could be involved in bringing about the better resistance to dehydration.Keywords: Drought, Cork Oak, Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance, Hydraulic ConductanceiForest 11 (6): 728-733 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2749-011'id=ifor2749-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
  • Research Articles: Dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) content in stands
           of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in central Europe

    • Authors: Becvárová P; Horváth M, Sarapatka B, Zouhar V
      Abstract: Becvárová P, Horváth M, Sarapatka B, Zouhar VDYNAMICS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON (SOC) CONTENT IN STANDS OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES) IN CENTRAL EUROPEAbstract: Norway spruce is the main forest tree species in the Czech Republic. Until now, little attention has been given in the literature to the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) content under Norway spruce stands as a function of stand characteristics. The aim of this study is to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) content and stock changes in organic and surface mineral soil horizons on forest sites with a dominant representation of Norway spruce. In the study area, a significantly higher content of SOC was found in the surface mineral soil horizon than in the organic soil horizon. In both soil horizons, there was evidence of an increasing trend of SOC with the increasing age of forest stands, a decreasing trend of SOC with increasing density of stocking and an increasing trend of SOC with increasing altitude. The relationship of SOC content with soil group (Podzol vs. non-Podzol) has also been demonstrated. The greatest potential for long-term carbon sequestration in soils was shown in older stands (101-190 years) dominated by Norway spruce with lower density of stocking, located in forest vegetation zones (1010-1225 m a.s.l.) where natural mountain Norway spruce forests currently occur. According to our results, Norway spruce stands may perform a stable function of carbon sequestration in the soil at these sites, especially in the mineral soil horizon.Keywords: Forest Soil, C Sequestration, Picea abies, Site Conditions, Stand Characteristics, Climate ChangeiForest 11 (6): 734-742 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2521-011'id=ifor2521-011
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
  • Research Articles: Short- and long-term natural regeneration after
           windthrow disturbances in Norway spruce forests in Bulgaria

    • Authors: Tsvetanov N; Dountchev A, Panayotov M, Zhelev P, Bebi P, Yurukov S
      Abstract: Tsvetanov N, Dountchev A, Panayotov M, Zhelev P, Bebi P, Yurukov SSHORT- AND LONG-TERM NATURAL REGENERATION AFTER WINDTHROW DISTURBANCES IN NORWAY SPRUCE FORESTS IN BULGARIAAbstract: Norway spruce forests are among the forests most affected by natural disturbances in Europe. One of the key aspects is the regeneration of the disturbed areas, which is decisive for later forest development. We studied the natural regeneration after two windthrows that occurred 30 (1983) and 50 years ago (1962) in an old-growth forest over 150-year-old in the Parangalitsa Reserve and a recent windthrow (2001) in a 130-year-old single cohort forest in the Bistrishko branishte Reserve in Bulgaria. We set up study plots along transects, counted regeneration and substrates, and analyzed age using tree rings. Post-disturbance regeneration made up 62-81% of all recorded trees and was more important than advance regeneration, but it strongly differed among the windthrows. Our data indicated two discrete peaks of post-disturbance regeneration. The first peak started immediately after the windthrows and was dominated by Norway spruce and rowan, while the second one started about 30 years later and was dominated by spruce. Pioneers such as Populus tremula, Salix caprea and Pinus sylvestris were less prominent than expected, contributing up to 21% of the total regeneration. Despite the fact that the highest density of initial regeneration was found on mounds from uprooted trees, the largest total number in the three studied areas was on intact forest floor, which hosted between 69 and 80% of all regeneration. The importance of coarse woody debris rose significantly two to three decades after the disturbances and was particularly important for the secondary regeneration, which consisted of Picea abies and Abies alba.Keywords: Picea abies, Natural Regeneration, Windthrows, Natural Disturbances, Southeastern EuropeiForest 11 (5): 675-684 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2754-011'id=ifor2754-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
  • Research Articles: What if Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius would larder
           acorns instead of scatter them'

    • Authors: Kurek P; Dobrowolska D, Wiatrowska B, Dylewski L
      Abstract: Kurek P, Dobrowolska D, Wiatrowska B, Dylewski LWHAT IF EURASIAN JAY GARRULUS GLANDARIUS WOULD LARDER ACORNS INSTEAD OF SCATTER THEM'Abstract: Jays usually store acorns at separate sites, but in some cases a part of jay’s caches consists of more than one acorn. Storing acorns separately (scatter hoarding) or in clusters (larder hoarding) seems to be an important factor for further survival of seeds and seedlings. Scatter hoarding is favorable for jays, but what would happen if jays prepared caches consisting of more than one acorn' We put a following question: what is the importance and impact of acorn concentration per cache for the seedlings’ mortality and their growth characteristics' In 2013 an experimental plot was established. 1400 acorns of Quercus robur L. were sewed in 600 holes in three combinations called growing mode - singly, in twos and in fours. The mortality of seedlings depended on growing mode (Z = 6.24, P < 0.001) and year (Z = -2.42, P = 0.016). In the third year of the experiment the mortality of seedlings growing from acorns sewed in fours reached almost 90%, while in the case of seedlings growing separately the mortality was stable, reaching no more than 23%. Both growing mode (F = 26.49, P < 0.001) and year (F = 52.59, P < 0.001) had a significant impact on seedling growth increment. Seedlings growing in fours had a significantly higher growth increment than these growing separately and in twos. We concluded that seedlings growing separately had a higher survival rate, but lower growth increment than those coming from acorns sewed in clumps.Keywords: Eurasian Jay, Acorns, Scatter Hoarding, Larder Hoarding, Seedlings Survival, Seed DispersaliForest 11 (5): 685-689 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2793-011'id=ifor2793-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
  • Research Articles: The effect of silver and copper nanoparticles on the
           growth and mycorrhizal colonisation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in
           a container nursery experiment

    • Authors: Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska M; Szaniawski A, Studnicki M, Bederska-Blaszczyk M, Olchowik J, Urban A
      Abstract: Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska M, Szaniawski A, Studnicki M, Bederska-Blaszczyk M, Olchowik J, Urban ATHE EFFECT OF SILVER AND COPPER NANOPARTICLES ON THE GROWTH AND MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) IN A CONTAINER NURSERY EXPERIMENTAbstract: Recent research points to the possibility of nanoparticles being used as fertilisers, growth stimulators, and promoters of plant resistance or pesticides. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of nanoparticles of silver and copper (AgNPs and CuNPs) on growth parameters and spontaneous mycorrhizal colonisation of roots in 2-year-old container-grown seedlings of Scots pine. Foliar applications of nanoparticles were made through two growing seasons, four times a season, at concentrations of 0, 5, 25 and 50 ppm. Comparisons of the ultrastructures characterising the needles, stems and roots of the treated or untreated pines were conducted with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deployed CuNPs stimulated mycorrhizal colonisation at all concentrations, although the growth of seedlings was only promoted at a concentration of 25 ppm. Higher concentrations of AgNPs (25 and 50 ppm) inhibited the formation of mycorrhizae, though the lowest concentration (5 ppm) produced an increase in both mycorrhizal colonisation and the dry mass of roots. The species of ectomycorrhizal fungi found were Thelephora terrestris, Suillus bovinus and Sphaerosporella brunnea. The TEM results comparing treated and control (untreated) needles revealed changes in the chloroplasts from lens-shaped to spherical. Furthermore, an increase in the number of plastoglobules and the presence of large osmophilic globules in the cytoplasm associated solely with the needles of pines receiving 50 ppm nanoparticles were observed. In contrast, ultrastructural changes in stems and roots associated with the applications of NPs were not found. Overall, the results indicated that CuNPs and AgNPs could be used as stimulators of growth in general, and mycorrhizal colonisation in particular, among container-grown Scots pines. However, further work is needed to determine their optimal doses and concentrations.Keywords: Nanoparticles, Ectomycorrhizae, Toxicity, Growth StimulationiForest 11 (5): 690-697 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2855-011'id=ifor2855-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
  • Research Articles: Managed and unmanaged silver fir-beech forests show
           similar structural features in the western Pyrenees

    • Authors: Horvat V; García De Vicuña J, Biurrun I, García-Mijangos I
      Abstract: Horvat V, García De Vicuña J, Biurrun I, García-Mijangos IMANAGED AND UNMANAGED SILVER FIR-BEECH FORESTS SHOW SIMILAR STRUCTURAL FEATURES IN THE WESTERN PYRENEESAbstract: Forest structure is considered one of the basic features of the forest ecosystem and it is widely studied with the aim of developing sustainable management strategies. The usual approach is to compare structural features of stands in managed and unmanaged forests. Managed stands are those disturbed in some way by silvicultural practices, whereas unmanaged stands are subject to natural disturbance dynamics and may serve as a reference. Up to now, there has been insufficient research into sustainable management strategies for Pyrenean silver fir-beech forests and the structure of managed and unmanaged stands has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed characterisation of the structural attributes of these mixed mountain forests in the western Pyrenees and compare managed and unmanaged stands regarding selected stand parameters. Potential differences between managed and unmanaged stands were assessed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. Diameter distribution was modelled using third-order polynomials and non-linear regression was performed to compare the tree heights in managed and unmanaged stands. Stand structure was similar in both management categories. The diameter distribution of Pyrenean unmanaged silver fir-beech stands showed a tendency towards a rotated sigmoid distribution. Our results indicate that the recommended diameter distribution has been preserved in managed stands despite they were intensively managed in the past, whilst the unmanaged stands are still in the process of developing old-growth attributes because management was abandoned too recently for significant changes in forest structure to have occurred.Keywords: Forest Management, Gaps, Pyrenees, Stand StructureiForest 11 (5): 698-704 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2720-011'id=ifor2720-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
  • Research Articles: Effects on soil characteristics by different management
           regimes with root sucker generated hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P.
           tremuloides Michx.) on abandoned agricultural land

    • Authors: Rytter RM; Rytter L
      Abstract: Rytter RM, Rytter LEFFECTS ON SOIL CHARACTERISTICS BY DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT REGIMES WITH ROOT SUCKER GENERATED HYBRID ASPEN (POPULUS TREMULA L. × P. TREMULOIDES MICHX.) ON ABANDONED AGRICULTURAL LANDAbstract: Fast-growing Populus species are becoming frequently used at afforestation of arable land globally and hybrid aspen is promising for short rotation forestry in the northern hemisphere. Knowledge about growth performance of the second-generation plantations, i.e., consisting of root sucker generated shoots after clearcutting of the original stand, is increasing, but less information is available on the effects on soil properties, especially with varying management. We followed the soil effects of three different management regimes, including 4-, 8- and 16-year rotations with thinning measures in the two longer rotations, in root sucker generated hybrid aspen on former agricultural land. The study was performed in a randomized block design and changes in soil variables were estimated by repeated sampling, i.e., at root sucker initiation and after eight years. Concentrations and pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil nutrients, pH and bulk density were analysed in the 0-15 and 15-30 cm mineral soil. Common for all management regimes were unchanged SOC and nutrient pools; pH and bulk density were also unaffected during the study period. Afforestation effects on the vertical distribution of nutrients, i.e., redistribution of NH4-N, K and Mg from deeper to shallower soil by plant uptake and release through litter decomposition, were observed in all management regimes. A different effect was noted for NO3-N where a declining trend was observed. This could indicate a leakage of the ion, but NO3-N distributions in soils are variable which makes interpretations difficult. The results suggest that different management strategies have small initial effects on mineral soil characteristics. However, soil changes need to be followed for an extended period to get more information on the long-term impact of afforestation and management of root sucker generated stands.Keywords: Afforestation, Bulk Density, Nutrient Removal, pH, Rotation Time, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), Soil NutrientsiForest 11 (5): 619-627 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2853-011'id=ifor2853-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
  • Research Articles: The spread of the non-native pine tortoise scale
           Toumeyella parvicornis (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Europe: a major threat to
           Pinus pinea in Southern Italy

    • Authors: Garonna AP; Foscari A, Russo E, Jesu G, Somma S, Cascone P, Guerrieri E
      Abstract: Garonna AP, Foscari A, Russo E, Jesu G, Somma S, Cascone P, Guerrieri ETHE SPREAD OF THE NON-NATIVE PINE TORTOISE SCALE TOUMEYELLA PARVICORNIS (HEMIPTERA: COCCIDAE) IN EUROPE: A MAJOR THREAT TO PINUS PINEA IN SOUTHERN ITALYAbstract: Invasive pests are considered a major threat to biodiversity, conservation and agriculture. The Italian peninsula is a major site of intensive commercial exchange and transport of plants and goods, being consequently one of the European countries most invaded by alien insects. Hemiptera Coccomorpha are the largest group of non-native species recorded in Europe. For example, in the last 70 years more than 50 scale insect species have been accidentally introduced into Italy, 50% of which are now well established. This study was conducted to investigate the biology and the damage of the non-native pine tortoise scale Toumeyella parvicornis Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccidae) accidentally introduced a few years ago into southern Italy. T. parvicornis is multivoltine in the invaded territories, being able to complete at least three generations per year, overwintering in the adult female stage. Oviposition periods during 2015-2017 surveys occurred from late April to end of May, from July to first half of August, and from mid-September to November. Fecundity was positively correlated to body size of gravid females and varied among the generations. Investigations on natural control by autochthonous species showed a seasonal activity of Metaphycus flavus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitizing mainly immature male individuals. The morpho-molecular approach confirms the hypothesis of an ongoing shift of parasitoid populations from other indigenous soft scales to the invasive one. Unfortunately, the low level of natural control was ineffective in hampering the spread of T. parvicornis, and preventing the dieback of local pine species, Pinus pinea, as observed in all invaded areas.Keywords: Invasive Pest, Europe, Toumeyella parvicornis, Life History, Pinus pinea, Natural ControliForest 11 (5): 628-634 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2864-011'id=ifor2864-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
  • Research Articles: Post-fire recovery of the plant community in Pinus
           brutia forests: active vs. indirect restoration techniques after salvage

    • Authors: Ürker O; Tavsanoglu &, Gürkan B
      Abstract: Ürker O, Tavsanoglu &, Gürkan BPOST-FIRE RECOVERY OF THE PLANT COMMUNITY IN PINUS BRUTIA FORESTS: ACTIVE VS. INDIRECT RESTORATION TECHNIQUES AFTER SALVAGE LOGGINGAbstract: Although reforestation is frequently utilized in many Mediterranean Basin countries to restore burned Mediterranean pine woodlands, post-fire recovery of the plant community is often neglected. To compare the post-fire recovery of the plant community following active and indirect post-fire restoration techniques, we studied three post-fire regeneration treatments in a salvage-logged Pinus brutia forest, including two active (plantation and seeding) restoration techniques and one indirect (natural regeneration). An unburned pine stand was also included in the study. We applied the point-intercept method to obtain data on the presence and cover of individual species and functional groups in six replicate one-hectare plots for each treatment. We found no significant differences in plant species richness among post-fire treatments; however, plant community composition and vegetation structure were significantly different between treatments. There was a shift in plant community structure when active restoration techniques were applied, from the woody- and resprouter-dominated plant community of the unburned site to an annual herbaceous- and non-resprouter-dominated one. Our results suggest that active restoration by planting tree saplings in Mediterranean pine forests after a fire may decrease the plant community’s resilience and provide empirical evidence that pine plantation treatments change the plant species composition of these forests. These results have important implications for post-fire management of Mediterranean Basin pine forests.Keywords: Fire, Mediterranean Pine Forest, Plant Cover, Plant Functional Groups, Post-fire Restoration, Resilience, Species Diversity, Turkish Red PineiForest 11 (5): 635-642 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2645-011'id=ifor2645-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
  • Research Articles: Predicting the impacts of climate change on the
           distribution of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. in the central and eastern
           Alborz Mountains, Iran

    • Authors: Fatemi SS; Rahimi M, Tarkesh M, Ravanbakhsh H
      Abstract: Fatemi SS, Rahimi M, Tarkesh M, Ravanbakhsh HPREDICTING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA M. BIEB. IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN ALBORZ MOUNTAINS, IRANAbstract: In recent years, global climate change has had significant biological, temporal, and spatial effects on many terrestrial habitats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on the geographic distribution of Juniperus excelsa and prioritize its habitats for protection against these effects until 2070. The study was conducted using the MaxEnt species distribution model and two data series GFDL-CM3 and MRI-CGCM3 under scenarios RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 of the 5th IPCC report. Our results revealed that elevation, minimum temperature of coldest month, precipitation of coldest quarter, annual mean temperature, and slope aspect, in that order, have the greatest effects on the species’ distribution in the study area. Under optimistic scenario RCP2.6, both models predicted that the species’ presence area will grow, but under RCP4.5, models predicted that by 2070, some parts of its habitat in western and central heights will be lost because of change in climate parameters like minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of coldest quarter. Under the latter scenario, the northeastern parts of the study area showed no changes in terms of climatic parameters and climatic niche. The results of both climate data series indicated that the Juniperus excelsa will slowly migrate to higher elevations to cope with the changing climate. Assessment of the results through field studies showed that outputs of GFDL-CM3 are closer to the reality.Keywords: Juniperus excelsa, Climate Change, Irano-Turanian Forests, MaxEnt Model, Climatic NicheiForest 11 (5): 643-650 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2559-011'id=ifor2559-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
  • Research Articles: Delineation of seed collection zones based on
           environmental and genetic characteristics for Quercus suber L. in
           Sardinia, Italy

    • Authors: De Dato G; Teani A, Mattioni C, Marchi M, Monteverdi MC, Ducci F
      Abstract: De Dato G, Teani A, Mattioni C, Marchi M, Monteverdi MC, Ducci FDELINEATION OF SEED COLLECTION ZONES BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR QUERCUS SUBER L. IN SARDINIA, ITALYAbstract: The assessment of seed zones or regions of provenance (RoP) to preserve local adaptation of tree species is an effective tool for the correct management of forest reproductive materials. The RoP for a species or sub-species is the area or group of areas subject to sufficiently uniform ecological conditions in which stands or seed sources show similar phenotypic or genetic characters, taking into account altitudinal boundaries where appropriate. However, the delineation of RoPs is commonly based on estimates of intrinsic environmental homogeneity, mainly climate and/or soil characteristics. The integration of genetic data into RoP maps is an important strategy to obtain a sound tool for managing forest reproductive materials. A study on Quercus suber (cork oak) in Sardinia (Italy) was carried out with the aim of determining ecological regions of provenance, investigating the genetic diversity among populations at the regional scale and identifying possible areas of interest for valorising the available germplasm. Identification of these areas was performed by Reserve Selection Analysis, which allows to identify priority areas by assessing the minimum number of sites required to include all the genetic diversity estimated by genetic analysis. Four spatial clusters were obtained based on environmental data: the northern and northern-eastern parts of the island were included in the Northern RoP; the second RoP covered the western part; and the third RoP enclosed the south-eastern region. The last group was distributed on the central part of the island (Central RoP) and includes the higher elevations. The sampled populations showed a low differentiation among populations and low diversity. According to the Reserve Selection Analysis, four conservation priority areas were identified. These indications can be useful at the local level because these sites can be proposed as stands for seed collection for future plantations.Keywords: Regions of Provenance, Quercus suber, Seed Collection Zones, Spatial Genetic Structure, SardiniaiForest 11 (5): 651-659 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2572-011'id=ifor2572-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
  • Research Articles: Towards the economic valuation of ecosystem production
           from cork oak forests in Sardinia (Italy)

    • Authors: Corona P; Quatrini V, Schirru M, Dettori S, Puletti N
      Abstract: Corona P, Quatrini V, Schirru M, Dettori S, Puletti NTOWARDS THE ECONOMIC VALUATION OF ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTION FROM CORK OAK FORESTS IN SARDINIA (ITALY)Abstract: A spatially explicit approach for stand-scale economic valuation of current and future potential of cork forests with respect to ecosystem production is developed and presented. The approach, which relies in large part on the mensuration of stand top height and number of trees as main drivers, has been tested on the pure cork forests of Sardinia (Italy). The test was conducted to assess the effects of alternative silvicultural options on cork and fodder production, carbon sequestration, and water yield. Under current conditions, the surveyed pure cork oak forest stands in Sardinia are characterized, on average, by an annual economic production of 93 euro ha-1 yr-1 as concerns cork, 37 euro ha-1 yr-1 as concerns carbon sequestration and 261 euro ha-1 yr-1 as concerns water yield. The value of cork production on an 11-year cycle equals 1023 euro ha-1 on average. The total economic production values among the tested silvicultural alternatives have proven to be characterized by relatively small differences, due to the trade-offs among the considered goods and services. Therefore, at least under conditions similar to those surveyed, managers may safely rely on different stand density options, without any relevant detrimental effect on total economic production. The tested spatial visualization of the economic values of goods and services production can be useful in supporting forest management planning, e.g., to identify priority areas in order to maximize ecosystem production for local communities. The approach proposed here and tested to this end proves to be readily applicable to other cork contexts with similar characteristics under Mediterranean conditions.Keywords: Forest Management, Cork Production, Fodder Production, Carbon Sequestration, Water YieldiForest 11 (5): 660-667 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2558-011'id=ifor2558-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
  • Research Articles: Indicators for the assessment and certification of cork
           oak management sustainability in Italy

    • Authors: Pollastrini M; Chiavetta U, Cutini A, Casula A, Maltoni S, Dettori S, Corona P
      Abstract: Pollastrini M, Chiavetta U, Cutini A, Casula A, Maltoni S, Dettori S, Corona PINDICATORS FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND CERTIFICATION OF CORK OAK MANAGEMENT SUSTAINABILITY IN ITALYAbstract: Sustainable forest management (SFM) is crucial for forest ecosystem productivity and conservation, especially in systems such as cork oak (Quercus suber L.) threatened by human activities and biotic and abiotic factors. In this study SFM indicators with particular reference to cork oak forests in the region of Sardinia (Italy) are proposed and tested. Sustainable and responsible management options specifically aimed at cork oak forest management and chain of custody certification are also provided. A set of ten indicators was proposed and assessed by an expert panel in cork oak management. Five indicators were also tested against data on structure, origin, health condition and management in 285 forest compartments managed by FoReSTAS (Regional Forest Agency for Land and Environment of Sardinia, Italy), including 361 sampling plots and 5345 trees. In order to investigate the priorities and perceptions of SFM experts and stakeholders, a survey was also carried out by completion of a questionnaire on the technical issues of cork oak woodland management. The survey results highlighted a need to improve environmental and economic performance by means of SFM and certification. The indicators tested in Sardinian cork oak woodlands showed that about 80% of the stands fulfilled management sustainability requirements. The suggested SFM indicators can effectively support proactive management and conservation measures, representing a valuable tool in the current context of growing environmental and socioeconomic awareness.Keywords: Quercus suber, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Management Planning, Non-wood Forest Products, Sardinia, ItalyiForest 11 (5): 668-674 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2587-011'id=ifor2587-011
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
  • Review Papers: Perspective on the control of invasive mesquite trees and
           possible alternative uses

    • Authors: Ellsworth SW; Crandall PG, Lingbeck JM, O’Bryan CA
      Abstract: Ellsworth SW, Crandall PG, Lingbeck JM, O’Bryan CAPERSPECTIVE ON THE CONTROL OF INVASIVE MESQUITE TREES AND POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE USESAbstract: Mesquite trees continue to invade forests and range lands in many countries across the world. The cost to remove these trees is staggering. In Texas, landowners spent $25 million over a 10-year period to clear 300.000 ha of mesquite trees, a fraction of the 22 million ha of Texas land affected by this invasion. Estimates are that the mesquite continues to negatively impact one to two percent of additional land in selected counties each year in Texas. However, the problem is not unique to Texas, but rather to the 44 species of mesquite trees, belonging to the genus Prosopis found in the pea family (Fabaceae), introduced across the southern United States, South Asia, Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean. In response, researchers are searching for economically viable uses for harvested trees and seeds to provide an alternative to the high cost of removal. If viable uses for harvested mesquite trees and seeds are found, then sustained pressure will limit and ultimately reduce the negative impact from these invasive trees. One key factor to controlling this invasive species is to find economically and environmentally sustainable uses to help pay the costs of removal or perhaps make removal less necessary. Traditional uses of mesquite are as a building material, as a source of food for both animals and humans and as wood for charcoal. Emerging uses of mesquite are new applications as a biofuel and as a bio-filter medium for water. Moreover, forestry land management of mesquite has adapted to include the tree as a component of hunting lands. New control methodologies and technologies are based on an increased understanding of mesquite growth patterns, using recommended practices that reduce control and eradication costs while improving the efficiency of land management. Previous land management practices have proven that excessive application of herbicides, physical removal of mesquite trees, or human-induced brush fires, if not carefully planned, only worsen mesquite infestations. The growing problem of mesquite land management provides an opportunity for continued research into novel ways to utilize mesquite biomass, of both wood and seed pods.Keywords: Mesquite, Land Management, Prosopis spp., BiofueliForest 11 (5): 577-585 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2456-011'id=ifor2456-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
  • Research Articles: Exploring patterns, drivers and structure of plant
           community composition in alien Robinia pseudoacacia secondary woodlands

    • Authors: Campagnaro T; Nascimbene J, Tasinazzo S, Trentanovi G, Sitzia T
      Abstract: Campagnaro T, Nascimbene J, Tasinazzo S, Trentanovi G, Sitzia TEXPLORING PATTERNS, DRIVERS AND STRUCTURE OF PLANT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN ALIEN ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA SECONDARY WOODLANDSAbstract: Invasive alien tree species can strongly impact biodiversity and future projections predict their spread over natural, semi-natural and human habitats. However, little is known about plant communities that form during the first stages of invasion. We investigated the composition of plant communities in alien Robinia pseudoacacia L. secondary forests growing on grasslands and cultivated areas abandoned during the last 35-40 years in north-eastern Italy to understand whether these formations could cause floristic homogenization of plant communities composition. On the basis of a cluster analysis, plant communities were assigned to seven syntaxonomic categories and split into four groups characterized by the occurrence of 20 species indicative of (a) nitrogen-rich, (b) true forest and (c) open habitat conditions. RDA analysis enabled main stand and environmental variables filtering these communities to be identified and β-diversity components were partitioned through the SDR (Similarity - richness Difference - species Replacement) simplex approach. Plant composition patterns were significantly associated to variability in elevation, stand vertical structure, shrub cover, mean tree diameter and height, and basal area. Shrub cover discriminates between plant communities associated with open or shaded conditions. The partition of β-diversity components revealed that replacement is the prominent process structuring plant communities in these secondary forests. Our study showed that secondary Robinia forests growing on abandoned lands may host compositionally heterogeneous plant communities, thus contributing to regional biodiversity.Keywords: Black Locust, Alien Tree Species, Biological Invasion, Species Replacement, Plant CompositioniForest 11 (5): 586-593 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2687-011'id=ifor2687-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
  • Short Communications: Shrub encroachment alters topsoil C:N:P
           stoichiometric ratios in a high-altitude forest cutover

    • Authors: Feng D; Bao W
      Abstract: Feng D, Bao WSHRUB ENCROACHMENT ALTERS TOPSOIL C:N:P STOICHIOMETRIC RATIOS IN A HIGH-ALTITUDE FOREST CUTOVERAbstract: The effect of shrub encroachment on soil carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometric ratios are largely still unknown. We investigated this effect and the effect of shrub size in a high altitude forest cutover among four common shrub species: Cerasus trichostoma, Ribes glaciale, Rosa omeiensis and Salix sphaeronymphe. The difference in topsoil C:N ratio between meadows and shrub islands was greatly influenced by shrub species and plant sizes. Topsoil N:P and C:P ratios were always higher in shrub islands than in meadows, irrespective of shrub species and plant size. The expansion of shrubs merely increased the topsoil C:N ratio beneath Cerasus and Rosa, and increased the topsoil N:P and C:P ratios beneath the four shrub species. The increase in stoichiometric ratio followed an identical pattern among the four shrub species as shrub size increased. There were always higher topsoil C:P and N:P ratios beneath Ribes than under the other shrub species with the same plant size. This study clearly suggests that the effect of shrub islands on soil C:N:P stoichiometric ratios was dependent on shrub species and size. Our results are conducive to clarifying the currently confusion in secondary successional trends of soil C:N:P stoichiometry.Keywords: Plant Species, Shrub Islands, Shrub Size, Soil StoichiometryiForest 11 (5): 594-599 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2803-011'id=ifor2803-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
  • Research Articles: Changes in the properties of grassland soils as a
           result of afforestation

    • Authors: Podwika M; Solek-Podwika K, Ciarkowska K
      Abstract: Podwika M, Solek-Podwika K, Ciarkowska KCHANGES IN THE PROPERTIES OF GRASSLAND SOILS AS A RESULT OF AFFORESTATIONAbstract: The effects of afforestation on physical, physico-chemical, and biological properties of grassland soils were investigated in three sites (215-230 m a.s.l.) located within the urban area of Krakow (southern Poland) after 45-60 years since the introduction of forest tree species. We compared the contents of nutrients and the composition of humus between forest and adjacent grassland soils, as well as the quality of the forest soils in relation to the introduced tree species (alder, pine, oak, birch, maple, elm). We hypothesized that afforestation of grassland soils results in the increase of acidity and nutrient contents. Studied soils belong to Dystric Gleysols (forest) and Eutric Gleysols (grassland). Overall, 168 soil samples were taken from two layers (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) both from forest and grassland soils. The results showed an increase of organic carbon (up to 150%), total nitrogen (up to 70%) and total acidity (up to 18 times), as well as a decrease of pH (up to 40%) and activity of dehydrogenase (up to 60%) in forest soils in relation to the respective grassland soils. The most intensive changes were observed in the topsoil layers (0-10 cm). We also calculated the Soil Quality index (SQI) based on PCA in which only soil parameters with high load factors were taken into consideration. SQI ranged from 0.39 to 0.41 in grassland soils and from 0.33 to 0.37 in forest soils. Among forest soils, the highest value of SQI was obtained for stands dominated by black alder, indicating that such species is the most suitable for afforestation purposes under the study conditions. The results may be helpful in the realization of afforestation plans of humid grassland soils.Keywords: Land Use Change, Physico-chemical Soil Properties, Soil Quality IndexiForest 11 (5): 600-608 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2556-011'id=ifor2556-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
  • Research Articles: Early responses of biodiversity indicators to various
           thinning treatments in mountain beech forests

    • Authors: Lombardi F; Lella SD, Altieri V, Benedetto SD, Giancola C, Lasserre B, Kutnar L, Tognetti R, Marchetti M
      Abstract: Lombardi F, Lella SD, Altieri V, Benedetto SD, Giancola C, Lasserre B, Kutnar L, Tognetti R, Marchetti MEARLY RESPONSES OF BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS TO VARIOUS THINNING TREATMENTS IN MOUNTAIN BEECH FORESTSAbstract: In recent decades, the conservation of biodiversity has become one of the main areas under consideration in managing forests in an ecologically sustainable way. Forest management practices are primary drivers of diversity and may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity, according to the measures applied (thinning options). We have focused on three beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests across a latitudinal gradient in Italy, characterised by different structures resulting from dissimilar management. We tested the short-term effects of differently-based silvicultural intervention vs. stands where no silvicultural practices were applied on biodiversity indicators and related proxies: deadwood amounts, microhabitat density, floristic richness and life form abundance. In each study area, the occurrence of the above indicators and proxies was evaluated before and after the implementation of crop tree thinning (CTT) and thinning from below (LT) methods, comparing them with control areas where no interventions were performed. After two years, the management options resulted in different responses of the investigated parameters. The CTT increased deadwood amounts in comparison with the LT ones, while stumps increased significantly after the LT thinning. Microhabitats increased significantly where intervention was not undertaken. On the contrary, they remained unaltered after the LT treatments. CTT thinning created favourable conditions for the development of microhabitats and their proliferation in the long term. Two years after the application of the CTT thinning treatment, all forest stands demonstrated a significant increase in their floristic richness and herb layer cover. Significant differences were also found in both the frequency and cover of life forms in relation to silvicultural treatment. These findings provide a better understanding of short-term effects of silvicultural treatment useful for maintaining biodiversity in mountain beech forests.Keywords: Deadwood, Microhabitats, Understory Vegetation, Mountain Forests, Sustainable Forest Management, Italian ForestsiForest 11 (5): 609-618 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2733-011'id=ifor2733-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
  • Research Articles: Bayesian geographically weighted regression and its
           application for local modeling of relationships between tree variables

    • Authors: Subedi N; Zhang L, Zhen Z
      Abstract: Subedi N, Zhang L, Zhen ZBAYESIAN GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION AND ITS APPLICATION FOR LOCAL MODELING OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TREE VARIABLESAbstract: Geographically weighted regression (GWR) has become popular in recent years to deal with spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity in forestry and ecological data. However, researchers have realized that GWR has some limitations, such as correlated model coefficients across study areas, strong influence of outliers, weak data problem, etc. In this study, we applied Bayesian geographically weighted regression (BGWR) and a robust BGWR (rBGWR) to model the relationship between tree crown and diameter using observed tree data and simulated data to investigate model fitting and performance in order to overcome some limitations of GWR. Our results indicated that, for observed tree data, the rBGWR estimated tree crown more accurate than both BGWR and GWR. For the simulated data, 74.1% of the estimated slope coefficients by rBGWR and 73.4% of the estimated slope coefficients by BGWR were not significantly different (α = 0.05) from the corresponding simulated slope coefficients. The estimation of model coefficients by rBGWR was not sensitive to outliers, but the coefficient estimation by GWR was strongly affected by those outliers. The majority of the coefficient estimates by rBGWR and BGWR for weak observations were not significantly (α = 0.05) different from the simulated coefficients. Therefore, BGWR (including rBGWR) may be a better alternative to overcome some limitations of GWR. In addition, both BGWR and rBGWR were more powerful than GWR to detect the spatial areas with non-constant variance or spatial outliers.Keywords: Spatial Autocorrelation, Spatial Heterogeneity, Robust Regression, Spatially Varying Coefficients ModelsiForest 11 (5): 542-552 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2574-011'id=ifor2574-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Research Articles: Auxin (IAA) and soluble carbohydrate seasonal dynamics
           monitored during xylogenesis and phloemogenesis in Scots pine

    • Authors: Fajstavr M; Paschová Z, Giagli K, Vavrčík H, Gryc V, Urban J
      Abstract: Fajstavr M, Paschová Z, Giagli K, Vavrčík H, Gryc V, Urban JAUXIN (IAA) AND SOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATE SEASONAL DYNAMICS MONITORED DURING XYLOGENESIS AND PHLOEMOGENESIS IN SCOTS PINEAbstract: The metabolic activity of phytohormones and the accumulation of carbohydrates affect the reactivation of the cambial zone and the radial increment of woody plants. We aimed to monitor the dynamics of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration and amounts of soluble carbohydrates during xylem and phloem formation of one growing season (2015). Six sample trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), aged 80 years on average, growing in the Sobešice research site (404 m a.s.l.) in the Czech Republic were selected. We obtained microcore samples at weekly intervals by the Trephor tool method for cell formation analysis and spectrophotometric determination of IAA and soluble carbohydrate contents. We found that time of the highest concentration of IAA (last week of April) coincided with time of the maximum number of cells in the cambial zone and highest expansion of the cell enlargement stage. When the IAA concentration was too low to be measured, latewood tracheids started to form, and late phloem sieve cell formation ceased. The highest concentration of soluble carbohydrates was 200.40 ± 21.6 µg GLU per sample (May 14). This coincided with the fastest weekly xylem cell increment. This research shows that IAA and soluble carbohydrate dynamics directly affects xylem and phloem formation.Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L., Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Xylem, Phloem, Tracheids, Earlywood, LatewoodiForest 11 (5): 553-562 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2734-011'id=ifor2734-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Research Articles: Assessing the performance of fire danger indexes in a
           Mediterranean area

    • Authors: Sirca C; Salis M, Arca B, Duce P, Spano D
      Abstract: Sirca C, Salis M, Arca B, Duce P, Spano DASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRE DANGER INDEXES IN A MEDITERRANEAN AREAAbstract: The fire danger (FD) defines the conditions less or more favourable for a fire ignition success and its propagation. FD indexes, that integrates environmental variables related to FD in more or less complex equations and systems, are widely used in wildfire prone countries for both scientific and operational purposes. Assessing the performance of FD indexes is challenging and this issue is quite debated within the fire community, which has been trying to apply several methodologies to evaluate FD indexes. The main aim of this work is to give a contribution to this effort. The analysis was conducted using data from a fire-prone Mediterranean area (Sardinia island, Italy), where 8 FD indexes were evaluated and compared using different statistical approaches. We calculated the daily FD values for the period 2000-2007 over the study area. A set of statistical tools (namely Spearman rank correlation, Index Value Distribution and Percentile Analysis, and Logistic Regression) were applied to evaluate the performance of each FD index by comparing FD values with fire occurrence indicators. The statistical tests revealed a large variability in FD indexes performance, depending also on fire activity conditions. Our results showed that two of the tested FD indexes reached a good overall performance. Findings from this study can help both the scientific community and local fire managers, supporting the evaluation of early warning systems and fire prevention strategies in the Mediterranean Basin.Keywords: Fire Risk, Fire Danger Rating, Mediterranean Basin, Fire Occurrence, WildfireiForest 11 (5): 563-571 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2679-011'id=ifor2679-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Research Articles: Plant phenotype affects oviposition behaviour of pine
           processionary moth and egg survival at the southern edge of its range

    • Authors: Hezil S; Chakali G, Battisti A
      Abstract: Hezil S, Chakali G, Battisti APLANT PHENOTYPE AFFECTS OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF PINE PROCESSIONARY MOTH AND EGG SURVIVAL AT THE SOUTHERN EDGE OF ITS RANGEAbstract: Morphological traits of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) needles in native and planted stands at the southern edge of its range influence oviposition behaviour of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa). Extreme environmental conditions result in a reduction in needle size of the host plant which corresponds to a lower rate of fecundity in the moth. Our results showed that egg batches were laid closer to the needle buds, especially on native trees with short needles, and this resulted in increased egg mortality. Number of eggs laid by the female moths did not vary between native and planted stands, nor did the number of parasitized eggs of the two common Hymenopteran parasitoids, Baryscapus servadeii and Ooencyrtus pityocampae. The observed differences in egg mortality are likely due to abiotic factors associated with the position of the egg batch on the needles. Thaumetopoea pityocampa eggs require a thermal niche for optimal development, and further measurements are required to determine the thermal threshold of these eggs. Understanding the role of climate in T. pityocampa populations will be an important factor for the survival of the Aleppo pine forests and protecting it from desertification.Keywords: Algeria, Egg Parasitoid, Pinus halepensis, Plantation, Thaumetopoea pityocampaiForest 11 (5): 572-576 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2675-011'id=ifor2675-011
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Research Articles: Evergreen Quercus aquifolioides remobilizes more
           soluble carbon components but less N and P from leaves to shoots than
           deciduous Betula ermanii at the end-season

    • Authors: Cong Y; Wang A, He HS, Yu FH, Tognetti R, Cherubini P, Wang X, Li MH
      Abstract: Cong Y, Wang A, He HS, Yu FH, Tognetti R, Cherubini P, Wang X, Li MHEVERGREEN QUERCUS AQUIFOLIOIDES REMOBILIZES MORE SOLUBLE CARBON COMPONENTS BUT LESS N AND P FROM LEAVES TO SHOOTS THAN DECIDUOUS BETULA ERMANII AT THE END-SEASONAbstract: Remobilization is an important mechanism of resource conservation in plants. However, our understanding of whether the responses of resource remobilization to global warming differ between deciduous and evergreen trees remains unclear. We assessed resource remobilization from leaves to 1-year-old shoots in a deciduous (Betula ermanii) and an evergreen (Quercus aquifolioides) species along elevational gradients (i.e., temperature gradient) at the end of growing season. We aimed to test the hypotheses that the reallocation rate increased with increasing elevation and that more resources were reallocated from leaves to storage tissues in deciduous species than in evergreen species. We analyzed the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and compared the differences in remobilization efficiency of NSC, N, and P between leaves and shoots within each species and between the two species along the elevational gradients. Due to the different strategies of evergreen and deciduous species in nutrients use, the deciduous species had higher N and P remobilization rate, but lower remobilization rate of sugars, starch, and NSC than the evergreen species at the end of growing season. The remobilization rate of NSC, N, and P was significantly higher in trees at their upper limits compared to lower elevations. Our results suggest that trees reallocate resources from leaves to storage tissues before leaf senescence or at the end of growing season, to increase the resource use efficiency and to adapt to the harsh alpine environments. These results contribute to better understanding of the alpine treeline phenomenon in a changing world.Keywords: Altitudinal Gradient, Non-structural Carbohydrates, Sugars, Starch, Nutrients, ReallocationiForest 11 (4): 517-525 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2633-011'id=ifor2633-011
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
  • Technical Reports: Forest certification map of Europe

    • Authors: Maesano M; Ottaviano M, Lidestav G, Lasserre B, Matteucci G, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Marchetti M
      Abstract: Maesano M, Ottaviano M, Lidestav G, Lasserre B, Matteucci G, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Marchetti MFOREST CERTIFICATION MAP OF EUROPEAbstract: Forests cover nearly 40% of European land, with different country percentage and patchy distribution. The European forestry sector highlights that forest areas have different ownership: private (by firms, individual, or organizations) and public (State, communities or municipalities). The number of forestry holdings, size of landholding, and ownership types influence and drive forest management, governance and various other socio-economic linked issues. Moreover, forest owners determine management objectives and policies which influence the application of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) practices. Several tools were developed to promote SFM, including forest certification. Numerous forest certification schemes are present across the world but the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) are those prevalent. However, a map of certified forests is lacking, although mapping would be essential to locate the percentage of forest that are certified to be sustainably managed. The study mapped forest certification across 43 European states, according to 499 FSC and 284 PEFC reports and assessed the proportion of certified forest area on public and private land and the rate of increase. This research was carried out collecting information on European certified forest companies/owners and locating geographically their forests at sub-national level (regions, NUTS 2). The database of the Joint COST Action FACESMAP/UNECE/FAO was an important data source. At European level, about six percent of the forest is certified under FSC scheme, while about seven percent under PEFC scheme. As forest certification is a useful tool to manage forests aiming at the integration of economic, ecological and social sustainability, the knowledge of the location and area of certified forest in Europe could be important in motivating decision makers to increase these sustainably managed areas.Keywords: Forest Policy, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Certification, Forest Owners, Forest ManagementiForest 11 (4): 526-533 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2668-011'id=ifor2668-011
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
  • Research Articles: Tree biomass and carbon density estimation in the
           tropical dry forest of Southern Western Ghats, India

    • Authors: Padmakumar B; Sreekanth NP, Shanthiprabha V, Paul J, Sreedharan K, Augustine T, Jayasooryan KK, Rameshan M, Mohan M, Ramasamy EV, Thomas AP
      Abstract: Padmakumar B, Sreekanth NP, Shanthiprabha V, Paul J, Sreedharan K, Augustine T, Jayasooryan KK, Rameshan M, Mohan M, Ramasamy EV, Thomas APTREE BIOMASS AND CARBON DENSITY ESTIMATION IN THE TROPICAL DRY FOREST OF SOUTHERN WESTERN GHATS, INDIAAbstract: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change highlights the significance of carbon storage and emission in forests towards climate change mitigation. The aim of this study was to quantify the tree biomass and carbon density (carbon storage) in the tropical dry forest of the Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary of Kerala located in the Southern Western Ghats, India. We investigated the species-wise contribution of carbon (C) storage, as well as the species-wise and plot-wise correlation between carbon and other dendrometric variables. We also analysed the girth (diameter) wise distribution of carbon and tree density in the study region. The study was conducted in eight selected sample plots of the region, each with an area of 0.1 hectare. Species-specific volume and specific gravity relationship coupled with suitable regression equation were used to estimate biomass. Tree carbon was assumed to be 47% of the biomass. The results showed that the average biomass and carbon density of the vegetation were 64.13 t ha-1 and 30.46 t-C ha-1, respectively. Among the 32 species identified, Tamarindus indica L. (17%), Hardwickia binata Roxb. (14%), Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn (10%) and Pleiospermium alatum (Wight & Arn.) Swingle (10%) were dominant as for carbon storage. The correlation analysis showed that basal area is a good predictor of tree biomass and carbon, while the role of tree density and tree diversity remain uncertain in determining carbon storage. With respect to diametric class distribution, tree density showed a reverse J-shaped pattern indicating the sustainable regeneration of the analysed forest, where the small- (diameter at breast height 3-9 cm) to medium-sized trees (diameter at breast height 10-69 cm) were found to contribute to more than 50% of biomass and carbon in the forest. The study provides useful information for carbon mitigation strategies in a tropical dry forest in the Southern Western Ghats.Keywords: Above Ground Tree Biomass, Carbon, Tropical Dry Forest, Kerala, Southern Western GhatsiForest 11 (4): 534-541 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2190-011'id=ifor2190-011
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
  • Research Articles: Effect of imperfect detection on the estimation of
           niche overlap between two forest dormice

    • Authors: Paniccia C; Di Febbraro M, Frate L, Sallustio L, Santopuoli G, Altea T, Posillico M, Marchetti M, Loy A
      Abstract: Paniccia C, Di Febbraro M, Frate L, Sallustio L, Santopuoli G, Altea T, Posillico M, Marchetti M, Loy AEFFECT OF IMPERFECT DETECTION ON THE ESTIMATION OF NICHE OVERLAP BETWEEN TWO FOREST DORMICEAbstract: Quantification of niche overlap represents an important topic in several aspects of ecology and conservation biology, although it could be potentially affected by imperfect detection, i.e., failure to detect a species at occupied sites. We investigate the effect of imperfect detection on niche overlap quantification in two arboreal rodents, the edible dormouse (Glis glis) and the hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius). For both species, we used Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to estimate the occurrence probability and Occupancy Models (OM) to calculate occurrence and detection probabilities. By comparing these predictions through niche equivalency and similarity tests, we first hypothesised that methods correcting for imperfect detection (OM) provide a more reliable estimate of niche overlap than traditional presence/ absence methods (GLMM). Furthermore, we hypothesised that GLMM mainly estimate species detectability rather than actual occurrence, and that a low number of sampling replicates provokes an underestimation of species niche by GLMM. Our results highlighted that GLMM-based niche overlap yielded significant outcomes only for the equivalency test, while OM-based niche overlap reported significant outcomes for both niche equivalency and similarity tests. Moreover, GLMM occurrence probabilities and OM detectabilities were not statistically different. Lastly, GLMM predictions based on single sampling replicates were statistically different from the average occurrence probability predicted by GLMM over all replicates. We emphasized how accounting for imperfect detection can improve the statistical significance and interpretability of niche overlap estimates based on occurrence data. Under a habitat management perspective, an accurate quantification of niche overlap may provide useful information to assess the effects of different management practices on species occurrence.Keywords: Occupancy Models, Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Forest Management, Niche OverlapiForest 11 (4): 482-490 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2738-011'id=ifor2738-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
  • Research Articles: The concept of green infrastructure and urban landscape
           planning: a challenge for urban forestry planning in Belgrade, Serbia

    • Authors: Vasiljević N; Radić B, Gavrilović S, Šljukić B, Medarević M, Ristić R
      Abstract: Vasiljević N, Radić B, Gavrilović S, Šljukić B, Medarević M, Ristić RTHE CONCEPT OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND URBAN LANDSCAPE PLANNING: A CHALLENGE FOR URBAN FORESTRY PLANNING IN BELGRADE, SERBIAAbstract: The beginning of the 21st century has witnessed a growth in our understanding of the importance of planning urban landscapes in the context of urban population growth and unpredictable climatic conditions. In the search for responses to the challenges set by the development of contemporary urban landscapes, researchers have offered solutions based on the concept of sustainable and resilient cities, whose spatial development would be based on an interdisciplinary approach to strategy development: biodiversity, urban ecological networks and connectivity, multifunctionality and modularity. Although the concepts of a green infrastructure, in their spatial and functional dimensions, allow the application of such strategies, there are still problems when it comes to implementation and measuring the results achieved. At the same time, there is a growing discussion of the important role played by urban forestry in the context of the collaborative planning of urban landscapes and the application of the ideas of a green infrastructure. The key question is: what are the modalities of application of the concept of green infrastructure in the process of planning the development of the modern city and how can the resulting benefits be evaluated' With the modalities of application of the concept of green infrastructure in mind, we discuss its multi-scale and multifunctional dimensions as applied in the case of Serbia. The realisation of the green infrastructure concept is presented through the example of the Urban Forest Management Plan for the City of Belgrade - Mladenovac Municipality. The results of using the spatial-ecological approach in creating the plan and establishing connectivity as a new aim in forest management planning show that the implementation of the green infrastructure concept, and the achieved multifunctional ecosystem values, can be presented on the basis of the parameters of landscape metrics. In light of the new urban world, future research should focus on the application of the landscape ecological approach of the green infrastructure concept in collaborative planning at the urban landscape scale, which allows the creation of ecosystem services and benefits to human well-being.Keywords: Green Infrastructure (GI), Urban Landscape Planning, Urban Forestry, Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity, Recreation, ConnectivityiForest 11 (4): 491-498 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2683-011'id=ifor2683-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
  • Research Articles: Real-Time PCR for Ceratocystis platani detection:
           in-depth validation to assess the diagnostic potential and include
           additional technical options

    • Authors: Lumia V; Modesti V, Brunetti A, Wilkinson CL, Di Lernia G, Harrington TC, Pilotti M
      Abstract: Lumia V, Modesti V, Brunetti A, Wilkinson CL, Di Lernia G, Harrington TC, Pilotti MREAL-TIME PCR FOR CERATOCYSTIS PLATANI DETECTION: IN-DEPTH VALIDATION TO ASSESS THE DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL AND INCLUDE ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL OPTIONSAbstract: A high-performing detection method is essential to safeguard those countries that are still unaffected by canker stain, a devastating disease of Platanus spp. caused by Ceratocystis platani. We previously developed EvaGreen and Taqman-based Real-Time PCR to detect this pathogen, but in-depth validation is needed to guarantee users about its effectiveness and promote its utilization. In this work we present a validation study designed according to EPPO standards, focusing on the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We extend its technical application using SYBR Green. By performing standard curves and eight-replication-based experiments, we established the detection limit at 3 fg C. platani gDNA per PCR reaction. The repeatability and the operator-based reproducibility of the Real-Time PCR was demonstrated. Different gDNA extraction events by different operators and different gDNA extraction modalities did not affect the detection limit. The detection limit threshold cycle was earliest with SYBR Green, followed by Taqman, and EvaGreen. Spiking 6 µl DNA extractions of uninfected, necrotized wood with 3 fg C. platani gDNA confirmed the detection limit: 3 fg C. platani gDNA per PCR reaction, i.e., 0.5 fg gDNA per µl of wood extract. The assays tolerated 6 µl of necrotic C. platani-infected wood extracts without inhibition except for long-dead wood samples, while the 2 µl dose consistently allowed for successful detection. Detection of the pathogen in infected samples showed the highest diagnostic sensitivity with the SYBR Green assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis and staining was validated for visualizing amplicons, even at the detection limit. The specificity of the method was tested against 23 isolates representing the diversity of Ceratocystidaceae, and most species were not detected at 5 ng gDNA. However, some South American strains of the C. fimbriata complex were detected at doses as low as 5 fg. The method remains specific for C. platani detection as no other Ceratocystidaceae are known to colonize plane tree and the species within the geographic range of canker stain of plane tree were only detected at 500 pg or more gDNA. This work paves the way for a performance study of inter-laboratory comparisons.Keywords: Canker Stain, Real-Time PCR, Validation, EvaGreen, Taqman, SYBR GreeniForest 11 (4): 499-509 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2527-011'id=ifor2527-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
  • Research Articles: Comparison of genetic parameters between optimal and
           marginal populations of oriental sweet gum on adaptive traits

    • Authors: Alan M
      Abstract: Alan MCOMPARISON OF GENETIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN OPTIMAL AND MARGINAL POPULATIONS OF ORIENTAL SWEET GUM ON ADAPTIVE TRAITSAbstract: Genetic parameters of 9 oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) populations were estimated at a common garden test. Open-pollinated seeds were collected from 16-27 families for each population. The common garden test was established in 2009 using a randomized complete block design in 25 blocks with single tree plot, with each block included 223 families. Breast height diameter, height and crown diameter were measured at the age of five. The purpose of study was to compare the genetic parameters of optimal and marginal populations and to assess the findings for genetic conservation. The study revealed significant variability in all traits evaluated. In variance components, variation among populations was three times higher than that of families. Individual heritability estimates for breast height diameter, height and crown diameter pooled across the whole dataset (marginal and optimal populations) were 0.21 ± 0.04, 0.27 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.03 and additive genetic coefficients of variation were 13.4%, 9.1% and 7.1%, respectively. Individual heritability estimates for breast height diameter, height and crown diameter in marginal and optimal populations were 0.27 ± 0.10, 0.19 ± 0.08 and 019 ± 0.08 and 0.19 ± 0.04, 0.29 ± 0.05 and 0.09 ± 0.03, respectively. Additive genetic coefficients of variation for breast height diameter, height and crown diameter were 16.7%, 8.3% and 10.8% in marginal and 12.8%, 9.1% and 6.2% in optimal populations, respectively. While breast height diameter and crown diameter were more heritable for marginal populations, height was more heritable for optimal populations. These findings are discussed in terms of genetic conservation of oriental sweet gum.Keywords: Liquidambar orientalis, Genetic Variation, Individual Heritability, Gene Conservation, Climate ChangeiForest 11 (4): 510-516 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2450-011'id=ifor2450-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-18
  • Research Articles: Weak isolation by distance and geographic diversity
           gradients persist in Scottish relict pine forest

    • Authors: González-Díaz P; Cavers S, Iason GR, Booth A, Russell J, Jump AS
      Abstract: González-Díaz P, Cavers S, Iason GR, Booth A, Russell J, Jump ASWEAK ISOLATION BY DISTANCE AND GEOGRAPHIC DIVERSITY GRADIENTS PERSIST IN SCOTTISH RELICT PINE FORESTAbstract: Gene flow is one of the main factors shaping genetic diversity within and among tree populations, and occurs through pollen and seed dispersal. Recent findings of pollen-release asynchronies in distant populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within Scotland suggest that gene dispersal among more distant populations might be less effective than previously thought. Limited gene dispersal is one of the major factors causing genetic structure for neutral markers, and pollen-release asynchrony could have driven isolation by distance (IBD) among Scottish populations. Previous studies of neutral markers found little differentiation among Scottish populations of Scots pine, however they did not consider IBD over the full Scottish range. We analysed data from 6 nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 5 chloroplast SSR loci in a total of 540 individuals of Scots pine from 18 populations across Scotland. Our aim was to assess contemporary levels and distribution of genetic variation and to test if the distribution of genetic diversity was consistent with IBD. We also analysed patterns of gene flow that could have contributed to the observed patterns of variation. Levels of genetic diversity were high, for both nuclear and chloroplast markers within populations, and there was no significant differentiation among populations. A weak signal of IBD was present. We found an increase in nuclear diversity towards the East along with greater gene flow in a West-East direction commensurate with the prevailing winds. Our findings suggest that this wind-driven gene flow is dominant over genetic drift and prevents differentiation among the Scottish populations. It may also counteract any pollen-release asynchronies among populations.Keywords: Pinus sylvestris, Genetic Diversity, Gene Flow, Isolation by Distance, Prevailing WindsiForest 11 (4): 449-458 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2454-011'id=ifor2454-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
  • Research Articles: Assessing the availability of forest biomass for
           bioenergy by publicly available satellite imagery

    • Authors: Vacchiano G; Berretti R, Motta R, Mondino Borgogno E
      Abstract: Vacchiano G, Berretti R, Motta R, Mondino Borgogno EASSESSING THE AVAILABILITY OF FOREST BIOMASS FOR BIOENERGY BY PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SATELLITE IMAGERYAbstract: Forest biomass is a renewable energy source, more climate-friendly than fossil fuels and widely available in Europe. The wood energy chain has been suggested as a means to re-activate forest management and improve the value of forest stands in marginalized rural areas. However, wall-to-wall estimates of forest biomass, needed to design the location and size of power and heat biomass plants in any given territory, are notoriously difficult to obtain. This paper tests an algorithm to predict forest biomass using publicly available Landsat satellite imagery in the Liguria region, northern Italy. We used regional forest inventory data to train and validate an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier that uses remotely-sensed information such as three principal components of Landsat-5 TM spectral bands, the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and topography, to retrieve aboveground live tree volume. Percent root mean square error was -9% and -23% for conifers and broadleaves respectively in the calibration dataset, and -27% and -24% in the validation dataset. The reconstructed volume map was updated to present day using current volume increment rates reported by the Italian National Forest Inventory. A wall-to-wall map of forest biomass from harvest residues was finally produced based on species-specific wood density, biomass expansion factors, volume logged for timber assortments, forest accessibility, and topography. Predicted aboveground forest volume ranged from 81 to 391 m3 ha-1. In forests available for wood supply (70% of the total), planned volume removals averaged 25.4 m3 ha-1, or 18.7% of the average standing stock across. Biomass available for bioenergy supply was 1.295.921 million Mg dry matter or 8.95 Mg ha-1. This analysis workflow can be replicated in all mountain regions with a predominant broadleaved coppice component.Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Mixed Forests, Landsat, Mediterranean Mountains, Vegetation Indices, Wood Energy ChainiForest 11 (4): 459-468 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2655-011'id=ifor2655-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
  • Research Articles: Growing season water balance of an inner alpine Scots
           pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    • Authors: Wieser G; Gruber A, Oberhuber W
      Abstract: Wieser G, Gruber A, Oberhuber WGROWING SEASON WATER BALANCE OF AN INNER ALPINE SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) FORESTAbstract: We estimated components of the water cycle of a 150-year-old Pinus sylvestris forest in an inner Alpine dry valley of the Tyrol, Austria throughout five growing seasons. Forest canopy transpiration (TC) was measured by sap flow measurements scaled to the stand canopy level. Estimates of understory transpiration and forest floor evaporation (ETU) were derived from the soil water budget method, while interception (I) was modelled. Growing season cumulative evapotranspiration (ET = TC + ETU + I) varied between 256 and 322 mm or 51 to 79% of the growing season precipitation. The contribution of TC, ETU, and I to ET were 33, 40 and 27% respectively. Although these values of each layer (evapo)-transpiration are in good agreement with studies carried out in other European Scots pine forests, our estimated growing season total forest water use (Ttot = Tc + ETu) of 200-244 mm is at the lower end of values reported for coniferous forest ecosystems, and thus reflects an adaptation to the low shallow soil water availability. We conclude that Scots pine forests in inner alpine dry valleys are able to cope with high evaporative demand, even when shallow soil water availability is limited.Keywords: Forest Water Balance, Scots Pine, Dry Inner Alpine Valley, Evapotranspiration, Interception, RunoffiForest 11 (4): 469-475 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2626-011'id=ifor2626-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
  • Research Articles: Long-term effects of stem girdling on needle structure
           in Scots pine

    • Authors: Gebauer R; Plichta R, Foit J, Cermák V, Urban J
      Abstract: Gebauer R, Plichta R, Foit J, Cermák V, Urban JLONG-TERM EFFECTS OF STEM GIRDLING ON NEEDLE STRUCTURE IN SCOTS PINEAbstract: Stem girdling is the process of completely removing a strip of cork and phloem tissue. Phloem is the living tissue which serves as the main long-distance pathway for transporting carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis to all parts of the plant where needed, from source leaves to sinks. Stem girdling has been used to study several functional aspects of phloem and their direct impacts on tree growth. Although both photosynthesis and transpiration processes take place in needles, no studies exist which investigate the effect of source-sink disturbance on needle structure. In this study, we evaluated changes in needle morphology and anatomy in current-year Scots pine needles 227 and 411 days after girdling (DAG). Although the studied needle parameters recorded 227 DAG were from 2 to 20% higher than the same parameters in control needles, the differences were not significant. On the other hand, needles 411 DAG were thinner, with decreased cross-sectional areas, phloem areas, vascular cylinder areas, needle dry mass, needle density, and needle flatness when compared to control needles. Marked variations in needle growth were observed 411 DAG, with a smaller number of correlations among almost all studied needle parameters in needles 411 DAG when compared to control needles or needles 227 DAG. Structural development determining needle flatness, needle density, and leaf mass per area (LMA) appeared to have driving factors that were independent of the other studied needle parameters, as correlations with other parameters were not significant in any treatment. The changes in overall needle structure observed after long-term stem girdling provide new insights into the processes that occur as a result of source-sink disturbances. This type of data could be helpful, for example, in studies specifically focused on phloem transport, tree carbon relationships, or investigations modeling gas exchange. Our study might also support gene expression studies, which could provide further knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms that determine needle size and structural form.Keywords: Anatomy, Cross-section, Morphology, Pinus sylvestris, Phloem, Source-Sink DisturbanceiForest 11 (4): 476-481 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2648-011'id=ifor2648-011
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
  • Review Papers: Linking deadwood traits with saproxylic invertebrates and
           fungi in European forests - a review

    • Authors: Parisi F; Pioli S, Lombardi F, Fravolini G, Marchetti M, Tognetti R
      Abstract: Parisi F, Pioli S, Lombardi F, Fravolini G, Marchetti M, Tognetti RLINKING DEADWOOD TRAITS WITH SAPROXYLIC INVERTEBRATES AND FUNGI IN EUROPEAN FORESTS - A REVIEWAbstract: Deadwood is a substantial component of forests playing a central role in many ecosystem processes. It provides habitats for a multitude of wood-dependent organisms, maintaining the ecosystem health and reducing the effect of natural disturbances. Deadwood is recognized as an indicator of local species diversity and contributes to the global carbon pools and nutrient cycles. Despite its importance, how saproxylic communities respond to deadwood dynamics across multiple spatial and temporal scales is still not clear. With the present review, we aim to summarize the effects of deadwood characteristics on the diversity and composition of saproxylic insects and fungi, with focus on European forests. We also discuss the influence of other biotic and abiotic components that indirectly affect these communities by altering wood continuity and variety. Niche differentiation is the main ecological driver of saproxylic organisms, as the presence of multiple microhabitats supports differently specialized taxa. The assemblage and richness of these saproxylic communities within forest ecosystems can be considered as indicators of climate-smart forestry trajectories. This aspect deserves to be regarded as a major target in sustainable forest management plans, especially in mountain areas, where the conservation of threatened species and the promotion of biodiverse forests are considered a priority.Keywords: Deadwood Accumulation, Deadwood Decomposition, Saproxylic Insects, Saproxylic Fungi, European Forests, Conservation-oriented ForestryiForest 11 (3): 423-436 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2670-011'id=ifor2670-011
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
  • Short Communications: Respiratory costs of woody tissues in a Quercus
           pyrenaica coppice

    • Authors: Salomón RL; Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Gil L, Valbuena-Carabaña M
      Abstract: Salomón RL, Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Gil L, Valbuena-Carabaña MRESPIRATORY COSTS OF WOODY TISSUES IN A QUERCUS PYRENAICA COPPICEAbstract: Long-term coppicing leads to the development of massive root systems. A disproportionate carbon investment in root maintenance has been pointed as a cause of the widespread decline of abandoned coppices. We aimed at assessing how coppicing has influenced root and shoot development and related carbon loss ascribed to maintenance of woody tissues in Quercus pyrenaica. For this goal, results from published studies on root dynamics, woody biomass and respired CO2 fluxes in an abandoned Q. pyrenaica coppice were integrated and extended to quantify overall respiratory expenditures of above- and below-ground woody organs. Internal and external CO2 fluxes together with soil CO2 efflux were monitored in eight stems from one clone across a growing season. Stems and roots were later harvested to quantify the functional biomass and scale up root and stem respiration (RR and RS, respectively) to the clone and stand levels. Below- and above-ground biomass was roughly equal. However, the root-to-shoot ratio of respiration (RR/RS) was generally below one. Relatively higher RS suggests enhanced metabolic activity aboveground during the growing season, and highlights an unexpected but substantial contribution of RS to respiratory carbon losses. Moreover, soil and stem CO2 efflux to the atmosphere in Q. pyrenaica fell in the upper range of reported rates for various forest stands distributed worldwide. We conclude that both RS and RR represent an important carbon sink in this Q. pyrenaica abandoned coppice. Comparatively high energetic costs in maintaining multiple stems per tree and centennial root systems might constrain aboveground performance and contribute to coppice stagnation.Keywords: Carbon Loss, CO2 Fluxes, Coppice Stagnation, Oak, Resprouting Species, Root Respiration, Stem RespirationiForest 11 (3): 437-441 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2599-011'id=ifor2599-011
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
  • Research Articles: Preliminary results of the tolerance to inorganic
           contaminants and phytoextraction potential of twelve ornamental shrub
           species tested on an experimental contaminated site

    • Authors: Vincent G; Shang K, Zhang G, Labrecque M
      Abstract: Vincent G, Shang K, Zhang G, Labrecque MPRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE TOLERANCE TO INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS AND PHYTOEXTRACTION POTENTIAL OF TWELVE ORNAMENTAL SHRUB SPECIES TESTED ON AN EXPERIMENTAL CONTAMINATED SITEAbstract: In urban areas of China, several plant species are commonly used for ornamental purposes. Many of these plants have demonstrated a good capacity to resist these varied urban stresses, and it would be relevant to verify whether they can be grown on polluted sites and demonstrate some phytoremediation potential. Twelve ornamental shrub species were chosen to be tested for tolerance to inorganic contaminants and capacity to absorb and concentrate heavy metals in their aerial parts. A large split-plot trial comprising 20 plots was set up, and soil was spiked with different metals (Cu, Pb and Zn). In general, all twelve shrub species performed well regardless of the treatment. Two Hibiscus species, H. mutabilis and H. syriacus “Hamabo” were particularly productive. In terms of capacity to uptake metals, two of the best performing species were Spiraea japonica, for copper, and Nandina domestica, for lead. Bioconcentration and transfer factors were low. This could be related to weak development of the root systems in these recently established plants. Species with high yield, such as the two Hibiscus species, presented more interesting values in terms of quantity of metal extracted, and could eventually be recommended for decontamination of soils polluted by inorganics.Keywords: Phytoremediation, Phytoectraction, Trace Elements, Ornamental Shrub Species, Urban StressesiForest 11 (3): 442-448 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2716-011'id=ifor2716-011
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
  • Research Articles: Nutrient uptake, allocation and biochemical changes in
           two Chinese fir cuttings under heterogeneous phosphorus supply

    • Authors: Farooq TH; Tigabu M, Ma X, Zou X, Liu A, Odén PC, Wu P
      Abstract: Farooq TH, Tigabu M, Ma X, Zou X, Liu A, Odén PC, Wu PNUTRIENT UPTAKE, ALLOCATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN TWO CHINESE FIR CUTTINGS UNDER HETEROGENEOUS PHOSPHORUS SUPPLYAbstract: Plant-available nutrients in soils are usually distributed in a heterogeneous or patchy manner. Plant responses to low levels of phosphorous (P) are not uniform across and within species. In this study, we examined the adaptive role of physiological plasticity (increased rate of nutrient uptake in localized zones) to the heterogeneous distribution of P in the soil, and whether low P stress transcends to the shoot and triggers similar biochemical changes that enhance tolerance. Two Chinese fir clones with high P efficiency (M1, which is tolerant to low P, and M4 which is able to decouple fixed P) were chosen as the research materials and their physiological responses to low P stress were examined using a sand culture experiment. For both clones, there was no significant difference in nutrient concentration between P-replete and P-deficient patches. Heterogeneous P supply did not affect the allocation of nutrients to the above-ground parts of the plants. The activity of acid phosphatase (APase) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased initially but declined with increasing duration of stress, while the content of soluble protein and total chlorophyll contents remained unaffected by the heterogeneous P supply. We conclude that physiological plasticity plays no role in adaptation to low P stress in these clones, while the changes in APase activity and MDA content in needles suggest functional metabolic processes are involved in enhancing P-efficiency in these clones.Keywords: Chinese Fir, Physiological Plasticity, Low Phosphorus Stress, Acid Phosphatase Activity, Nutrient AccumulationiForest 11 (3): 411-417 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2657-011'id=ifor2657-011
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
  • Review Papers: Moisture in modified wood and its relevance for fungal

    • Authors: Thybring EE; Kymäläinen M, Rautkari L
      Abstract: Thybring EE, Kymäläinen M, Rautkari LMOISTURE IN MODIFIED WOOD AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR FUNGAL DECAYAbstract: Water plays an essential role in fungal decay of wood, and limiting the cell wall moisture content by chemical modification can effectively improve the durability of the material. Investigating the wood-water relations of modified material under climatic conditions relevant for fungal decay are, however, experimentally challenging. Most studies in literature therefore focus on moisture sorption under conditions outside those of importance for fungal decay. This review discusses the validity of such data for characterising the wood-water relations at very humid climatic conditions, relevant for fungal decay. Moreover, the review attempts to cover the basics of fungal decay, the important role of water, and how controlling water content by modification can improve durability.Keywords: Modification, Wood, Moisture, Experimental TechniquesiForest 11 (3): 418-422 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2406-011'id=ifor2406-011
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
  • Research Articles: Response of juvenile progeny of seven forest tree
           species and their populations to simulated climate change-related
           stressors, heat, elevated humidity and drought

    • Authors: Pliura A; Jankauskiene J, Lygis V, Suchockas V, Bajerkevičiene G, Verbylaite R
      Abstract: Pliura A, Jankauskiene J, Lygis V, Suchockas V, Bajerkevičiene G, Verbylaite RRESPONSE OF JUVENILE PROGENY OF SEVEN FOREST TREE SPECIES AND THEIR POPULATIONS TO SIMULATED CLIMATE CHANGE-RELATED STRESSORS, HEAT, ELEVATED HUMIDITY AND DROUGHTAbstract: The study aimed to evaluate response and phenotypic plasticity of juvenile progeny of seven forest tree species Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Populus tremula and their populations to climate change-related stressors, simulated in a phytotron - heat and elevated humidity and heat and drought - in comparison to performance in ambient (control) conditions. Treatment effect on sapling morphometric, physiological and biochemical traits was significant except for health condition, transpiration and photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency (WUE). Species effect and species-by-treatment interaction were strongly significant in most traits studied, indicating a great inter-specific variability of responses to the applied treatments. Compared to control, stem diameter increment was lower for most species following both hot-wet and hot-dry treatments, while treatment impact on height increment was less pronounced and sometimes even positive. Drought caused significant defoliation in P. tremula, A. glutinosa and B. pendula, while under hot-wet treatment the defoliation in most species was lower than in control. Following hot dry treatment, WUE in P. abies, P. sylvestris and B. pendula was lower than following both hot-wet treatment and control, while in P. tremula, A. glutinosa and Q. robur WUE was higher. This suggests that the latter species are able to maintain a balance between photosynthesis and transpiration. Photosynthetic rate was highest in P. tremula, B. pendula and A. glutinosa, however it was much more negatively affected by water deficit in these three species than in other tested species. In most cases, drought had a negative effect on production of pigments in deciduous tree species, which, together with increased amounts of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide, indicated a presence of an oxidative stress. Significant population effect and population-by-treatment interactions found for most traits showed different plasticity and response of tree populations to the treatments. Although, only 19% of the populations showed significant ecovalencies. Some of the observed reactions may not be considered as adaptive acclimation as decreasing growth of some species and populations indicates deteriorating performance which may lead to changes in their competitiveness, thus compromising regeneration, persistence of natural successions and sustainability of forest ecosystems.Keywords: Climate Change, Stress, Growth, Physiology, Transpiration, Photosynthesis, Water Use Efficiency, Biochemical Parameters, Phenotypic PlasticityiForest 11 (3): 374-388 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2340-011'id=ifor2340-011
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
  • Research Articles: COSMO-SkyMed potential to detect and monitor
           Mediterranean maquis fires and regrowth: a pilot study in Capo Figari,
           Sardinia, Italy

    • Authors: Vaglio Laurin G; Avezzano R, Bacciu V, Frate FD, Papale D, Virelli M
      Abstract: Vaglio Laurin G, Avezzano R, Bacciu V, Frate FD, Papale D, Virelli MCOSMO-SKYMED POTENTIAL TO DETECT AND MONITOR MEDITERRANEAN MAQUIS FIRES AND REGROWTH: A PILOT STUDY IN CAPO FIGARI, SARDINIA, ITALYAbstract: Mediterranean maquis is a complex and widespread ecosystem in the region, intrinsically prone to fire. Many species have developed specific adaptation traits to cope with fire, ensuring resistance and resilience. Due to the recent changes in socio-economy and land uses, fires are more and more frequent in the urban-rural fringe and in the coastlines, both now densely populated. The detection of fires and the monitoring of vegetation regrowth is thus of primary interest for local management and for understanding the ecosystem dynamics and processes, also in the light of the recurrent droughts induced by climate change. Among the main objectives of the COSMO-SkyMed radar constellation mission there is the monitoring of environmental hazards; the very high revisiting time of this mission is optimal for post-hazard response activities. However, very few studies exploited such data for fire and vegetation monitoring. In this research, Cosmo-SkyMed is used in a Mediterranean protected area covered by maquis to detect the burnt area extension and to conduct a mid-term assessment of vegetation regrowth. The positive results obtained in this research highlight the importance of the very high-resolution continuous acquisitions and the multi-polarization information provided by COSMO-SkyMed for monitoring fire impacts on vegetation.Keywords: Cosmo-SkyMed, Maquis, Fire, Mediterranean VegetationiForest 11 (3): 389-395 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2623-011'id=ifor2623-011
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
  • Research Articles: Climate change may threaten the southernmost Pinus
           nigra subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco populations: an ensemble
           niche-based approach

    • Authors: Navarro-Cerrillo RM; Duque-Lazo J, Manzanedo RD, Sánchez-Salguero R, Palacios-Rodriguez G
      Abstract: Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Duque-Lazo J, Manzanedo RD, Sánchez-Salguero R, Palacios-Rodriguez GCLIMATE CHANGE MAY THREATEN THE SOUTHERNMOST PINUS NIGRA SUBSP. SALZMANNII (DUNAL) FRANCO POPULATIONS: AN ENSEMBLE NICHE-BASED APPROACHAbstract: We used Species Distribution Modeling to predict the probability of Iberian pine (Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii [Dunal] Franco) occurrences in southern Spain in response to environmental variables and to forecast the effects of climate change on their predicted geographical distribution. The ensemble modeling approach “biomod2” was used, together with present Iberian pine data, to predict the current potential distribution based on bioclimatic explanatory variables (200 m resolution) and to forecast future suitability by studying three periods (2040, 2070, and 2100), considering the Global Circulation Models BCM2, CNCM3, and ECHAM5, and the regional model EGMAM, for different scenarios (SRAB1, SRA2, SRB1). Model evaluation was performed using Kappa, True Skills Statistic (TSS), and Area Under the Curve (AUC) values. The biomod2 approach highlighted the average number of days with a minimum temperature equal to or below 0°C, annual precipitation, and aridity index as the most important variables to describe the P. nigra occurrence probability. Model performances were generally satisfactory and the highest AUC values and high stability of the results were given by GAM and GLM, but MaxEnt and the SRE model were scarcely accurate according to all our statistics. The ensemble Species Distribution Modeling of P. nigra in Andalusia predicted the highest probability of species occurrence in the eastern areas, Sierra de Cazorla being the area with the highest occurrence of P. nigra in Andalusia. In the future habitat, the general probability of P. nigra occurrence in Andalusia will decrease widely; the species is expected to lose habitat suitability at moderate altitudes and its occurrence probability will have decreased by nearly 70% on average by 2100, affected by the selected scenario. Populations in Sierra de Cazorla are those most suitable for P. nigra growth, even under the most pessimistic scenarios. It is likely that the natural southern populations of P. nigra will be very sensitive to changes in climate.Keywords: Species Distribution Modeling, Climate Change, Ensemble Modeling, Iberian Pine, Mediterranean Relict ForestsiForest 11 (3): 396-405 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2588-011'id=ifor2588-011
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
  • Technical Notes: Effect of tree age on chemical compounds of ancient
           Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana) needles in Northwest

    • Authors: Turfan N; Alay M, Sariyildiz T
      Abstract: Turfan N, Alay M, Sariyildiz TEFFECT OF TREE AGE ON CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF ANCIENT ANATOLIAN BLACK PINE (PINUS NIGRA SUBSP. PALLASIANA) NEEDLES IN NORTHWEST TURKEYAbstract: Plant primary and secondary metabolites are chemical compounds synthesized for essential functions, such as growth and development (primary metabolites), and specific functions, such as pollinator attraction or defense against herbivory (secondary metabolites). Their concentrations in plants are genetically determined, but are also affected by environmental factors. Among these factors, plant age has been reported to influence plant chemical compounds under similar environmental conditions. We aimed to investigate the chemical compounds of ancient Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana) needles from trees of different ages. Needles of over 500-, 200-, 100-, 50-, and 25-year-old black pine trees growing under similar environmental conditions were sampled and analyzed for photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), proline, total soluble protein, glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugar, peroxidation level (MDA-malondialdehyde), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidants such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Significant differences for chemical composition associated with age were found. In general, results showed that over 500-year-old Anatolian black pine had the highest proline, total soluble protein, H2O2, sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates, APX, CAT and SOD concentrations, whereas they had the lowest chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and glucose concentrations. However, 200-year-old trees had the highest glucose, but the lowest chlorophyll b, proline, H2O2 and total soluble carbohydrates. 50- and 25-year-old trees together showed the highest chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and MDA, but lowest total soluble protein and sucrose. In conclusion, these results provide valuable insight into the chemical composition of Anatolian black pine needles in relation to their age, and can be used for complementing studies on tree growth-defence relationships.Keywords: Ancient Trees, Anatolian Black Pine, Chemical Composition, TurkeyiForest 11 (3): 406-410 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2665-011'id=ifor2665-011
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
  • Research Articles: Recovery of above-ground tree biomass after moderate
           selective logging in a central Amazonian forest

    • Authors: Otani T; Lima AJ, Suwa R, Amaral MR, Ohashi S, Pinto AC, DOs Santos J, Kajimoto T, Higuchi N, Ishizuka M
      Abstract: Otani T, Lima AJ, Suwa R, Amaral MR, Ohashi S, Pinto AC, DOs Santos J, Kajimoto T, Higuchi N, Ishizuka MRECOVERY OF ABOVE-GROUND TREE BIOMASS AFTER MODERATE SELECTIVE LOGGING IN A CENTRAL AMAZONIAN FORESTAbstract: We examined the recovery and dynamics of living tree above-ground biomass (AGB) after selective logging in an Amazonian terra firme forest managed by a private company. The forest consisted of 24 blocks (including one set aside for conservation) selectively logged in different years on a managed schedule. Trees ≥10 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) were surveyed in 2006 in 192 0.25-ha plots, in 2010 in 119 plots, and in 2012-2013 in 54 plots. A logistic growth model factoring in logging dynamics and mean AGB of a block in these years was established. Referencing the mean AGB of the unlogged forest, the model indicated that the logged forest would take on average 14 years to regain its preharvest AGB after selective logging at 1.9 trees ha-1 (dbh > 50 cm). In 2010 and 2012-2013, the AGB increased significantly for small and large trees (10-20 cm and >60 cm dbh, respectively) in the logged forest. In contrast, it decreased significantly for medium-sized trees (30-50 cm dbh) in the unlogged forest. Comparisons with the previous studies mainly conducted in the other regions of Amazon suggested that the estimated AGB recovery period with moderate logging intensity was almost appropriate and likely acceptable to forest managers.Keywords: Annual Increment, Dynamics, Logistic Growth, Recovery Period, Terra Firme ForestiForest 11 (3): 352-359 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2534-011'id=ifor2534-011
      PubDate: 2018-05-04
  • Research Articles: Photosynthesis of three evergreen broad-leaved tree
           species, Castanopsis sieboldii, Quercus glauca, and Q. myrsinaefolia,
           under elevated ozone

    • Authors: Watanabe M; Kinose Y, Izuta T
      Abstract: Watanabe M, Kinose Y, Izuta TPHOTOSYNTHESIS OF THREE EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED TREE SPECIES, CASTANOPSIS SIEBOLDII, QUERCUS GLAUCA, AND Q. MYRSINAEFOLIA, UNDER ELEVATED OZONEAbstract: The main goal of this study was to obtain detailed information on photosynthetic responses of evergreen broad-leaved tree species to ozone (O3). For this, two-year-old seedlings of Castanopsis sieboldii, Quercus glauca, and Q. myrsinaefolia were grown for one growing season, from 15 May to 27 October 2014 under three levels of gas treatments, charcoal-filtered air and 1.0 time and 1.5 times ambient O3 concentrations. We analysed the intercellular CO2 concentration-response curve of the net photosynthetic rate, i.e., the A/Ci curve, in July and October, and growth measurement was carried out at the end of the experiment in October. We observed a difference in O3 susceptibility among the species. Negative effects of O3 were observed on the growth and photosynthetic traits of C. sieboldii, while no significant effects on these traits were noted in the two Quercus species. The decrease in light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (Asat) of C. sieboldii under elevated O3 was accompanied with a significant decrease in the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax). Decreases of leaf nitrogen content and nitrogen use efficiency to Rubisco are considered as factors contributing to lower Vcmax in C. sieboldii seedlings under elevated O3. In addition to the decrease in Vcmax, O3 exposure induced marginal increase of stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. These results indicate that both biochemical and diffusion processes in photosynthesis are responsible for the decrease in Asat of C. sieboldii under elevated O3.Keywords: Ozone, Photosynthesis, Biochemical Limitation of Photosynthesis, Stomatal Closure, Evergreen Broad-leaved Tree SpeciesiForest 11 (3): 360-366 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2493-011'id=ifor2493-011
      PubDate: 2018-05-04
  • Research Articles: Wildfire risk and its perception in Kabylia (Algeria)

    • Authors: Sahar O; Leone V, Limani H, Rabia N, Meddour R
      Abstract: Sahar O, Leone V, Limani H, Rabia N, Meddour RWILDFIRE RISK AND ITS PERCEPTION IN KABYLIA (ALGERIA)Abstract: This research aims to study wildfire perception by residents living in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) in Kabylia (Algeria). We conducted an exploratory qualitative survey contacting 254 randomly selected individuals in eight hamlets of the Mizrana forest. Face-to-face questionnaires were administered to understand the fire risk problem. Respondents think that their homes are not exposed to fire risk and perceive their hamlets are protected against wildfires; on the contrary, they perceive their property (fields, livestock, olive trees, etc.) as exposed to fire risk. The vast majority of respondents declare to know how to defend themselves in the case of a fire event, using water and hand tools. Residents mainly use fire for stubble burning and disposal of domestic waste. Their skill in using fire as a land management tool respectively comes from their fathers, grandfathers and mothers. Results show the necessity of making resident more aware of the risks that wildfires pose to them. A culture of risk needs to be developed within the territory to limit vulnerability and the likelihood of destructive fires.Keywords: Algeria, Fire Use, Mizrana Forest, Risk Perception, TEK, Wildland Urban Interface, WildfireiForest 11 (3): 367-373 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2546-011'id=ifor2546-011
      PubDate: 2018-05-04
  • Research Articles: Outlook of the European forest-based sector: forest
           growth, harvest demand, wood-product markets, and forest carbon dynamics

    • Authors: Jonsson R; Blujdea VN, Fiorese G, Pilli R, Rinaldi F, Baranzelli C, Camia A
      Abstract: Jonsson R, Blujdea VN, Fiorese G, Pilli R, Rinaldi F, Baranzelli C, Camia AOUTLOOK OF THE EUROPEAN FOREST-BASED SECTOR: FOREST GROWTH, HARVEST DEMAND, WOOD-PRODUCT MARKETS, AND FOREST CARBON DYNAMICS IMPLICATIONSAbstract: A comprehensive assessment of European forest-based biomass harvest potentials, their future utilization and implications on international wood product markets and forest carbon dynamics requires the capability to model forest resource development as well as global markets for wood-based commodities with sufficient geographical and product detail and, most importantly, their interactions. To this aim, we apply a model framework fully integrating a European forest resource model and a global economic forest sector model. In a business-as-usual (BaU) scenario, European Union harvests increase seven percent by 2030 compared to past levels (485 million m3 on 2000-2012 average and 517 million m3 in 2030). The subsequent annual carbon stock change is a ten percent reduction by 2030 compared to 2000-2012 average (equal to 119.3 Tg C yr-1), corresponding to decreasing carbon-dioxide removal by the European forests. A second, high mobilization scenario (HM), characterized by the full utilization of the potential wood supply and a doubling of EU wood pellets consumption, was designed to explore potential impacts on forest carbon dynamics and international wood product markets under intensive exploitation of biomass resources. In the HM scenario, harvest increases by 55% (754 million m3 in 2030) compared to the BaU scenario. Fuelwood accounts for this increase in harvest levels as overall competition effects from increased wood pellets consumption outweighs synergies for material uses of wood, resulting in slightly reduced harvests of industrial roundwood. As expected, this increasing harvest level would significantly impair carbon-dioxide forest sequestration from the atmosphere in the medium term (-83% in 2030, compared to 2000-2012 average).Keywords: Biomass, Carbon Stock Change, Forest, Fuelwood, Harvest, Wood-based ProductsiForest 11 (2): 315-328 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2636-011'id=ifor2636-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
  • Research Articles: Richness and abundance of granivorous vertebrates
           determine acorn removal patterns in a human modified oak forest

    • Authors: Barragán F; Badano EI, Douterlungne D, Flores J
      Abstract: Barragán F, Badano EI, Douterlungne D, Flores JRICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE OF GRANIVOROUS VERTEBRATES DETERMINE ACORN REMOVAL PATTERNS IN A HUMAN MODIFIED OAK FORESTAbstract: Most forests of the Earth have been affected by human activities and this can alter the plant-animal interactions on which depend the functional integrity of these ecosystems. In this study, we assessed the relationships between acorn removal rates and the richness and abundance of granivorous vertebrates along a forest-edge-clearing gradient. We also evaluated whether removal rates differed among oak species with different acorn size. To this purpose, a field experiment was performed including acorns of five oak species, which were exposed to seed consumers in the three different habitats (forest interior, man-made clearings and the edge between these habitats). The experimental units consisted in five paper trays containing 50 acorns of each oak species located at different distances from the edge towards the forest and the man-made clearing (0, 20 and 50 m). Experimental sites were equipped with phototraps to record the identity of the visiting granivorous vertebrates. Richness and abundance of granivores increased from the edge towards the forest interior, while the converse patterns were observed in the man-made clearing. For most oak species, acorn removal patterns was positively correlated with richness and abundances of granivores, though in all habitats small-sized acorns were removed much faster and in larger proportions than big-sized acorns. Although these results are specific for the study site, they suggest that man-made clearings reduce the richness and abundance of granivores, thus negatively affecting the secondary dispersion of zoochoric tree species towards open habitats. Further, it also seems that large-seeded oak species face greater dispersal limitations than small-seeded oaks, because of the lack of animals able to scatter them from the forest to the clearings.Keywords: Acorn Size, Forest Gaps, Land Use Change, Man-made Clearing, Species DiversityiForest 11 (2): 329-337 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2216-011'id=ifor2216-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
  • Research Articles: Molecular evidence of bidirectional introgression
           between Quercus suber and Quercus ilex

    • Authors: López De Heredia U; Sánchez H, Soto A
      Abstract: López De Heredia U, Sánchez H, Soto AMOLECULAR EVIDENCE OF BIDIRECTIONAL INTROGRESSION BETWEEN QUERCUS SUBER AND QUERCUS ILEXAbstract: Cork oak and holm oak share a large part of their natural range, and are known to hybridize in mixed stands. This hybridization is supposed to have played a relevant role in the past history of cork oak. Previous research has reported that F1 hybrids are produced with holm oak acting as pollen recipient, therefore carrying holm oak chloroplast. Additionally, F1 hybrids have been assumed to be pollinated mostly by cork oak. Continued backcrossing of F1 hybrids with cork oak (supported by flowering phenology) could have created the organellar introgression patterns observed nowadays in Eastern Spain and Southern France cork oak populations. On the contrary, no organellar introgression has been detected in holm oak and multiple generation backcross individuals to holm oak have not been reported so far. In this work, we examined whether hybrids preferentially backcross with cork oak or with holm oak. To reach this goal, we genotyped by using eight microsatellite loci the progeny of four cork and four holm oak trees (33 and 44 half-siblings, respectively), and of four hybrids (468 half-siblings) collected over three years from a natural mixed population. We used the STRUCTURE software to estimate the proportion of the genotype of each seedling inherited from cork oak (qs) or from holm oak (qi). The ratio of the offspring q value over the mother q value helped determine the source of pollen that originated each acorn. Our results show for the first time that hybrid trees can be effectively pollinated by both parental species. Additionally, each hybrid tree was predominantly pollinated by the most abundant oak species in its vicinity. These results confirm the occurrence of bidirectional introgression, previously suggested for adult hybrid trees in the field, and point out the pattern of introgression in the seedlings could be most affected by the abundance of the parental species.Keywords: Cork Oak, Holm Oak, Hybridization, Introgression, MicrosatellitesiForest 11 (2): 338-343 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2570-011'id=ifor2570-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
  • Research Articles: Effects of traditional forest management on carbon
           storage in a Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) coppice

    • Authors: Sferlazza S; Maetzke FG, Iovino M, Baiamonte G, Palmeri V, La Mela Veca DS
      Abstract: Sferlazza S, Maetzke FG, Iovino M, Baiamonte G, Palmeri V, La Mela Veca DSEFFECTS OF TRADITIONAL FOREST MANAGEMENT ON CARBON STORAGE IN A MEDITERRANEAN HOLM OAK (QUERCUS ILEX L.) COPPICEAbstract: In the last decade, there has been increased interest in measuring and modeling storage in the five forest carbon pools: the aboveground and belowground biomass (living biomass), the deadwood and litter (dead biomass), and the soil (soil organic matter). In this paper, we examined carbon storage in a holm oak coppice stand in the Madonie Mountains in Sicily (Italy), which is a typical case of managed coppice stands. Today, traditional coppice practices are only applied to a small number of forested areas in Sicily, such as the selected site, because of the decline in demand for wood and charcoal. The dendrometric parameters of the stands were recorded, and silvicultural indices were calculated immediately after cutting as well as during and at the end of the rotation period; they showed the trends typical of coppices. The carbon stocks in the five carbon pools were quantified to investigate the effects of coppicing on carbon storage in this Mediterranean area. Results showed that the lowest living biomass values were observed in the first years following coppicing, except for litter carbon. Belowground biomass and the soil carbon stock did not vary significantly with coppicing. During the rotation period, the aboveground biomass was completely restored, and the balance of the carbon stocks indicates that coppicing is a sustainable forest management choice from the point of view of the carbon balance, given that the logged trees are generally used for bioenergy production.Keywords: Carbon Pool, Aboveground Carbon, Belowground Carbon, Dead Carbon, Litter Carbon, Soil Carbon, CoppicingiForest 11 (2): 344-351 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2424-011'id=ifor2424-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
  • Research Articles: Patterns of genetic variation in bud flushing of Abies
           alba populations

    • Authors: Mihai G; Mirancea I, Birsan MV, Dumitrescu A
      Abstract: Mihai G, Mirancea I, Birsan MV, Dumitrescu APATTERNS OF GENETIC VARIATION IN BUD FLUSHING OF ABIES ALBA POPULATIONSAbstract: In the spring of 2007, 51 full-sib and six half-sib families of European silver fir were obtained through controlled and open pollinations from the same clones in a seed orchard. Genetic variation and parameters for bud flushing were determined in two progeny tests established in a nursery. The results indicate a high genetic control of bud flushing of European silver fir. Both the additive and the dominance genetic variances were major sources of genetic variation. The additive genetic variance was greater for open-pollinated than for full-sib progeny, representing 50-95% of phenotypic variance. Narrow-sense individual heritability estimates for control-pollinated progenies ranged from 0.14 to 0.64, while the full-sib family heritability ranged from 0.09 to 0.40. In the open-pollinated progenies, the values of individual and family heritability were higher than those in control-pollinated progeny and ranged from 0.50 to 0.95 for both. In both experiments, genetic parameters were higher for bud flushing at the beginning of the growing period than at later stages. The genetic correlations between bud phenology and growth traits were positive and significant in control-pollinated progeny but not significant in open-pollinated progeny. Positive significant correlations between control-pollinated and open-pollinated progeny showed a maternal effect. Bud flushing was negatively correlated with geographic and climatic parameters of the site of parents’ origin, accounting for 83-97% of the total variation of this adaptive trait.Keywords: Bud Flushing, Climatic Parameters, Correlations, Genetic Parameters, Genetic Variation, Silver FiriForest 11 (2): 284-290 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2314-011'id=ifor2314-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
  • Research Articles: Some refinements on species distribution models using
           tree-level National Forest Inventories for supporting forest management
           and marginal forest population detection

    • Authors: Marchi M; Ducci F
      Abstract: Marchi M, Ducci FSOME REFINEMENTS ON SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELS USING TREE-LEVEL NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORIES FOR SUPPORTING FOREST MANAGEMENT AND MARGINAL FOREST POPULATION DETECTIONAbstract: Spatial modelling is a fundamental tool to support forest management strategies. National Forest Inventories (NFIs) provide extensive and detailed data for spatial analysis. In this study, the most recent Italian NFI (INFC2005) was used to evaluate possible refinements on species distribution model (SDM) techniques and to derive the future scenarios for two target species (Fagus sylvatica L. and Abies alba Mill.) sharing a similar ecological environment and geographic range. A weighted SDM and a provenance distribution model (PDM) were tested, based on tree-level selection of NFI plots using species basal area as a filter. Two climate projections were analysed for 2050s according to the IPCC 5th Assessment Report (AR5). The results were evaluated as possible guidelines for management of the Italian region of the EUFGIS network, where many marginal forest populations (MaPs) are currently included as genetic conservation units (GCUs). The uncertainty of coordinates of inventory points did not affect the results of SDM. No statistical differences were found when comparing the niche realization for the two model species (ANOVA p>0.05) mainly due to spatial autocorrelation between the environmental predictors. Based on the classic SDM evaluation method (True Skill Statistic - TSS) little improvements in predictions were observed when weighting each presence/absence records, possibly due to the lack of adequate ancillary data but also to the evaluation method. A higher accuracy of predictions (TSS>0.85) was obtained when different “provenances” were modelled separately, due to the reduction in the “background noise”. We showed that for classical SDM, the prevalence of certain ecological features of some locations may drive algorithms to produce coarse averaged predictions. Provenance distribution modelling may represent a valuable step forward in spatial analysis, particularly for the detection of marginal peripheral populations. The exact spatial co-ordinates of plots and additional information on site quality (e.g., stand age, site index, etc.) in NFI data could greatly help in better weighting presence/absence data and properly test the new evaluation methods.Keywords: INFC2005, European Beech, Silver Fir, Modelling Uncertainties, Provenance Modelling, Climate Change, Mediterranean AreaiForest 11 (2): 291-299 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2441-011'id=ifor2441-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
  • Research Articles: Stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani (A.
           Rich) in Tannourine Cedar Forest Reserve (Lebanon) affected by cedar
           web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia tannourinensis, Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae).

    • Authors: Bassil S; Kattar S, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Navarrete Poyatos M&, Nemer N, Palacios Rodríguez G
      Abstract: Bassil S, Kattar S, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Navarrete Poyatos M&, Nemer N, Palacios Rodríguez GSTAND STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION OF CEDRUS LIBANI (A. RICH) IN TANNOURINE CEDAR FOREST RESERVE (LEBANON) AFFECTED BY CEDAR WEB-SPINNING SAWFLY (CEPHALCIA TANNOURINENSIS, HYMENOPTERA: PAMPHILIIDAE).Abstract: The analysis of forest structure is a useful tool to understand stand biodiversity characterizing forest ecosystems, and could help in suggesting appropriate management plans. Cedar forests in Lebanon are remnant patches that survived past human activities but are still threatened by other different anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Among these threats, the cedar web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia tannourinensis) discovered in Tannourine Cedar Forest Nature Reserve in 1997, which is able to cause the death of trees. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of this pest on the stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani in Tannourine Cedar Forest Nature Reserve located in North Lebanon. The dependence of stand structural attributes (diameter at breast height, total height and basal area) on the presence of infestation by the cedar web-spinning sawfly was identified using the Student’s t-test. The Ripley’s K(d) function was used to analyse the spatial pattern of cedar stands. In addition, the diameter, the vertical structure and the crown projection were characterized using the Weibull function and graphic representations. The results showed that stand structure and regeneration are significantly different between infested and non-infested stands. The cedar of Lebanon remains as the dominant species, with abundant young individuals and a good regeneration status (c = 1.0). The analysis of the spatial pattern showed a positive spatial relationship between mature Lebanese cedar trees as well as between mature and juvenile cedars, with a bigger aggregation in infested plots (6 to 10 meters) than in non-infested quadrates (2 to 7 meters), reflecting the impact of the cedar web-spinning sawfly on the stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani stands.Keywords: Cedrus libani, Stand Dynamic, Pest Damage, Spatial Pattern, Vertical Structure, Cephalcia tannourinensisiForest 11 (2): 300-307 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2502-011'id=ifor2502-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
  • Research Articles: Regeneration dynamics in the laurel forest: changes in
           species richness and composition

    • Authors: Arévalo JR; De Nascimento L, Fernández-Lugo S, Méndez J, González-Delgado G, Balguerías E, Gomes Pereira Cabral E, Fernández-Palacios JM
      Abstract: Arévalo JR, De Nascimento L, Fernández-Lugo S, Méndez J, González-Delgado G, Balguerías E, Gomes Pereira Cabral E, Fernández-Palacios JMREGENERATION DYNAMICS IN THE LAUREL FOREST: CHANGES IN SPECIES RICHNESS AND COMPOSITIONAbstract: The recovery and survival of the Macaronesian laurel forest depends on its regeneration strategies. After years of long-term monitoring, both sexual and asexual regeneration appear to be equally important. However, the mechanisms for each are just beginning to be understood. In order to contribute to the understanding of the laurel forest sexual regeneration, we analyzed the species composition of the seedling bank every two weeks over three years in the laurel forest of Anaga (Tenerife, Canary Islands). We compared the species compositions of the seedling bank with the canopy, and analyzed changes in their diversity over this period in different forest stands. We found that species diversity (evenness) is different among plots regardless of the stand. In some cases, plot diversity remained constant over time, while others showed some variations, which were little related to climatic conditions (temperature and precipitation). We also found no relationship between the seedling bank and canopy composition, with shade-intolerant species being more abundant in the former. Although climatic conditions remained constant during the period and other environmental conditions did not vary either, some changes were found in the seedling bank species composition. These were related to the increased degree of conservation of the laurel forest of Anaga (by closing unpaved roads, limiting access, and the abandonment of agriculture) that had negatively affected the density of shade-intolerant species. We suggest that such conservation measures should be maintained and extended to other areas where agriculture has been recently abandoned to allow the potential establishment of laurel forest and late successional species.Keywords: Conservation, Evenness, Regeneration, Seedling Bank, Species CompositioniForest 11 (2): 308-314 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2580-011'id=ifor2580-011
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
  • Research Articles: Contrasting holm oak provenances show different field
           performance but similar resilience to drought events eight years after
           planting in a Mediterranean environment

    • Authors: Andivia E; Natalini F, Fernández M, Alejano R, Vázquez-Piqué J
      Abstract: Andivia E, Natalini F, Fernández M, Alejano R, Vázquez-Piqué JCONTRASTING HOLM OAK PROVENANCES SHOW DIFFERENT FIELD PERFORMANCE BUT SIMILAR RESILIENCE TO DROUGHT EVENTS EIGHT YEARS AFTER PLANTING IN A MEDITERRANEAN ENVIRONMENTAbstract: Diversification of genetic plant material in forest plantations is viewed as a promising strategy to promote forest adaptation and resilience to ongoing climate change. However, there is an intense debate about whether foreign populations might outperform local ones under new climatic conditions. Unfortunately, long-term experiments using contrasting provenances are scarce, especially in the Mediterranean region. In this context, the evaluation of the resistance and resilience of individuals from different provenances to drought can help to forecast their performance under different climate change scenarios, and therefore to establish guideline regarding plant material selection in reforestation projects. We evaluated the performance (survival and drought) and drought sensitivity of Quercus ilex saplings from two contrasting provenances growing during eight years in a common garden experiment. For this, we used a combination of dendroecological methods and water-relation measurements, such as leaf water potential (Ψpd), cuticular transpiration (Ec), relative water content at the point of stomatal closure (RWCc) and specific leaf area (SLA). We also compared the resilience and resistance, in terms of radial growth to the intense drought event of 2012 between saplings from both provenances. Our results suggest a lack of idiosyncratic physiological response and growth sensitivity to drought between provenances. However, saplings from the drier provenance showed a superior performance in terms of survival and growth. Survival was greater in saplings from the dry provenance (100 vs. 91 %). Mean annual basal area increment was also greater in saplings from the dry provenance (158.8 ± 13.5 vs. 96.2 ± 8.4 mm2), which resulted in greater diameter eight year after planting (47.5 ± 2.8 vs. 38.3 ± 2.3 mm). The lower values of Ψpd, Ec and SLA in the summer of the first two years after planting suggest that climatic conditions after planting rather than isolated drought events was the most critical period for the success of these saplings. In view of our results, the selection of plant material for forest plantation should be carefully evaluated in forest restoration projects, while priority should be given to those actions oriented to increase the early survival of local Q. ilex seedlings.Keywords: Ecotypes, Quercus ilex, Forest Restoration, Growth Stability, Water-relation, Phenotypic Plasticity, Local AdaptationsiForest 11 (2): 259-266 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2573-011'id=ifor2573-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
  • Research Articles: Growth-climate relations and the enhancement of drought
           signals in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) tree-ring chronology in
           Eastern Hungary

    • Authors: Árvai M; Morgós A, Kern Z
      Abstract: Árvai M, Morgós A, Kern ZGROWTH-CLIMATE RELATIONS AND THE ENHANCEMENT OF DROUGHT SIGNALS IN PEDUNCULATE OAK (QUERCUS ROBUR L.) TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY IN EASTERN HUNGARYAbstract: This paper presents an analysis of the climatic factors affecting tree-ring growth in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), one of the most important species of Hungarian forests. A 221-year oak chronology was elaborated, covering the period 1789 to 2009 AD. The daily climate data for a ~110 year stretch offered a detailed insight into the climate-growth relations. The correlation function reached a maximum (r > 0.4) in the case of precipitation in May-August, providing evidence that water availability is the main factor driving the oak growth in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Although there was no significant linear relation with temperature in the long term, moving window correlation analysis revealed that temperature response changed substantially over the course of the 20th century. While positive correlation with winter temperature was characteristic in the first decades, later the response to summer temperature strengthened remarkably, reaching r = -0.569 by the end of the analysed period (years 1978-2007). While the vulnerability of oak to drought stress is common across Europe, in southern and central Europe high summer temperatures impair tree growth. The enhanced sensitivity of pedunculate oaks to the water balance in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain allows to surmise the presence of an evolving tendency towards drought risk and vulnerability in the case of these oak stands.Keywords: Dendroclimatology, Pedunculate Oak, Tree-rings, Hungary, Drought SignaliForest 11 (2): 267-274 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2348-011'id=ifor2348-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
  • Research Articles: Alternative methods of scaling Eucalyptus urophylla
           trees in forest stands: compatibility and accuracy of volume equations

    • Authors: Miguel EP; Péllico Netto S, Azevedo GBD, Azevedo GTDOS, Rezende AV, Pereira RS
      Abstract: Miguel EP, Péllico Netto S, Azevedo GBD, Azevedo GTDOS, Rezende AV, Pereira RSALTERNATIVE METHODS OF SCALING EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA TREES IN FOREST STANDS: COMPATIBILITY AND ACCURACY OF VOLUME EQUATIONSAbstract: This study developed and tested a procedure that aimed to reduce the cost of forest stand volume estimation. Using a typical 3 x 3 m Eucalyptus urophylla plantation, estimates based on a simplified approach were compared with those of precise but costly reference methods. The simplified approach required measuring the total height and bole diameters up to 2 m high. The volume of the lower part was estimated using Smalian’s formula, while the volume of the upper part was estimated using a simple solid as an approximation. Three typical solids were tested: paraboloid, cone, and neiloid. The approach proposed is non-destructive, because it does not require tree felling, while precise methods are destructive. The operational (traditional) method uses Smalian’s formula to measure bole diameter at short intervals over the whole bole, while the precise, more research-suited (reference) method records water displacement (using a xylometer) to accurately measure the volume of each bole section. The reference and traditional methods, as expected, produced very similar results. The approach proposed, using a paraboloid for the upper part, provided results that were not statistically different to the reference values. The volumes estimated by the proposed approach were used to calibrate the Schumacher-Hall function, and the performance of the model was evaluated using the values obtained by the xylometer.Keywords: Forest Inventory, Rigorous Scaling, Dendrometric Prototype, Volume Equation, ModelingiForest 11 (2): 275-283 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2155-011'id=ifor2155-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
  • Research Articles: Optimizing silviculture in mixed uneven-aged forests to
           increase the recruitment of browse-sensitive tree species without
           intervening in ungulate population

    • Authors: Ficko A; Roessiger J, Bončina A
      Abstract: Ficko A, Roessiger J, Bončina AOPTIMIZING SILVICULTURE IN MIXED UNEVEN-AGED FORESTS TO INCREASE THE RECRUITMENT OF BROWSE-SENSITIVE TREE SPECIES WITHOUT INTERVENING IN UNGULATE POPULATIONAbstract: An increase in ungulate abundance in Europe in recent decades has raised concerns for the survival of browse-sensitive tree species in its early life history stages. A possible strategy for mitigating the browsing-induced mortality of natural regeneration is to optimize silviculture. We used matrix population models parameterized for three types of Abies alba - Picea abies - Fagus sylvatica forests (3,183 permanent sample plots from three study areas in Slovenia, 39,717 ha), and a non-linear optimization to: (i) schedule optimal timing and intensity of logging in the next 100 years to increase the recruitment of Abies alba without intervening in the population of ungulates; and (ii) examine the influence of different natural recruitment rates on the potential for mitigating recruitment failure through silviculture optimization. The optimal management has required species-, growth- and diameter-specific logging, including intensive logging of large-diameter Abies alba in the first decades and strict conservation of recruits. The potential for mitigating recruitment failure through optimization increased progressively with natural recruitment rate and progressively at a decreasing rate with time. Optimizing silviculture was effective for maintaining Abies alba in stands exposed to low or moderate browsing pressures. Faced with chronic ungulate herbivory, forest managers should primarily focus on the reduction of herbivory and to a lesser extent on optimizing silviculture.Keywords: Continuous Cover Forestry, Optimization, Natural regeneration, Recruitment, Abies albaiForest 11 (2): 227-236 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2567-011'id=ifor2567-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
  • Short Communications: Climate effects on growth differ according to height
           and diameter along the stem in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    • Authors: Rubio-Cuadrado A; Bravo-Oviedo A, Mutke S, Del Río M
      Abstract: Rubio-Cuadrado A, Bravo-Oviedo A, Mutke S, Del Río MCLIMATE EFFECTS ON GROWTH DIFFER ACCORDING TO HEIGHT AND DIAMETER ALONG THE STEM IN PINUS PINASTER AIT.Abstract: Climate-growth relationships in forest trees are increasingly the focus of research aimed at understanding and assessing responses to climate change. Many studies have been confined to annual radial growth at breast height as an easy-to-measure dendrological standard variable, although its validity as a proxy for overall annual growth patterns in trees has scarcely been addressed. In this study, we test this hypothesis by exploring additional information on climate-growth relationships as well as analyzing both the radial growth at different stem heights and the height increment. For this purpose, past annual radial growth and shoot elongation were measured in 10 dominant Pinus pinaster Ait. trees in a 130-year-old stand. Radial increments were measured on disks taken from five different trunk heights up to 15 meters. Height increments were obtained by measuring the distance between consecutive branch whorls, which appear as knots after sawing a longitudinal section of the stem. The relationships between climate and both radial growth and height increment were analyzed through Pearson’s correlations and the response to extreme climatic episodes was analyzed using resilience indices. Results revealed that the climatic variables affecting growth were different for height and stem diameter. Additionally, in the case of stem diameter, the climatic variables affecting growth also depended on the height at which the sample was taken. Precipitation prior to bud break, both in the year in which the studied shoot elongation takes place and in the previous year, has a positive effect on height increment. Radial growth in the upper part of the stem was mainly influenced by spring temperatures and precipitation, whereas in the case of basal radial growth it was the autumn and winter temperatures and precipitation of the previous year to growth which had the greatest influence. Similarly, severe droughts cause greater decline in height increment, while the decline in radial growth of the upper part of stem is smaller than that of radial growth at breast height. In conclusion, the analysis of height increment and upper radial growth provides important information to complement the dendroclimatology data for radial growth at breast height, thus improving our understanding of the impact of climate change on tree growth.Keywords: Dendrochronology, Climate Growth Response, Growth Allocation, Stem Analysis, Climate Sensitivity, ResilienceiForest 11 (2): 237-242 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2318-011'id=ifor2318-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
  • Research Articles: Hydrological properties of litter layers in mixed
           forests in Mt. Qinling, China

    • Authors: Chen S; Cao T, Tanaka N, Gao T, Zhu L, Zou CB
      Abstract: Chen S, Cao T, Tanaka N, Gao T, Zhu L, Zou CBHYDROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LITTER LAYERS IN MIXED FORESTS IN MT. QINLING, CHINAAbstract: The litter layer is an important component of forest ecosystems, although little is known about the differences in litter characteristics and hydrological properties of unmanaged, overgrown broadleaved and coniferous mixed forests in the subtropical and temperate zones. This study was carried out in a naturally generated broadleaved and coniferous mixed forest at the Qinling National Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Shaanxi Province, China. We quantified the litter thickness, mass, and its hydrological properties in evergreen pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) stands and deciduous oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) stands through in situ surveys and laboratory immersion experiments. The thickness of the litter layer for P. tabulaeformis averaged 9.3 ± 2.8 cm, and it was not significantly different from that detected in the Q. aliena stand (8.3 ± 3.6 cm). The total mass of the litter layer for P. tabulaeformis, 27.94 ± 9.81 Mg ha-1, was significantly higher than the total mass of 16.04 ± 3.60 Mg ha-1 found for Q. aliena. The mass of the semi-decomposed, fermented litter (OF) layer was significantly higher than that of the non-decomposed litter (OL) layer, irrespective of species. The rate of water absorption by dry litter was the highest at the onset of the immersion experiment and decreased exponentially with time. The water-holding capacity (Wm) and water-interception capacity (Wi) of the OF layer were higher than the OL layer for both forest stands. The Wm and Wi for the P. tabulaeformis stand were higher than those for the Q. aliena stand at our study sites. The higher Wm and Wi for P. tabulaeformis may be more effective in ameliorating the splash impact from high-intensity storms to improve water quality, while relatively lower Wm and Wi for Q. aliena may be considered favorable for augmenting water yield. Forest resource managers should consider those differences along with the other components of the water budget when making management decisions.Keywords: Water Conservation Forest, Hydrological Properties, Forest SuccessioniForest 11 (2): 243-250 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2535-011'id=ifor2535-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
  • Research Articles: Can bark stripping cause red heartwood formation in
           beech stems'

    • Authors: Račko V; Mišíková O, Hlaváč P, Deáková V
      Abstract: Račko V, Mišíková O, Hlaváč P, Deáková VCAN BARK STRIPPING CAUSE RED HEARTWOOD FORMATION IN BEECH STEMS'Abstract: Injuries to standing trees caused by logging and the subsequent changes in biochemical composition and anatomy of affected tissues lead to wood quality loss, thus lowering the commercial value of roundwood. In this study, we investigated the influence of various factors that could help mitigate or prevent the spread of infections in the stem caused by injuries. A total of 112 beech logs (tree age: 42-143 years) from ten forest stands at three different sites in central Slovakia were examined, and the extent of discolouration and decay zones in each stem was measured, along with cambial age, stem diameter, injury width, and injury closure period. The results showed that the width of physiologically active wet sapwood and the width of the inactive dehydrated zone in the stem are important factors influencing red heartwood formation. We found no significant differences in the extent of discolouration and decay among different stands and sites. Stem diameter and injury width did significantly affect the penetration of infection through sapwood, and red heartwood formation was significantly affected by cambial age and injury width, while stand age, site slope, beech proportion in the stand and injury closure did not show any significant effect. Binary logistic models were applied to assess the probability of pathogen penetration through sapwood into the stem dehydrated zone as a function of injury width and stem diameter, as well as the probability that this could lead to red heartwood formation based on injury width and cambial age of beech stems.Keywords: Sapwood Width, Dehydrated Zone Width, Discoloration Depth, Decay Depth, Red Heartwood FormationiForest 11 (2): 251-258 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2147-011'id=ifor2147-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
  • Research Articles: Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil
           respiration in a drought-affected forest

    • Authors: Barba J; Lloret F, Poyatos R, Molowny-Horas R, Yuste JC
      Abstract: Barba J, Lloret F, Poyatos R, Molowny-Horas R, Yuste JCMULTI-TEMPORAL INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN A DROUGHT-AFFECTED FORESTAbstract: Aboveground plant activity influences fine roots and rhizosphere activity, which is reflected on soil respiration (SR). However, it is still unclear and poorly understood the nature of plant activity control over SR, especially under drought conditions. We studied the plant activity-SR relationship at different timescales in a water-limited mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) are undergoing drought-induced die-off and are being replaced by the more drought-resistant Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). Half-hourly sap flow (SF), as a proxy of photosynthesis, coupled with measures of SR using solid-state CO2 sensors, were monitored during nine months in four different trees, representative of the diversity and health condition of the forest. SF was strongly associated with SR at both daily and seasonal timescales. At daily timescales, almost no lags were found between SF and SR, indicating a fast control of photosynthesis on SR. However, the association between SF and SR weakened during the summer drought. These temporal patterns were not constant across the trees representing the die-off and replacement processes. SR beneath living pines was highly controlled by SF at daily scale, whereas Holm oak seemed to be more controlled by SF at seasonal scale. The relationship between SF and SR measured beneath dead pine and Holm oak at the daily and seasonal scales was consistent with the colonization of soil gaps by holm oak roots following Scots pine death and suggests that surviving Scots pines are unable to expand their root system in these gaps. Our results collectively show how drought modulates the link between canopy photosynthesis and soil respiration, and increase our understanding on how belowground processes may be affected by the successional dynamics following drought-induced forest mortality.Keywords: Soil Respiration, Sap Flow, Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), Drought, Die-off, Functional Colonization, Mediterranean EcosystemiForest 11 (2): 189-198 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2448-011'id=ifor2448-011
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
  • Research Articles: Comparison of soil CO2 emissions between short-rotation
           coppice poplar stands and arable lands

    • Authors: Ferré C; Comolli R
      Abstract: Ferré C, Comolli RCOMPARISON OF SOIL CO2 EMISSIONS BETWEEN SHORT-ROTATION COPPICE POPLAR STANDS AND ARABLE LANDSAbstract: Bioenergy crops are considered to have the potential for climate mitigation and socio-economic benefits owing to their capacity to sequester C and partially replace the consumption of fossil fuels. In this study, the effects on soil respiration of a recent conversion of arable land to high (H) and very high (VH) density short-rotation coppices (SRCs), as well as of agronomic treatments (fertilization with or without irrigation) and lane/row location, were investigated in an alluvial area in Italy. A survey of soil variability was carried out by collecting soil cores (0-60 cm depth) at 67 points to characterize surface and subsurface spatial distributions of pH, organic carbon, nitrogen and carbonates and identify comparable points for monitoring soil respiration. Soil CO2 emissions were monitored over the period April 2010-November 2011 at 27 locations covering the whole study site. The influence of land use (H-SRC, VH-SRC, corn and alfalfa) or treatments on soil respiration was evaluated considering both factors as fixed effects in a linear mixed model. Our results showed that (i) the high variability of soil properties even at small spatial scale has to be considered when selecting points for monitoring soil respiration in the field; (ii) the cumulative soil respiration over the study period at the VH-SRC was lower (1299 ± 30 g C m-2) than in croplands (1600 ±145 g C m-2) and higher along the rows than in the lanes; (iii) no significant differences in soil respiration were found between the H-SRC and corn field; (iv) two years after VH-SRC establishment, agronomic treatments did not appear to influence soil respiration; (v) land-use change affected the vertical soil organic carbon distribution and soil surface temperature, as reflected in soil respiration differences.Keywords: Land-use Change, Soil Spatial Variability, Soil Respiration, Short-rotation Coppice, Cropland, Mixed ModeliForest 11 (2): 199-205 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2621-010'id=ifor2621-010
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
  • Research Articles: Belowground biomass models for young oligotrophic Scots
           pine stands in Latvia

    • Authors: Kenina L; Bardulis A, Matisons R, Kapostins R, Jansons A
      Abstract: Kenina L, Bardulis A, Matisons R, Kapostins R, Jansons ABELOWGROUND BIOMASS MODELS FOR YOUNG OLIGOTROPHIC SCOTS PINE STANDS IN LATVIAAbstract: The increasing interest in carbon budget estimation and the growing use of woody biomass in bioenergy production raises the necessity for precise estimates of belowground biomass and soil carbon pools in forest ecosystems, particularly in terms of changes in the age structure of forests. The aim of this study was to estimate the belowground biomass of young (< 40 years) stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Latvia. The biomass of small roots (diameter 2-20 mm), coarse roots (diameter > 20 mm), and stumps of 39 trees from eight stands growing on dry, nutrient-poor mineral soils was measured and compared to the aboveground variables of sampled trees. The results revealed that stumps, small roots, and coarse roots comprised 43%, 35% and 22%, respectively, of the belowground biomass of young Scots pines. The proportion of belowground biomass over the total tree biomass was age-dependent, ranging from 33% to 17% for 8-year and 40-year old trees, respectively. Aboveground tree variables were significantly correlated with the belowground biomass, being stemwood volume and basal area the best predictors (R2 = 0.86-0.98, relative errors = 26-43%) of the belowground biomass components. Accordingly, the developed models produced more accurate estimates compared to previous models for the region, thus reducing the uncertainty in determining the carbon budget for belowground biomass. Still, an analysis of a more comprehensive dataset is needed to account for the effect of the social status of trees, as well as the within- and between-stand variation.Keywords: Hemiboreal Forests, Europe, Pinus sylvestris, Allometric Equation, Coarse Roots, Total Root BiomassiForest 11 (2): 206-211 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2553-010'id=ifor2553-010
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
  • Research Articles: Effect of drought stress on some growth, morphological,
           physiological, and biochemical parameters of two different populations of
           Quercus brantii

    • Authors: Jafarnia S; Akbarinia M, Hosseinpour B, Modarres Sanavi SAM, Salami SA
      Abstract: Jafarnia S, Akbarinia M, Hosseinpour B, Modarres Sanavi SAM, Salami SAEFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON SOME GROWTH, MORPHOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF TWO DIFFERENT POPULATIONS OF QUERCUS BRANTIIAbstract: In recent years, drought-induced tree mortality has occurred in the oak forests of the Zagros Mountains (western Iran). The impacts of climate change induced by drought stress have been most acutely experienced by two populations of Persian oaks (Quercus brantii Lindl) grown in the western provinces (Ilam and Lorestan) of the Zagros region. We surveyed growth, physiological, and biochemical responses of one-year-old Persian oak seedlings from Melasyah (Ilam) and Chegeni (Lorestan) provenances, which were subjected to three watering regimes (100%, 40%, and 20% of field capacity) in a greenhouse. The severe drought stress decreased the diameter and height growth, total biomass, net photosynthesis, gas exchange, xylem water potential, maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) as well as the maximum PSII photochemical efficiency of the oak seedlings in both populations, but the rate of decrease was greater in Chegeni seedlings as compared to Melasyah seedlings. Although proline and soluble sugar contents significantly increased in response to drought in both populations under stress, the rate of increase was higher in Melasyah seedlings as compared to Chegeni seedlings. In addition, the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbic peroxidase as well as that of phenylalanine ammonia lyase were promoted in both populations under drought stress. However, the incremental rate was higher in the Melasyah population than in the Chegeni population. Under severe drought stress, the MDA content, electrolyte leakage, the content of hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide radical significantly increased in both the populations. The rate of increase, however, was higher in the Chegeni population. Under drought stress, the total phenol and flavonoid contents of Melasyah seedlings were higher than those of Chegeni seedlings. The results showed that Chegeni seedlings are more sensitive than Melasyah seedlings when exposed to a water limitation stress. Our findings suggest that the climate conditions of the Persian oak stands should be considered by nursery managers while creating establishment and restoration programs.Keywords: Drought Stress, Persian Oak, Zagros Mountain, Provenance, Drought ResistanceiForest 11 (2): 212-220 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2496-010'id=ifor2496-010
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
  • Research Articles: The effect of calcium on the growth of native species
           in a tropical forest hotspot

    • Authors: Gonçalves Bizuti DT; Casagrande JC, Soares MR, Sartorio SD, Brugnaro C, Gomes César R
      Abstract: Gonçalves Bizuti DT, Casagrande JC, Soares MR, Sartorio SD, Brugnaro C, Gomes César RTHE EFFECT OF CALCIUM ON THE GROWTH OF NATIVE SPECIES IN A TROPICAL FOREST HOTSPOTAbstract: Recovering of degraded areas depends not only on the choice of native species to be planted, but also on the requirements of planted seedling species in terms of soil fertility, mainly in tropical areas. This study aims to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) and soil base saturation (V%) on the growth of seedlings of eight tree species native to the Atlantic Forest biome and commonly used in restoration plantings in the study region. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse over a period of four months in Haplic Arenosol dystric soil with low calcium content and high aluminum saturation, and were subjected to four different treatments: (i) control; (ii) lime addition until V%=40 (V40); (iii) lime addition until V%=70 (V70); (iv) addition of calcium chloride and magnesium until V%=70 (VMg70). On average, seedlings treated only with lime (V40 and V70) gave similar results, showing an increase in both shoot and root dry plant biomass. Different absorption by species belonging to different successional groups were observed. Pioneer and early secondary species showed similar behavior regarding nutrient use efficiency. Seedling fertilization increases the chances of success of restoration plantings in degraded areas by favoring seedling biomass gain and nutrient absorption, and increasing overall V% through lime fertilization. The patterns for pioneer and secondary species found in this study could contribute to decision making in restoration projects and to native seedling production of white-sand forest native species.Keywords: Tree Species, Plant Nutrition, Liming, Nutrient Absorption Efficiency, Ecological RestorationiForest 11 (2): 221-226 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2074-010'id=ifor2074-010
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
  • Research Articles: Monitoring of changes in woodlots outside forests by
           multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    • Authors: Rahman MM; Islam MS, Pramanik MAT
      Abstract: Rahman MM, Islam MS, Pramanik MATMONITORING OF CHANGES IN WOODLOTS OUTSIDE FORESTS BY MULTI-TEMPORAL LANDSAT IMAGERYAbstract: Woodlots outside forests play a significant role in diversifying household income, reducing poverty, supplying timber and fuel-wood, and regulating the local environment in many countries with low forest cover. This study aimed to develop a method for delineating the spatial footprint of woodlots outside forests and assessing their changes over time. The test site was located in the Jhalokati District of south-western Bangladesh, one of the world’s most densely populated regions. Landsat images from 2010 were classified using a supervised method. Woodlots were extracted, converted to vector layers, and manually edited. The overall accuracy of the 2010 land cover map was 87%-89%. A change vector layer was generated by further updating of the vector layer by overlaying a 1989 Landsat image. The total coverage of woodlots in the district increased between 1989 and 2010, from 19.638 ha (27%) to 27.836 ha (39%). The study identified two primary reasons for changes in woodlot coverage: (i) woodlot expansion associated with the population growth and establishment of new households; and (ii) conversion of cropland to orchards because of economic reasons. The results will improve understanding of the spatial distribution of woodlot coverage in the study area and their dynamics over time.Keywords: Woodlot, Trees Outside Forests (TOF), Landsat, Change, MappingiForest 11 (1): 162-170 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2021-010'id=ifor2021-010
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
  • Research Articles: A Decision Support System for trade-off analysis and
           dynamic evaluation of forest ecosystem services

    • Authors: Sacchelli S
      Abstract: Sacchelli SA DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS AND DYNAMIC EVALUATION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICESAbstract: This paper presents an open-source Decision Support System (DSS) able to quantify the economic value of forest ecosystem services and their dynamic trade-offs. Provisioning, regulation and support services, as well as cultural services, can be evaluated by the model. Best management forestry practices can be identified by optimizing specific objective functions, e.g., maximizing the economic value or identifying the ideal rotation period. The model was applied to a silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) stand in central Italy as a case study. Results show the importance of economic parameters (e.g., discount rate) and management practices (e.g., presence/absence of silvicultural thinning) in defining forest values. The main strengths and weaknesses of the DSS are discussed in light of its potential for application in the sector of Payment for Ecosystem Services.Keywords: Ecosystem Services Planning, Complex Systems Analysis, Systemic Rotation Period, Nonlinear ProgrammingiForest 11 (1): 171-180 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2416-010'id=ifor2416-010
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
  • Research Articles: Determining basic forest stand characteristics using
           airborne laser scanning in mixed forest stands of Central Europe

    • Authors: Smreček R; Michnová Z, Sačkov I, Danihelová Z, Levická M, Tuček J
      Abstract: Smreček R, Michnová Z, Sačkov I, Danihelová Z, Levická M, Tuček JDETERMINING BASIC FOREST STAND CHARACTERISTICS USING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING IN MIXED FOREST STANDS OF CENTRAL EUROPEAbstract: This study focused on the derivation of basic stand characteristics from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, aiming to elucidate which characteristics (mean height and diameter, dominant height and diameter) are best approximated by the variables obtained using ALS data. The height of trees of different species in four permanent plots located in the Slovak Republic was derived from the normalised digital surface model (nDSM) representing the canopy surface, using an automatic approach to identify local maxima (individual treetops). Tree identification was carried out using four different spatial resolutions of the nDSM (0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, and 2.0 m) and the number of trees identified was compared with reference data obtained from field measurements. The highest percentage of tree detection (69-75%) was observed at the spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 1.5 m. Absolute differences of tree height between reference and ALS datasets ranged from 0 to 36% at all spatial resolutions. The smallest difference in mean height was obtained using the higher spatial resolution (0.5 m), while the smallest difference in the dominant height of the relative number of thickest trees (h10% and h20%) was observed using the lower spatial resolution (2 m). The same trends also apply to diameters. The average errors at resolution of 1.0 and 1.5 m was 8.7%, 5.9% and 9.7% for mean height, h20% and h10%, respectively. ALS-derived diameters (obtained using regression models from reference data and ALS-derived individual height as predictor) showed absolute errors in the range 0-48% at all spatial resolutions. The deviation in mean diameter at a resolution of 0.5 m ranged from -12.1% to 15.3%.Keywords: Forestry, Airborne Laser Scanning, Mixed Forest, Height of Forest Stand, Diameter of Forest StandiForest 11 (1): 181-188 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2520-010'id=ifor2520-010
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
  • Review Papers: Revisiting the Heat Field Deformation (HFD) method for
           measuring sap flow

    • Authors: Nadezhdina N
      Abstract: Nadezhdina NREVISITING THE HEAT FIELD DEFORMATION (HFD) METHOD FOR MEASURING SAP FLOWAbstract: The Heat Field Deformation (HFD) technique is a thermodynamic method for measuring sap flow. Based on continuous heating the HFD method allows for high time resolution measurements which are highly important when studying plant responses to abrupt environmental changes. This work provides a succinct review of previously described features of the HFD methodology. Analyzing symmetrical and asymmetrical temperature differences around a measured linear heater (dTsym and dTas) relative to their ratio dTsym/dTas (so called a K-diagram) is at the heart of this methodology. This key concept, however, has to date only been generally described in previous works on the HFD technique. My objective here is to provide a comprehensive overview describing different types of K-diagrams, their interpretation and application for determining K-values or dTas for a zero flow condition. The K-value is a measured parameter which is particularly important for objectively characterizing heat conducting properties at the sensor insertion point under specific local measurement conditions. Correctly determining the K-value is critical for accurately calculating sap flow based on recorded temperature measurements. I have included in this review several examples demonstrating how the K-value is dependent upon changes to the environment and its important role in sap flow estimation.Keywords: K-diagram, K/R-diagram, K-value, Sap Flow per Section, Sap Flux Density, SensoriForest 11 (1): 118-130 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2381-011'id=ifor2381-011
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
  • Research Articles: Kinetic analysis of poplar wood properties by thermal
           modification in conventional oven

    • Authors: Marcon B; Goli G, Matsuo-Ueda M, Denaud L, Umemura K, Gril J, Kawai S
      Abstract: Marcon B, Goli G, Matsuo-Ueda M, Denaud L, Umemura K, Gril J, Kawai SKINETIC ANALYSIS OF POPLAR WOOD PROPERTIES BY THERMAL MODIFICATION IN CONVENTIONAL OVENAbstract: The kinetics of several poplar (Populus alba L.) wood properties during thermal modification conducted in conventional oven with air recirculation were analysed and modelled in this paper. A wide range of properties was assessed, such as: equilibrium moisture content, sorption diagram, shrinkage coefficients, specific shrinkage coefficients, mass loss, modulus of elasticity, strength and colour. The tests were executed at different temperatures ranging from 90 °C to 180 °C and with different durations. The time-temperature equivalency was checked and property modifications over time analysed through master curves in order to obtain a general model connecting together properties, treatment temperature and duration. Different activation energies arising from each property evolution with treatment temperature and duration are provided showing that every modification could occur with different kinetics.Keywords: Poplar Wood Modification, Heat Treatment, Time-temperature Equivalency, Energy of Activation, Kinetic Analysis, Mechanical Properties, Hygroscopicity, Wood ColouriForest 11 (1): 131-139 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2422-010'id=ifor2422-010
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
  • Research Articles: Microclimate regulating functions of urban forests in
           Changchun City (north-east China) and their associations with different

    • Authors: Wang W; Wang H, Xiao L, He X, Zhou W, Wang Q, Wei C
      Abstract: Wang W, Wang H, Xiao L, He X, Zhou W, Wang Q, Wei CMICROCLIMATE REGULATING FUNCTIONS OF URBAN FORESTS IN CHANGCHUN CITY (NORTH-EAST CHINA) AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH DIFFERENT FACTORSAbstract: Microclimate regulating functions of urban trees and their associations with environmental factors and tree-growth characteristics are important for management and ecological evaluations. In this study, a total of 637 trees distributed in the Changchun urban region (ca. 400 km2, northeastern China) were sampled in four different types of urban forests (AF: affiliated forests; RF: roadside forests; LF: landscape and relaxation forests; EF: ecological welfare forests). Tree growth-related parameters and environmental factors (inside and outside the forest) were simultaneously measured, and location-dependent differences in shading, cooling and humidifying effects were assessed, along with their associations with the measured variables. We found that urban forests in Changchun reduced the incident sunlight by 74-86% and increased air relative humidity by 3-7%, on average. Air, soil, and upper-canopy temperatures were decreased approximately by 3 °C,
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
  • Research Articles: Estimating machine impact on strip roads via
           close-range photogrammetry and soil parameters: a case study in central

    • Authors: Cambi M; Giannetti F, Bottalico F, Travaglini D, Nordfjell T, Chirici G, Marchi E
      Abstract: Cambi M, Giannetti F, Bottalico F, Travaglini D, Nordfjell T, Chirici G, Marchi EESTIMATING MACHINE IMPACT ON STRIP ROADS VIA CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND SOIL PARAMETERS: A CASE STUDY IN CENTRAL ITALYAbstract: Several studies have been carried out to investigate soil compaction and rutting after logging vehicle traffic, based on time consuming and punctual field measurements. The objective of this study was to measure soil disturbances with two methods: (i) a new, image-based models derived by a structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry approach; and (ii) a traditional soil sampling (bulk density and shear strength). Two trails were selected in a logging area (central Italy), one trafficked by a forwarder (FT) and one trafficked by a skidder (ST). Data collection was conducted before, during and after timber extraction. Image-based models derived by SfM photogrammetry was used to highlight the differences in the shape and distribution of the disturbances along ST and FT. Results showed that the physical parameters of soil significantly changed due to both FT and ST traffic. Machine passes increased bulk density (111% and 31% for FT and ST, respectively), penetration resistance (29% and 24% for FT and ST, respectively) and shear resistance (14% and 6% for FT and ST, respectively), whereas porosity decreased (46% and 9% for FT and ST, respectively). Significant differences between FT and ST were found when comparing ruts removal and bulges with SfM photogrammetry. After logging, FT clearly showed ruts and bulges, whereas in ST ruts and bulges were not visible, but soil displacement in the direction of extraction was evident and measurable. Nevertheless, although our result shows a larger soil disturbance caused by forwarders than skidders, it is not possible to draw any general conclusions about differences between the two machines. Data about the machine passes, or the wood volumes transported over each trial area were not available; therefore, any general conclusion is misleading. SfM photogrammetry give information not available via traditional methods, thus improving impact assessment.Keywords: Forest Operation, Soil Impacts, Soil Displacement, Close Range Photogrammetry, Digital Terrain ModeliForest 11 (1): 148-154 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2590-010'id=ifor2590-010
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
  • Research Articles: Energy and environmental profile comparison of TMT

    • Authors: Ferreira J; Herrera R, Labidi J, Esteves B, Domingos I
      Abstract: Ferreira J, Herrera R, Labidi J, Esteves B, Domingos IENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE COMPARISON OF TMT PRODUCTION FROM TWO DIFFERENT COMPANIES - A SPANISH/PORTUGUESE CASE STUDYAbstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product and has been increasingly used to identify processes or stages in the wood chain with a high environmental impact or to highlight areas where environmental information is unknown. The main aim of this study was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts and the energy used for the production of one cubic meter of Thermally Modified Timber (TMT) by two different companies, one in Spain and the other in Portugal, using the LCA methodology. The LCA study was developed based on ISO 14040/44 standards. The inventory analysis and, subsequently, the impact analysis were performed using the LCA software SimaPro8.1.0.60. The method chosen for the environmental impact assessment was ReCiPe, and for energy use the Cumulative Energy Demand method was chosen. The results show that to produce 1 m3 of thermally modified pine timber the Portuguese company used 14.38 GJ of cumulative energy demand, of which 1.92 GJ was nonrenewable and 12.46 GJ renewable, and the Spanish company used a total of 17.55 GJ, of which 2.52 GJ was nonrenewable and 15.03 GJ renewable. The thermally modified pine timber produced by the Spanish company presented the best environmental results for 13 impact categories in comparison to the 5 best environmental results presented by the Portuguese company. From the weighting triangle, we can conclude that the Portuguese pine boards have a lower environmental impact than Spanish pine boards if a high weight (> 40%) is given to resources, while a weight of
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
  • Review Papers: Forest functions and space: a geohistorical perspective of
           European forests

    • Authors: Pilli R; Pase A
      Abstract: Pilli R, Pase AFOREST FUNCTIONS AND SPACE: A GEOHISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN FORESTSAbstract: The history of man has been linked to the history of wood since prehistoric times and because the forest is the main place where this resource is available, forest spaces are also directly linked to the evolution of human society. The objective of this paper is to analyze the historical evolution of the functions assigned by humans to forests, highlighting how they affect the production of space from a diachronic perspective. Focusing our attention on some European countries, we highlight that although historically, wood production was the most important function provided by wooded lands, other functions were also attributed to forests. The awareness of these functions emerged when an overexploitation of forest resources produced a lack of a specific service. When these services corresponded to a societal demand, they produced welfare benefits for the society, which were recognized as forest functions. Thus even the functions evolved in time according to the evolution of societal needs. Evaluating when and how each societal demand emerged, and consequently the moment each function was recognized, is an essential prerequisite even for a more accurate interpretation of current forest management practices. Not only is the temporal dimension of forest functions relevant, so is the spatial scale, which may differ considerably between them, ranging from the specific forest area and its owner for the productive function; to the catchment area and its inhabitants for the protective function; to a potentially larger area for the cultural and biodiversity function; and to the entire globe for the carbon-retention function. The strict, and sometimes competing, interactions between these functions may also be recognized in the production of space, which evolved in time according to the evolution of the corresponding societal needs. A forest parcel assigned to a productive function is a material space, marked in the field by colored signs, but it may also be virtually represented by a forest model or be part of some protected area. But this picture would change if, instead of looking at the present, we consider the past and the different sensations and representations concerned with forests. These complex interactions, between different functions and spatial dimensions, justify the need to balance a segregative management system with a wider, multi-functional integrated approach. What has emerged from our study is that to reach this difficult equilibrium, it is useful to consider the production processes of these forest spaces. Through this analytical approach, we can understand the interactions occurring over time between the evolution of the demands expressed by society and the main changes occurred on the forest landscape.Keywords: Forest Functions, Services, Production of Space, History, Sustainable Forest ManagementiForest 11 (1): 79-89 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2316-010'id=ifor2316-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
  • Research Articles: Leaf morphology of progenies in Q. suber, Q. ilex, and
           their hybrids using multivariate and geometric morphometric analysis

    • Authors: López De Heredia U; Duro-García MJ, Soto A
      Abstract: López De Heredia U, Duro-García MJ, Soto ALEAF MORPHOLOGY OF PROGENIES IN Q. SUBER, Q. ILEX, AND THEIR HYBRIDS USING MULTIVARIATE AND GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSISAbstract: The genus Quercus is known for the occurrence of frequent hybridization events between species. Although this phenomenon is not common among holm oak (Q. ilex) and cork oak (Q. suber), these species can hybridize when they coexist in mixed stands. The result of hybridization is a viable hybrid progeny with very heterogeneous leaf morphology. Literature concerning the leaf morphology of suber-ilex hybrid seedlings is scarce, and non-existent from a quantitative point of view. In the case of the leaf morphology of hybrids and their progeny, it has been observed a high frequency of leaves with fluctuating asymmetry or developmental abnormalities, which can have a marked effect on fitness. In this work, we have characterized seedlings’ leaf morphology corresponding to two- and four-year-old half-sib progenies of holm oak, cork oak and their hybrids. For this purpose, three to ten leaves of each individual were collected, and two methodologies were used for analysis. Firstly, we used a classic morphological analysis of twelve variables that were reduced using multivariate techniques. On the other hand, shape of the leaves was thoroughly analyzed by geometric morphometric analysis methods. The extent of fluctuating asymmetry and the presence of developmental abnormalities of seedlings were analyzed calculating an asymmetry index. The results indicate that thickness is the most discriminating trait between species, and that the hybrid progenies do not show a third different phenotype compared to the parental species. However, half-siblings tend to show similar leaf morphology between them, depending on the genetic adscription of the parents. While fluctuating asymmetry was found in half-sib progenies of the parental species and the hybrids, a significant proportion of hybrid half-sibs showed strong leaf asymmetry, probably due to modifications of the epigenetic systems that control leaf development at the shoot apical meristems and leaf primordia.Keywords: Hybridization, Fluctuating Asymmetry, Leaf Morphology, Procrustes AnalysisiForest 11 (1): 90-98 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2577-010'id=ifor2577-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
  • Research Articles: SimHyb: a simulation software for the study of the
           evolution of hybridizing populations. Application to Quercus ilex and Q.
           suber suggests hybridization could be underestimated

    • Authors: Soto A; Rodríguez-Martínez D, López De Heredia U
      Abstract: Soto A, Rodríguez-Martínez D, López De Heredia USIMHYB: A SIMULATION SOFTWARE FOR THE STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF HYBRIDIZING POPULATIONS. APPLICATION TO QUERCUS ILEX AND Q. SUBER SUGGESTS HYBRIDIZATION COULD BE UNDERESTIMATEDAbstract: We present SimHyb, a Java-based software for the simulation of mixed hybridizing populations. The software incorporates user-defined initial parameters and input files to account for the initial census size of two species in a closed population, the number of intermediate specific classes, the directional fertility among specific classes, the fitness coefficients for each specific class, the inheritance of fitness, and the degree of ageing and self-incompatibility of the individuals. All these demographic and adaptive parameters can be modified by the user to analyze their effect on the evolution of the mixed population. SimHyb allows the traceability of each individual, whose pedigree is also recorded. For each simulated generation the software yields an output file that is easily convertible to an input for Structure, one of the most popular softwares for the Bayesian analysis of populations. Application of SimHyb to simulate Quercus ilex and Q. suber hybridizing populations, and further analysis with Structure, reveals that advanced introgressed individuals are very often misclassified with the currently available set of nuclear microsatellite markers, so that introgression between these two species could have been underestimated in previous studies. However, we provide a simple parameter based on Structure results to identify the directionality of pollination in the progeny of a known mother tree.Keywords: Hybridization, Introgression, Simulations, Molecular Markers, Quercus suber, Quercus ilexiForest 11 (1): 99-103 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2569-011'id=ifor2569-011
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
  • Research Articles: Genetic diversity of core vs. peripheral Norway spruce
           native populations at a local scale in Slovenia

    • Authors: Westergren M; Bozic G, Kraigher H
      Abstract: Westergren M, Bozic G, Kraigher HGENETIC DIVERSITY OF CORE VS. PERIPHERAL NORWAY SPRUCE NATIVE POPULATIONS AT A LOCAL SCALE IN SLOVENIAAbstract: We investigated the levels of genetic diversity and population differentiation among core and peripheral populations of Norway spruce along an altitudinal gradient (from inversions to upper tree line) using isoenzymes (ISO) and nuclear simple-sequence repeats (SSR) markers on overlapping set of populations. Twenty-seven to seventy trees from 11 and 7 populations were genotyped with isoenzymes and SSRs, respectively. The results partially conform to the expectations of the central-peripheral hypothesis (CPH) and are consistent for both marker sets. Genetic differentiation among peripheral populations was low but significantly different from zero (FST-ISO = 0.013, FST-SSR = 0.009) and higher than that among core populations (FST-ISO = 0.007, FST-SSR = 0.005), conforming to central peripheral hypothesis. Contrastingly, levels of genetic diversity assessed by both richness and equitability measures did not significantly differ between peripheral and core populations (AR-ISO = 2.20 vs. 2.14, AR-SSR = 17.16 vs. 17.68, HE-ISO = 0.183 vs. 0.185, and HE-SSR = 0.935 vs. 0.935 for peripheral and core populations, respectively).Keywords: Central Peripheral Hypothesis, Picea abies (L.) Karst., Genetic Diversity, Genetic Differentiation, Upper Tree Line, InversioniForest 11 (1): 104-110 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2444-011'id=ifor2444-011
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
  • Research Articles: Feasibility study of near infrared spectroscopy to
           detect yellow stain on cork granulate

    • Authors: Pérez-Terrazas D; González-Adrados JR, Sánchez-González M
      Abstract: Pérez-Terrazas D, González-Adrados JR, Sánchez-González MFEASIBILITY STUDY OF NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TO DETECT YELLOW STAIN ON CORK GRANULATEAbstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the anomaly known as yellow stain on cork granulate. Detecting this anomaly is crucial to the cork granulate stopper industry, since it is associated with the presence of 2.4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), this compound having been identified as the main agent responsible for cork off-flavours. Samples for the NIRS spectra were prepared by mixing in different proportions cork granulate with high visual quality and cork granulate with yellow stain, obtaining 120 samples with 8 different percentages of yellow stain (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, 50 and 100%). Two spectra per sample were collected using a Bruker MPA spectrophotometer and the partial least squares (PLS) method was used to obtain numerous equations. The best equation was obtained by utilizing the standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing, making use of only one specific part of the near infrared spectral range: 9400-4250 cm-1. This equation shows a coefficient of determination (R²) of 99.42%, a root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.34%, and a residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 13.10. The critical level and the limit of detection are 3.8% and 7.6%, respectively. The calculated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show great discrimination capacity and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is higher than 0.93 in any case. This study demonstrates that NIRS provides a viable technique for detecting yellow stain in cork granulate.Keywords: Cork, Granulate, Yellow Stain, 2, 4, 6-Trichloroanisole, TCA, Near Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRSiForest 11 (1): 111-117 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2563-010'id=ifor2563-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
  • Review Papers: Soil seed banks of pioneer tree species in European
           temperate forests: a review

    • Authors: Tiebel K; Huth F, Wagner S
      Abstract: Tiebel K, Huth F, Wagner SSOIL SEED BANKS OF PIONEER TREE SPECIES IN EUROPEAN TEMPERATE FORESTS: A REVIEWAbstract: The ability of short-lived tree species such as birch, alder, willow, poplar and rowan to form even a short-term soil seed bank is discussed controversially in the literature. Soil seed banks are an important component of succession and regeneration in ecosystems. Following disturbance, buried viable seeds germinate and the seedlings that establish cover the disturbed, exposed soil surfaces. The objective of this study was to undertake a literature review of soil seed bank research carried out in central and north-west European temperate forests to provide an overview of the ability of pioneer tree species to form a viable seed bank. The review of 33 publications revealed that birch is the only pioneer tree species of temperate forests with longer-lived seeds, persisting in the soil for 1 - 5 years. Birch seeds remain viable in deeper soil layers (5 - 10 cm), so birch may be assigned to the short-term persistent soil seed bank type. The seeds of alder, willow and poplar would appear to be short-lived. Maximum seed densities of all tree species were found in the upper soil layers. With increasing soil depth, seed density declined. Viable seeds of rowan were not detected in any of the soil seed bank studies, although seed trees were present. We found that in spite of the capacity for long seed dispersal distances, high densities of birch, alder and willow seeds were only observed in close proximity to seed trees. The higher the numbers of seed trees, the higher the seed densities in soils. Maximum seed densities were recorded during and shortly after seed rains had occurred. Our results reveal that a birch seed bank may compensate for years with lower levels of seed production. However, as the seed bank is only short-term persistent, it must be supplemented by fresh seeds from surrounding seed trees as often as possible to guarantee a continuous capacity for regeneration.Keywords: Betula, Buried Seeds, Propagule Bank, Seed Density, Viable Seeds, GerminationiForest 11 (1): 48-57 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2400-011'id=ifor2400-011
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
  • Research Articles: Bird composition and diversity in oak stands under
           variable coppice management in Northwestern Turkey

    • Authors: Beskardes V; Keten A, Kumbasli M, Pekin B, Yilmaz E, Makineci E, Ozdemir E, Zengin H
      Abstract: Beskardes V, Keten A, Kumbasli M, Pekin B, Yilmaz E, Makineci E, Ozdemir E, Zengin HBIRD COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY IN OAK STANDS UNDER VARIABLE COPPICE MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWESTERN TURKEYAbstract: Coppice management results in profound differences in forest structure and composition, which in turn can modify habitat value for bird species. We measured bird species richness and composition at 50 sample plots in pure oak forest stands in northwestern Turkey, which differed in age, cover and height in association with coppice management. We recorded a total of 38 bird species and 699 individuals across all stands. Regression-based multimodel inference showed that structural features of forest stands strongly affect bird diversity and abundance. While canopy cover and tree height affect bird diversity positively, elevation of sampling plots, tree density and tree diameter at breast height (DBH) had a negative effect. In addition, constrained ordination analyses revealed that canopy cover was the most important factor influencing bird species composition. Forest stands that have 42-85% canopy cover, i.e., a few (2009-2580 oak trees) large tall (13.36-15.78 m) trees, were the most preferred habitat by bird species. However, we also found that different bird species favor different stand structural features. Thus, variation in stand structure from maintaining some coppice management across the landscape may be beneficial for rare or endangered species and result in greater landscape level biodiversity.Keywords: Avian Fauna, Canopy Height, Vegetation Seral Stage, Canopy Cover, Multi-model Inference, ThraceiForest 11 (1): 58-63 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2489-010'id=ifor2489-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
  • Research Articles: Windstorm disturbance triggers multiple species
           invasion in an urban Mediterranean forest

    • Authors: Bonanomi G; Incerti G, Abd El-Gawad AM, Sarker TC, Stinca A, Motti R, Cesarano G, Teobaldelli M, Saulino L, Cona F, Chirico GB, Mazzoleni S, Saracino A
      Abstract: Bonanomi G, Incerti G, Abd El-Gawad AM, Sarker TC, Stinca A, Motti R, Cesarano G, Teobaldelli M, Saulino L, Cona F, Chirico GB, Mazzoleni S, Saracino AWINDSTORM DISTURBANCE TRIGGERS MULTIPLE SPECIES INVASION IN AN URBAN MEDITERRANEAN FORESTAbstract: Plant invasion in forest ecosystems is a serious ecological and economic issue, deserving attention by researchers, managers and policy-makers worldwide. Many invasive plants have been reported as early successional species able to colonize disturbed areas following abrupt changes in microhabitat and resource availability. We investigated disturbance effects of a severe windstorm generated by a wet microburst (hail and rain at 160 mm h-1) remarkably affecting the canopy cover of an old-growth Quercus ilex urban forest in Southern Italy. This stand-replacing disturbance produced a mosaic of 103 gaps, 5.6 to 1632 m2 in size, over an area of 1.53 ha, uprooting 76% of the trees and decreasing thereby 85% of the standing above-ground dry biomass into the gaps. By intensive monitoring we compared above- and below-ground microclimate, soil moisture and mineral N availability in paired disturbed and control areas of the study forest. Within newly formed gaps we observed a seasonally consistent 70% higher content of nitrate nitrogen, 29% and 47% decreases of ammonia nitrogen in summer and autumn, respectively, and a higher moisture in topsoil, in addition to different above- and below-ground microclimatic conditions, with canopy cover mitigating extreme temperatures. One year after the windstorm, the microhabitat shift promoted the establishment in gaps of 15 native and 10 alien taxa previously absent in both disturbed and control plots. In such conditions, the rarefaction of the dominant Q. ilex canopy cover and the occurrence of empty niches prone to invasion could dramatically affect the local community structure and diversity. Our data indicate that stand-replacing windstorm can transiently transform the studied urban evergreen forest to an early allogenic successional community dominated, in the medium and large gaps, by annual and perennial non-native species. This is particularly relevant under a perspective of possible increasing frequency of windstorm events in the Mediterranean region in the near future.Keywords: Invasive Plants, Microburst, Mediterranean Evergreen Woodland, Quercus ilex, Resources Fluctuation, Empty NicheiForest 11 (1): 64-71 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2374-010'id=ifor2374-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
  • Research Articles: Analysis of growth of recruits of natural regeneration
           of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz - a rare European forest tree species

    • Authors: Bednorz L; Nowinska R
      Abstract: Bednorz L, Nowinska RANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF RECRUITS OF NATURAL REGENERATION OF SORBUS TORMINALIS (L.) CRANTZ - A RARE EUROPEAN FOREST TREE SPECIESAbstract: We compared growth and survival of wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis [L.] Crantz) recruits of different origin (generative: seedlings; vegetative: root suckers) established in a fenced plot at the Forest District of Krzyz (north-western Poland). Total height, annual growth of the dominant shoot, stem diameter at root collar, number of first-order branches, and mortality were measured every year over the period 2011-2015 (5 years). In 2011, a total of 382 multi-age recruits originated both from seeds (212) and root suckers (170) were recorded. Five-year mortality was higher in the generative progeny (12.3% - only youngest seedlings) as compared with vegetative recruits (2.9%). The growth rate of individuals markedly increased with height as absolute values, but slightly decreased in terms of relative growth. Statistical analysis revealed that the effect of the recruit origin on growth was noticeably weaker than that of age, defined in terms of development (height) classes. The origin of recruits had a major effect on the annual growth of the dominant shoots and a minor (though significant) effect on stem diameter and the number of first-order branches. Overall, the analysis of growth rate showed that generative recruits grow faster than the vegetative ones. Our results highlight the importance of stimulating the generative regeneration and protecting seedlings as a conservation strategy for Sorbus torminalis.Keywords: Sorbus torminalis, Regeneration, Growth, Mortality, Seedlings, Root SuckersiForest 11 (1): 72-78 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2347-010'id=ifor2347-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
  • Research Articles: Voluntary carbon credits from improved forest
           management: policy guidelines and case study

    • Authors: Vacchiano G; Berretti R, Romano R, Motta R
      Abstract: Vacchiano G, Berretti R, Romano R, Motta RVOLUNTARY CARBON CREDITS FROM IMPROVED FOREST MANAGEMENT: POLICY GUIDELINES AND CASE STUDYAbstract: Human activities have the potential to enhance carbon sequestration by the world’s forests and contribute to climate change mitigation. Voluntary carbon trading is currently the only option to pursue and reward carbon sequestration by forestry activities. Carbon credits for enhanced sequestration can be sold to partners wishing to offset their own emissions. Here we illustrate the steps taken to design guidelines for the generation of voluntary carbon credits by improved forest management in Piemonte, Italy. The guidelines have been developed in a joint effort by academia, regional administrations, forest owners and professional consultants. In particular, we show how to compute the baseline and the additionality of credit-generating forest management activities, and how to reconcile the generation of forest carbon credits with law requirements, technical limitations, and the provision of other ecosystem services. To illustrate the profitability of carbon credit generation, we simulated the application of carbon credit guidelines to two forest-rich mountain watersheds in the southern part of the Piemonte region. The two dominating tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). We computed current forest carbon stock and carbon credits generated in 20 years under business as usual and an alternative biomass retention scenario. The IFM resulted in an avoided harvest of 39.362 m3 for a net total of 64.014 MgCO2e after subtracting harvest emissions, or 38 Mg ha-1 throughout the permanence period of 20 years. These steps can be replicated in other mountain regions where there is interest in promoting this ecosystem service as an alternative or an addition to production-oriented forest management.Keywords: Carbon Stocks, Carbon Credits, Biomass, Coppice, Ecosystem Services, Forest Management Plan, Climate Change Mitigation, Retention ForestryiForest 11 (1): 1-10 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2431-010'id=ifor2431-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
  • Research Articles: Comparison of traits of non-colonized and colonized
           decaying logs by vascular plant species

    • Authors: Chmura D; Zarnowiec J, Staniaszek-Kik M
      Abstract: Chmura D, Zarnowiec J, Staniaszek-Kik MCOMPARISON OF TRAITS OF NON-COLONIZED AND COLONIZED DECAYING LOGS BY VASCULAR PLANT SPECIESAbstract: The main goal of this study was to check whether the process of the colonization of coarse woody debris (CWD) is random or is determined by the wood traits and the environment. The study was conducted in the Karkonosze Mts., a part of Sudeten Mts. (Poland). We recorded the CWD traits and site conditions for 453 logs of spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), which were either colonized or not colonized by vascular plants. Principal Components Analysis (PCA), a statistical comparison of two categories of logs using the Wilcoxon’s sum rank test and Generalized Linear Model (GLM) were applied. P. abies logs were colonized significantly more frequently than F. sylvatica logs. PCA demonstrated that the groups of colonized and non-colonized logs significantly differed overall in both species. The colonization status of a given log was significantly associated with CWD traits and site conditions. Decomposition class, the log diameter and the cover of bryophytes in F. sylvatica and P. abies, as well as altitude in the latter species, were significant factors that increased the probability of dead wood colonization by vascular plants. The results supported the hypothesis that vascular plants do not colonize all of the available logs and that the process of establishment is not random.Keywords: Dead Wood, Fallen Trees, Succession, Norway Spruce, Beechwood, Montane ForestiForest 11 (1): 11-16 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2107-010'id=ifor2107-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
  • Research Articles: Seasonal development of lesions caused by Hymenoscyphus
           fraxineus on young Fraxinus excelsior trees in Latvia

    • Authors: Matisone I; Matisons R, Kenigsvalde K, Gaitnieks T, Burneviča N
      Abstract: Matisone I, Matisons R, Kenigsvalde K, Gaitnieks T, Burneviča NSEASONAL DEVELOPMENT OF LESIONS CAUSED BY HYMENOSCYPHUS FRAXINEUS ON YOUNG FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR TREES IN LATVIAAbstract: The spread of the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing dieback of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Europe, is rapid and the damage is pronounced, as young ashes can perish over the course of only a few months following infection. The objective of this study was to investigate the rate and extent of lesion formation on young (5-8-year-old) ashes during a vegetation season in the hemiboreal zone in Latvia. Continuous surveys (with monthly intervals) of the health condition of 30 young ash and measurements of lesion area in three stands were performed during the vegetation season of 2015. From June to September of that year, the number of observed lesions gradually rose from 58 to 87. New lesions emerged on branches (55%, 0.5 per tree), top shoots (28%, 0.3 per tree), and stems (17%, 0.2 per tree), mostly appearing at the beginning of the observation period (45%, 52%, and 3% in June, July, and August, respectively). During the vegetation season, 20% of the existing and 28% of the newly-emerged lesions on branches, as well as 20% and 25% of top shoot lesions, respectively, reached the main stem. Some (< 20% of cases) transitions of lesions from the tops and branches to the stems were observed. The extension of lesions was significant until August, and ceased afterwards in a similar fashion in all stands. The mean extension of area significantly differed between the previously-existing and newly-emerged lesions. During the vegetation season, the new lesions expanded by 25.1 ± 4.8 cm2, whereas the existing ones grew by only 7.3 ± 1.1 cm2. The extension of the new lesions varied according to their location on a tree. The spread of emerging lesions on stems was considerably slower than on branches or top shoots (1.9 ± 0.7, 7.3 ± 1.5, and 14.5 ± 4.1 cm2 per lesion per month, respectively). During the studied vegetation season (summer), the overall health score of trees decreased twice, yet the relationship between heath status and development of lesions lacked significance.Keywords: Common Ash, Ash Dieback, Lesion Length, Sapling WiltingiForest 11 (1): 17-23 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2283-010'id=ifor2283-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
  • Research Articles: Adaptive variation in physiological traits of beech
           provenances in Central Europe

    • Authors: Kučerová J; Konôpková A, Pšidová E, Kurjak D, Jamnická G, Slugenová K, Gömöry D, Ditmarová L
      Abstract: Kučerová J, Konôpková A, Pšidová E, Kurjak D, Jamnická G, Slugenová K, Gömöry D, Ditmarová LADAPTIVE VARIATION IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF BEECH PROVENANCES IN CENTRAL EUROPEAbstract: Current climate changes can led to a decline of local beech populations fully adapted to previous climate conditions. In this context, the issue of variation in adaptive traits becomes important. A field experiment with 18-year-old trees of Fagus sylvatica L. was conducted on provenance plot located in Tále (Central Slovakia), where physiological responses of five beech provenances originating from contrasting sites along an altitudinal gradient from 55 to 1100 m a.s.l. across the range of the natural beech distribution were studied. Stomatal characteristics, parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were determined. Overall, we observed a significant increase in physiological performance at the leaf level with increasing altitude of origin. Provenances from the higher altitudes showed higher CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal density, potential conductance indices and photochemical efficiency, and lower capability for dissipation of energy by heat. A similar pattern of response was recorded in relation to the precipitation regime of sites of origin. Moreover, in the context of the temperature regime, several negative trends were observed.Keywords: Adaptation, Provenance Trial, Fagus sylvatica L., Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, Stomatal Traits, Gas ExchangeiForest 11 (1): 24-31 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2291-010'id=ifor2291-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
  • Research Articles: Effects of nitrogen loading under low and high
           phosphorus conditions on above- and below-ground growth of hybrid larch F1

    • Authors: Fujita S; Wang X, Kita K, Koike T
      Abstract: Fujita S, Wang X, Kita K, Koike TEFFECTS OF NITROGEN LOADING UNDER LOW AND HIGH PHOSPHORUS CONDITIONS ON ABOVE- AND BELOW-GROUND GROWTH OF HYBRID LARCH F1 SEEDLINGSAbstract: Under present environmental conditions, hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) is a promising afforestation species as it has a high growth rate and tolerance against grazing damage, disease and cold. However, the input of nitrogen (N) to forests due to the increase of anthropogenic N is causing imbalances of N compared to other nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), thus affecting the root growth of healthy seedlings. However, knowledge on how different N and P conditions affect F1 root growth is still limited. In this study, various N (3 levels) and P (no addition and addition) conditions were imposed to investigate the effect of N loading on larch F1 seedlings under different P conditions. Needle N: P ratio, aboveground growth, belowground growth as well as fine root production were measured. The results showed that needle N: P ratio was higher under low P loading, and aboveground growth of seedlings increased with N loading at both low and high P conditions. Relative fine root production was decreased by N loading. On the other hand, fine root to total dry proportion was increased by N loading at no P addition, suggesting that limited P availability could increase fine root production. Total root proportion to total dry mass was decreased by N loading at both P conditions. We concluded that N loading has different effects on above- and below-ground growth of larch F1 and its effects may also differ according to P conditions, indicating that both N and P conditions should be carefully considered when planting hybrid larch F1.Keywords: Nitrogen Deposition, Phosphorus, Fine Root Production, N: P Ratio, Hybrid Larch F1iForest 11 (1): 32-40 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2395-010'id=ifor2395-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
  • Research Articles: Predicting phenology of European beech in forest

    • Authors: Vilhar U; De Groot M, Zust A, Skudnik M, Simončič P
      Abstract: Vilhar U, De Groot M, Zust A, Skudnik M, Simončič PPREDICTING PHENOLOGY OF EUROPEAN BEECH IN FOREST HABITATSAbstract: Reliable phenological observations are important for studying the response of trees to climate and climate change. National phenological networks were not specifically established to monitor tree phenology within forests, yet they are often used to generalise tree phenological phases at national or regional scales. Our objective was to investigate whether a phenological monitoring network using trees in open areas can accurately predict phenology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) located within forests by using two models: one with correlates of environmental variables and one with interpolated monthly air temperature and sun hours. The first leaf unfolding, general leaf colouring and leaf fall dates from 2004 through 2010 were modelled using data from 47 Slovene National Phenology Network (NPN) stations in open areas and tested on phenological observations within forests using data from the UNECE CRLTAP ICP Forests network. Good agreement was found between predicted and observed first leaf unfolding in the forest, while slightly lower agreement was detected for general leaf colouring and leaf fall. Suggestions for the improvement of national phenological network are discussed in order to better predict beech phenology in forest habitats.Keywords: Leaf Unfolding, Leaf Colouring, Leaf Fall, Modelling, Fagus sylvatica, Slovene National Phenology Network, ICP ForestsiForest 11 (1): 41-47 (2018) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1820-010'id=ifor1820-010
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
  • Research Articles: Historical and contemporary forest ecosystem changes in
           the Beskid Mountains (southern Poland) between 1848 and 2014

    • Authors: Sobala M; Rahmonov O, Myga-Piatek U
      Abstract: Sobala M, Rahmonov O, Myga-Piatek UHISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY FOREST ECOSYSTEM CHANGES IN THE BESKID MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN POLAND) BETWEEN 1848 AND 2014Abstract: Landscape changes in the Carpathians are related to centuries of human activity, which can be regarded as the key component of global change. Changes in mountainous regions are mainly caused by agriculture, urbanization, forest cutting for production and land abandonment. This paper aimed to assess the impact of natural and historical-cultural factors on forest ecosystem transformations occurred in the period 1848-2014 in two small areas (about 45 km2) on the Beskid Mountains (southern Poland). The comparison of historical and current maps, along with the application of GIS and field verification, allowed a full interpretation of changes in land use in the studied areas. A decrease of 58.0% in non-forest areas was observed in the considered period, while the forested area grew systematically by 28.3% and the forest-field boundary lowered in altitude. Current forest ecosystems are distributed as a mosaic and mainly consist of Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum, Luzulo nemorosae-Fagetum, Abieti-Piceetum montanum, with logged sites taking up large areas. Forest ecosystems include valuable semi-natural meadows such as Gladiolo-Agrostietum, Hieracio-Nardetum, Arrhenatheretum medioeuropaeum, Cirsietum rivularis or Juncetum effusi, whose extension is reducing and fragmentation increasing due to the recolonization of forest tree species after abandonment. We concluded that trends in land use in the Carpathians were mainly determined by non-environmental factors related to the development of farming-pasturing and forest management. The applied approach could be extended to other regions in the Carpathians which were subject to analogous historical-cultural influences. Moreover, our results allow for a comparison with other regions which are subject to similar impacts of natural processes, but to different impact of historical and cultural processes.Keywords: Landscape Research, Forest Transformation, Land Use Changes, Historical Maps, Poland, Beskid Mountains, CarpathiansiForest 10 (6): 939-947 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2418-010'id=ifor2418-010
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
  • Research Articles: Testing common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.)
           acetylated with the Accoya method under industrial conditions

    • Authors: Fodor F; Lankveld C, Németh R
      Abstract: Fodor F, Lankveld C, Németh RTESTING COMMON HORNBEAM (CARPINUS BETULUS L.) ACETYLATED WITH THE ACCOYA METHOD UNDER INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONSAbstract: Hornbeam is known for its high density, hardness, toughness, and wear resistance, but due to its low durability (Class 5 according to EN 350), limited wood quality, and rather small sawmill yield it is mainly utilized as firewood today. The potential for hornbeam to be used as solid, high-quality wood material exists if its durability and dimensional stability can be increased. Hornbeam boards were acetylated under industrial conditions and tests were carried out to evaluate the treatability of this wood species by acetylation. In this study, the examination of physical, mechanical, and durability properties of acetylated hornbeam are described and compared to untreated hornbeam and to acetylated beech, which has a similar anatomical structure to hornbeam. Acetylated hornbeam was also compared to acetylated radiata pine, which is the main product of Accsys Technologies. These comparisons include the determination of the equilibrium moisture content, density, dimensional stability, accelerated checking, color change, water uptake, decay resistance, compression strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), impact bending strength, Janka hardness, Brinell hardness, and impact bending strength. The aim of this project is the creation of a new product thereby widening the usage of this species.Keywords: Hornbeam, Acetylation, Accoya, Physical Properties, Mechanical Properties, Durability, ColoriForest 10 (6): 948-954 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2359-010'id=ifor2359-010
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
  • Research Articles: Patterns of genetic diversity in European beech (Fagus
           sylvatica L.) at the eastern margins of its distribution range

    • Authors: Ciocîrlan E; Sofletea N, Ducci F, Curtu AL
      Abstract: Ciocîrlan E, Sofletea N, Ducci F, Curtu ALPATTERNS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN EUROPEAN BEECH (FAGUS SYLVATICA L.) AT THE EASTERN MARGINS OF ITS DISTRIBUTION RANGEAbstract: Populations located at the periphery of the species’ distribution range may play an important role in the context of climate change. These peripheral populations may contain specific adaptations as a result of extreme environmental conditions. The aim of this paper was to assess within population genetic diversity and among population differentiation in one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, European beech (Fagus sylvatica), at the eastern margins of its natural range. We analysed four peripheral, isolated populations and five core populations from the continuous natural range along the Carpathian Mountains using a set of microsatellite markers. Higher levels of genetic diversity as measured by allelic richness (7.34 vs. 6.50) and observed heterozygosity (0.71 vs. 0.59) were detected in core populations than in peripheral ones. Population differentiation was slightly higher among peripheral populations than among core, Carpathian populations. There was strong evidence of bottleneck effects in two out of the four peripheral, isolated populations. Both core, Carpathian populations and peripheral, lowlands populations share the same chloroplast haplotype suggesting a common geographical origin from the putative Moravian refuge area. Past long distance founding events with material from the Carpathian mountain chain might explain the occurrence of small, isolated beech populations towards the steppe in the south-east of Romania. Our genetic data may contribute to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of the remnants of beech scattered occurrences at the eastern margins of species’ distribution range.Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, Genetic Diversity, Peripheral Populations, Bottleneck EffectiForest 10 (6): 916-922 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2446-010'id=ifor2446-010
      PubDate: 2017-12-10
  • Research Articles: Identifying priority conservation areas for
           above-ground carbon sequestration in Central Mexico

    • Authors: Cruz-Huerta C; González-Guillén MDJ, Martínez-Trinidad T, Escalona-Maurice M
      Abstract: Cruz-Huerta C, González-Guillén MDJ, Martínez-Trinidad T, Escalona-Maurice MIDENTIFYING PRIORITY CONSERVATION AREAS FOR ABOVE-GROUND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN CENTRAL MEXICOAbstract: Identifying forest ecosystems with significant ecological, social, and/or economic values is an important first-step in conserving landscape function. Here, we identify priority conservation areas in the municipalities of Chignahuapan and Zacatlan, Puebla (Mexico), based on: (i) their capacity to sequester atmospheric CO2; and (ii) risk of future deforestation. We also explore management strategies for priority-lands conservation in the Mexican context. Above-ground C sequestration was estimated using wood density and biomass expansion-factor data available from local forestry sources. Deforestation risk was estimated by a probabilistic model of land use change using socioeconomic and biophysical variables. Carbon sequestration estimates ranged from 14 to 531 Mg ha-1 for Chignahuapan and Zacatlan, respectively. An estimated 11.746 and 4.406 ha of forest was determined to be at risk of deforestation in each municipality. Of these at-risk lands, 2.421 and 1.798 ha were determined to be at high risk. In combination, we determined that 10.687 and 4.319 ha, respectively, are priority lands for carbon sequestration in Chignahuapan and Zacatlan, of which 628 and 310 ha were determined to have high conservation priority. Identifying priority conservation areas through the integrated assessment of carbon sequestration and deforestation risk can enhance efforts to target land management strategies to mitigate climate change impacts. This approach can serve as a model for other forested regions in Mexico and other countries.Keywords: Forest Carbon Sinks, REDD, Climate Change, Deforestation Risk, Priority Conservation, Probabilistic Model, Land Use, DevelopmentiForest 10 (6): 923-929 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1980-010'id=ifor1980-010
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
  • Research Articles: Comparison of timber-house technologies and initiatives

    • Authors: Kitek Kuzman M; Sandberg D
      Abstract: Kitek Kuzman M, Sandberg DCOMPARISON OF TIMBER-HOUSE TECHNOLOGIES AND INITIATIVES SUPPORTING USE OF TIMBER IN SLOVENIA AND IN SWEDEN - THE STATE OF THE ARTAbstract: Historically, Slovenia and Sweden have equivalent uses of timber in construction and a long tradition of timber engineering and architecture. Nevertheless, in spite of these similarities, the development path to reach a modern and industrialized use of timber in construction which allows a diversity of architectural expression and design possibilities has differed considerably between these two countries, after the function-based building regulations that were introduced in Europe nearly three decades ago. This paper gives an overview of some characteristic modern timber buildings in Slovenia and Sweden, and the different construction techniques that are used in these two countries. Successful initiatives supporting the use of timber in construction are also presented. The opportunities for the further development of sustainable timber constructions in Slovenia and Sweden lie in new production methods, high prefabrication, and energy-efficient and climate-effective architecture, besides partnership and increased responsibilities for planning, improved and systematic feedback of experience and team cooperation, as well as knowing users identity, values and life style.Keywords: Architecture, Timber Construction, Technologies, Promotion InitiativesiForest 10 (6): 930-938 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2397-010'id=ifor2397-010
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
  • Review Papers: Wood modification technologies - a review

    • Authors: Sandberg D; Kutnar A, Mantanis G
      Abstract: Sandberg D, Kutnar A, Mantanis GWOOD MODIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES - A REVIEWAbstract: The market for new durable products of modified wood has increased substantially during the last few years, especially in Europe. This increased interest depends partly on the restricted use of toxic preservatives due to increased environmental concern, as well as the need for reduced maintenance for wood products that are mainly for exterior use. Furthermore, as sustainability becomes a greater concern, the environmental impact of construction and interior materials should be included in planning by considering the entire life cycle and embodied energy of the materials used. As a result, wood modification has been implemented to improve the intrinsic properties of wood, widen the range of sawn timber applications, and acquire the form and functionality desired by engineers, without bringing environmental friendliness into question. The different wood modification processes are at various stages of development, and the challenges that must be overcome to expand to industrial applications differ amongst them. In this paper, three groups of wood modification processes are discussed and exemplified with modified wood products that have been newly introduced to the market: (i) chemical processing (acetylation, furfurylation, resin impregnation etc.); (ii) thermo-hydro processing (thermal treatment); and (iii) thermo-hydro-mechanical processing (surface densification). Building on these examples, the paper will discuss the environmental impact assessment of modification processes and further development needs.Keywords: Chemical Treatments, Thermo-hydro-mechanical, LCA, Acetylation, Furfurylation, Resin Impregnation, Environmental Impacts, DensificationiForest 10 (6): 895-908 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2380-010'id=ifor2380-010
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
  • Research Articles: Density management diagram for teak plantations in
           Tabasco, Mexico

    • Authors: Minoche D; Risio-Allione L, Herrero De Aza C, Martínez-Zurimendi P
      Abstract: Minoche D, Risio-Allione L, Herrero De Aza C, Martínez-Zurimendi PDENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM FOR TEAK PLANTATIONS IN TABASCO, MEXICOAbstract: Density management diagrams are valuable tools for managing specific forest species. The aim of this study was to obtain a density management diagram for teak (Tectona grandis L.) plantations in the State of Tabasco in Mexico. To achieve this objective, a set of 10 plantations were studied, in which 42 plots were established. Two equations were fitted simultaneously, including one related to the quadratic mean diameter, stand density and dominant height and the other which related the total stand volume to the quadratic mean diameter, stand density and dominant height. The results showed that the diagram had an acceptable predictability, thus indicating its usefulness and accuracy in planning silvicultural interventions. This diagram is a very powerful tool that can enable stakeholders to manage teak plantations in the State of Tabasco.Keywords: Silvicultural Interventions, Stand Density Diagram, Quadratic Mean Diameter, Tectona grandisiForest 10 (6): 909-915 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2247-010'id=ifor2247-010
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
  • Research Articles: Density management diagrams for sweet chestnut
           high-forest stands in Portugal

    • Authors: Patrício MS; Nunes L
      Abstract: Patrício MS, Nunes LDENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAMS FOR SWEET CHESTNUT HIGH-FOREST STANDS IN PORTUGALAbstract: This study aims to develop stand density management diagrams (SDMDs) for pure even-aged high-forest stands of sweet chestnut in Portugal, defining the appropriate upper and lower limits of growing stock while considering the biological, technological and economic objectives that are expected for these stands. The SDMDs were developed with data collected from high-forest stands in northern Portugal, which is the main representative area of these stands in the country. Data were collected from 23 pure even-aged permanent plots with re-measurement intervals of 4-10 years, 43 semi-permanent plots and 18 even-aged temporary plots; all plots were established in chestnut high-forest stands with a broad range of ages. SDMDs were constructed by simultaneously fitting four nonlinear equations relating stand variables using the full information likelihood technique. SDMDs for the estimation of stand total volume, stand stem biomass, stand total aboveground biomass, and carbon content in aboveground biomass are presented as bivariate graphs with dominant height on the x-axis and the number of trees per hectare on the y-axis (using logarithmic scale). A tool is made available to define an optimal range of stand density for a silviculture oriented to single-stem selection on a tree-by-tree basis, focusing management on the most valuable trees. This tool is aimed to support forest managers in the decision-making process, enabling them to schedule thinnings on the basis of the dominant height growth of the trees with the greatest potential (frame trees), maintaining an adequate growing stock and assessing the corresponding aboveground wood volume, biomass, carbon, and mean diameter breast height.Keywords: Castanea sativa Mill., Stand Density, Thinning, Biomass, Site Index, Dominant Height, Forest ManagementiForest 10 (6): 865-870 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2411-010'id=ifor2411-010
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
  • Research Articles: Evaluating the impact of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in
           Trentino (Alps, Northern Italy): first investigations

    • Authors: Giongo S; Oliveira Longa CM, Dal Maso E, Montecchio L, Maresi G
      Abstract: Giongo S, Oliveira Longa CM, Dal Maso E, Montecchio L, Maresi GEVALUATING THE IMPACT OF HYMENOSCYPHUS FRAXINEUS IN TRENTINO (ALPS, NORTHERN ITALY): FIRST INVESTIGATIONSAbstract: The spread of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has been causing great concern regarding the survival of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) throughout Europe since the 1990s. The disease was first recorded in Trentino (southern Alps, Italy) in 2012 and has spread throughout the mountain landscape, where ash trees are scattered in small and isolated stands in different valleys. The status of the disease was checked by monitoring the damage to natural regeneration and adult trees in 90 sites spread over the whole region. The survey confirmed the complete colonization by the pathogen of the whole investigated area, with high levels of damage to both young and adult ash trees. Regeneration (both seedlings and saplings) was observed to be affected by the fungus in 88 plots out of 90. Out of 4486 examined young European ashes, 2261 (50.4%) were affected and 789 (17.6%) were already dead. Ten of the 384 assayed flowering ashes (Fraxinus ornus) showed symptoms on branches and apical stems, similar to those observed for European ash. Isolation and molecular analysis proved the presence of the fungus on both symptomatic European and flowering ashes. The examined 386 adult trees showed different levels of damage, sometimes reaching more than 75% of the crown. Some individual trees (42) growing close to severely damaged trees appeared fully healthy, which suggests the possible existence of some resistant/tolerant individuals in the examined populations.Keywords: Ash Dieback, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus ornus, Natural Regeneration, Forest ManagementiForest 10 (6): 871-878 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2486-010'id=ifor2486-010
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
  • Research Articles: Examining the evolution and convergence of wood
           modification and environmental impact assessment in research

    • Authors: Burnard M; Posavčević M, Kegel E
      Abstract: Burnard M, Posavčević M, Kegel EEXAMINING THE EVOLUTION AND CONVERGENCE OF WOOD MODIFICATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN RESEARCHAbstract: We performed a bibliometric analysis of peer-reviewed publications on wood modification and environmental impact assessment of wood retrieved from the Scopus® database. We used data mining and network analysis tools to investigate the development of the field over time. We explore both wood modification and environmental impact assessment separately, and investigate where the publication record overlaps. Our research revealed that in recent years both topics have produced sharp increases in the number of publications, and have diversified greatly in recent years. Additionally, there were differences in the author collaboration patterns between each field. Fewer authors have contributed over a longer period of time in the wood modification publication record, whereas more authors have contributed over a shorter period of time to the environmental impact assessment of wood record, but they tend to collaborate less frequently. These methods allow researchers and industry members to quickly explore trends in research topics, the number of publications, where research is being conducted, and the growing network of researchers publishing together.Keywords: Bibliometrics, Data Mining, Network Analysis, Wood Modification, Environmental Impact Assessment, COST Action FP1407, WoodiForest 10 (6): 879-885 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2390-010'id=ifor2390-010
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
  • Research Articles: Assessment of timber extraction distance and skid road
           network in steep karst terrain

    • Authors: Duka A; Grigolato S, Papa I, Pentek T, Poršinsky T
      Abstract: Duka A, Grigolato S, Papa I, Pentek T, Poršinsky TASSESSMENT OF TIMBER EXTRACTION DISTANCE AND SKID ROAD NETWORK IN STEEP KARST TERRAINAbstract: This study aims to define a simple and effective method to calculate skidding distances on steep karst terrain, rich in ground obstacles (stoniness and rockiness) to support decision planning of secondary and primary forest infrastructure network for timber extraction in productive selective cut forests. Variations between geometrical extraction distances and actual distances were highlighted on the operational planning level (i.e., compartment level) through GIS-related calculation models, focusing on cable skidder timber extraction. Automation in defining geometrical and real extraction distances, as well as relative forest openness were achieved by geo-processing workflows in GIS environment. Due to variation of extraction correction factors at the compartment level from a minimum of 1.19 to a maximum of 5.05 in the same management unit, it can be concluded that planning harvesting operations (timber extraction) at operational level should not include the use of correction factors previously obtained for entire terrain (topographical) categories, sub-categories or even management units.Keywords: Real Extraction Distance, Steep Terrain, Skid Road Network, GIS Environment, Karst TerrainiForest 10 (6): 886-894 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2471-010'id=ifor2471-010
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
  • Research Articles: Understory vegetation dynamics and tree regeneration as
           affected by deer herbivory in temperate hardwood forests

    • Authors: Laurent L; Mårell A, Balandier P, Holveck H, Saïd S
      Abstract: Laurent L, Mårell A, Balandier P, Holveck H, Saïd SUNDERSTORY VEGETATION DYNAMICS AND TREE REGENERATION AS AFFECTED BY DEER HERBIVORY IN TEMPERATE HARDWOOD FORESTSAbstract: Plant competition and deer browsing are two main factors which limit tree recruitment. We examined natural tree-recruitment processes under continuous-tree-cover management. Changes in plant communities and tree regeneration were monitored over an eight-year period at two different sites in a temperate hardwood forest in the North-East of France. We used paired control plot (unfenced areas, free access to deer) and exclosures (fenced areas, excluding deer) at both sites. Shade-tolerant browsing-tolerant opportunistic species (beech, Fagus sylvatica at site 1 and bramble, Rubus spp. at site 2) were present in low numbers at the beginning of the study. We found that these species used a sit-and-wait strategy, waiting for opportunities to proliferate (thinning and deer exclusion). In the exclosure at site 1, beech proliferate slowly. In the exclosure at site 2, bramble proliferated enough during the first two growing seasons to prevent tree recruitment. Thus, fencing encouraged beech sapling or bramble growth, and this growth in turn was detrimental to the richness and diversity of the plant community. The two study cases presented show that both plant competition and deer browsing can be problematic for tree recruitment. Our results further suggest that excluding deer is not sufficient to enhance the growth of browse-sensitive and moderately shade-tolerant tree species such as oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur).Keywords: Understory Vegetation, Plant Interaction, Competition, Browsing, Forest Regeneration, ExclosureiForest 10 (5): 837-844 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2186-010'id=ifor2186-010
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
  • Research Articles: Contrasting multi-taxa diversity patterns between
           abandoned and non-intensively managed forests in the southern Dolomites

    • Authors: Sitzia T; Campagnaro T, Dainese M, Cassol M, Dal Cortivo M, Gatti E, Padovan F, Sommacal M, Nascimbene J
      Abstract: Sitzia T, Campagnaro T, Dainese M, Cassol M, Dal Cortivo M, Gatti E, Padovan F, Sommacal M, Nascimbene JCONTRASTING MULTI-TAXA DIVERSITY PATTERNS BETWEEN ABANDONED AND NON-INTENSIVELY MANAGED FORESTS IN THE SOUTHERN DOLOMITESAbstract: The abandonment of silvicultural activities can lead to changes in species richness and composition of biological communities, when compared to those found in managed forests. The aim of this study was to compare the multi-taxonomical diversity of two mature silver fir-beech-spruce forests in the southern Dolomites (Italy), corresponding to the European Union habitat type 9130. The two sites share similar ecological and structural characteristics, but differ in their recent management histories. In the last 50 years, one site underwent non-intensive management, while the other was left unmanaged and was included in a forest reserve. The species richness and composition of eight taxa were surveyed in the two sites between 2009 and 2011. The difference in mean species richness between the two forest management types was tested through permutation tests, while differences in species composition were tested by principal coordinates analysis and the permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Mean species richness of soil macrofungi, deadwood lichens, bark beetles, and longhorn beetles were significantly higher in the abandoned than in the non-intensively managed forests. Deadwood fungi and epiphytic lichens did not differ in mean species richness between the two study sites, while mean species richness of ground beetles and birds were higher in the non-intensively managed than in the abandoned forest. Significant differences in species composition between the two sites were found for all the taxa, except for longhorn beetles. These results indicate that improving forest landscape heterogeneity through the creation of a mosaic of abandoned and extensively managed forests should better fulfill the requirements of ecologically different taxa.Keywords: Asperulo-Fagetum, Forestry Abandonment, Biodiversity Conservation, Selection Cutting, Natura 2000, Silver FiriForest 10 (5): 845-850 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2181-010'id=ifor2181-010
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
  • Research Articles: Salinity strongly drives the survival, growth, leaf
           demography, and nutrient partitioning in seedlings of Xylocarpus granatum
           J. König

    • Authors: Siddique MRH; Saha S, Salekin S, Mahmood H
      Abstract: Siddique MRH, Saha S, Salekin S, Mahmood HSALINITY STRONGLY DRIVES THE SURVIVAL, GROWTH, LEAF DEMOGRAPHY, AND NUTRIENT PARTITIONING IN SEEDLINGS OF XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM J. KöNIGAbstract: Salinity is increasing in the Sundarbans (Bangladesh) due to sea-level rise and the reduction of fresh water flow. Xylocarpus granatum is one of the most valuable mangrove tree species of the Sundarbans. We conducted a six-month long study to investigate the effect of salinity on the survival, growth, leaf demography, and nutrient partitioning in parts of X. granatum seedlings. Our results showed that most of the seedlings (90%) survived at 0 to 5 PSU salinity, and this survival percentage was found to decrease at higher saline conditions. Salinity of more than 25 PSU was lethal to the plants as no seedlings survived under these conditions. In this salinity (25 PSU), accelerated leaf fall coupled with a reduction in the new leaves caused loss of leaves. The relative growth rate (RGR) was higher at 0 to 5 PSU salinity, and conversely, a lower growth rate was observed with increased salinity. Higher saline conditions created stress, which inhibited nutrient (N, P and K) accumulation in different parts (leaf, stem, bark and root) of the seedlings. We concluded that salinity is a critical factor for the growth and survival of X. granatum either by inhibiting plant nutrient uptake or due to salinity related toxicity.Keywords: Mangroves, Climate Change, Leaf Demography, Salinity, Sundarbans, Xylocarpus granatumiForest 10 (5): 851-856 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2382-010'id=ifor2382-010
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
  • Research Articles: Pre-treatment with sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide,
           ionic liquids or methacrylate resin to reduce the set-recovery and
           increase the hardness of surface-densified Scots pine

    • Authors: Neyses B; Rautkari L, Yamamoto A, Sandberg D
      Abstract: Neyses B, Rautkari L, Yamamoto A, Sandberg DPRE-TREATMENT WITH SODIUM SILICATE, SODIUM HYDROXIDE, IONIC LIQUIDS OR METHACRYLATE RESIN TO REDUCE THE SET-RECOVERY AND INCREASE THE HARDNESS OF SURFACE-DENSIFIED SCOTS PINEAbstract: The hardness of the outer regions of solid wood can be improved by surface densification, and this opens up new fields of application for low-density species. So far, surface densification relies on time- and energy-consuming batch processes, and this means that the potential advantages over more expensive hardwood species or non-renewable materials are reduced. Using fossil-based plastics or applying wood densification processes with a high energy consumption has adverse effects on the environment. In a previous study, it was shown that the surface of wood can be densified by a continuous high-speed process, adopting a roller pressing approach. The desired density profiles could be obtained at process speeds of up to 80 m min-1, but an equally simple and fast method to eliminate the moisture-induced set-recovery of the densified wood cells is still required. For this reason, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect on the set-recovery and hardness of surface-densified Scots pine after a fast pre-treatment with solutions of sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, methacrylate resin, and ionic liquids. The Scots pine specimens were pre-treated by applying the chemical treatment and impregnation agents to the wood surface with a paper towel, before the specimens were densified. For each type of treatment, 15 specimens were densified in a hot press. The set-recovery was measured after two wet-dry cycles, and 30 Brinell hardness measurements were carried out on each group of specimens. In general, the effect of the treatments on the set-recovery was rather low. Ionic liquid solutions appear to work as a strong plasticiser and the treatment led to a reduction in set-recovery by 25%. The treatments with sodium silicate, ionic liquids and methacrylate resin led to a greater hardness than in untreated and densified specimens. Further experiments are needed to improve the depth of penetration of the treatment solutions into the wood surface, as this was identified as one of the main causes of the rather weak effects.Keywords: Water Glass, Compression, Wood Modification, Surface Treatment, Ionic Liquid, Sodium Hydroxide, Methacrylate Resin, Sodium SilicateiForest 10 (5): 857-864 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2385-010'id=ifor2385-010
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
  • Review Papers: Drought-induced oak decline in the western Mediterranean
           region: an overview on current evidences, mechanisms and management
           options to improve forest resilience

    • Authors: Gentilesca T; Camarero JJ, Colangelo M, Nolè A, Ripullone F
      Abstract: Gentilesca T, Camarero JJ, Colangelo M, Nolè A, Ripullone FDROUGHT-INDUCED OAK DECLINE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: AN OVERVIEW ON CURRENT EVIDENCES, MECHANISMS AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO IMPROVE FOREST RESILIENCEAbstract: Increased forest vulnerability is being reflected as more widespread and severe drought-induced decline episodes. In particular, the Mediterranean area is revealing a high susceptibility to phenomena of loss in tree vitality across species. Within tree species, oaks (Quercus spp.) are experiencing extensive decline in many countries. However, in the wake of the so-called “oak decline phenomenon”, the attention on these species has generally been limited. In this paper, we review the current available literature on oak-decline cases reported within the Mediterranean Basin, with particular remark for those occurred in Italy and Spain. More specifically our main aims were to: (i) provide an update on the patterns and mechanisms of decline by focusing on tree-ring and wood-anatomical variables; (ii) provide some hints for improving the resistance and resilience of oak stands experiencing decline. Our review reveals that drought is reported as the main driver triggering oak decline within the Mediterranean Basin, although other causes (i.e., increasing temperature, pathogens attack or excessive stand density) could exacerbate decline. In most reported cases, drought induced a substantial reduction of growth and changes in some wood anatomical properties. Indeed, growth decline prior death is also indicated as an early-warning signal of impending death. In ring-porous oak species, declining trees were often characterized by a very low production of latewood and a decrease in lumen area of the widest earlywood vessels, suggesting a potential reduction of hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, hydraulic dysfunction is reported as the main cause of decline. Finally, regarding management actions that should be considered for improving the resilience of declining stands and preserve the species-specific stand composition, it could be useful to shorten the rotation period of coppice stands or promoting their gradual conversion towards high forests, and favoring more drought-resistant species should also be considered. In addition, regeneration prior to regeneration cuts should be improved by anticipating seed dispersal or by planting oak seedlings obtained from local germoplasm.Keywords: Growth, Adaptive Forest Management, Quercus, Resilience, Forest DiebackiForest 10 (5): 796-806 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2317-010'id=ifor2317-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
  • Research Articles: Life cycle assessment of tannin extraction from spruce

    • Authors: Ding T; Bianchi S, Ganne-Chédeville C, Kilpeläinen P, Haapala A, Räty T
      Abstract: Ding T, Bianchi S, Ganne-Chédeville C, Kilpeläinen P, Haapala A, Räty TLIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF TANNIN EXTRACTION FROM SPRUCE BARKAbstract: Tannins have shown antifungal effects and have been considered a potential natural compound for wood preservation. Extracts produced from softwood bark contain both tannins and non-tannin compounds, which may reduce the effectiveness of tannin used as a wood preservative. The purpose of this research is to study the environmental impact of hot water extraction, identify the hot spots within the tannin cradle-to-gate life cycle and give suggestions to optimize its environmental profile. Different extraction and post-extraction scenarios of tannin production are compared using the life-cycle assessment method. Experiments were designed to study the tannin yield under different extraction scenarios; the post-extraction scenario analysis was based on literature review. The results show that the extract drying process is the primary contributor to the environmental impact of tannin production. Both preliminary cold water extraction and ultrafiltration after extraction are beneficial as they have fewer non-tannin compounds in the final products; however, preliminary cold water extraction had a considerably lower environmental performance. Successive extractions using fresh water at each cycle increased the total tannin yield, but increased the environmental burden. Using only evaporation to obtain a desired tannin concentration is not environmentally efficient. This paper provides a quantified environmental analysis for the development of tannin-treated wood products and discusses the different tannin extraction scenarios from an environmental point of view.Keywords: LCA, Tannin, Spruce Bark, Hot Water Extraction, Evaporation, Spray Drying, Ultrafiltration, PreservativeiForest 10 (5): 807-814 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2342-010'id=ifor2342-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
  • Review Papers: Comparative assessment for biogenic carbon accounting
           methods in carbon footprint of products: a review study for construction
           materials based on forest products

    • Authors: Tellnes LG; Ganne-Chedeville C, Dias A, Dolezal F, Hill C, Zea Escamilla E
      Abstract: Tellnes LG, Ganne-Chedeville C, Dias A, Dolezal F, Hill C, Zea Escamilla ECOMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR BIOGENIC CARBON ACCOUNTING METHODS IN CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PRODUCTS: A REVIEW STUDY FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS BASED ON FOREST PRODUCTSAbstract: The forest and building sector is of major importance in climate change mitigation and therefore construction materials based on forest products are of great interest. While energy efficiency has had a large focus in climate change mitigation in the building sector, the carbon footprint of the construction material is gaining relevance. The carbon footprint of construction materials can vary greatly from one type to another, the building sector is consequently demanding documentation of the carbon footprint of the materials used. Using an environmental product declaration (EPD) is an objective and standardised solution for communicating the environmental impacts of construction products and especially their carbon footprint. Nevertheless, it is challenging to include the features of forest products as pools of carbon dioxide. There is currently a focus on research into methods for the accounting of sequestered atmospheric carbon dioxide and also implementation of these methods into technical standards. This paper reviews the recent research and technical standards in this field to promote a common understanding and to propose requirements for additional information to be included in EPDs of forest-based products. The main findings show the need for reporting the contribution of biogenic carbon to the total on greenhouse gas emissions and removals over the product’s lifecycle. In order to facilitate the implementation of more advanced methods from research, the EPD should also include more detailed information of the wood used, in particular species and origin.Keywords: Climate Change, Forest Based Construction Materials, Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), Carbon Footprint, Global Warming, Delayed Emissions, Carbon Storage, Biogenic CarboniForest 10 (5): 815-823 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2386-010'id=ifor2386-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
  • Research Articles: Compositions of compounds extracted from thermo-treated
           wood using solvents of different polarities

    • Authors: Lovaglio T; D’Auria M, Rita A, Todaro L
      Abstract: Lovaglio T, D’Auria M, Rita A, Todaro LCOMPOSITIONS OF COMPOUNDS EXTRACTED FROM THERMO-TREATED WOOD USING SOLVENTS OF DIFFERENT POLARITIESAbstract: How well modified wood products perform may be influenced by their chemical compositions. Wood extractives are nonstructural constituents, many with specific biological properties, which affect the color, fragrance, hygroscopicity, durability, and acoustic properties and the drying and adhesion processes of wood. However, incomplete information is available on the extraction techniques and potential use of extractives as value-added chemical products. The main goal of this research was to explore the effects of thermo-vacuum treatment of Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxb.) and Italian alder (Alnus cordata Desf.) woods on the content and composition of extractives. Solvents with different polarities were used, including water, hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, and a benzene/ethanol mixture. Component groups in extracts were determined by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Regardless of the treatment and solvent, the most representative extracts to be obtained from alder were acids/esters, whereas hydrocarbons were most frequently obtained from cedar. Our results revealed an interesting differential species-specific effect of solvents on the composition of extracts. Aside from benzene/ethanol, greater amounts of extracts were obtained from treated than from untreated alder, whereas the opposite was true for cedar, aside from methanol.Keywords: Alder, Cedar, Thermo-vacuum Treatment, Extraction, GC-MSiForest 10 (5): 824-828 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2360-010'id=ifor2360-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
  • Research Articles: A silvicultural stand density model to control
           understory in maritime pine stands

    • Authors: Fonseca TF; Duarte JC
      Abstract: Fonseca TF, Duarte JCA SILVICULTURAL STAND DENSITY MODEL TO CONTROL UNDERSTORY IN MARITIME PINE STANDSAbstract: The aim of this study was to provide optimal silvicultural guidelines for the maintenance of low understory vegetation cover in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Mediterranean areas prone to the occurrence of forest fires. An extensive data set from maritime pine stands of northern Portugal was used to assess the effect of stand density on the understory cover. A statistically significant relationship between the spacing-top height factor (Fw) and the understory cover was found. An ecologically-based density regulation model was developed based on Fw = 0.21, which provided the optimal stand density and canopy cover to prevent the understory growth and proliferation, thereby reducing the vulnerability to forest fire and ensuring at the same time the highest values of stand yield. The developed model represents a supporting tool for density regulation of maritime pine stands in areas prone to forest fires. The representativeness of the supporting data set (in terms of number of sample plots and variability of the stands characteristics) provides confidence in the generalization of our results to different maritime pine stands in the Mediterranean area. This study suggests that managing stand density may be an effective adaptive management procedure which can help reducing the forest fire hazard.Keywords: Silviculture, Density Regulation, Understory Reduction, Pinus pinasteriForest 10 (5): 829-836 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2173-010'id=ifor2173-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
  • Research Articles: Predicted occurrence of ancient coppice woodlands in
           the Czech Republic

    • Authors: Madera P; Machala M, Slach T, Friedl M, Cernušáková L, Volarík D, Buček A
      Abstract: Madera P, Machala M, Slach T, Friedl M, Cernušáková L, Volarík D, Buček APREDICTED OCCURRENCE OF ANCIENT COPPICE WOODLANDS IN THE CZECH REPUBLICAbstract: Coppicing started in the Neolithic period and has been practiced throughout European history. This traditional silvicultural system was abandoned in many European countries during the 20th century. The Czech Republic now has a very low proportion of coppice woods (CW), as more than 1000 km2 CW were converted into high forests after World War II. Nevertheless, many CW were maintained as stored coppices, which could be the last remainders of ancient coppice woods (ACW) in the Czech Republic. Knowledge of area and distribution of stored coppices is currently missing in the Czech Republic, because they are recorded as high forests in forest management plans. Many stored forests are currently approaching the maturity age, with a high risk that these last ACW remainders will be lost; therefore, an inventory of ancient coppice woods is necessary. In our study, we develop an index of likelihood of coppice occurrence (COP) based on the distribution of habitats favourable for coppices, as well as on past and current occurrence of CW in the Czech Republic from historical maps. COP index values were then used to generate a map showing the relative likelihoods of occurrence of ACW, which can serve as a baseline to support the compilation of an ACW inventory and their mapping in the field. Our results can help prioritize forest areas to be inventoried based on their higher probabilities of ACW occurrence.Keywords: Ancient Coppice Woodlands, Inventory, Coppice Occurrence, Cultural heritageiForest 10 (5): 788-795 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2295-010'id=ifor2295-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
  • Research Articles: A comparative study of growth and leaf trait variation
           in twenty Cornus wilsoniana W. families in southeastern China

    • Authors: Cheng X; Xie H, Zhang L, Wang M, Li C, Yu M, He Z
      Abstract: Cheng X, Xie H, Zhang L, Wang M, Li C, Yu M, He ZA COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GROWTH AND LEAF TRAIT VARIATION IN TWENTY CORNUS WILSONIANA W. FAMILIES IN SOUTHEASTERN CHINAAbstract: To investigate the genotypic differences associated with the growth potential and leaf traits of Cornus wilsoniana W., we planted twenty C. wilsoniana families in southeastern China and analyzed nineteen leaf morphological and physiological traits that have potential relationships with growth. Seedling growth and leaf traits exhibited high variability among the C. wilsoniana families. The phenotypic coefficients of variation (CVs) of these traits varied from 5.33% (leaf length/leaf width, LL/LW) to 23.17% (stomatal conductance, gs), and their heritabilities (H2) ranged from 0.17 (chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b, Chla/Chlb) to 0.75 (stem height, H and Chla). There was greater genetic variation in the physiological traits than in the morphological traits. H was significantly positively correlated with instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE), Chla, Chlb and total Chl, and diameter (D) was significantly positively correlated with net photosynthetic rate (Pn), gs, WUE, Chla, Chlb and total Chl and was negatively correlated with leaf phosphorus (LP). Based on cluster analysis, three families were selected as superior families for the study area due to their seedling growth and leaf traits. These results indicate that Pn, Chla, Chlb and total Chl are good indicators to use for selecting superior families of C. wilsoniana with better growth performance; additionally, high WUE and low LP are also critical leaf traits for cultivar selection because plant adaptation to environmental conditions is important for growth performance.Keywords: Plant Growth, Leaf Traits, Intraspecific Variation, Genetic HeritabilityiForest 10 (5): 759-765 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2288-010'id=ifor2288-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
  • Research Articles: Relevance of terpenoids on flammability of
           Mediterranean species: an experimental approach at a low radiant heat flux

    • Authors: Della Rocca G; Madrigal J, Marchi E, Michelozzi M, Moya B, Danti R
      Abstract: Della Rocca G, Madrigal J, Marchi E, Michelozzi M, Moya B, Danti RRELEVANCE OF TERPENOIDS ON FLAMMABILITY OF MEDITERRANEAN SPECIES: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH AT A LOW RADIANT HEAT FLUXAbstract: One of the major factors influencing forest fuel combustion are terpenoids, a fraction of flammable Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) produced and stored by most Mediterranean species. The qualitative and quantitative effect of terpenoids on flammability has been only partially explained. In this study several major terpenoid-storing Mediterranean species (common cypress and three pines) were considered and compared to Holm oak as a reference non-storing species. The terpenoids were quantified via gas chromatography (GC-MS) analysis from both live fine fuel (LFF) and litter samples, and the relations between flammability and the terpenoids content were investigated by categories (Monoterpenoids, oxygenated Monoterpenoids, Sesquiterpenoids). The effect of fuel moisture content and species on ignition probability of LFF was also explored. A very different ignition probability was observed at the same fuel moisture content for the different species (Pinus spp. > C. sempervirens > Q. ilex). The stored terpenoids explained 19% to 50% of the whole flammability of both LFF and litter. Fuel moisture content (FMC) did not substantially change the relative effect of terpenoids on flammability, except in C. sempervirens. Monoterpenoids do not seem to significantly affect flammability, while sesquiterpenoids greatly influenced most flammability components, though their relative effect varied among species. A relation between storing structure of terpenoids and flammability was suggested. The results of this study indicate that isoprenoids should be included in physical models of the prediction and propagation of wildfire in Mediterranean vegetation as significant factors in driving flammability.Keywords: Fuel Moisture Content, Ignition, Live Fine Fuel, Terpene-storing Species, Terpenoids Content, Sesquiterpenoids, LitteriForest 10 (5): 766-775 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2327-010'id=ifor2327-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
  • Research Articles: Use of alternative containers for promoting deep
           rooting of native forest species used for dryland restoration: the case of
           Acacia caven

    • Authors: De La Fuente LM; Ovalle JF, Arellano EC, Ginocchio R
      Abstract: De La Fuente LM, Ovalle JF, Arellano EC, Ginocchio RUSE OF ALTERNATIVE CONTAINERS FOR PROMOTING DEEP ROOTING OF NATIVE FOREST SPECIES USED FOR DRYLAND RESTORATION: THE CASE OF ACACIA CAVENAbstract: The size of a container determines the development and quality of root systems. In the case of taprooted forest species used for dryland reforestation, deeper containers may favour early root development and, consequently, better soil profile colonization after outplanting. Although research on container design for worldwide tree species has been developed in the last decades, technical solutions for containerized forest species with a taproot system have been poorly documented. We present a case study using Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol., which has fast-growing taproots and long lateral and superficial roots. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of different containers on rooting volume in the early morphological development of A. caven seedlings. Ten day-old seedlings were cultivated in five different PVC container types varying in volume, width and length (T440-Short, T440-Long, T880-Short, T880-Long, and T440-C), in a completely randomized design for one growing season. At the end of the study, whole seedling samples were destroyed to assess taproot length, lateral root biomass, and total root/shoot dry biomass. To evaluate the potential plant capacity for developing new roots, a subsequent experiment using the root growth potential test was performed successfully. Results showed that change in root volume distribution (short vs. elongated containers) had the greatest influence on seedling quality, whereas the size of container (small volume vs. large) was of minor importance. Elongated containers (35 cm to 40 cm in length) with self-pruning basal roots produced seedlings with smaller shoot/root ratios, longer root systems, and a greater ability to restart new root growth in deeper container strata. Elongated containers also prevented taproot deformation. The present study suggests that it would be appropriate to rethink container design for seedlings of deep-rooted xerophytic species destined for water-limited transplanting conditions.Keywords: Native Tree Domestication, Root Growth Potential, Root Morphology, Seedling QualityiForest 10 (5): 776-782 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2101-010'id=ifor2101-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
  • Short Communications: Vertical pit-mounds distribution of uprooted Norway
           spruce (Picea abies L.): field evidence in the upper mountain belt

    • Authors: Zadrozny P; Halecki W, Gasiorek M, Nicia P, Lamorski T
      Abstract: Zadrozny P, Halecki W, Gasiorek M, Nicia P, Lamorski TVERTICAL PIT-MOUNDS DISTRIBUTION OF UPROOTED NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES L.): FIELD EVIDENCE IN THE UPPER MOUNTAIN BELTAbstract: Tree uprooting causes significant changes in forest habitat functioning and soil formation. In this paper soil uplifted by tree throws was compared among 15 study plots from heterogeneous Norway spruce stands of the upper mountain belt in southern Poland. Pit-mound microtopography parameters such as length, width, depth of tree-throw pits, height of the root plate, and height of mineral and organic mounds, were measured at each uprooting site. Sites were grouped in 3 age groups based on the time elapsed since uprooting. Results showed significant differences between the studied parameters among age groups. Differences were most pronounced in mean pit depth (0.52, 0.65 and 0.95 m for 5-year, 3-year, and 1-year-old pits, respectively). No significant interaction between age group and root plate height was detected by ANOVA. Regression analysis showed that pit depth decreases as root plate height increases. Redundancy analysis using pit-mound parameters as dependent variables revealed that root plate height along with slope steepness are good predictors of the volume of dislocated soil at tree-throw sites. Overall, our results suggest that the erosion expected at uprooting sites in mountain Norway spruce stands could be conveniently estimated by measuring their root plates. This may help estimate the impact of windthrow on soil microtopography and quantify its effects on soil disturbance in Norway spruce stands of the upper mountain belt.Keywords: Bioturbation, Mountain Landscapes, Microtopography, Soil Disturbance, Tree UprootingiForest 10 (5): 783-787 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1959-010'id=ifor1959-010
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
  • Research Articles: Tissue carbon concentration of 175 Mexican forest

    • Authors: Pompa-García M; Sigala-Rodríguez JA, Jurado E, Flores J
      Abstract: Pompa-García M, Sigala-Rodríguez JA, Jurado E, Flores JTISSUE CARBON CONCENTRATION OF 175 MEXICAN FOREST SPECIESAbstract: Reliable calculations of carbon stocks in forest ecosystems are crucial for proper implementation of global warming mitigation policies. Accurate estimations depend upon applying the correct factor of carbon (C) concentration for different forest species and tissues instead of the often assumed 50% carbon content. Despite the high forest species richness in Mexico and the increasing CO2 emissions, data on carbon concentrations in forest plant tissues are scarce. In this study, we determined variation in C concentration of different tissues for 175 plant species common in Mexican forests. C contents were estimated and contrasted for plant distribution, taxa, and plant structure (main stems, branches, twigs, bark, leaves, buds, fruits, roots and root cuticles). The mean C concentration across species was 44.7%. Species significantly differed in C concentration by tissue, environment and taxa. These multi-species data contribute to improve precision on estimates of C balance in terrestrial ecosystems, reducing the uncertainty in C inventories in Mexico and elsewhere.Keywords: Carbon Sink, Plant Tissue C, Multi-species C, Global WarmingiForest 10 (4): 754-758 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2421-010'id=ifor2421-010
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
  • Research Articles: Temporal changes of forest species composition studied
           by compositional data approach

    • Authors: Kobal M; Kastelec D, Eler K
      Abstract: Kobal M, Kastelec D, Eler KTEMPORAL CHANGES OF FOREST SPECIES COMPOSITION STUDIED BY COMPOSITIONAL DATA APPROACHAbstract: Many ecological data are compositional and different quantitative techniques have been used to analyze such data, albeit some of them being methodologically wrong. The aim of this contribution is to apply the compositional data approach to forestry data and demonstrate the strengths of this method for percentage or relative data with infrequent zero values. Basal areas of three dominant tree species (Abies alba, Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica) in 119 forest compartments in some of the Omphalodo-Fagetum forests in Slovenia in 1954 and 2004 were used to investigate the dynamics of forest species composition over a 50-year period. For the investigated period some additional data about geomorphology and harvesting rates within the compartments were used as explanatory variables of compositional change. The species composition of each forest compartment was subjected to several methods within a compositional analysis framework: descriptive, ternary diagram-based graphical presentations, significance of compositional differences between management classes, significance of perturbation differences (the indicator of forest compositional change) and relation of the compositional change with the explanatory variables by means of compositional linear model. Results indicated that the silver fir was the dominant species in both years, but a clear reduction in silver fir proportion was observed after 50 years. The perturbation differences indicated comparatively large relative increase in the proportion of Norway spruce between 1954 and 2004. Subsequently, the perturbation differences were subjected to isometric log-transformation (ilr) and two derived ilr coordinates were further used as dependent variables in the multivariate linear model. The initial stand structure correlated well with the perturbation differences. These were also significantly correlations with salvage cutting, a consequence of silver fir decline in the 1954-2004 period. This study demonstrated that the compositional data approach can be successfully used to study forest dynamics yielding some insights into data which are not possible or even not valid using some alternative methods.Keywords: Percentage Data, Data Transformation, Compositional Change, Compositional Linear Model, Forest Dynamics, Vegetation Shift, Omphalodo-FagetumiForest 10 (4): 729-738 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2187-010'id=ifor2187-010
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
  • Research Articles: Sampling strategies for high quality time-series of
           climatic variables in forest resource assessment

    • Authors: Ferrara C; Marchi M, Fares S, Salvati L
      Abstract: Ferrara C, Marchi M, Fares S, Salvati LSAMPLING STRATEGIES FOR HIGH QUALITY TIME-SERIES OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES IN FOREST RESOURCE ASSESSMENTAbstract: Many ecological studies require long-term time series of high quality. Missing data may represent a serious problem since they can affect the reliability of measured variables in specific locations. To which extent and according to which methodology a gap in time series should be filled is a major research challenge. In this study, the time-series of meteorological data relative to 13 monitoring sites from the ICP-Forest network in Italy were analysed with the aim to define the minimum number of site-specific observations, which can be considered adequate for further analysis on forest resource management. Three main climatic variables were taken into account in the analysis: air temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation. By using an increasing proportion of available data, descriptive and inferential statistic methods were applied to evaluate the amount of variability along the period of analysis (1998-2013) and associated error of estimation at seasonal level. The relative importance of each factor accounted in our analysis (season, year, variable, plot, sampling proportion) was investigated fitting a Random Forest model on the results of the bootstrapping procedure. Air temperature was the variable with a marked seasonal profile and the easiest to be represented at monthly level on a specific time period. Humidity and precipitation were more stable across the analysed time period. Trends in precipitation showed that a high amount of variability could be detected only when > 80% of valid observations were available. Humidity showed an intermediate pattern, with an exponential increase in the amount of explained variability when using an increased proportion of sampled observations. Random Forest Regression models indicated sampling proportion (i.e., number of available observations) as an important factor for trend analysis of relative air humidity and precipitation. We conclude that monthly or seasonal statistics can be proficiently estimated for both air temperature and relative humidity with a proportion of missing values higher than 50%. Conversely, a reliable analysis of intra-seasonal or intra-monthly precipitation variability requires a much higher amount of observations. In the latter case gap filling represents the only feasible solution.Keywords: ICP-Forests, Sampling Representativeness, Missing Data, Forest Monitoring, ClimateiForest 10 (4): 739-745 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2427-010'id=ifor2427-010
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
  • Research Articles: Nearest neighbour relationships in Pinus yunnanensis
           var. tenuifolia forests along the Nanpan River, China

    • Authors: Li Y; Hui G, Yu S, Luo Y, Yao X, Ye S
      Abstract: Li Y, Hui G, Yu S, Luo Y, Yao X, Ye SNEAREST NEIGHBOUR RELATIONSHIPS IN PINUS YUNNANENSIS VAR. TENUIFOLIA FORESTS ALONG THE NANPAN RIVER, CHINAAbstract: Forest stand structural diversity can be examined at different scales. Small-scale structural changes are the basis of forest structural diversity and habitat heterogeneity, and play a key role in biodiversity conservation. Most research on forest structure has focused mainly at stand level and above, with little attention paid to fine-scale structure and correlations among different forest stand attributes. We set up four permanent plots within a secondary forest community of Pinus yunnanensis var. tenuifolia mixed forests along the Nanpan River in southern China. We analyzed their nearest-neighbor relationships using a bivariate distribution of stand spatial structural parameters (SSSP) with the aim of understanding the processes that drive structural diversity in the development of a secondary forest community. Our results revealed that communities with different disturbance histories and species compositions differed in the level of species mixture. Large, small, and medium-sized trees were well mixed within the community, both conspecific and heterospecificindividual with varying densities. All plots exhibited a uniform size differentiation pattern. Trees with different dominance levels or mixture levels were randomly distributed within the plots, and only few of these displayed clumped or regular distribution. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that distribution patterns may be related to species composition and diameter differentiation, though their relationship was very weak. The results of this study are relevant to optimize forest management activities in the studied stands, and promote tree growth, regeneration and habitat diversity at the fine scale.Keywords: Bivariate Distribution, Nearest Neighbour Trees, Pinus yunnanensis, Secondary Forest, Structure DiversityiForest 10 (4): 746-753 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2405-010'id=ifor2405-010
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
  • Research Articles: Variability of ant community composition in cork oak
           woodlands across the Mediterranean region: implications for forest

    • Authors: Verdinelli M; Yakhlef SEB, Cossu CS, Pilia O, Mannu R
      Abstract: Verdinelli M, Yakhlef SEB, Cossu CS, Pilia O, Mannu RVARIABILITY OF ANT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN CORK OAK WOODLANDS ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOREST MANAGEMENTAbstract: We evaluated the potential use of ants as a powerful tool for environmental monitoring, together with the applicability of the functional group approach as an alternative method for studying ant communities in cork oak woodlands. Variations in ant community composition, diversity and functional groups were studied in two cork oak forested sites across the Mediterranean region. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps placed along linear transects at 12 sites located in the main cork districts of Italy and Morocco (Gallura in Sardinia, and Maâmora, east of Rabat). A total of 13.501 specimens were collected, belonging to 38 species (five shared species). A distinct separation in the NMDS plots between Gallura and Maâmora ant assemblages was clearly visible. Ant species composition was widely different between the two districts and significant differences were detected within the Gallura district at the species level. Opportunist species were well represented in Gallura (about 27% of average Bray-Curtis similarity) as well as cryptic species (over 23%). In the Maâmora forest, generalized Myrmicinae, hot climate specialists and opportunists contributed equally to the average similarity (together about 53%). Multi-scale ant diversity showed that the true turnover was higher in Gallura than in Maâmora. These findings support the idea that the functional group approach, rather than species diversity per se, could be considered as a valuable tool to detect the response of the ant community to environmental changes in Mediterranean cork oak woodlands. Using ants as bioindicators could help not only in detecting early warning signs of habitat disturbance, but also in defining a useful management strategy to increase the resilience of agroforestry systems under future global change scenarios.Keywords: Cork Oak, Forest Management, Ants, BioindicatorsiForest 10 (4): 707-714 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2321-010'id=ifor2321-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
  • Research Articles: Chitosan oligosaccharide addition affects current-year
           shoot of post-transplant Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) seedlings
           under contrasting photoperiods

    • Authors: Wang Z; Zhao Y, Wei H
      Abstract: Wang Z, Zhao Y, Wei HCHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ADDITION AFFECTS CURRENT-YEAR SHOOT OF POST-TRANSPLANT BUDDHIST PINE (PODOCARPUS MACROPHYLLUS) SEEDLINGS UNDER CONTRASTING PHOTOPERIODSAbstract: Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have been used as modifiers to promote growth and mineral nutrient utilization in crop plants, but its over-year effect on current-year shoot (CYS) of juvenile trees is still unclear. In this study, Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) seedlings were cultured under natural and extended photoperiods with or without COS addition for one year. In the following spring, parameters of leaf length, biomass accumulation, and N content in CYS were found to be increased by COS addition under the extended photoperiod. P concentration of COS-treated seedlings was lower under longer photoperiod, but both N and P concentrations were negatively correlated with leaf length and biomass accumulation, suggesting the utilization of N and P for growth demand of CYS. The sole addition of COS mainly resulted in whole-plant P accumulation. However, when combined with the extended photoperiod, COS addition showed over-year effect on biomass accumulation and N content in CYS of transplanted Buddhist pine seedlings. Further studies are needed to confirm these results on other tree species.Keywords: Photoperiodism, Urban Afforestation, Yew Plum Pine, Marine Oligosaccharide, Fine RootiForest 10 (4): 715-721 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2302-010'id=ifor2302-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
  • Research Articles: Effect of soil-applied lead on mineral contents and
           biomass in Acer cappadocicum, Fraxinus excelsior and Platycladus
           orientalis seedlings

    • Authors: Abbasi H; Pourmajidian MR, Hodjati SM, Fallah A, Nath S
      Abstract: Abbasi H, Pourmajidian MR, Hodjati SM, Fallah A, Nath SEFFECT OF SOIL-APPLIED LEAD ON MINERAL CONTENTS AND BIOMASS IN ACER CAPPADOCICUM, FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR AND PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS SEEDLINGSAbstract: Phytoremediation is an effective and affordable approach to extract or remove lead from contaminated soil. An understanding of the physiological responses of different species subjected to heavy metal contamination is necessary before considering their use for environmental clean-up. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lead (Pb) on growth and nutrient uptake in three forest species native to Iran: Cappadocian maple (Acer cappadocicum), European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Oriental aborvitae (Platycladus orientalis). The capability of lead uptake in different organs was studied in one-year-old potted seedlings grown in contaminated soils with Pb concentration ranging from 100 to 500 mg kg-1 for six months in a nursery. Several phytoextraction parameters such as translocation factor (TF), tolerance index (TI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) were assessed to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these species. Increasing Pb application in the soil caused a gradual decrease in dry weight of leaf and shoot of all species, while the dry weight of root remains unaffected. However, such inhibition was less marked in the conifer (P. orientalis) compared to the two broad-leaf species. Phosphorus uptake of all species slightly declined in contaminated soils. Contrastingly, Pb application did not hinder nitrogen and potassium uptake in seedlings. Atomic absorption thermo electron analysis of Pb-treated plants showed an increasing Pb accumulation in all plant compartments, although the result was more evident in the tissues of P. orientalis. This species also showed the highest values for TF, TI and BCF, indicating this conifer species as a potential candidate for phytoremediation of lead-polluted soils in Iran.Keywords: Phytoremediation, Seedling Stage, Growth, Nutrient Uptake, Lead Accumulation, Cappadocian Maple, European Ash, Oriental ArborvitaeiForest 10 (4): 722-728 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2251-010'id=ifor2251-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
  • Research Articles: Acid atmospheric deposition in a forested mountain

    • Authors: Krecek J; Palán L, Stuchlík E
      Abstract: Krecek J, Palán L, Stuchlík EACID ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN A FORESTED MOUNTAIN CATCHMENTAbstract: Acid atmospheric deposition is harmful to both forest and aquatic ecosystems. In mountain catchments, acidification also leads to difficulties in water resource management. In 2010-2012, acid atmospheric deposition was analysed in a small forest catchment located in the upper plain of the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Patch observations included monitoring of the canopy interception in two mature stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies) at elevations of 745 and 975 metres a.s.l., and twelve passive fog collectors situated along an elevation gradient between 862 and 994 metres a.s.l. In the studied area, fog (and low cloud) precipitation starts to affect the interception loss of the spruce canopy at elevations above 700 metres. However, fog drip was found to also rise with the canopy area. At the catchment scale, methods of spatial interpolation (ArcGIS 10.2) were used to approximate the aerial atmospheric deposition of water and acidic substances (sulphate, nitrate and ammonia). In the watersheds of two adjacent drinking water reservoirs, Josefuv Dul and Souš, the mean annual fog drip from the canopy was between 88 and 106 mm (i.e., 7-8% of the mean annual gross precipitation, or 10-12% of the mean annual runoff). Simultaneously, this load also deposited 658 kg km-2 of sulphur and 216 kg km-2 of nitrogen (i.e., 55% and 48% of the “open field” bulk amounts). Therefore, in headwater catchments stressed by acidification, the additional precipitation (measured under the canopy) can increase the water yield, but can also contribute to a decline in water quality, particularly in environments of low buffering capacity.Keywords: Mountain Watershed, Spruce Forests, Acid Atmospheric Deposition, Water Resources RechargeiForest 10 (4): 680-686 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2319-010'id=ifor2319-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
  • Research Articles: Predicting total and component biomass of Chinese fir
           using a forecast combination method

    • Authors: Zhang X; Cao QV, Xiang C, Duan A, Zhang J
      Abstract: Zhang X, Cao QV, Xiang C, Duan A, Zhang JPREDICTING TOTAL AND COMPONENT BIOMASS OF CHINESE FIR USING A FORECAST COMBINATION METHODAbstract: Accurate estimates of tree biomass are critical for forest managers to assess carbon stock. Biomass of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook.) in southern China was assessed by three alternative methods. In the Separate model approach, total and component tree biomass was directly predicted from a regression equation as a function of tree diameter and height. In the Additive model approach, total biomass was predicted as the sum of predictions from all component biomass equations. The Forecast Combination method involved combining predictions from the total biomass equation with the sum of predictions from component biomass equations. Results indicated that the Separate model method outperformed the Additive model method in predicting total and component biomass. The drawback of the Separate model method is that the total is not equal to the sum of its components. The Forecast Combination method provided the overall best prediction for total and component biomass, and still ensured additivity of component biomass predictions.Keywords: Additivity, Biomass Predictions, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Even-aged Plantations, Tree AllometryiForest 10 (4): 687-691 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2243-010'id=ifor2243-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
  • Research Articles: Use of overburden waste for London plane (Platanus ×
           acerifolia) growth: the role of plant growth promoting microbial consortia

    • Authors: Karličić V; Radić D, Jovičić-Petrović J, Lalević B, Morina F, Curguz VG, Raičević V
      Abstract: Karličić V, Radić D, Jovičić-Petrović J, Lalević B, Morina F, Curguz VG, Raičević VUSE OF OVERBURDEN WASTE FOR LONDON PLANE (PLATANUS × ACERIFOLIA) GROWTH: THE ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING MICROBIAL CONSORTIAAbstract: Overburden waste dumps represent a huge threat to environmental quality. The reduction of their negative impact can be achieved by vegetation cover establishment. Usually, this action is complicated due to site-specific characteristics, such as nutrient deficiency, elevated metal concentration, low pH value, lack of moisture and lack of organic matter. Establishment of vegetation can be facilitated by inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) which improve the physicochemical and biological properties of degraded substrates and make them more hospitable for plants. In this study we selected several strains based on the ability to produce ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores and lytic enzymes, and to solubilize inorganic phosphates. This selection resulted in microbial consortia consisting of Serratia liquefaciens Z-I ARV, Ensifer adhaerens 10_ ARV, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D5 ARV and Pseudomonas putida P1 ARV. The effects of PGPB consortia on one-year-old London plane (Platanus × acerifolia [Aiton] Willd.) seedlings replanted into overburden waste from Kolubara Mine Basin were examined. After seven months, inoculated seedlings were 32% higher with 45% wider root collar diameter and over 80% higher total dry biomass compared to uninoculated seedlings grown in Kolubara’s overburden. Inoculation resulted in higher amounts of total soluble proteins, higher chlorophyll and epidermal flavonoids content and higher total antioxidative capacity in the leaves. This study represents a successful search for effective PGPB strains and shows that microbial consortia have an important role in enhancing the growth of seedlings in nutrient deficient and degraded substrates such as overburden waste from open-pit coal mines. Positive response of London plane seedlings suggest that inoculation may help widening the opus of species for reforestation of post mining areas and speed up natural succession processes and recovery of degraded landscapes.Keywords: Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria, London Plane, Overburden Waste, RevegetationiForest 10 (4): 692-699 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2135-010'id=ifor2135-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
  • Research Articles: Acoustic evaluation of wood quality with a
           non-destructive method in standing trees: a first survey in Italy

    • Authors: Proto AR; Macrì G, Bernardini V, Russo D, Zimbalatti G
      Abstract: Proto AR, Macrì G, Bernardini V, Russo D, Zimbalatti GACOUSTIC EVALUATION OF WOOD QUALITY WITH A NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD IN STANDING TREES: A FIRST SURVEY IN ITALYAbstract: Research and development efforts are currently underway worldwide to examine the potential use of a wide range of non-destructive technologies (NDT) for evaluating wood and wood-based materials, from the assessment of standing trees to in-place structures. For this purpose, acoustic velocity by the Fakopp time of flight (TOF) tool was used to estimate the influence of four thinning treatments performed in Southern Italy. The objective of the study was to determine if the effects of silvicultural practices on wood quality can be identified using acoustic measurement to assess the MOEd of standing trees with non-destructive method in Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. calabrica). Four hundred and fifty standing trees from four sites were non-destructively tested using a time-of-flight acoustic wave technique. The thinning trials were conducted on 60-year-old plantations of Calabrian pine in four plots under different treatments: Control (T), light thinning (A), intermediate thinning (B) and heavy thinning (C). Statistical analysis demonstrated significant stress wave time differences between the stands with moderate thinning (A and B) and those with heavy thinning (C). The results showed that tree diameter has significant influence on acoustic wave measurements and a valid relationship exists between diameter at breast height and tree velocity. The results of these studies proved that the stress wave technique can be successfully applied on standing trees.Keywords: Modulus of Elasticity, Wood Density, Thinning, Calabrian PineiForest 10 (4): 700-706 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2065-010'id=ifor2065-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
  • Research Articles: Sensitivity analysis of RapidEye spectral bands and
           derived vegetation indices for insect defoliation detection in pure Scots
           pine stands

    • Authors: Marx A; Kleinschmit B
      Abstract: Marx A, Kleinschmit BSENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF RAPIDEYE SPECTRAL BANDS AND DERIVED VEGETATION INDICES FOR INSECT DEFOLIATION DETECTION IN PURE SCOTS PINE STANDSAbstract: This study investigated the statistical relationship between defoliation in pine forests infested by nun moths (Lymantria monacha) and the spectral bands of the RapidEye sensor, including the derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized difference red-edge index (NDRE). The strength of the relationship between the spectral variables and the ground reference samples of percent remaining foliage (PRF) was assessed over three test years by the Spearman’s ρ correlation coefficient, revealing the following ranking order (from high to low ρ): NDRE, NDVI, red, NIR, green, blue, and red-edge. A special focus was directed at the vegetation indices. In both discriminant analyses and decision tree classification, the NDRE yielded higher classification accuracy in the defoliation classes containing none to moderate levels of defoliation, whereas the NDVI yielded higher classification accuracy in the defoliation classes representing severe or complete defoliation. We concluded that the NDRE and the NDVI respond very similarly to changes in the amount of foliage, but exhibit particular strengths at different defoliation levels. Combining the NDRE and the NDVI in one discriminant function, the average gain of overall accuracy amounted to 7.8 percentage points compared to the NDRE only, and 7.4 percentage points compared to the NDVI only. Using both vegetation indices in a machine-learning-based decision tree classifier, the overall accuracy further improved and reached 81% for the test year 2012, 71% for 2013, and 79% for the test year 2014.Keywords: Forest Health, Discriminant Analysis, Pine Defoliation, Normalized Difference Red-edge Index, Decision Tree ClassificationiForest 10 (4): 659-668 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1727-010'id=ifor1727-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
  • Research Articles: Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of Pinus
           sylvestris wood at five sites in Portugal

    • Authors: Fernandes C; Gaspar MJ, Pires J, Alves A, Simões R, Rodrigues JC, Silva ME, Carvalho A, Brito JE, Lousada JL
      Abstract: Fernandes C, Gaspar MJ, Pires J, Alves A, Simões R, Rodrigues JC, Silva ME, Carvalho A, Brito JE, Lousada JLPHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS WOOD AT FIVE SITES IN PORTUGALAbstract: The reduction of resinous species in Portuguese forest areas has caused constraints to wood industry supplies. Portugal represents the extreme southwest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) natural distribution and large gaps exist in the knowledge of its wood-quality characteristics. Understanding the relationship between these traits is important for recognizing which combination of wood properties is the most suitable for specific uses. To address these questions, we assessed wood-quality traits, namely, wood-density components (microdensitometric analysis), chemical composition (NIR spectrometry) and mechanical properties (bending tests) of wood samples collected at five representative forest sites in Portugal. Our results showed that Portuguese Pinus sylvestris has good radial growth and denser wood, higher extractive content and higher stiffness and strength than northern European provenances. The lignin content was within the range attributed to softwoods. Among the Portuguese stands, trees growing at lower-altitude sites exhibited denser wood and higher mechanical properties, while trees from high-elevations showed higher amounts of lignin. Ring density was more strongly correlated with earlywood than latewood density. A negative, non-significant correlation was found between ring density and width, supporting the assumption that the higher radial growth (ring width) does not negatively affect wood quality (density). In general, chemical properties had a weak relationship with physical and mechanical properties (MOE and MOR). Both mechanical traits were positively correlated with density and growth components, supporting the assumption that trees with high radial growth do not exhibit poorer mechanical performances.Keywords: Bending Tests, Correlations, Mechanical Traits, NIR Spectrometry, Scots Pine, Wood-Density Components, Wood Quality, X-ray MicrodensitometryiForest 10 (4): 669-679 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2254-010'id=ifor2254-010
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
  • Research Articles: Short-time effect of harvesting methods on soil
           respiration dynamics in a beech forest in southern Mediterranean Italy

    • Authors: Coletta V; Pellicone G, Bernardini V, De Cinti B, Froio R, Marziliano PA, Matteucci G, Ricca N, Turco R, Veltri A
      Abstract: Coletta V, Pellicone G, Bernardini V, De Cinti B, Froio R, Marziliano PA, Matteucci G, Ricca N, Turco R, Veltri ASHORT-TIME EFFECT OF HARVESTING METHODS ON SOIL RESPIRATION DYNAMICS IN A BEECH FOREST IN SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN ITALYAbstract: CO2 fluxes from soil, together with soil water content and temperature have been measured over one solar year in an even-aged beech forest (Fagus Sylvatica L.) in southern Italy. We investigated the effects of three different harvested biomass removal treatments (traditional, innovative, unharvested control) on soil respiration (Rs) in three plots from May 2014 to April 2015, with the aim to evaluate the effects of such silvicultural practices on the CO2 respired from the forest floor. The influence of soil temperature and soil moisture on soil respiration was also analysed. Rs showed large variations among the treatments, with the innovative treatment resulting in significantly higher soil respiration than control and traditional treatments. There were no significant differences in soil temperature between the treatments, whereas soil water content was statistically different only in the innovative treatment. The study showed that the mean soil respiration increased with thinning intensity, confirming that after harvesting, residues remaining on the forest floor and decomposing roots may contribute to raise soil respiration, due to the higher microbial activity.Keywords: Soil Respiration, CO2, Forest Management, Beech ForestiForest 10 (3): 645-651 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2032-010'id=ifor2032-010
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
  • Research Articles: Long-term effects of single-tree selection cutting
           management on coarse woody debris in natural mixed beech stands in the
           Caspian forest (Iran)

    • Authors: Tavankar F; Nikooy M, Picchio R, Venanzi R, Lo Monaco A
      Abstract: Tavankar F, Nikooy M, Picchio R, Venanzi R, Lo Monaco ALONG-TERM EFFECTS OF SINGLE-TREE SELECTION CUTTING MANAGEMENT ON COARSE WOODY DEBRIS IN NATURAL MIXED BEECH STANDS IN THE CASPIAN FOREST (IRAN)Abstract: Coarse woody debris (CWD) has a wide range of ecological and conservation values such as maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Each forest management method can have a detrimental effect on stand structure and CWD. We analyzed the volume and density of live trees and CWD (snags and downed logs) over a long-term (30 years) selection-logging managed compartment (harvested), and compared these with values obtained from an unlogged compartment (control) in the Iranian Caspian forests. Results showed that the volume and density of live trees and CWD in the harvested area was significantly lower than in the control area, especially large size trees and CWD, very decayed CWD, and rare tree species. The ratio of snags volume to total standing volume (RSS) was significantly higher in the control (7.9%) than in the harvested area (5.2%), and the ratio of downed logs volume to trees volume (RDT) in the control area (6.3%) was significantly higher than in the harvested area (4.6%), while the ratio of downed logs volume to snags volume (RDS) was significantly higher in the harvested area (83.6%) than in the control (74%). Based on the obtained results, we recommend selection cutting forests to be managed based on CWD management plans, including appropriate cutting cycles (15-30 years) and retention of large-diameter (DBH > 75 cm) and cavity trees as a suitable habitat for many wildlife species.Keywords: Coarse Woody Debris, Snag, Biodiversity, Selective Logging, Caspian ForestiForest 10 (3): 652-658 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2091-010'id=ifor2091-010
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
  • Research Articles: Seeing trees from space: above-ground biomass estimates
           of intact and degraded montane rainforests from high-resolution optical

    • Authors: Phua MH; Ling ZY, Coomes DA, Wong W, Korom A, Tsuyuki S, Ioki K, Hirata Y, Saito H, Takao G
      Abstract: Phua MH, Ling ZY, Coomes DA, Wong W, Korom A, Tsuyuki S, Ioki K, Hirata Y, Saito H, Takao GSEEING TREES FROM SPACE: ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS ESTIMATES OF INTACT AND DEGRADED MONTANE RAINFORESTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL IMAGERYAbstract: Accurately quantifying the above-ground carbon stock of tropical rainforest trees is the core component of “Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation-plus” (REDD+) projects and is important for evaluating the effects of anthropogenic global change. We used high-resolution optical imagery (IKONOS-2) to identify individual tree crowns in intact and degraded rainforests in the mountains of Northern Borneo, comparing our results with 50 ground-based plots dispersed in intact and degraded forests, within which all stems > 10 cm in diameter were measured and identified to species or genus. We used the dimensions of tree crowns detected in the imagery to estimate above-ground biomasses (AGBs) of individual trees and plots. To this purpose, preprocessed IKONOS imagery was segmented using a watershed algorithm; stem diameter values were then estimated from the cross-sectional crown areas of these trees using regression relationships obtained from ground-based measurements. Finally, we calculated the biomass of each tree (AGBT, in kg), and the AGB of plots by summation (AGBP, in Mg ha-1). Remotely sensed estimates of mean AGBT were similar to ground-based estimates in intact and degraded forests, even though small trees could not be detected from space-borne sensors. The intact and degraded forests not only had different AGB but were also dissimilar in biodiversity. A tree-centric approach to carbon mapping based on high-resolution optical imagery, could be a cheap alternative to airborne laser-scanning.Keywords: Biomass Estimation, Crown Area, IKONOS-2, Tree Community Similarity, SabahiForest 10 (3): 625-634 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2204-010'id=ifor2204-010
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
  • Research Articles: Assessment of cadmium tolerance and phytoextraction
           ability in young Populus deltoides L. and Populus × euramericana plants
           through morpho-anatomical and physiological responses to growth in cadmium
           enriched soil

    • Authors: Nikolić N; Zorić L, Cvetković I, Pajević S, Borišev M, Orlović S, Pilipović A
      Abstract: Nikolić N, Zorić L, Cvetković I, Pajević S, Borišev M, Orlović S, Pilipović AASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM TOLERANCE AND PHYTOEXTRACTION ABILITY IN YOUNG POPULUS DELTOIDES L. AND POPULUS × EURAMERICANA PLANTS THROUGH MORPHO-ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO GROWTH IN CADMIUM ENRICHED SOILAbstract: Fast growing woody plants represent effective tools for cadmium (Cd) extraction during remediation of low to medium Cd contaminated soils. Poplars are good candidates for this task because of their rapid growth rate, high biomass yield, and adaptability, as well as the availability of well-characterized clones/ genotypes with various anatomical and physiological traits. The present study evaluates the potential of Populus deltoides (clone B-81) and Populus × euramericana (clone Pannonia) for phytoremediation of Cd contamination in soil. Poplar clones were analyzed for (1) plant growth response to Cd contamination, (2) Cd accumulation, translocation, and partitioning between plant organs, and (3) morphological, anatomical and physiological responses to Cd stress as a function of biomass production. Plants were cultivated in soil moderately contaminated with Cd (8.14 mg kg-1 soil) under semi-controlled conditions for six weeks. Our results suggest that P. × euramericana and P. deltoides clones respond differently to Cd contamination. Biomass production and morphological characteristics were more negatively affected in P. × euramericana than in P. deltoides plants. However, most examined leaf structural parameters were not significantly affected by Cd. In most cases, photosynthetic characteristics and gas exchange parameters were affected by Cd treatment, but the levels and patterns of changes depended on the clone. High tolerance to applied Cd levels, as estimated by the tolerance index, was observed in both clones, but was higher in P. deltoides than P. × euramericana (82.2 vs. 66.5, respectively). We suspect that the higher tolerance to Cd toxicity observed in P. deltoides could be related to unchanged proline content and undisturbed nitrogen metabolism. Following treatment, 58.0 and 46.7% of the total Cd content was accumulated in the roots of P. × euramericana and P. deltoides, respectively, with the remainder in the stems (18.2 and 39.9%) and leaves (23.8 and 13.4%). In summary, P. deltoides displayed better phytoextraction performance under Cd exposure than P. × euramericana, suggesting its potential not only for Cd phytostabilization, but also phytoextraction projects.Keywords: Cadmium, Phytoextraction, Poplars, Tolerance, ToxicityiForest 10 (3): 635-644 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2165-010'id=ifor2165-010
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
  • Research Articles: Canopy temperature variability in a tropical
           rainforest, subtropical evergreen forest, and savanna forest in Southwest

    • Authors: Song Q-H; Zhang Y-P, Sha L-Q, Deng X-B, Deng Y, Wu C-S, Lu Z-Y, Chen A-G, Zhang S-B, Li P-G, Zhou W-J, Liu Y-T
      Abstract: Song Q-H, Zhang Y-P, Sha L-Q, Deng X-B, Deng Y, Wu C-S, Lu Z-Y, Chen A-G, Zhang S-B, Li P-G, Zhou W-J, Liu Y-TCANOPY TEMPERATURE VARIABILITY IN A TROPICAL RAINFOREST, SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST, AND SAVANNA FOREST IN SOUTHWEST CHINAAbstract: Canopy temperature (Tc) measurements with infrared thermometry have been widely used to assess plant water status. Here, we evaluated Tc and its controlling factors in a primary tropical rainforest (TRF), subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (STF) and valley savanna forest (SAF) in southwestern China. We found differences between Tc and air temperature (Ta) of as much as 2.2 °C between the dry and wet seasons in the TRF. However, the canopy-to-air temperature difference (Tc-Ta) was only 0.3 °C between the dry and wet seasons in the STF. Solar radiation (SR) was the dominant factor in Tc-Ta variations during the dry and wet seasons at the three sites. The increased heating in the canopy leaves was likely the result of low stomatal conductance leading to low transpiration cooling. Changes in Tc-Ta in the TRF were highly sensitive to the degree of stomatal closure. The change in Tc-Ta was controlled by the climate, but inherent plant traits, such as stomatal conductance, also played an important controlling role.Keywords: Canopy Temperature, Drought Stress, Microclimate, Transpiration, Leaf Energy BalanceiForest 10 (3): 611-617 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2223-010'id=ifor2223-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
  • Research Articles: Adjustment of photosynthetic carbon assimilation to
           higher growth irradiance in three-year-old seedlings of two Tunisian
           provenances of Cork Oak (Quercus suber L.)

    • Authors: Rzigui T; Cherif J, Zorrig W, Khaldi A, Nasr Z
      Abstract: Rzigui T, Cherif J, Zorrig W, Khaldi A, Nasr ZADJUSTMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON ASSIMILATION TO HIGHER GROWTH IRRADIANCE IN THREE-YEAR-OLD SEEDLINGS OF TWO TUNISIAN PROVENANCES OF CORK OAK (QUERCUS SUBER L.)Abstract: Three-year-old seedlings of two Tunisian provenances of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) differing in climatic conditions at their geographical origin were subjected to increasing light intensities. Ga’four was the provenance from the driest site and Feija from the wettest site. Low-light adapted seedlings from both provenances were exposed to two light treatments: full sunlight (HL) and low light (LL, 15% sunlight) for 40 days. The CO2-response curve of leaf net photosynthesis (An-Ci curve) established under saturated photon flux density was used to compare photosynthetic parameters between leaves subjected to continuous low light (LL leaves) and leaves transferred from low to high light (HL leaves). Transfer from low to high light significantly increased net photosynthesis (An) and dark respiration (Rd) in Ga’four provenance but not in Feija. After transfer to high irradiance, specific leaf area (SLA) did not change in either provenance. This suggested that the increase in photosynthetic capacity on a leaf area basis in HL leaves of Ga’four provenance was not due to increased leaf thickness. Only the seedlings from the Ga’four provenance were able to acclimate to high light by increasing Vcmax and Jmax.Keywords: Quercus suber, Photosynthesis, Vcmax, Jmax, Stomatal LimitationiForest 10 (3): 618-624 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2105-010'id=ifor2105-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
  • Research Articles: Estimation of aboveground forest biomass in Galicia (NW
           Spain) by the combined use of LiDAR, LANDSAT ETM+ and National Forest
           Inventory data

    • Authors: Jiménez E; Vega JA, Fernández-Alonso JM, Vega-Nieva D, Ortiz L, López-Serrano PM, López-Sánchez CA
      Abstract: Jiménez E, Vega JA, Fernández-Alonso JM, Vega-Nieva D, Ortiz L, López-Serrano PM, López-Sánchez CAESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND FOREST BIOMASS IN GALICIA (NW SPAIN) BY THE COMBINED USE OF LIDAR, LANDSAT ETM+ AND NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY DATAAbstract: Assessing biomass is critical for accounting bioenergy potentials and monitoring forest ecosystem responses to global change and disturbances. Remote sensing, especially Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data combined with field data, is being increasingly used for forest inventory purposes. We evaluated the feasibility of the combined use of freely available data, both remote sensing (LiDAR data provided by the Spanish National Plan for Aerial Ortophotography - PNOA - and Landsat vegetation spectral indices) and field data (from the National Forest Inventory) to estimate stand dendrometric and aboveground biomass variables of the most productive tree species in a pilot area in Galicia (northwestern Spain). The results suggest that the models can accurately predict dendrometric and biomass variables at plot level with an R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.65 for basal area, from 0.65 to 0.95 for dominant height, from 0.48 to 0.68 for crown biomass and from 0.55 to 0.82 for stem biomass. Our results support the use of this approach to reduce the cost of forest inventories and provide a useful tool for stakeholders to map forest stand variables and biomass stocks.Keywords: Biomass Maps, Forest Inventory, LiDAR, Landsat Vegetation IndicesiForest 10 (3): 590-596 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1989-010'id=ifor1989-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
  • Technical Reports: Canopy Chamber: a useful tool to monitor the CO2
           exchange dynamics of shrubland

    • Authors: Guidolotti G; De Dato G, Liberati D, De Angelis P
      Abstract: Guidolotti G, De Dato G, Liberati D, De Angelis PCANOPY CHAMBER: A USEFUL TOOL TO MONITOR THE CO2 EXCHANGE DYNAMICS OF SHRUBLANDAbstract: A transient state canopy-chamber was developed to monitor CO2 exchange of shrubland ecosystems. The chamber covered 0.64 m2 and it was modular with a variable height. Several tests were carried out to check the potential errors in the flux estimates due to leakages and the environment modifications during the measurements inside the chamber. The laboratory leakages test showed an error below 1% of the flux; the temperature increases inside the chamber were below 1.3 °C at different light intensity and small pressure changes. The radial blowers inside the chamber created different wind speed at different chamber height, with faster speed at the top of the chamber and the minimum wind speed that was recorded at soil level, preventing detectable effects on soil CO2 emission rates. Moreover, the chamber was tested for two years in a semi-arid Mediterranean garrigue, identifying a strong seasonality of CO2 fluxes with the highest rates during spring and lowest rates recorded during the hot dry non-vegetative summer.Keywords: Canopy Chamber, CO2 fluxes, Cistus monspeliensis, Shrubland, Semiarid Ecosystems, Mediterranean GarrigueiForest 10 (3): 597-604 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2209-010'id=ifor2209-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
  • Research Articles: Analysis and evaluation of the impact of stand age on
           the occurrence and metamorphosis of red heartwood

    • Authors: Trenčiansky M; Lieskovský M, Merganič J, Šulek R
      Abstract: Trenčiansky M, Lieskovský M, Merganič J, Šulek RANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF STAND AGE ON THE OCCURRENCE AND METAMORPHOSIS OF RED HEARTWOODAbstract: The red heartwood of beech is responsible for decreasing the market value of the most important deciduous tree species of central Europe. The aims of this study were: (i) to verify the hypothesis that stand age affects the occurrence and metamorphosis of red heartwood in beech; and (ii) to quantify the economic loss due the sale price reduction of timber affected by red heartwood. Seven even-aged beech stands of different age (87, 100, 105, 110, 115, 132, and 145 years) were selected in Slovakia, and 213 trees were cut into 961 pieces of assortments which were evaluated for the presence, form and extension of red heartwood. The economic loss caused by red heartwood was determined as the difference in price between the actual and the potential quality grades of assortments. The results confirmed that stand age significantly influence the occurrence, development, and metamorphosis of red heartwood. The average loss in timber sale price caused by red heartwood varied between 0.76 and 28.04 € m-3, depending on age and form of red heartwood, with more severe losses in stands older than 110 years. To reduce the incidence of beech red heartwood in Central Europe, a reduction of the rotation period should be considered, as well as the adoption of suitable silvicultural practices in aged beech stands.Keywords: Red Heartwood, Economics of Beech, Timber Quality, Timber PricesiForest 10 (3): 605-610 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2116-010'id=ifor2116-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
  • Research Articles: Compatible taper-volume models of Quercus variabilis
           Blume forests in north China

    • Authors: Zheng C; Wang Y, Jia L, Mason EG, We S, Sun C, Duan J
      Abstract: Zheng C, Wang Y, Jia L, Mason EG, We S, Sun C, Duan JCOMPATIBLE TAPER-VOLUME MODELS OF QUERCUS VARIABILIS BLUME FORESTS IN NORTH CHINAAbstract: Compatible taper and volume models were created for Quercus variabilis Blume (cork oak) forests in North China. 174 trees were felled to obtain stem analysis data. Linear mixed effects analyses were used in modelling. Firstly, a bark thickness model was built. Then diameter at breast height over bark (DBHob) for the inner layers of the 174 trees could be calculated, based on which a total volume model was built. The estimated volume and a specific parameter restriction were then substituted into a polynomial taper model, finally the taper model was fitted and compatible taper and volume models were obtained. Four sets of models based on different data sets were separately built and compared through coefficients of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), value of Akaike’s information criterion (AIC), residuals plots and histograms of residuals. Models based on data of the analyzed stems without ramicorns and simultaneously with relative diameter under 1.5 were chosen as the most precise. Further testing of the chosen models using the jackknife method for the bark thickness and total volume models and a validation data set for the taper model verified that those models can be used to predict bark thickness, diameter at a specific point along the stem, merchantable volume and total stem volume of cork oak forests in North China within specific tree diameter at breast height and height ranges.Keywords: Quercus variabilis Blume, Dummy Variable, Box-Cox Transformation, Linear Mixed Effects Models, Compatible Taper-Volume ModeliForest 10 (3): 567-575 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2114-010'id=ifor2114-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
  • Research Articles: Characterization of VOC emission profile of different
           wood species during moisture cycles

    • Authors: Sassoli M; Taiti C, Guidi Nissim W, Costa C, Mancuso S, Menesatti P, Fioravanti M
      Abstract: Sassoli M, Taiti C, Guidi Nissim W, Costa C, Mancuso S, Menesatti P, Fioravanti MCHARACTERIZATION OF VOC EMISSION PROFILE OF DIFFERENT WOOD SPECIES DURING MOISTURE CYCLESAbstract: This study addresses the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by samples of 13 different wood species, belonging to both softwoods and hardwoods groups, regularly measured at different intervals of time, after the first measurement on green wood. The same wood specimens were subjected to several cycles of water desorption and adsorption, assuming that moisture variation might play a role in both the formation and emission of VOCs. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) was used as a tool to characterize the emission of VOCs. Coupled with a multivariate class-modelling approach, this tool was able to discriminate between groups (softwood and hardwood) and in some cases between different species. However, results showed that the discriminant capacity of VOCs emission to separate species and families rapidly decreases after the first cycles of moisture variation in wood. The green wood was characterized by a richness of volatile compounds, whereas, after only the first dry cycle, wood emitted a more restricted group of compounds. We hypothesized that most of these VOCs might have originated from structural changes and degradation processes that involve the main polymers (particularly hemicellulose) constituting the cell wall of wooden cells. The results obtained are in agreement with the physical and chemical modification processes that characterize wood ageing.Keywords: Wood, VOCs, PTR-TOF-MS, PLSDA, Wood Ageing, Moisture ContentiForest 10 (3): 576-584 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2259-010'id=ifor2259-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
  • Short Communications: Variation in soil carbon stock and nutrient content
           in sand dunes after afforestation by Prosopis juliflora in the Khuzestan
           province (Iran)

    • Authors: Moradi M; Imani F, Naji HR, Moradi Behbahani S, Ahmadi MT
      Abstract: Moradi M, Imani F, Naji HR, Moradi Behbahani S, Ahmadi MTVARIATION IN SOIL CARBON STOCK AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SAND DUNES AFTER AFFORESTATION BY PROSOPIS JULIFLORA IN THE KHUZESTAN PROVINCE (IRAN)Abstract: Prosopis juliflora is one of the suitable tree species used as vegetation cover for sand dunes fixation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of P. juliflora afforestation and its canopy coverage classes on soil carbon (C) stock and nutrient status in sand dunes after 22 years since afforestation. We hypothesized that increasing the canopy coverage would result in higher soil C stocks and nutrient content. We selected two 10-ha afforested sand dunes with 25-50% and more than 75% canopy coverage, respectively, and a 10-ha non-afforested dune (control). At each site, 15 soil samples were taken at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-50 cm). The results indicated a strong increase in the topsoil C stock (from 0.54 to 4.49 tC ha-1 in control and afforested sites, respectively), while a lower change in subsoil C stock was detected (3.0 and 4.6 tC ha-1 in control and afforested sites, respectively). Although, different canopy classes resulted in no significant differences in soil C stock, significant differences were observed for all the soil physico-chemical properties that were studied.Keywords: Canopy Coverage, Carbon Stock, Soil Physico-chemical, C/N RatioiForest 10 (3): 585-589 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2137-010'id=ifor2137-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
  • Research Articles: Temporal development of collar necroses and butt rot in
           association with ash dieback

    • Authors: Enderle R; Sander F, Metzler B
      Abstract: Enderle R, Sander F, Metzler BTEMPORAL DEVELOPMENT OF COLLAR NECROSES AND BUTT ROT IN ASSOCIATION WITH ASH DIEBACKAbstract: In recent years collar necroses and butt rot associated with the ash dieback disease occurred with alarming frequency in Fraxinus excelsior. We analysed tree ring structures to identify the year of necrosis initiation on a set of 507 necroses on 155 stem discs from nine severely diseased south-western German stands. The number of first-time infections of trees was highest from 2010 to 2012 and slightly decreased in 2013 and 2014, whereas the total number of newly emerging individual necroses remained high. Logistic modelling of disease progression suggests that collar rot infection has almost reached its maximum incidence and that a fraction of trees will remain healthy at the root collar. On average, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was isolated more frequently from younger collar necroses, whereas older necroses were more often colonized by Armillaria spp. Advanced stages of rot that may pose a risk to forest workers, visitors and traffic were observed already in two years-old necroses infected by Armillaria spp.Keywords: Ash Dieback, Collar Necrosis, Disease Progression, Armillaria, Butt Rot, EpidemiologyiForest 10 (3): 529-536 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2407-010'id=ifor2407-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
  • Research Articles: Phenology of the beech forests in the Western
           Carpathians from MODIS for 2000-2015

    • Authors: Bucha T; Koren M
      Abstract: Bucha T, Koren MPHENOLOGY OF THE BEECH FORESTS IN THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS FROM MODIS FOR 2000-2015Abstract: The present paper introduces a satellite-based approach to the detection of phenology events in beech forests across Slovakia (the Western Carpathians) using the MOD/MYD09 products. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was used for determining the onset of the phenophases in spring and autumn. Double logistic sigmoid function was applied in order to fit the NDVI profile during the year. The satellite-derived phenological metrics was based on calculating the extreme values of the sigmoid function and its derivatives. Between 2000 and 2015, a time-series analysis using the linear regressions models revealed that the onset of leaf unfolding shifted at a rate of 0.8 day per decade, the onset of leaf fall was delayed at a rate of 1.9 day per decade, and the growing season (GS) extended at a rate of 1.1 day per decade. However, at a regional level, the trends were not found to be statistically significant in either case. Leaf unfolding/fall was significantly non-linearly delayed/advanced with the increase of altitude (p
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
  • Research Articles: Climatic factors defining the height growth curve of
           forest species

    • Authors: Elli EF; Caron BO, Behling A, Eloy E, Queiróz De Souza V, Schwerz F, Stolzle JR
      Abstract: Elli EF, Caron BO, Behling A, Eloy E, Queiróz De Souza V, Schwerz F, Stolzle JRCLIMATIC FACTORS DEFINING THE HEIGHT GROWTH CURVE OF FOREST SPECIESAbstract: The aim of this study was to modify several existing biological models by including several predictive variables that take into account the effect of climatic factors on tree height growth. Tree height was measured from 2007 to 2014 on 18 trees for each of the following species: Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis, Parapiptadenia rigida, Peltophorum dubium, Mimosa scabrella and Schizolobium parahybae. Different existing nonlinear models were fitted to the observed data, and the best fitting models were selected. The inclusion of climatic variables into the selected models (mainly minimum temperature and rainfall) improved their predictions of tree height growth with age, and provided more accurate estimates than those obtained by traditional nonlinear models. Simulations were carried out to explore the variation of tree height growth under different minimum temperature and precipitation regimes. The effects of frost and rainfall variation on height growth curves and their consequences for forest management are discussed.Keywords: Von Bertalanffy-Richards’ Model, Mean Minimum Temperature, Rainfall, FrostiForest 10 (3): 547-553 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2189-010'id=ifor2189-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
  • Research Articles: Influence of climate on tree health evaluated by
           defoliation in the ICP level I network (Romania)

    • Authors: Popa I; Badea O, Silaghi D
      Abstract: Popa I, Badea O, Silaghi DINFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON TREE HEALTH EVALUATED BY DEFOLIATION IN THE ICP LEVEL I NETWORK (ROMANIA)Abstract: Defoliation is the main parameter for assessing tree crown conditions, and is the result of cumulative interactions among different types of stressors, including climate, air pollution, pests and diseases, and management systems. Here, we evaluated a long-term data series (1992-2013) provided by the ICP-Forests Level I monitoring network (16 × 16 km) in Romania. Specifically, we investigated how climate influences defoliation at different spatial and temporal levels using statistical analyses. Using periodic climatic data (mean temperature and precipitation) derived from a daily grid dataset (ROCADA) with a resolution of 0.1 × 0.1° (10 × 10 km), we quantified how climatic parameters were correlated with defoliation, which was expressed as the mean tree defoliation per plot (DEF), and the proportion of damaged trees (crown defoliation > 25% - fDEF). The cross-correlation (Spearman r) between defoliation indicators and temperature was positive and relatively constant over time for all broadleaves and conifers, combined and separately, except for Fagus sylvatica (European beech), which had a negative cross-correlation coefficient. The correlation obtained for precipitation was similar to that obtained for temperature; however, this relationship was negative (except, again, for beech). The temporal influence of temperature on defoliation was much lower than that of precipitation, which had the greatest influence in dry regions (south and southeast Romania), especially for Quercus species. Furthermore, precipitation had a positive influence in moderate climate regions for conifers that were situated outside their natural distribution ranges. For beech and conifers situated at the upper altitudinal limits, temperature was negatively correlated with defoliation, i.e., temperature had a positive influence on health status.Keywords: Climate Change, Defoliation, Tree Species, Forest Health, Temperature, Precipitation, Level IiForest 10 (3): 554-560 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2202-009'id=ifor2202-009
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
  • Research Articles: Selection priority for harvested trees according to
           stand structural indices

    • Authors: Li Y; Hui G, Wang H, Zhang G, Ye S
      Abstract: Li Y, Hui G, Wang H, Zhang G, Ye SSELECTION PRIORITY FOR HARVESTED TREES ACCORDING TO STAND STRUCTURAL INDICESAbstract: The selection of trees to be harvested is a core tenet of uneven-aged forest management; however, few studies have focused on the process of tree selection. A set of stand structural parameters (uniform angle index, W; mingling index, M; dominance index, U) based on tree neighbor-spatial relationships, are particularly suitable for expressing the structural characteristics of forest stands. Such indices were used to parameterize thinning in three plots (a-c, each 100 × 100 m2) in a Korean pine broad-leaved forest in northeastern China and one plot (h, 70 × 70 m2) in a pine-oak mixed forest in northwest China. Low-intensity single-tree selection was applied according to the principles of structure-based forest management (SBFM), i.e., to promote high mixture, obvious size differentiation, and random pattern with the aim of improving the overall structure of the managed plots. A group of thinning priority indices (v_ij, k_ij and z_ij) were calculated according to the bivariate distributions of the structural characteristics of harvested trees and stands before harvest. Our results demonstrated that v_ij, k_ij and z_ij adequately describe the spatial relationship between each tree and its nearest neighbors, and their combinations can be efficiently used to set thinning priorities on harvested trees with different structural characteristics. Their application can reduce the subjectivity of the selection process and improve the speed and accuracy of the choice of trees to be harvested in uneven-aged mixed forests.Keywords: Dominance Index, Mingling Index, Thinning, SBFM, Silviculture, Uneven-aged Forest, Uniform Angle IndexiForest 10 (3): 561-566 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2115-010'id=ifor2115-010
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
  • Research Articles: Selection of optimal conversion path for willow biomass
           assisted by near infrared spectroscopy

    • Authors: Sandak A; Sandak J, Waliszewska B, Zborowska M, Mleczek M
      Abstract: Sandak A, Sandak J, Waliszewska B, Zborowska M, Mleczek MSELECTION OF OPTIMAL CONVERSION PATH FOR WILLOW BIOMASS ASSISTED BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPYAbstract: Willow (Salix sp.) is one of the most common hardwood species suitable for short-rotation coppice. It can be converted to different products, including chemicals, fuels, fibers or furniture. It may also be used in agriculture and environmental engineering. Molecular composition of biomass and its physical properties highly influence effectiveness of its chemical, thermo-chemical or mechanical-chemical conversion. Therefore, it is challenging to provide biomass feedstock with optimized properties, best suited for further downstream conversion. The goal of this research was to establish a procedure for determination of the willow biomass optimal use cultivated in four different plantations in Poland. A special attention has been paid to the application of the near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of biomass chemical composition and its physical properties. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) could be an alternative to standard analytical methods supporting the research and development of biomass production technologies. Partial least squares regression models for quantitative prediction of wood chemical components (lignin, cellulose, holocellulose, hemicellulose and extractives) and high heating values were developed. The residual prediction deviation (RPD) values confirm the applicability of chemometric models for screening in breeding programmes (for lignin, cellulose and extractives content) and for research in the case of high heating value. The analysis of NIR spectra highlighted several peculiarities in the chemical composition of the investigated willow clones. Finally, a knowledge-based expert system and a prototype automatic NIR system allowing the computation of a “suitability index” based on PLS models and dedicated to selection of optimal biomass conversion path, was developed.Keywords: Willows, NIR Spectroscopy, Optimal Conversion, Biomass FeedstockiForest 10 (2): 506-514 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1987-010'id=ifor1987-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
  • Research Articles: Soil microorganisms at the windthrow plots: the effect
           of post-disturbance management and the time since disturbance

    • Authors: Gömöryová E; Fleischer P, Pichler V, Homolák M, Gere R, Gömöry D
      Abstract: Gömöryová E, Fleischer P, Pichler V, Homolák M, Gere R, Gömöry DSOIL MICROORGANISMS AT THE WINDTHROW PLOTS: THE EFFECT OF POST-DISTURBANCE MANAGEMENT AND THE TIME SINCE DISTURBANCEAbstract: Wind disturbance is a major natural driver of forest dynamics in a large part of Europe and can affect soil properties in different ways and for different time. The present study focuses on the effects of post-disturbance management of windthrow plots in the Tatra Mountains, Slovakia, on soil microorganisms ten years after the disturbance. Their comparison with the microbial characteristics at a new windthrow plot caused by strong wind in 2014 was also carried out. Three research plots differing in the way of their management after the windstorm in 2004 (EXT, salvage plot; FIR, salvage plot affected by fire; NEX, unsalvaged plot) and the plot destroyed by strong wind in May 2014 (REX) were used for study. Ten soil samples were taken from the mineral A-horizon (depth: 0-10 cm) at each plot in autumn 2014. In soil samples, soil chemical and microbial characteristics (microbial biomass C, basal and substrate-induced respiration, N-mineralisation, catalase activity, richness and diversity of soil microbial functional groups based on the Biolog approach) were determined. Ten years after the disturbance we still observed significant differences in microbial characteristics between FIR and the other plots, with higher microbial activity at the FIR, while no significant differences were found among the other plots. The results indicate that at a higher altitude the effect of fire on soil microorganisms is more distinct than removing or not removing of fallen trees and persists even over a decade.Keywords: Forest Soil, Soil Microorganisms, Windthrow, Fire, Postdisturbance ManagementiForest 10 (2): 515-521 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2304-010'id=ifor2304-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
  • Research Articles: Anatomical and genetic aspects of ash dieback: a look
           at the wood structure

    • Authors: Tulik M; Zakrzewski J, Adamczyk J, Tereba A, Yaman B, Nowakowska JA
      Abstract: Tulik M, Zakrzewski J, Adamczyk J, Tereba A, Yaman B, Nowakowska JAANATOMICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF ASH DIEBACK: A LOOK AT THE WOOD STRUCTUREAbstract: Pathogen diseases are increasingly threatening forest trees under the current climate change, causing a remarkable decrease in the stability of forest ecosystems. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) dieback due to Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has been noted in Poland since 1992 and has spread over many European countries. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ash trees affected by dieback could exhibit a reduced vessel size and density along the trunk, as well as a lowered width of annual wood rings, leading to the weakening of water transport towards the crown. Dead and dying ash trees were sampled in a forest district severely affected by ash decline in southern Poland. Wood samples were collected at different height along the trunk and several wood anatomical characteristics of annual tree rings over the period 2002-2011 were examined. Dead trees showed a stronger reduction in radial growth than dying trees over the period considered. Moreover, the diameter of vessels increased from the crown to the base in both dead and dying trees, while the density decreased. Significant differences between dead and dying trees were detected in size and density of vessels in the period analyzed, as well as in the width of annual rings. DNA extracted from wood samples was analyzed using SSR markers and the main genetic parameters of dead and dying trees were estimated, finding similar levels of polymorphism and only slight non-significant differences between the two health groups. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that pathogens could disrupt the hormonal control of wood formation by interfering with the polar auxin transport, progressively leading to the death of ash trees.Keywords: Ash Trees, Microsatellites Markers, Tree Decline, Wood, Vessel Size and DensityiForest 10 (2): 522-528 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2080-010'id=ifor2080-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
  • Research Articles: Quantifying forest net primary production: combining
           eddy flux, inventory and metabolic theory

    • Authors: Tan ZH; Hughes A, Sato T, Zhang YP, Han SJ, Kosugi Y, Goulden M, Deng XB, Cao M, Hao ZQ, Hu YH, Yu GR, Ma KP
      Abstract: Tan ZH, Hughes A, Sato T, Zhang YP, Han SJ, Kosugi Y, Goulden M, Deng XB, Cao M, Hao ZQ, Hu YH, Yu GR, Ma KPQUANTIFYING FOREST NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION: COMBINING EDDY FLUX, INVENTORY AND METABOLIC THEORYAbstract: Net primary production (NPP) is a central and fundamental carbon-related term in global change studies. We proposed a top-down method to quantifying forest NPP which overcomes the deficits of the traditional bottom-up method. The new top-down method combines eddy flux data, climate variables, tree inventory and metabolic theory. Our method was tested in six forests and provides reliable annual NPP estimations which are consistent with bottom-up results. Carbon use efficiency also supports this new method. Taking advantage of fine temporal resolution of our top-down method, we examined whether and confirmed NPP was well correlated with leaf area index at a seasonal scale, as suggested by past studies. The potential value of our new method as a standard NPP method is high because of the world-wide network on eddy tower and inventory plot, however further data of performance of the new method is needed to fully evaluate its performance under different conditions.Keywords: Carbon Use Efficiency, Metabolic Theory of Ecology, Autotrophic Respiration, Biomass, Eddy CovarianceiForest 10 (2): 475-482 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2159-010'id=ifor2159-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
  • Research Articles: Allometric equations to assess biomass, carbon and
           nitrogen content of black pine and red pine trees in southern Korea

    • Authors: Kim C; Yoo BO, Jung SY, Lee KS
      Abstract: Kim C, Yoo BO, Jung SY, Lee KSALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS TO ASSESS BIOMASS, CARBON AND NITROGEN CONTENT OF BLACK PINE AND RED PINE TREES IN SOUTHERN KOREAAbstract: A total of 74 Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) and red pine (P. densiflora S. et Z.) trees were destructively sampled in southern Korea, which is severely affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Species-specific allometric equations were developed to estimate the biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the tree components (i.e., stem wood, stem bark, branches, needles and roots) based on the diameter at breast height (DBH) and stem diameter at 20 cm aboveground (D20). The C concentrations of the various tree components were not correlated with DBH (P > 0.05), except for the C concentration in the stem bark (r = -0.29, P < 0.05) of the black pine and the branches (r = 0.40, P < 0.05) of the red pine. However, the N concentrations in the stem wood (r = -0.53, P < 0.05), stem bark (r = -0.37, P < 0.05) and branches (r = -0.40, P < 0.05) of the black pine were negatively correlated with DBH. The mean C concentrations of the tree components were not significantly different between the black pine and red pine, except for the stem bark, whereas the mean N concentrations were significantly lower in the black pine than in the red pine, except for the stem bark. The allometric equations developed for the biomass, C and N content for all the tree components were significant (P < 0.05). The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R2) of the DBH allometric equations ranged from 0.66 to 0.97, while the coefficients for the D20 equations were between 0.66 and 0.95. Black pines consistently exhibited more biomass, C and N content in the tree components compared with the red pines with similar DBH or D20. These results suggest that the accuracy of estimates for biomass, C and N stocks in black pine and red pine forests could be improved by specific allometric equations for PWD-disturbed forests.Keywords: Biomass Equations, Black Pine, Carbon Stocks, Nitrogen Stocks, Pine Wilt Disease, Red PineiForest 10 (2): 483-490 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2164-010'id=ifor2164-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
  • Research Articles: Three-dimensional forest stand height map production
           utilizing airborne laser scanning dense point clouds and precise quality

    • Authors: Sefercik UG; Atesoglu A
      Abstract: Sefercik UG, Atesoglu ATHREE-DIMENSIONAL FOREST STAND HEIGHT MAP PRODUCTION UTILIZING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DENSE POINT CLOUDS AND PRECISE QUALITY EVALUATIONAbstract: In remote sensing, estimation of the forest stand height is an ever-challenging issue due to the difficulties encountered during the acquisition of data under forest canopies. Stereo optical imaging offers high spatial and spectral resolution; however, the optical correlation is lower in dense forests than in open areas due to an insufficient number of matching points. Therefore, in most cases height information may be missing or faulty. With their long wavelengths of 0.2 to 1.3 m, P-band and L-band synthetic aperture radars are capable of penetrating forest canopies, but their low spatial resolutions restrict the use of single-tree based forest applications. In this study, airborne laser scanning was used as an effective remote sensing technique to produce large-scale maps of forest stand height. This technique produces very high-resolution point clouds and has a high penetration capability that allows for the detection of multiple echoes per laser pulse. A study area with a forest coverage of approximately 60% was selected in Houston, USA, and a three-dimensional color-coded map of forest stands was produced using a normalized digital surface model technique. Rather than being limited to the number of ground control points, the accuracy of the produced map was assessed with a model-to-model approach using terrestrial laser scanning. In the accuracy assessment, the standard deviation was used as the main accuracy indicator in addition to the root mean square error and normalized median absolute deviation. The absolute geo-location accuracy of the generated map was found to be better than 1 cm horizontally and approximately 40 cm in height. Furthermore, the effects of bias and relative standard deviations were determined. The problems encountered during the production of the map, as well as recommended solutions, are also discussed in this paper.Keywords: Airborne Laser Scanning, Forest Stand Height Map, First Echo, Last Echo, NDSMiForest 10 (2): 491-497 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2039-010'id=ifor2039-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
  • Research Articles: The effect of the calculation method, plot size, and
           stand density on the accuracy of top height estimation in Norway spruce

    • Authors: Ochal W; Socha J, Pierzchalski M
      Abstract: Ochal W, Socha J, Pierzchalski MTHE EFFECT OF THE CALCULATION METHOD, PLOT SIZE, AND STAND DENSITY ON THE ACCURACY OF TOP HEIGHT ESTIMATION IN NORWAY SPRUCE STANDSAbstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate top height (TH) estimates for Norway spruce stands calculated according to different computational methods, and to assess the effects of stand density and plot size on TH estimation accuracy. Field data were collected from twelve 1 ha research plots located in even-aged spruce stands. Conventional estimates were found to generally overstate TH. The accuracy of TH estimation was dependent on sample plot size. TH estimation error decreased rapidly with increasing sample plot area, but only up to a certain cut-off point. Errors in TH estimation were also related to local stand density, with low and very high density levels leading to decreased accuracy. The most reliable TH estimates were obtained using the U-estimator method, which is resistant to changes in sample plot size.Keywords: Forest Inventory, Site Index, Bias, Accuracy, Picea abiesiForest 10 (2): 498-505 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2108-010'id=ifor2108-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
  • Research Articles: Comparison of wood volume estimates of young trees from
           terrestrial laser scan data

    • Authors: Kunz M; Hess C, Raumonen P, Bienert A, Hackenberg J, Maas HG, Härdtle W, Fichtner A, von Oheimb G
      Abstract: Kunz M, Hess C, Raumonen P, Bienert A, Hackenberg J, Maas HG, Härdtle W, Fichtner A, von Oheimb GCOMPARISON OF WOOD VOLUME ESTIMATES OF YOUNG TREES FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCAN DATAAbstract: Many analyses in ecology and forestry require wood volume estimates of trees. However, non-destructive measurements are not straightforward because trees are differing in their three-dimensional structures and shapes. In this paper we compared three methods (one voxel-based and two cylinder-based methods) for wood volume calculation of trees from point clouds obtained by terrestrial laser scanning. We analysed a total of 24 young trees, composed of four different species ranging between 1.79 m to 7.96 m in height, comparing the derived volume estimates from the point clouds with xylometric reference volumes for each tree. We found that both voxel- and cylinder-based approaches are able to compute wood volumes with an average accuracy above 90% when compared to reference volumes. The best results were achieved with the voxel-based method (r2 = 0.98). Cylinder-model based methods (r2 = 0.90 and 0.92 respectively) did perform slightly less well but offer valuable additional opportunities to analyse structural parameters for each tree. We found that the error of volume estimates from point clouds are strongly species-specific. Therefore, species-specific parameter sets for point-cloud based wood volume estimation methods are required for more robust estimates across a number of tree species.Keywords: Mixed Forests, Quantitative Structure Models, Voxel-based, XylometryiForest 10 (2): 451-458 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2151-010'id=ifor2151-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
  • Research Articles: Integration of tree allometry rules to treetops
           detection and tree crowns delineation using airborne lidar data

    • Authors: Sačkov I; Hlásny T, Bucha T, Juriš M
      Abstract: Sačkov I, Hlásny T, Bucha T, Juriš MINTEGRATION OF TREE ALLOMETRY RULES TO TREETOPS DETECTION AND TREE CROWNS DELINEATION USING AIRBORNE LIDAR DATAAbstract: Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has recently gained increasing attention in forestry, as ALS data may facilitate the efficient assessment of forest inventory attributes and ecological indicators related to forest stand structure. This paper presents a novel workflow for individual tree detection and tree crown delineation using ALS data. The developed point-based approach included several tree allometry rules on permissible tree heights and crown dimensions to increase the likelihood of detecting the actual tree profiles. The accuracy of the method was assessed in a heterogeneous forest with a complex stand structure in Slovakia (Central Europe). ALS measurements were taken using a RIEGL Q680i scanner at 700 m of height with a point density of 20 echoes per m2. The ground reference data included the measured positions and dimensions of 1332 trees in nine plots distributed across the region. We found that the number of individual trees detected by the algorithm using ALS data was systematically underestimated by 34 ± 15% relative to the reference data. The delineated crown coverage was underestimated by 2 ± 6% as well, but the latter difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05).Keywords: Tree Allometry, Airborne Laser Scanning, Individual Tree Detection, Point-based ApproachiForest 10 (2): 459-467 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2093-010'id=ifor2093-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
  • Short Communications: Variation in growth, photosynthesis and
           water-soluble polysaccharide of Cyclocarya paliurus under different light

    • Authors: Yang W; Liu Y, Fang S, Ding H, Zhou M, Shang X
      Abstract: Yang W, Liu Y, Fang S, Ding H, Zhou M, Shang XVARIATION IN GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER-SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE OF CYCLOCARYA PALIURUS UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT REGIMESAbstract: As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. Responses of growth, photosynthesis and phytochemical accumulation to light environment are useful informations to determine suitable habitat conditions for the cultivation of C. paliurus. A split-plot design with five light quality and three light intensity levels was adopted to compare the variations in plant growth, photosynthesis and water-soluble polysaccharide yield in C. paliurus leaves. Both light intensity and quality treatments significantly affected total biomass, photosynthetic rate and water-soluble polysaccharide yield in C. paliurus leaves. Treatments under red light and blue light with 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 achieved the highest values of biomass growth, photosynthetic rate, specific dry leaf mass per area and accumulation of water-soluble polysaccharide. These results indicate that red light and blue light with higher light intensity level were effective for increasing plant growth, photosynthesis and production of water-soluble polysaccharide in C. paliurus leaves. Manipulating light conditions might be an effective means to improve biomass and achieve higher water-soluble polysaccharide yield in C. paliurus plantations.Keywords: Cyclocarya paliurus, Environmental Factor, Biomass Production, Phytochemicals, PhotosynthesisiForest 10 (2): 468-474 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2185-010'id=ifor2185-010
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
  • Research Articles: A resource capture efficiency index to compare
           differences in early growth of four tree species in northern England

    • Authors: Leslie AD; Mencuccini M, Perks MP
      Abstract: Leslie AD, Mencuccini M, Perks MPA RESOURCE CAPTURE EFFICIENCY INDEX TO COMPARE DIFFERENCES IN EARLY GROWTH OF FOUR TREE SPECIES IN NORTHERN ENGLANDAbstract: At a trial established in Cumbria, northern England, significant differences in growth rate between tree species were apparent, with cider gum (Eucalyptus gunnii) and alder (Alnus glutinosa) exhibiting most rapid volume and biomass accumulation. Estimations were made of leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio (based on stem mass not whole tree mass) and length of growing season. These measurements were undertaken to explain tree growth difference and developing a growth potential index based on growing season length and leaf area. The high leaf area of cider gum and alder explained some of their superior growth, while alder also had the longest period in leaf, compared with ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). The slow growth of ash can be explained by the short period in leaf and also the relatively low leaf area ratio. Leaf area to stem weight also differed between species with that of ash being relatively low. Specific leaf area was also low for ash, a trait shared with cider gum, which suggests that these species invest highly in each unit of leaf area. Of the tree species assessed, the length of the growing season was longest for alder, enabling it to maintain growth for a longer period. By multiplying growing season by leaf area a resource capture index was calculated and this explained 56% of the variation in stem dry weight between trees. The potential and limitations for using this index are discussed.Keywords: Eucalyptus gunnii, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Resource Capture EfficiencyiForest 10 (2): 397-405 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2248-010'id=ifor2248-010
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Research Articles: Damage assessment to subtropical forests following the
           2008 Chinese ice storm

    • Authors: Zhou B; Wang X, Cao Y, Ge X, Gu L, Meng J
      Abstract: Zhou B, Wang X, Cao Y, Ge X, Gu L, Meng JDAMAGE ASSESSMENT TO SUBTROPICAL FORESTS FOLLOWING THE 2008 CHINESE ICE STORMAbstract: Ice storm is a major form of extreme climatic event and may occur more frequently in the future under a changing climate. The 2008 Chinese ice storm provided a natural laboratory to study ecosystem responses and feedbacks to climate variability and extreme events. Four typical subtropical forests (Chinese fir plantation, pine plantation, moso bamboo plantation, and secondary mixed broadleaved forest) were selected to assess the damage caused by the ice storm. The ice damage rate of typical subtropical forests varied between 25% and 81%. The secondary broadleaved forest had most extensive damage while the Chinese fir plantation experienced the most severe damage. Exotic pine species (Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Pinus taeda Linn.) were more severely damaged than the native species, Pinus massoniana Lamb. Ice damage was also affected by tree/culm size, age, stand density, site altitude, and management practices. Large-sized trees/culms were more vulnerable to stem breakage, decapitation, and uprooting, while small-sized trees/culms were more vulnerable to bending and leaning. Younger trees/culms had the highest damage rate, and were more susceptible to bending damage. Ice damage rate increased linearly with the stand density, and higher altitude led to a significant increase of stem breakage. Oleoresin tapping aggravated the damage to pine trees. Resistance of trees to ice damage is an emergent consequence of tree attributes, species origin, site conditions, and human disturbance. Forest silviculture and management practices can play significant roles in controlling forest susceptibility to extreme events. Inappropriate utilization of non-timber forest products can reduce trees’ resistance to extreme events. For sustainable forest development, balance needs to be achieved between the high productivity of introduced exotic tree species and the resistance of native species to extreme climatic events.Keywords: Ice Damage, Secondary Mixed Broadleaved Forest, Chinese Fir, Moso Bamboo, Pine, Forest ManagementiForest 10 (2): 406-415 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1619-009'id=ifor1619-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Research Articles: Analysis of biometric, physiological, and biochemical
           traits to evaluate the cadmium phytoremediation ability of eucalypt plants
           under hydroponics

    • Authors: Iori V; Pietrini F, Bianconi D, Mughini G, Massacci A, Zacchini M
      Abstract: Iori V, Pietrini F, Bianconi D, Mughini G, Massacci A, Zacchini MANALYSIS OF BIOMETRIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS TO EVALUATE THE CADMIUM PHYTOREMEDIATION ABILITY OF EUCALYPT PLANTS UNDER HYDROPONICSAbstract: Wastewater reclamation and reuse represent a feasible solution to meet the growing demand for safe water. An environmentally sustainable technology such as phytoremediation is targeted for the reclamation of polluted waters. To this end, the capability of different plant species to tolerate and accumulate pollutants has to be investigated. In this work, eucalypt plants were studied by analysing biometric, physiological, and biochemical parameters related to cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in two clones (“Velino ex 7” and “Viglio ex 358”) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. × E. globulus subsp. bicostata (Maiden, Blakely & J.Simm.) J.B. Kirkp exposed to 50 μM CdSO4 under hydroponics for three weeks. The results indicated that both eucalypt clones have a valuable tolerance to cadmium, expressed as the tolerance index (Ti). Biometric investigations showed that, regardless of the clone, the metal exposure affected most parameters related to biomass allocation and leaf growth. On the contrary, significant differences were found between the clones with respect to the chlorophyll content and the Chl a to Chl b ratio. These findings were also confirmed from the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP) using the JIP test. Cadmium accumulation occurred in both clones and in particular in the roots, with a poor amount of metal reaching the aerial parts, and the Velino clone showed the highest Cd accumulation. The metal uptake ratio and the phytoextraction efficiency highlight a good Cd phytoremoval ability, especially for the Velino clone. The results are discussed taking into account that, in wastewater phytoremediation systems, root biomass can be completely harvested allowing for the removal of the absorbed metal. Finally, the notable tolerance to submersion and the large environmental adaptability of eucalypt suggest that this plant species represents an interesting candidate for the phytoremediation of Cd-polluted wastewaters.Keywords: Heavy Metals, Metal Tolerance, Wastewater, Forest Plants, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, RhizofiltrationiForest 10 (2): 416-421 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2129-009'id=ifor2129-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Research Articles: Genetic analysis of Latvian Salix alba L. and hybrid
           populations using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers

    • Authors: Rungis D; Laivins M, Gailite A, Korica A, Lazdina D, Skipars V, Veinberga I
      Abstract: Rungis D, Laivins M, Gailite A, Korica A, Lazdina D, Skipars V, Veinberga IGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LATVIAN SALIX ALBA L. AND HYBRID POPULATIONS USING NUCLEAR AND CHLOROPLAST DNA MARKERSAbstract: Latvia is at the northern border of the species range of S. alba L. in Europe, and there has been some debate whether the Latvian populations of S. alba are autochthonous, as this species has long been planted in Latvia as an ornamental tree in gardens, parks and roadsides. In addition, there is increasing interest in the use of several Salix species (including S. alba) as bioenergy crops. Natural S. alba stands throughout Latvia, as well as stands of possibly hybrid origin were analysed using nuclear and chloroplast markers. Our results showed that S. alba populations are probably natural, and that the rate of vegetative reproduction is low, supporting the evidence that Latvia is within the natural range of S. alba. These results provide the basis for the identification of possibly introduced or artificially regenerated stands of S.alba in Latvia. In addition, our results confirm that S. alba hybridises with S. fragilis, and that natural stands including hybrid individuals can be established. The analysis of chloroplast markers indicated that the predominant hybridisation occurs by fertilisation of S. fragilis by S. alba pollen; however, the extent of haplotype sharing between these two species should be further investigated.Keywords: Willow, Population Structure, Autochthonous, ProvenanceiForest 10 (2): 422-429 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2004-009'id=ifor2004-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Research Articles: Heuristic forest planning model for optimizing timber
           production and carbon sequestration in teak plantations

    • Authors: Quintero-Méndez MA; Jerez-Rico M
      Abstract: Quintero-Méndez MA, Jerez-Rico MHEURISTIC FOREST PLANNING MODEL FOR OPTIMIZING TIMBER PRODUCTION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN TEAK PLANTATIONSAbstract: We developed a forest planning model integrating two operational scales (single-stand and forest levels) for the optimization of timber production and carbon sequestration in forest teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) plantations. At the stand level, growth and yield simulations using a heuristic thinning optimizer provided a set of near-optimal thinning regimes for individual stands differing on initial spacing and site quality, given biological, silvicultural, and financial constraints. The set of near-optimal thinning regimes obtained were then used as input of the forest-level model, which generated optimal harvest plans for the whole plantation by simultaneously maximizing the net present value of merchantable wood and carbon sequestration. The net amount of carbon captured by the biomass and the emissions produced by decomposition of woody debris and timber products after harvest were estimated. The growth and yield model was based on a system of differential equations incorporating heuristics (genetic algorithms) to optimize age and intensity of thinnings. The full model can handle the optimization of harvest schedules for projects up to 10.000 ha and 200 stands and was tested on a validation dataset including teak plantations from Venezuela and other Latin American countries. Results indicated that regimes favoring carbon sequestration reduce the benefits of timber production, and equal profitability of carbon sequestration and timber production was obtained for carbon prices over 40 $US Gg-1. Sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model is sensible to variation in growth rates, carbon and timber prices, and production quotas, and barely sensible to harvest and transport costs. The developed model has a modular structure that allows its calibration to incorporate data from a wide range of management regimes for teak and other forest species.Keywords: Forest Planning, Harvest Scheduling, Optimization, Heuristics, Carbon Sequestration, Tectona grandisiForest 10 (2): 430-439 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1733-009'id=ifor1733-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Research Articles: Gnomoniopsis castaneae associated with Dryocosmus
           kuriphilus galls in chestnut stands in Sardinia (Italy)

    • Authors: Seddaiu S; Cerboneschi A, Sechi C, Mello A
      Abstract: Seddaiu S, Cerboneschi A, Sechi C, Mello AGNOMONIOPSIS CASTANEAE ASSOCIATED WITH DRYOCOSMUS KURIPHILUS GALLS IN CHESTNUT STANDS IN SARDINIA (ITALY)Abstract: Invasive fungal pathogens and pests of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) forests drastically reduce their productivity. The recently described Gnomoniopsis castaneae is one of the main agents involved in the epidemic of brown rot of chestnut nuts worldwide. In 2014, during an investigation aimed at evaluating the health status of chestnut forests in Sardinia, a high incidence of necrotic galls induced by the Asian gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) was observed. Several fungal isolates were consistently isolated from necrotic gall tissues. Based on their morphological characters and analyses of both the ITS and EF1-α-coding gene sequences, all isolates were identified as Gnomoniopsis castaneae.Keywords: Galls Necrosis, Brown Nut Rot, Invasive Pests, Forest PathogensiForest 10 (2): 440-445 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2064-009'id=ifor2064-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Research Articles: Shear modulus of old timber

    • Authors: Cavalli A; Cibecchini D, Goli G, Togni M
      Abstract: Cavalli A, Cibecchini D, Goli G, Togni MSHEAR MODULUS OF OLD TIMBERAbstract: Interest in both the time effect on the timber mechanical properties and the reuse of old solid timbers has prompted many research works since the 1970s, mainly focusing on evaluating bending strength (MOR) and stiffness (MOE). However, only few studies have investigated the effect of aging on shear modulus (G). In this work, transverse vibration test is used to calculate G and MOE of over 80 old timber beams. The MOE/G ratio and the relationship between G and different timber features are investigated. The main outcome of the research confirms that the MOE/G ratio is around 20, close to the value reported in literature for new solid timber. No relationship exists between G and MOE (r2=0.07) or between G and other timber features. When density and knots are used as predictors in a multiple regression model, the G prediction improves (r2=0.22). This work confirms that G is not affected by the age of timber.Keywords: Flexural Vibration, Old Timber, Historical Timber Buildings, Reclaimed TimberiForest 10 (2): 446-450 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1787-009'id=ifor1787-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Research Articles: Long-term changes in surface-active beetle communities
           in a post-fire successional gradient in Pinus brutia forests

    • Authors: Kaynas BY
      Abstract: Kaynas BYLONG-TERM CHANGES IN SURFACE-ACTIVE BEETLE COMMUNITIES IN A POST-FIRE SUCCESSIONAL GRADIENT IN PINUS BRUTIA FORESTSAbstract: Fire is one of the most important ecological factors for many ecosystem types. Since prehistoric times, synergistic effects of fires and humans have led to changes in Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems. The effects of fire on different trophic levels, particularly regarding plants, have been examined intensively in fire-induced ecosystems. In this study, we aimed to study long-term changes in beetle community structure after fire in Pinus brutia Ten. forests. Five sites burned in different years and a control site unburned for at least 50 years were selected. Beetle sampling was conducted using four pit-fall traps in each of four transects in three replication plots at every successional site and in two plots at the control site. Microhabitat variables related to vegetation structure and litter layer were recorded and associated with abundances of beetles and feeding groups. The results showed that total, wood-eating, and predator beetles showed a decreasing trend of abundance along the successional gradient after fire. In contrast to these groups, herbivores tended to increase towards the late successional stages. Middle and late successional stages were important in terms of species richness, species diversity and evenness of beetle communities and feeding groups. The characteristics of vegetation and litter layer changed with successional gradient, playing a decisive role in the structure of beetle communities at successional sites. According to the data presented here, a mosaic structure consisting of different successional stages is very important to sustain high species diversity in beetle communities.Keywords: Forest Fires, Coleoptera, Brutia Pine, Resilience, AutosuccessioniForest 10 (2): 376-382 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2140-009'id=ifor2140-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
  • Research Articles: Effects of thinning and pruning on stem and crown
           characteristics of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don)

    • Authors: Fernández MP; Basauri J, Madariaga C, Menéndez-Miguélez M, Olea R, Zubizarreta-Gerendiain A
      Abstract: Fernández MP, Basauri J, Madariaga C, Menéndez-Miguélez M, Olea R, Zubizarreta-Gerendiain AEFFECTS OF THINNING AND PRUNING ON STEM AND CROWN CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATA PINE (PINUS RADIATA D. DON)Abstract: Simultaneous applications of thinning and pruning are common silvicultural practices in radiata pine (Pinus radiata) forest plantations. Their separate effects on tree growth and wood quality have been well studied, but their combined effect is not clear yet. The aim of this study is to identify how thinning and pruning together affect the stem structure and properties of the pruned but also the unpruned section of the trees (the portions formed immediately after the application of these management efforts). The effects of pruning and thinning on the number of growth units per year, internode length, number of branches, and branch diameters was analyzed in managed and unmanaged stands of radiata pine grown in Chile. When used jointly, these practices generated larger individual tree volumes (135% more) and clear wood in the pruned logs; however, they also reduced the sawn wood quality of the unpruned stem section for some years after the silvicultural interventions. The managed trees showed more growth units per annual shoot and shorter internodes, thus generating more knotty wood. Moreover, managed trees showed more taper. As trees of the managed stand restore the foliar biomass lost due to pruning, managed and unmanaged stands approach the same level of canopy closure, and differences minimize.Keywords: Annual Shoot, Silviculture Management, Branching, Knots, Tree Volume, Taper, Wood QualityiForest 10 (2): 383-390 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2037-009'id=ifor2037-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
  • Research Articles: Successional leaf traits of monsoon evergreen
           broad-leaved forest, Southwest China

    • Authors: Liu W; Su J
      Abstract: Liu W, Su JSUCCESSIONAL LEAF TRAITS OF MONSOON EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST, SOUTHWEST CHINAAbstract: Understanding the variation of functional traits of plant species along forest successional gradients may provides useful insights into community assemblages. However, species performance during forest succession is controversial. We explored the variation of leaf traits along a forest succession by examining ten leaf traits in four successional stages in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southwest China. Results showed significant differences in all leaf traits except leaf area and leaf carbon content among the successional stages. Five leaf traits were highly correlated to successional stage, while the first principal component showed no correlation with successional stage. The first principal component accounted for 56.1% of the total variation in all ten leaf traits. Almost 50% of the relationships between leaf traits differed along the examined successional gradient, indicating that leaf traits were affected by the successional stage.Keywords: Specific Leaf Area, Leaf Chemistry, Maximum Photosynthesis, Successional Stage, Monsoon Evergreen Broadleaved ForestiForest 10 (2): 391-396 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2045-009'id=ifor2045-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
  • Research Articles: Electrochemical in-situ studies of solar mediated
           oxygen transport and turnover dynamics in a tree trunk of Tilia cordata

    • Authors: Tötzke C; Cermak J, Nadezhdina N, Tributsch H
      Abstract: Tötzke C, Cermak J, Nadezhdina N, Tributsch HELECTROCHEMICAL IN-SITU STUDIES OF SOLAR MEDIATED OXYGEN TRANSPORT AND TURNOVER DYNAMICS IN A TREE TRUNK OF TILIA CORDATAAbstract: Platinum electrodes were implanted into the xylem of a lime tree (Tilia cordata) stem and solar-induced electrochemical potential differences of up to 120 mV were measured during the vegetative period and up to 30 mV in winter. The time dependent curves were found to be delayed with respect to solar radiation, sap flow activity, temperature and vapor pressure deficit. A general equation for the potential difference was derived and simplified by analyzing the effect of temperature and tensile strength. The potential determining influence of oxygen concentration on the respective location of the platinum electrode was identified as the principal phenomenon measured. A systematic analysis and investigation of the observed periodic oxygen concentration signals promises new information on sap flow, oxygen diffusion through tree tissues and on oxygen consumption related to the energy turnover in tree tissues.Keywords: Tree Stems, Oxygen Transport, Xylem, Sap Flow, Tree Metabolism, Electrical PotentialiForest 10 (2): 355-361 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1681-010'id=ifor1681-010
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Research Articles: Tree species diversity of three Ghanaian reserves

    • Authors: Cazzolla Gatti R; Vaglio Laurin G, Valentini R
      Abstract: Cazzolla Gatti R, Vaglio Laurin G, Valentini RTREE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF THREE GHANAIAN RESERVESAbstract: Among tropical areas, Africa is considered to be poor in terms of biodiversity as compared with Amazon or South-East Asia, especially with respect to forest diversity. Despite this lower diversity, some African tropical zones, such as Ghana, harbour a plethora of species, particularly of trees. Unfortunately, as a result of anthropogenic impacts, biological diversity in West Africa dramatically decreased in the last decades, with very limited reference to evaluate the amount of the loss. Due to these growing pressure, a collection of relevant biodiversity information in this region seems to be urgent. We surveyed 127 temporary plots randomly distributed within 3 protected areas in Ghana and we collected data on tree (dbh>10 cm) species richness and their abundances. We also performed α, and β diversity analyses, and estimated the effective number of species, adopting various indices and approaches to provide further information on each assemblage. The main goals of this research were: (i) to provide a wide tree species database (abundance-based data), together with some biodiversity analyses; (ii) to estimate the sampling effort needed for next biodiversity surveys in the same and similar regions; and (iii) to calculate some indices useful to monitor the future of these protected areas both in terms of conservation and biodiversity research.Keywords: Ghana, Protected Areas, Forests, DatabaseiForest 10 (2): 362-368 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2056-010'id=ifor2056-010
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Research Articles: Can traditional selective logging secure tree
           regeneration in cloud forest'

    • Authors: Ortiz-Colín P; Toledo-Aceves T, López-Barrera F, Gerez-Fernández P
      Abstract: Ortiz-Colín P, Toledo-Aceves T, López-Barrera F, Gerez-Fernández PCAN TRADITIONAL SELECTIVE LOGGING SECURE TREE REGENERATION IN CLOUD FOREST'Abstract: Unplanned selective logging for charcoal and firewood is a common practice in tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF), a high priority ecosystem for biodiversity conservation at the global scale. However, limited information is available regarding the impact of such logging on forest regeneration. We evaluated the abundance and composition of tree regeneration in four TMCF sites subject to traditional selective logging in southern Mexico. At each site, we calculated a tree extraction index based on the number of stumps, logs and charcoal kilns and established six 200 m2 plots where the abundance of adult, sapling and seedling trees were recorded and canopy cover estimated. Based on the extraction index and estimated basal area values, two sites each were classified as being of low (L) and high (H) logging intensity; the extraction index was three times lower in L (7.5 and 9.2) than in H (35 and 35) sites, while basal area was significantly higher in L than in H sites (80.2 ± 10.2 vs. 41.9 ± 4.96 m2 ha-1, respectively). No significant differences were found among sites in terms of canopy cover, diameter and density of adult trees or in the density of saplings and seedlings (0.72 individuals m-2). In all sites, species of intermediate shade-tolerance dominated the regeneration (76%), followed by the shade-tolerant (23%) and pioneer (1%) species. Regeneration of Quercus spp. (four species) dominated at all sites (50.5%); this is a group of particular interest to the local communities because of its utility for firewood and charcoal. The similarity in composition between adult and regenerating tree species was relatively high in all of the sites (Morisita-Horn Index L1=0.86, L2=0.64, H1=0.69 and H2=0.71). These results indicate that, under the evaluated selective logging intensities, TMCF can sustain sufficient regeneration of Quercus spp. and thus presents an opportunity for sustainable management. The legacy effects of traditional selective logging on TMCF tree regeneration are discussed.Keywords: Firewood, Forest Management, Mexico, Quercus, Seedlings, Timber Harvesting, Tropical Montane Cloud Forest, DisturbanceiForest 10 (2): 369-375 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1937-009'id=ifor1937-009
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
  • Research Articles: High resolution biomass mapping in tropical forests
           with LiDAR-derived Digital Models: Poás Volcano National Park (Costa

    • Authors: Fernández-Landa A; Navarro JA, Condés S, Algeet-Abarquero N, Marchamalo M
      Abstract: Fernández-Landa A, Navarro JA, Condés S, Algeet-Abarquero N, Marchamalo MHIGH RESOLUTION BIOMASS MAPPING IN TROPICAL FORESTS WITH LIDAR-DERIVED DIGITAL MODELS: POáS VOLCANO NATIONAL PARK (COSTA RICA)Abstract: Tropical forests play a key role in global carbon cycle. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program requires reliable mechanisms for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV). In this regard, new methods must be developed using updated technologies to assess carbon stocks. The combination of LiDAR technology and in situ forest networks allows the estimation of biomass with high resolution in low data environments, such as tropical countries. However, the evaluation of current LiDAR methods of biomass inventory, and the development of new methodologies to reduce uncertainty and increase accuracy, is still needed. Our aim is to evaluate new methodologies of spatially explicit LiDAR biomass inventories based on local and general plot-aggregate allometry. For this purpose, 25 field plots were inventoried, covering the structural and ecological variability of Poás Volcano National Park (Costa Rica). Important differences were detected in the estimation of aboveground biomass (92.74 t ha-1 considering the mean value of plot sample) depending on the chosen tree allometry. We validated the general aboveground biomass plot-aggregate allometry proposed by Asner & Mascaro (2014) in our study area, and we fitted two specific models for Poás forests. Both locals and general models depend on LiDAR top-of-canopy height (TCH), basal area (BA) and wood density. Small deviations in the wood density plot sample (0.60 ± 0.05) indicated that a single wood density constant value could be used throughout the study area. A BA-TCH origin forced linear model was fitted to estimate basal area, as suggested by the general methodology. Poás forest has a larger biomass density for the same THC compared to the rest of the forests previously studied, and shows that the BA-TCH relationship might have different trends in each life zone. Our results confirm that the general plot-aggregate methodology can be easily and reliably applied as aboveground biomass in a new area could be estimated by only measuring BA in field plots to obtain a local BA-TCH regression. For both local and general methods, the estimation of BA is critical. Therefore, the definition of precise basal area field measurement procedures is decisive to achieve reliable results in future studies.Keywords: Carbon, Remote Sensing, REDD, LiDAR, Plot-level Allometry, Biomass, Basal AreaiForest 10 (1): 259-266 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1744-009'id=ifor1744-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
  • Research Articles: Comparing image-based point clouds and airborne laser
           scanning data for estimating forest heights

    • Authors: Ullah S; Adler P, Dees M, Datta P, Weinacker H, Koch B
      Abstract: Ullah S, Adler P, Dees M, Datta P, Weinacker H, Koch BCOMPARING IMAGE-BASED POINT CLOUDS AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA FOR ESTIMATING FOREST HEIGHTSAbstract: Accurate and updated knowledge of forest tree heights is fundamental in the context of forest management. However, measuring canopy height over large forest areas using traditional inventory techniques is laborious, time-consuming and excessively expensive. In this study, image-based point clouds produced from stereo aerial photographs (AP) were used to estimate forest height, and compared to Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. We generated image-based Canopy Height Models (CHM) using different image-matching algorithms (SGM: Semi-Global Matching; eATE: enhanced Automatic Terrain Extraction), which were compared with a pure ALS-derived CHM. Additionally, plot-level height and density metrics were extracted from CHMs and used as explanatory variables for predicting the Lorey’s mean height (LMH), which was measured at 296 reference points on the ground. CHMSGM and CHMALS showed similar results in predicting LMH at sample plot locations (RMSE% = 8.54 vs. 7.92, respectively), while CHMeATE had lower accuracy (RMSE% = 13.23). Similarly, CHMSGM showed a lower normalized median absolute deviation (NMAD) from CHMALS (0.68 m) compared to CHMeATE (1.1 m). Our study revealed that image-based point clouds using SGM in the presence of high-resolution ALS-derived digital terrain model (DTM) provide comparable results with ALS data, while the performance of image-based point clouds using eATE is poorer than ALS for forest height estimation. The findings of this study provide a viable and cost-effective option for assessing height-related forest structural parameters. The proposed methodology can be usefully applied in all those countries where AP are updated on a regular basis and pre-existing historical ALS-derived DTMs are available.Keywords: Forest Inventory, Canopy Height Model, Stereo Aerial Photographs, LiDAR, Semi-Global Matching (SGM), enhanced Automatic Terrain Extraction (eATE)iForest 10 (1): 273-280 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2077-009'id=ifor2077-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
  • Short Communications: Biodiversity inventory of trees in a neotropical
           secondary forest after abandonment of shaded coffee plantation

    • Authors: Oliveira-Neto NE; Nascimento DR, Carvalho FA
      Abstract: Oliveira-Neto NE, Nascimento DR, Carvalho FABIODIVERSITY INVENTORY OF TREES IN A NEOTROPICAL SECONDARY FOREST AFTER ABANDONMENT OF SHADED COFFEE PLANTATIONAbstract: Tree structure and diversity of a secondary Atlantic Forest resulting from the abandonment (ca. 70 years) of a shaded coffee (Coffea arabica) plantation was studied in southeastern Brazil. All trees with DBH ≥ 5 cm (alive and dead) were measured in 25 plots of 20 × 20 m. Out of the 1926 sampled trees, 1837 were living trees belonging to 116 species. The most important species (importance value - IV) in the community were Euterpe edulis (22.9% - present in all plots) and Piptadenia gonoacantha (16.5%). Euterpe edulis is a typical palm tree of high importance value in mature forests, comprising 41.2% of individuals. The results show a more mature tree community in relation to other secondary forests with the same abandonment period in the region, with high richness and diversity of species, high basal area, and low dead tree density. In addition, several endangered species were recorded with high conservation value for the regional flora. The results also showed many typical characteristics of “novel ecosystems” discussed here in order to value these environments, still neglected due to strong environmental human alterations.Keywords: Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Forest Succession, Novel Ecosystem, AgroforestryiForest 10 (1): 303-308 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1901-009'id=ifor1901-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
  • Research Articles: Identification and allelochemical activity of phenolic
           compounds in extracts from the dominant plant species established in
           clear-cuts of Scots pine stands

    • Authors: Šežiene V; Baležentiene L, Maruška A
      Abstract: Šežiene V, Baležentiene L, Maruška AIDENTIFICATION AND ALLELOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN EXTRACTS FROM THE DOMINANT PLANT SPECIES ESTABLISHED IN CLEAR-CUTS OF SCOTS PINE STANDSAbstract: Dominant plant species established in the understory of clear-cuts may have a strong biochemical influence on pine regeneration process, with important consequences for reforestation management. We evaluated and compared the total phenolic content and the allelopathic activity of acqueous extracts from both roots and shoots of dominant plant species established in 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lituania. The highest total content of phenolic compounds was detected in the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) shoots from 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts, as well as in the common heather (Calluna vulgaris [L.[ Hull) shoots from 1-yr-old clear-cuts. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify the allelochemicals present in the active fraction to determine their possible role in allelopathy. The highest variety and content of phenolic compounds were observed in shoot extracts of the dominant species from both 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts. Scots pine seed germination and seedling growth were significantly and negatively correlated with ρ-coumaric acid and sinapic acid content, while Scots pine seedling growth was significantly and negatively correlated with ferulic, caffeic and hydroxycinnamic acids contents. The highest contents of these phenolic acids were determined in aqueous extracts of C. vulgaris from 1-yr-old clear-cuts and Rumex acetosella L. of 2-yr-old clear-cuts, which exerted a strong phytotoxicity on Scots pine seed germination. Moreover, morphometric parameters of Scots pine seedlings were most sensitive to aqueous extracts of V. vitis-idaea shoots from both 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts and R. acetosella shoots from 2-yr-old clear-cuts.Keywords: Phenolics Identification, Allelopathy, Dominant Species, GerminationiForest 10 (1): 309-314 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1791-009'id=ifor1791-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
  • Research Articles: Comparing land use registry and sample based inventory
           to estimate forest area in Podlaskie, Poland

    • Authors: Jablonski M; Korhonen KT, Budniak P, Mionskowski M, Zajaczkowski G, Sućko K
      Abstract: Jablonski M, Korhonen KT, Budniak P, Mionskowski M, Zajaczkowski G, Sućko KCOMPARING LAND USE REGISTRY AND SAMPLE BASED INVENTORY TO ESTIMATE FOREST AREA IN PODLASKIE, POLANDAbstract: The Land and Property Register (LPR) of Poland contains information on land use for the entire country. Additionally, a sample-based National Forest Inventory (NFI) provides statistical data for forest areas and detailed information on numerous forest parameters. However, until 2014 NFI plots were established only on areas classified as forest in the LPR. In this article, we present results of an estimation of forest area by extending the NFI measurements on all theoretical points in a grid, and compare the results with LPR information for one province (the Podlaskie voivodeship). At each point, we assess land use with recent aerial photographs and verify the ambiguous points in the field. Forest area in Poland is increasing due to afforestation and natural expansion of forest. Delays in the updating process of the LPR, and unwillingness of the owners to agree to reclassification of their land, have led to an underestimation of overall forest area. Our results demonstrate that forest area estimates made by the improved NFI are higher than those based upon the LPR. The modified NFI may be an appropriate tool for monitoring forest area changes in Poland.Keywords: Land Cover, Afforestation, Natural Expansion of Trees, Land and Property Register, National Forest InventoryiForest 10 (1): 315-321 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2078-009'id=ifor2078-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
  • Review Papers: Use of canopy gap openings to restore coniferous stands in
           Mediterranean environment

    • Authors: Muscolo A; Settineri G, Bagnato S, Mercurio R, Sidari M
      Abstract: Muscolo A, Settineri G, Bagnato S, Mercurio R, Sidari MUSE OF CANOPY GAP OPENINGS TO RESTORE CONIFEROUS STANDS IN MEDITERRANEAN ENVIRONMENTAbstract: In Mediterranean regions, climate change increasingly affect tree species distributions. Conifer forests under continuing disturbance show a more rapid shift to dominance by beech and other temperate broadleaves. Thus, there is an urgent need to conserve coniferous vegetation to avoid local extinction. Gap opening has profound effects on the structure and dynamics of most forests and may represent a sustainable way to restore coniferous ecosystems in Mediterranean habitats. What kind of artificial canopy opening is the most sustainable and effective means for restoring coniferous ecosystem functions' We explored the efficacy of artificial gaps in regeneration and dynamics of coniferous in Mediterranean environment. We examined how regeneration of different tree species is associated with soil environmental conditions and how gaps of different sizes influence the ecology and management of Mediterranean forest. Specifically, we analyzed gap disturbance in silver fir and black pine stands, as they dominate central and southern Italian forests. We demonstrated a specificity between gap size and coniferous species regeneration, indicating that small gaps (about 200 m2) favor silver fir regeneration, while black pine, depending on its subspecies, regenerates both in small and medium gaps (about 500 m2). Further, we found that gap characteristics (age and shape) and suitable substrate availability are the primary factors affecting seedling establishment. Our results provide functional information to design a silvicultural system useful to manage the natural regeneration of Mediterranean forest minimizing the environmental and visual impact.Keywords: Biodiversity, Gap Cutting, Gap Dynamic, Forest Conservation, Forest RestorationiForest 10 (1): 322-327 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1983-009'id=ifor1983-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
  • Research Articles: Analysis of dust exposure during chainsaw forest

    • Authors: Marchi E; Neri F, Cambi M, Laschi A, Foderi C, Sciarra G, Fabiano F
      Abstract: Marchi E, Neri F, Cambi M, Laschi A, Foderi C, Sciarra G, Fabiano FANALYSIS OF DUST EXPOSURE DURING CHAINSAW FOREST OPERATIONSAbstract: In 1999, the European Union proclaimed hardwood dust carcinogenic based on the classification of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued in 1995. The operational exposure limit (OEL) for inhalable wood dust has been set to 5 mg m-3 by EU directives, though in different countries the OEL ranges from 1 to 5 mg m-3. The objective of this study was to determine the exposure to wood dust of forest workers in chainsaw cutting and processing and suggest possible countermeasures. The study took into consideration different silvicultural treatments (coppice clear cut, conifer thinning, conifer pruning, and sanitary cut) and chainsaw fuel (normal two-stroke gasoline mix and two alkylate fuels). All the forest operations were carried out in forests located in Central Italy, on the Apennine mountain range. During the tests, 100 samples were collected by means of personal SKC Button Sampler (one sample per worker per day). The results showed that exposure to wood dust varied widely with forest operation type, while no significant difference were found for different type of chainsaw fuel. The average wood dust concentration was about 1.5 mg m-3 for all operations except coppicing, which showed a mean level of about 2.1 mg m-3. About 93% of the samples showed a concentration lower than 3 mg m-3, and in only two samples (one in conifer pruning and one in clear cut in coppice), the concentration was slightly higher than 5 mg m-3.Keywords: Forest Operation, Chainsaw, Inhalable Wood Dust, Wood Dust Exposure, CanceriForest 10 (1): 341-347 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2123-009'id=ifor2123-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
  • Technical Reports: Detecting tree water deficit by very low altitude
           remote sensing

    • Authors: Martin H; Labbé S, Baldet P, Archaux F, Philippe G
      Abstract: Martin H, Labbé S, Baldet P, Archaux F, Philippe GDETECTING TREE WATER DEFICIT BY VERY LOW ALTITUDE REMOTE SENSINGAbstract: In a context of climate change and expected increasing drought frequency, it is important to select tree species adapted to water deficit. Experimentation in tree nurseries makes it possible to control for various factors such as water supply. We analyzed the spectral responses for two genetic varieties of Douglas fir sapling exposed to different levels of water deficit. Our results show that the mean NDVI derived from remote sensing at very low altitudes clearly differentiated stress levels while genetic varieties were partially distinguished.Keywords: Very Low Altitude Remote Sensing, Water Deficit, Variety, Douglas FiriForest 10 (1): 215-219 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1690-009'id=ifor1690-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Research Articles: Combined effects of short-day treatment and fall
           fertilization on growth, nutrient status, and spring bud break of Pinus
           tabulaeformis seedlings

    • Authors: Pan J; Jacobs DF, Li G
      Abstract: Pan J, Jacobs DF, Li GCOMBINED EFFECTS OF SHORT-DAY TREATMENT AND FALL FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, NUTRIENT STATUS, AND SPRING BUD BREAK OF PINUS TABULAEFORMIS SEEDLINGSAbstract: Although effects of short-day treatment and fall fertilization on seedling development have been studied independently, their combined influences are not well elucidated. We explored growth, nutrient concentration, and spring bud break of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) seedlings exposed to two photoperiod treatments (short-day consisting of 3 weeks of 18-hr nights in late summer and ambient day length) and three rates of fall N fertilization (0, 12 and 24 mg N per seedling). Seedlings were assessed before fall fertilization and at the end of the growing season. Bud break timing was evaluated the following spring. Increased foliar P concentration concurrent with reduced root P and K concentration occurred in short-day treated seedlings at the conclusion of photoperiod treatment. By the end of the growing season, short-day treatment resulted in greater N and P concentration in the stems, and P concentration in the foliage. It also induced smaller foliage and stem dry mass in both stages. Fall fertilization consistently enhanced tissue N concentration, but interaction effects with short-day treatment were generally non-significant. Short-day treatment curtailed shoot growth, induced terminal bud set, and hastened spring bud break (by only one day) for this mid-latitude seed source (41° N). Thus, short-day treatment or fall fertilization each promoted an increased nutrient concentration, while having only a minor effect on spring bud break.Keywords: Photoperiod, Autumn Fertilization, Nutrient Loading, Bud BreakiForest 10 (1): 242-249 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2178-009'id=ifor2178-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Research Articles: Comparison of range-wide chloroplast microsatellite and

    • Authors: Zukowska WB; Boratynska K, Wachowiak W
      Abstract: Zukowska WB, Boratynska K, Wachowiak WCOMPARISON OF RANGE-WIDE CHLOROPLAST MICROSATELLITE AND NEEDLE TRAIT VARIATION PATTERNS IN PINUS MUGO TURRA (DWARF MOUNTAIN PINE)Abstract: In this study, range-wide genetic variation was analysed in 553 Pinus mugo Turra (dwarf mountain pine) individuals from 21 locations using 11 chloroplast microsatellites. Our main goal was to assess the spatial distribution of neutral genetic variation. We also used data from a previous study on the morphological variation of needles from 18 stands of P. mugo. In total, 22 needle characteristics were reanalysed and compared to microsatellite data to describe the distribution of morphological variation in the context of neutral genetic variation. We hypothesised that the chloroplast microsatellite and needle trait variation patterns would not entirely overlap. The results indicate the recent divergence of P. mugo populations derived from a formerly larger distribution. We identified 4 genetic and 3 morphological clusters whose spatial distribution overlapped only to some extent. The distribution of genetic variation showed a south-north pattern with signs of admixture in the Alps and Carpathians. Two south-westernmost stands from Italy were evidently isolated from the others. In contrast, morphological variation tended to display a west-east pattern. A separate group based on needle traits was formed mostly by eastern stands and was not observed by microsatellite analysis. In addition, a few needle characteristics significantly correlated with longitude and climate variables. These findings suggest that eastern populations of P. mugo may be of different origin and/or that some needle characteristics may be adaptively important in these locations. The potential roles of past demographic events, phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in shaping the patterns of genetic and morphological variation in P. mugo are discussed.Keywords: Adaptation, cpSSRs, Genetic Diversity, Morphological Variation, Neutral Genetic Markers, Phenotypic PlasticityiForest 10 (1): 250-258 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1860-009'id=ifor1860-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Research Articles: Modelling dasometric attributes of mixed and
           uneven-aged forests using Landsat-8 OLI spectral data in the Sierra Madre
           Occidental, Mexico

    • Authors: López-Sánchez CA; García-Ramírez P, Resl R, Hernández-Díaz JC, López-Serrano PM, Wehenkel C
      Abstract: López-Sánchez CA, García-Ramírez P, Resl R, Hernández-Díaz JC, López-Serrano PM, Wehenkel CMODELLING DASOMETRIC ATTRIBUTES OF MIXED AND UNEVEN-AGED FORESTS USING LANDSAT-8 OLI SPECTRAL DATA IN THE SIERRA MADRE OCCIDENTAL, MEXICOAbstract: Remote sensors can be used as a robust and effective means of monitoring isolated or inaccessible forest sites. In the present study, the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique was successfully applied to remotely sensed data collected by the Landsat-8 satellite to estimate mean diameter at breast height (R2 = 0.73), mean crown cover (R2 = 0.55), mean volume (R2 = 0.57) and total volume per plot (R2 = 0.41) in the forest monitoring sites. However, the spectral data yielded poor estimates of tree number per plot (R2 = 0.22), the mean height (R2 = 0.25) and the mean diameter at base (R2 = 0.38). Seven spectral bands (band 1 to band 7), six vegetation indexes and other derived parameters (NDVI, SAVI, LAI, FPAR. ALB and ASR) and eight terrain variables derived from the digital elevation model (elevation, slope, aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, transformed aspect, terrain shape index and wetness index) were used as predictors in the fitted models. To prevent over-parameterization only some of the predictor variables considered were included in each model. The results indicate the MARS technique is potentially suitable for estimating dasometric variables from using spectral data obtained by the Landsat-8 OLI sensor.Keywords: Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Mixed Forest, Uneven-aged Forest, Stand Variables, Remote Sensing, Terrain FeaturesiForest 10 (1): 288-295 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1891-009'id=ifor1891-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Research Articles: A rapid method for estimating the median diameter of
           the stem profile of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) trees

    • Authors: Vasilescu MM; Teresneu CC, Dinulica F
      Abstract: Vasilescu MM, Teresneu CC, Dinulica FA RAPID METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE MEDIAN DIAMETER OF THE STEM PROFILE OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST) TREESAbstract: The median diameter of a longitudinal section of the stem may be used to determine the stem volume. However, to calculate stem volume, many measurements of diameter at different heights along the stem are required. Therefore, this approach is not generally applied because time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose a novel, more rapid method to obtain median diameter using the area of the stem profile. A total of 218 height/diameter classes from more than 5000 spruce trees (Picea abies Karst.) were used to compute the median diameter using the classical method. In parallel, a regression model to assess the median diameter was developed. The strongest predictor of the median diameter for the stem profile was the diameter at breast height (R2 = 0.9985). Statistical analysis revealed that the height of the median diameter on the stem profile was 0.3 × H (tree height). The model was verified on standing and felled trees, revealing that differences between classical computations and the proposed model were less than 2% in most cases (86.24% of trees). The median diameter of the stem profile provides valuable information on stand architecture that could help in advancing our understanding on the mechanical stability of Norway spruce trees (i.e., delineating breakage point), growth model predictions, and competition among trees.Keywords: Forest Mensuration, Median Diameter, Stem, Structure, Tree StabilityiForest 10 (1): 328-333 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1945-009'id=ifor1945-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-11
  • Research Articles: Adaptive response of Pinus monticola driven by positive
           selection upon resistance gene analogs (RGAs) of the TIR-NBS-LRR subfamily

    • Authors: Zambounis A; Avramidou E, Papadima A, Tsaftaris A, Arzimanoglou I, Barbas E, Madesis P, Aravanopoulos FA
      Abstract: Zambounis A, Avramidou E, Papadima A, Tsaftaris A, Arzimanoglou I, Barbas E, Madesis P, Aravanopoulos FAADAPTIVE RESPONSE OF PINUS MONTICOLA DRIVEN BY POSITIVE SELECTION UPON RESISTANCE GENE ANALOGS (RGAS) OF THE TIR-NBS-LRR SUBFAMILYAbstract: Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) is an important forest tree species, which is intensively plagued by the fungus Cronartium ribicola. Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) are the most highly abundant class of potential resistance (R) genes sharing greatly conserved domains and structures. Hence RGAs are crucial components for disease resistance breeding programs on P. monticola serving as useful functional markers. A total of 33 P. monticola RGAs gene homologues were mined from GenBank, encoding for R gene members of the TIR-NBS-LRR subfamily. The existence of positive selection acting upon RGAs was determined using a series of maximum likelihood analyses. Robust evidence of positive selection was showed to be acting widely in three clades across RGA gene phylogeny, both on terminal and ancestral lineages. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that the majority of positively selected residues sites are localized widely across these RGAs sequences, putatively affecting the structures of their ligand-binding domains and offering novel specificities. These results may find immediate application in ongoing disease resistance breeding programs.Keywords: Fungal Diseases, Genomics-assisted Breeding, Non-synonymous Nucleotide Substitution, Positive Selection, Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs), White PinesiForest 10 (1): 237-241 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2050-009'id=ifor2050-009
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
  • Commentaries & Perspectives: Comments to Loewe et al. - Growth of Stone
           pine (Pinus pinea L.) European provenances in central Chile

    • Authors: Agrimi M
      Abstract: Agrimi MCOMMENTS TO LOEWE ET AL. - GROWTH OF STONE PINE (PINUS PINEA L.) EUROPEAN PROVENANCES IN CENTRAL CHILEAbstract: The author replies to the article by Loewe Muñoz et al. (2016), published on Aug 29, 2016 in iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, shortly commenting the choice of a Lombardy provenance of Pinus pinea L. used in the field trial experiment test at issue.Keywords: Stone pine, Productivity, Growth, ProvenancesiForest 10 (1): 353-354 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor0078-010'id=ifor0078-010
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
  • Research Articles: Coping with spring frost-effects on polyamine
           metabolism of Scots pine seedlings

    • Authors: Muilu-Mäkelä R; Vuosku J, Saarinen M, Hamberg L, Ruotsalainen S, Häggman H, Sarjala T
      Abstract: Muilu-Mäkelä R, Vuosku J, Saarinen M, Hamberg L, Ruotsalainen S, Häggman H, Sarjala TCOPING WITH SPRING FROST-EFFECTS ON POLYAMINE METABOLISM OF SCOTS PINE SEEDLINGSAbstract: Polyamines (PA) are ubiquitous polycations known to be involved in several phases of plant development as well as in tolerance to abiotic stresses. Phenols are complex secondary metabolites produced via the phenylpropanoid pathway that contain, e.g., cell wall compounds and antioxidants. Phenols are known to enhance chilling tolerance of plants. PA and phenolic pathways are connected via conjugation. In boreal coniferous forests spring frost has been considered to have severe effects on the survival of tree seedlings. Such effects are likely to increase in the future. The present study focuses on the role of PA and phenylpropanoid syntheses in the coping strategies of Scots pine exposed to cold temperatures during the vulnerable early seedling phase in late spring and early summer. We found that spring frost affects the expression of genes regulating PA metabolism and phenylpropanoid synthesis differently in above and below ground parts of the seedlings, whereas PA or phenol contents in tissues were not affected. The results suggest that Scots pine seedlings may not have time to develop metabolite level responses during a short period of freezing stress and, therefore, the originally different PA levels, especially in roots, may influence the tolerance of Scots pine seedlings to spring frost.Keywords: Phenylpropanoids, Polyamines, Scots Pine, Spring FrostiForest 10 (1): 227-236 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2003-009'id=ifor2003-009
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
  • Research Articles: Integrating area-based and individual tree detection
           approaches for estimating tree volume in plantation inventory using aerial
           image and airborne laser scanning data

    • Authors: Shinzato ET; Shimabukuro YE, Coops NC, Tompalski P, Gasparoto EA
      Abstract: Shinzato ET, Shimabukuro YE, Coops NC, Tompalski P, Gasparoto EAINTEGRATING AREA-BASED AND INDIVIDUAL TREE DETECTION APPROACHES FOR ESTIMATING TREE VOLUME IN PLANTATION INVENTORY USING AERIAL IMAGE AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATAAbstract: Remote sensing has been increasingly used to assist forest inventory. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) systems can accurately estimate tree height in forests, and are being combined with more traditional optical images that provide further details about the horizontal structure of forests. To predict forest attributes two main techniques are applied to process ALS data: the Area Based Approach (ABA), and the Individual Tree Detection (ITD). The first part of this study was focused on the effectiveness of integrating ALS data and aerial imagery to estimate the wood volume in Eucalyptus urograndis plantations using the ABA approach. To this aim, we analyzed three different approaches: (1) using only ALS points cloud metrics (RMSE = 6.84%); (2) using only the variables derived from aerial images (RMSE = 8.45%); and (3) the integration of both 1 and 2 (RMSE = 5.23%), which underestimated the true volume by 2.98%. To estimate individual tree volumes we first detected individual trees and corrected the density estimate for detecting mean difference, with an error of 0.37 trees per hectare and RMSE of 12.68%. Next, we downscaled the total volume prediction to single tree level. Our approach showed a better result of the overall volume in comparison with the traditional forest inventory. There is a remarkable advantage in using the Individual Tree Detection approach, as it allows for a spatial representation of the number of trees sampled, as well as their volume per unit area - an important metric in the management of forest resources.Keywords: Forest Inventory, Airborne Laser Scanning, Treetop Detection, Eucalyptus Plantation, Area-based Approach, LiDARiForest 10 (1): 296-302 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1880-009'id=ifor1880-009
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
  • Research Articles: Effects of altitudinal gradients on leaf area index,
           soil microbial biomass C and microbial activity in a temperate mixed
           forest ecosystem of Northwestern Turkey

    • Authors: Bolat I; Öztürk M
      Abstract: Bolat I, Öztürk MEFFECTS OF ALTITUDINAL GRADIENTS ON LEAF AREA INDEX, SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS C AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN A TEMPERATE MIXED FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF NORTHWESTERN TURKEYAbstract: A high leaf area index (LAI) can provide indications of high fertility, such as optimal health and productivity in forest ecosystem. Yet, studying the microbial biomass and inherent activity in any forest ecosystem may enable better understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil quality and nutrient cycling. This study was carried out in the western Black Sea region of Turkey with the aim to determine the influence of elevation on LAI, microbial biomass and activity in a mixed forest ecosystem. Marked differences in the LAI, light transmission, soil temperature, Corg/Ntotal ratio, and microbial properties were found at sites sampled at different elevations along an altitudinal gradient (i.e., 1200, 1300 and 1400 m a.s.l.). The LAI was statistically (P < 0.05) higher at 1300 (3.28 m2 m-2) and 1400 m (3.20 m2 m-2) elevations compared to 1200 m (2.84 m2 m-2) elevation, whereas the light transmission was statistically (P < 0.05) lower at 1300 and 1400 m elevations than that at 1200 m elevation. The amount of microbial biomass C at 1300 m (892.26 µg g-1) and 1400 m (725.99 µg g-1) elevations was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that at 1200 m (650.84 µg g-1) elevation. Basal respiration did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) along the altitudinal gradient. An increase in respiration per unit biomass (i.e., increasing the metabolic quotient - qCO2) was also found in the sampling sites at 1200 m a.s.l. There was a positive relationship between the microbial biomass C and LAI (r = 0.612, P < 0.01) and negative relationship between the qCO2 and LAI (r = - 0.592, P < 0.01). Our results showed that the elevation gradient has a significant influence on the LAI, microbial biomass C and microbial activity in the forest stand type analyzed. A subdivision of the forest stand types into different sub-types according to their productivity and development is advisable and recommended for forest management and administration purposes.Keywords: Basal Respiration, Bornmullerian Fir, Cmic/Corg Percentage, Metabolic Quotient (qCO2), Oriental Beech, SoiliForest 10 (1): 334-340 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor1974-009'id=ifor1974-009
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
  • Research Articles: Inter- and intra-annual patterns of seed rain in the
           black spruce stands of Quebec, Canada

    • Authors: Rossi S; Morin H, Gionest F, Laprise D
      Abstract: Rossi S, Morin H, Gionest F, Laprise DINTER- AND INTRA-ANNUAL PATTERNS OF SEED RAIN IN THE BLACK SPRUCE STANDS OF QUEBEC, CANADAAbstract: Divergent reproductive strategies of tree species generate differences in the dynamics of seed production and dispersion. The spatial and temporal variability in seed rain abundance and viability was monitored during the period 2000-2007 in four boreal stands in Quebec, Canada. The aim was to compare the inter- and intra-annual patterns of seed dispersal between species with diverging adaptive characteristics and reproductive strategies by testing the hypothesis that sympatric species can exhibit different patterns of seed dispersal according to specific ecological adaptations. The coefficient of variation (CV), representing the inter-annual variability in seed rain, was close to or higher than 1 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] P. Mill.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and confirmed the mast seeding habit of the two species. In contrast, CV in black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) ranged between 0.24 and 0.54, indicating a more homogeneous inter-annual amount of seed dispersal because of its semiserotinous cones that preserve seeds for an indefinite period of time. The species showed divergent intra-annual patterns of seed dispersal. Most seed dispersal of the companion species was observed in September-November, while black spruce concentrated seed rain in spring, when the proportion of germinated seeds was higher. Boreal stands experience annual seed rains constituted by a gradual dispersal of seeds of different ages and originating from cones belonging to multiple cohorts. However, asynchronous seed rains in terms of quantity and quality can occur if companion species are associated to the dominant black spruce.Keywords: Balsam Fir, Fire, Masting, Regeneration, Reproduction, Seed Viability, Serotiny, White BirchiForest 10 (1): 189-195 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2145-009'id=ifor2145-009
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
  • Research Articles: Environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation: evidence
           using GMM estimation for OECD and non-OECD regions

    • Authors: Joshi P; Beck K
      Abstract: Joshi P, Beck KENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE FOR DEFORESTATION: EVIDENCE USING GMM ESTIMATION FOR OECD AND NON-OECD REGIONSAbstract: The depletion of the world’s forests in both tropical and temperate regions threatens to cause considerable environmental problems and hamper future economic development. However, some research has suggested that this deforestation might slow or reverse, exhibiting an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Yet previous studies investigating such an EKC have found mixed results. We therefore test for a deforestation EKC using an improved dataset from the World Development Indicators and an enhanced econometric technique Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator. We compare OECD countries with the non-OECD regions of Latin America, Asia, and Africa to determine how various factors like economic growth, population, trade, urbanization, agricultural land conversion, and cereal yield impact deforestation rates. The results show that the OECD countries have an N-shaped curve whereas only the African region experiences an income-based EKC pattern. Population growth tends to create more deforestation as does conversion to agricultural lands. More trade openness and greater urbanization impact the regions differently, but only the OECD countries have less deforestation due to better cereal yields.Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve, Deforestation, GMM, OECD, Non-OECDiForest 10 (1): 196-203 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2066-009'id=ifor2066-009
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
  • Research Articles: Fertilisation of Quercus seedlings inoculated with
           Tuber melanosporum: effects on growth and mycorrhization of two host
           species and two inoculation methods

    • Authors: Garcia-Barreda S; Molina-Grau S, Reyna S
      Abstract: Garcia-Barreda S, Molina-Grau S, Reyna SFERTILISATION OF QUERCUS SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH TUBER MELANOSPORUM: EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND MYCORRHIZATION OF TWO HOST SPECIES AND TWO INOCULATION METHODSAbstract: Modern truffle cultivation is based on use of inoculated seedlings, which should exhibit highly colonised roots as well as a vegetative quality enhancing field plant performance. However, poor shoot and fine root growth has been a frequent issue in inoculated Quercus seedlings production. Fertilisation is a common solution in forest nurseries, but high fertilisation levels have been found to inhibit the formation of ectomycorrhizas of many fungal species. The influence of slow-release fertilisation (52 mg N, 26 mg P and 36 mg K per seedling) on growth and ectomycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated seedlings was evaluated. Host species Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea and inoculation methods involving root-dipping and root-powdering were tested. Fertilisation increased weight of both host species without significant detrimental effects on ectomycorrhizal colonisation, showing that it can be effectively used in inoculated seedlings production. Both host species showed similar response to fertilisation. The inoculation method affected seedling weight and ectomycorrhizal status, suggesting that some inoculant carriers are able to damage Quercus development and T. melanosporum colonisation. The study provided an important basis for fine-tuning the use of fertilisers in truffle-inoculated seedling production.Keywords: Fertilisation, Seedling, Nursery, Ectomycorrhizal, InoculationiForest 10 (1): 267-272 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2096-009'id=ifor2096-009
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
  • Research Articles: Response of artificially defoliated Betula pendula
           seedlings to additional soil nutrient supply

    • Authors: Araminiene V; Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas V
      Abstract: Araminiene V, Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas VRESPONSE OF ARTIFICIALLY DEFOLIATED BETULA PENDULA SEEDLINGS TO ADDITIONAL SOIL NUTRIENT SUPPLYAbstract: The impact of leaf damage on the growth of young silver birch seedlings with and without additional nutrient supply was investigated by simulating leaf-insect damage and applying different levels (25%, 50% and 75%) of artificial defoliation. Based on field-practical and cost-effective methods, we determined how fertilization practices compensate for foliage loss, and the combined effect on silver birch seedling growth. The mineral fertilizers applied to the 25-75%-defoliated silver birch seedlings reduced the growth in aboveground biomass compared to the fertilized but undamaged seedlings. Our results showed that when the birch seedlings received more nutrients they did not compensate for the loss of foliar mass. However, the seedlings loosing part of their foliar mass and receiving no additional fertilizers did compensate for the foliage loss and their root growth was not weakened, using soil nutrients more effectively. Mineral fertilization up to optimal nutritional balance could be a beneficial tool for increasing growth rate and biomass accumulation in the short-term period. However, our study demonstrated that additional fertilization does not necessarily lead to growth compensation of partly defoliated young birch trees.Keywords: Betula pendula, Artificial Defoliation, Fertilization, Aboveground Biomass, PhotosynthesisiForest 10 (1): 281-287 (2017) - doi: 10.3832/ifor2086-009'id=ifor2086-009
      PubDate: 2016-12-13
  • Research Articles: Influence of soil and topography on defoliation
           intensity during an extended outbreak of the common pine sawfly (Diprion
           pini L.)

    • Authors: Kosunen M; Kantola T, Starr M, Blomqvist M, Talvitie M, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P