Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)


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Journal Cover
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.533
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1971-7458
Published by Società Italiana di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Research Articles: The effects of fire on Pinus sylvestris L. as
           determined by dendroecological analysis (Sierra de Gredos, Spain)

    • Authors: Génova M; Ortega P, Sadornil E
      Abstract: Génova M, Ortega P, Sadornil ETHE EFFECTS OF FIRE ON PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. AS DETERMINED BY DENDROECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS (SIERRA DE GREDOS, SPAIN) : Iberian populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) have been declining since the late-glacial period; among those that remain, relict stands have great biological and ecological value. This paper investigates the effects of a 2009 fire on tree growth in one of these small populations in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) by examining the responses recorded in the tree-ring width series of the surviving trees. The current status and distribution of these surviving trees reveal the severity of the fire; indeed most show scars or other evidence of fire damage. Dendroecological analysis revealed narrower tree rings, indicating negative pointer years for the year of the fire and the following year. A very significant reduction in growth was recorded for the years after the fire, both in terms of tree-ring width and basal area increment; incomplete and even absent rings were also recorded. No relationship was seen between these effects and climatic events. The dates and geographical extension of former possible disturbances were also investigated, using the data from these same trees plus information collected from others in the region. The vulnerability of these populations to past fires was evident. Lastly, given the problems affecting the regeneration of these relict populations, it is strongly suggested to urgently include all these populations in conservation and environmental management programs.Keywords: Disturbances, Tree-ring Width, Growth Change, Absent Rings, Negative Pointer YearsiForest 15 (3): 171-178 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3727-015'id=ifor3727-015
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
  • Research Articles: Impacts of stump harvesting on carbon dioxide, methane
           and nitrous oxide fluxes

    • Authors: Vestin P; Mölder M, Kljun N, Cai Z, Hasan A, Holst J, Klemedtsson L, Lindroth A
      Abstract: Vestin P, Mölder M, Kljun N, Cai Z, Hasan A, Holst J, Klemedtsson L, Lindroth AIMPACTS OF STUMP HARVESTING ON CARBON DIOXIDE, METHANE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES : During 2010-2013, we investigated the effects of stump harvesting on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with the flux-gradient technique at four experimental plots in a hemiboreal forest in Sweden. All plots were clear-cut and soil scarified and two of the plots were additionally stump harvested. The two clear-cut plots served as control plots. Due to differences in topography, we had one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. All plots exhibited substantial emissions of GHGs and we noted significant effects of wetness on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes within treatments and significant effects of stump harvesting on CO2 and N2O fluxes at the dry plots. The CO2 emissions were lower at the dry stump harvested plot than at the dry control, but when estimated emissions from the removed stumps were added, total CO2 emissions were higher at the stump harvested plot, indicating a small enhancement of soil respiration. In addition, we noted significant emissions of N2O at this plot. At the wet plots, CO2 emissions were higher at the stump harvested plot, also suggesting a treatment effect but differences in wetness and vegetation cover at these plots make this effect more uncertain. At the wet plots, we noted sustained periods (weeks to months) of net N2O uptake. During the year with simultaneous measurements of the abovementioned GHGs, GHG budgets were 1.224×103 and 1.442×103 gm-2 of CO2-equivalents at the wet and dry stump harvested plots, respectively, and 1.070×103 and 1.696×103 gm-2 of CO2-equivalents at the wet and dry control plots, respectively. CO2 fluxes dominated GHG budgets at all plots but N2O contributed with 17% at the dry stump harvested plot. For the full period 2010-2013, total carbon (CO2+CH4) budgets were 4.301×103 and 4.114×103 g m-2 of CO2-eqvivalents at the wet and dry stump harvest plots, respectively and 4.107×103 and 5.274×103 gm-2 of CO2-equivalents at the wet and dry control plots, respectively. Our results support recent studies suggesting that stump harvesting does not result in substantial increase in CO2 emissions but uncertainties regarding GHG fluxes (especially N2O) remain and more long-term measurements are needed before robust conclusions can be drawn.Keywords: CO2, CH4, N2O, Greenhouse Gas Budget, Stump Harvesting, Climate Change Mitigation, Forest Management, Hemiboreal ForestiForest 15 (3): 148-162 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor4086-015'id=ifor4086-015
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
  • Research Articles: Assessment of land sensitivity to degradation using
           MEDALUS model - a case study of Grdelica Gorge and Vranjska Valley
           (southeastern Serbia)

    • Authors: Lukić S; Baumgertel A, Obradović S, Kadović R, Beloica J, Pantić D, Miljković P, Belanović Simić S
      Abstract: Lukić S, Baumgertel A, Obradović S, Kadović R, Beloica J, Pantić D, Miljković P, Belanović Simić SASSESSMENT OF LAND SENSITIVITY TO DEGRADATION USING MEDALUS MODEL - A CASE STUDY OF GRDELICA GORGE AND VRANJSKA VALLEY (SOUTHEASTERN SERBIA) : Land degradation is a complex issue caused by diverse drivers, each of which should be considered in the analysis of land sensitivity to degradation. This study identifies the areas most sensitive to land degradation in the Grdelica Gorge and Vranjska Valley, which are unique in terms of natural and socioeconomic conditions. Land-use changes and inappropriate land management have led to serious degradation in this region. The flexible and multifactorial approach of the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model allowed comprehensive land degradation sensitivity analysis in the study area. The main factors driving soil degradation were assessed by estimating climate quality index, soil quality index, and vegetation quality index, and the main socioeconomic indicators by management quality index and social quality index. The results showed that forest cover is the main factor to contrast land degradation, and even minor adverse changes in forest characteristics, such as structure, canopy cover, health, and quality, could trigger degradation processes. The vegetation quality index was defined in terms of the current vegetation’s capacity to protect soil from erosion, drought resistance, and fire risk. Detailed data on forest vegetation cover was obtained from the National Forest Inventory (NFI). The environmentally sensitive area (ESA) index generated through the analysis classified 26.11% of the total study area as critical, 69.53% as fragile, and 2.70% as either prone to or unaffected by degradation processes. According to the ESA index, the areas covered by forests with optimal species composition and high canopy cover were the least susceptible to degradation. The areas under intensive agricultural production without any application of conservation measures were the most susceptible to degradation. Future strategies for optimal land-use patterns are discussed, such as the intergration of woody species in croplands to protect soil against degradation and meet human needs in the areas prone to degradation.Keywords: Land Degradation, Sensitivity, MEDALUS, Vegetation Cover, Spatial AnalysisiForest 15 (3): 163-170 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3871-015'id=ifor3871-015
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
  • Research Articles: Chloroplast DNA barcoding genes matK and psbA-trnH are
           not suitable for species identification and phylogenetic analyses in
           closely related pines

    • Authors: Olsson S; Giovannelli G, Roig A, Spanu I, Vendramin GG, Fady B
      Abstract: Olsson S, Giovannelli G, Roig A, Spanu I, Vendramin GG, Fady BCHLOROPLAST DNA BARCODING GENES MATK AND PSBA-TRNH ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR SPECIES IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES IN CLOSELY RELATED PINESAbstract: The largest and most economically important conifer genus Pinus is widespread in the northern hemisphere. Comprehensive phylogenies relying on complete chloroplast gene sequences are now available for the entire genus. However, phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved for certain lineages. One such example, which is also inconsistent in terms of biogeography, is within the subsection Pinus and includes five taxa: Pinus densiflora, P. nigra, P. resinosa, P. sylvestris and P. mugo / uncinata species complex. In this study, we use this clade as an example to explain weak support in phylogenetic studies of closely related pine species and show that some of the most popular genetic markers, namely the chloroplast DNA barcoding sequences matK, psbA- trnH and rbcL, are not recommended for species identification purposes in European pines. In addition, we show that matK and psbA-trnH contain contradicting phylogenetic signals in some of the most economically important pine species.Keywords: Gene Tree, Taxonomy, Pinus, GenBankiForest 15 (2): 141-147 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3913-015'id=ifor3913-015
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
  • Research Articles: Can forest trees take up and transport

    • Authors: Murazzi ME; Cherubini P, Brunner I, Kägi R, Saurer M, Ballikaya P, Hagedorn F, Al Sid Cheikh M, Onandia G, Gessler A
      Abstract: Murazzi ME, Cherubini P, Brunner I, Kägi R, Saurer M, Ballikaya P, Hagedorn F, Al Sid Cheikh M, Onandia G, Gessler ACAN FOREST TREES TAKE UP AND TRANSPORT NANOPLASTICS'Abstract: Plastic contamination of ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last decades, raising concerns about the negative impacts of plastic particles on aquatic and terrestrial systems. In recent years, the focus of most research has shifted from large fragments (macroplastic) to micro- (
      PubDate: 2022-04-09
  • Review Papers: Tectona grandis Linn. f. secondary metabolites and their
           bioactive potential: a review

    • Authors: Chávez-Salgado LP; Vandenbossche V, Vilarem G
      Abstract: Chávez-Salgado LP, Vandenbossche V, Vilarem GTECTONA GRANDIS LINN. F. SECONDARY METABOLITES AND THEIR BIOACTIVE POTENTIAL: A REVIEWAbstract: Tectona grandis Linn. f. (teak) is one of the most appreciated high-quality timber all over the world due to its economic value and wide array of applications. This tropical hardwood presents outstanding characteristics like pleasing aesthetic appearance, strength, lightness, ease of working, dimensional stability, and decay resistance. The latter quality is mainly ascribed to its extractives, which contain biologically active compounds (mainly quinones and anthraquinones) that confer a natural resistance against termites and fungi. This review focuses on teak secondary metabolites and the bioactivity potential of heartwood extractives. Furthermore, it covers the generalities of the teak tree and gives an overview on the approaches aimed to valorize the wastes from woodworking enterprises as a possible source of functional extractives and as an eco-friendly raw material. Notwithstanding the efforts made to elucidate the compounds present in teak wood, further research is needed to understand the chemical bases of its natural resistance to decay. Moreover, there is a lack of economic, technical, and ecotoxicity feasibility studies regarding extractives as a source of bioactive molecules for pharmaceutical, food, or cosmetics purposes.Keywords: Extractives, Natural Resistance, Bioactivity, Secondary Metabolites, Teak HeartwoodiForest 15 (2): 112-120 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3714-015'id=ifor3714-015
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
  • Review Papers: Methods of soil seed bank estimation: a literature review
           proposing further work in Africa

    • Authors: Padonou EA; Akakpo BA, Tchigossou B, Djossa B
      Abstract: Padonou EA, Akakpo BA, Tchigossou B, Djossa BMETHODS OF SOIL SEED BANK ESTIMATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW PROPOSING FURTHER WORK IN AFRICAAbstract: A number of methods are used to assess the soil seed banks of a range of plant species in various habitats around the world, with approaches that differ between countries and continents. An understanding of the differing techniques emphasises the need for further research, especially in Africa. We reviewed 97 articles on soil seed bank estimation, published between 2010 and 2020, and only 13.41% of these were from Africa. Soil sample collection in Africa was based mainly on stratified random sampling, systematic sampling, random sampling or cluster sampling carried out at the end of each region’s rainy season. Random and cluster sampling were more widely used in savannas, while stratified random and systematic samplings were more common in forests. The shape of the samples was either circular or quadrilateral (square and rectangular) or they were measured by soil mass or volume. The soil sampler cores most often applied were: circular diameter of 5 cm; square sizes of 10 × 10 cm, 20 × 20 cm and 25 × 25 cm; and rectangular sizes of 20 × 25 cm and 20 × 10 cm. The most-used soil core depths were 5 cm and 10 cm. No specific sample shape was linked with either forest or savanna ecosystems, although the number of samples depended on the land use and land cover. Soil seed bank densities and species composition were mainly assessed with direct greenhouse germination over trial duration depending on the plant species’ functional traits. In analysing soil seed bank data, non-parametric statistics were more frequently used than parametric statistics because of the skews in the data. This review will contribute to future soil seed bank studies in Africa.Keywords: Soil Seed Bank, Sampling Methods, Greenhouse Germination, Literature ReviewiForest 15 (2): 121-127 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3850-015'id=ifor3850-015
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
  • Research Articles: Total tree height predictions via parametric and
           artificial neural network modeling approaches

    • Authors: Karatepe Y; Diamantopoulou MJ, Özçelik R, Sürücü Z
      Abstract: Karatepe Y, Diamantopoulou MJ, Özçelik R, Sürücü ZTOTAL TREE HEIGHT PREDICTIONS VIA PARAMETRIC AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODELING APPROACHESAbstract: Height-diameter relationships are of critical importance in tree and stand volume estimation. Stand description, site quality determination and appropriate forest management decisions originate from reliable stem height predictions. In this work, the predictive performances of height-diameter models developed for Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantations in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey were investigated. Parametric modeling methods such as fixed-effects, calibrated fixed-effects, and calibrated mixed-effects were evaluated. Furthermore, in an effort to come up with more reliable stem-height prediction models, artificial neural networks were employed using two different modeling algorithms: the Levenberg-Marquardt and the resilient back-propagation. Considering the prediction behavior of each respective modeling strategy, while using a new validation data set, the mixed-effects model with calibration using 3 trees for each plot appeared to be a reliable alternative to other standard modeling approaches based on evaluation statistics regarding the predictions of tree heights. Regarding the results for the remaining models, the resilient propagation algorithm provided more accurate predictions of tree stem height and thus it is proposed as a reliable alternative to pre-existing modeling methodologies.Keywords: Tree Height Model Prediction, Generalized Models, Mixed-Effects Models, Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm, Resilient PropagationiForest 15 (2): 95-105 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3990-015'id=ifor3990-015
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
  • Research Articles: The physicomechanical and thermal properties of
           Algerian Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) wood as a component of sandwich

    • Authors: Lakreb N; Sen U, Bezzazi B, Pereira H
      Abstract: Lakreb N, Sen U, Bezzazi B, Pereira HTHE PHYSICOMECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF ALGERIAN ALEPPO PINE (PINUS HALEPENSIS) WOOD AS A COMPONENT OF SANDWICH PANELSAbstract: Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is the main forest species of Algeria occupying more than 35% of the total forest area of the country. However, the physicomechanical and thermal characteristics of Algerian P. halepensis wood are not well-known. This research investigates the physical (moisture, density, swelling, and shrinkage), mechanical (bending strength and modulus of elasticity), and thermal (mass loss under combustion and pyrolysis as well as thermal conductivity) properties of P. halepensis wood from the Darguina (Bejaia) forest in Algeria. The results showed that Algerian P. halepensis wood with a mean density of 540 kg m-3 has good dimensional stability in swelling and shrinkage, with 116.43 MPa bending strength and a modulus of elasticity of 17,520 MPa. The wood shows a good thermal resistance under low-temperature range and has a thermal conductivity of 0.21 W m-1 K-1. The overall results indicate that Algerian P. halepensis wood may be commercially exploited for construction and insulation applications, namely in the production of sandwich composites.Keywords: Density, Bending Strength, Thermal Conductivity, Shrinkage, Swell-ingiForest 15 (2): 106-111 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3952-015'id=ifor3952-015
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
  • Research Articles: Assessing the performance of MODIS and VIIRS active
           fire products in the monitoring of wildfires: a case study in Turkey

    • Authors: Coskuner KA
      Abstract: Coskuner KAASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF MODIS AND VIIRS ACTIVE FIRE PRODUCTS IN THE MONITORING OF WILDFIRES: A CASE STUDY IN TURKEYAbstract: MODIS and VIIRS fire products have been widely used to detect and monitor fire activity at a global scale, as they provide highly relevant information on fire events, on their spatial and seasonal trends. Although these products have some limitations in detecting fires in forested areas due to closed canopy and smoke, they have been widely used to monitor and assess forest fires in many scientific studies. This study analyzes the performance of MODIS (MCD14ML) and VIIRS S-NPP (VNP14IMG) active fire/hotspot products in fire detection in five different land cover types (closed and open forests, shrublands, herbaceous vegetation and croplands) and compares the results to the ground-based fire database from 2015 to end of the 2019 in Turkey. Detected fires with a confidence value above 30% (nominal and high confidence) were used in the study. The land cover was assessed using the European Space Agency (ESA) Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) Dynamic Land Cover Layers at 100 m resolution in the study area. The performance assessment of two fire/hotspot products were conducted in three fire size classes, namely: fire size 10 ha in five different land cover types. The results indicated that the overall accuracy of MODIS ranged from 0.6% to 16.6% and VIIRS S-NPP ranged from 1.3% to 25.6% of all ground-based fires in five different land cover types. The detection rates increased as the fire size increased. This study indicates that some limitations still exist to use MODIS and VIIRS S-NPP active fire/hotspot data in the assessment of wildfires.Keywords: Wildfires, Fire Monitoring, Land Cover, MODIS, VIIRS, Remote SensingiForest 15 (2): 85-94 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3754-015'id=ifor3754-015
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
  • Research Articles: Influence of site conditions and land management on
           Quercus suber L. population dynamics in the southern Iberian Peninsula

    • Authors: Jurado Doña V; López-Jurado J, González Román A, Sánchez-Salguero R, Matías L, Díaz Del Olmo F
      Abstract: Jurado Doña V, López-Jurado J, González Román A, Sánchez-Salguero R, Matías L, Díaz Del Olmo FINFLUENCE OF SITE CONDITIONS AND LAND MANAGEMENT ON QUERCUS SUBER L. POPULATION DYNAMICS IN THE SOUTHERN IBERIAN PENINSULAAbstract: During recent decades, tree mortality and dieback have been reported in forest ecosystems across global biomes. Although numerous forest species, including those of the genus Quercus, have been affected by hotter and drier conditions in the Mediterranean Basin during the last decades, there is scarce information regarding the interactive role of past management and climate across large areas of south-western Europe. Here, we examined the influence of several climatic factors (mean annual temperature, annual precipitation) over the last 3 decades, latitude, land management and site conditions on the cork oak (Quercus suber L.) population dynamics given their high ecological and economic relevance. We sampled 20 plots across contrasting environmental conditions in SW Iberian Peninsula with different land property (public vs. private) to characterize cork oak tree size, stand density, mortality ratio and regeneration. We observed widespread effects of latitude (8.9% at northern vs. 15.6% at southern plots) and land property (6.9% in private properties vs. 13.9% in public ones) on tree mortality. Tree density and basal area differed with latitude, with higher values (307.2 trees ha-1 and 38.4 m2 ha-1, respectively) at northern populations. In addition, the more intense cork-focused productive management resulted in higher tree sizes in private (mean DBH = 47.3 cm) than in public (mean DBH = 37.8 cm) plots. Tree regeneration was higher in northern forests (94.9 ± 25.2 vs. 26.0 ± 6.1 saplings ha-1 for the southern location), being this difference more pronounced in public plots. These findings highlight the importance of sustainable forest management in public and private forests for further reduction of mortality processes, as well as for enhancing the regeneration aimed to the conservation of cork oak under forecasted drier conditions of these economically invaluable Mediterranean forests.Keywords: Cork Oak, Climate Change, Forest Management, Mediterranean, Land Uses, Tree MortalityiForest 15 (2): 77-84 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3753-015'id=ifor3753-015
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
  • Research Articles: Red wood ants shape epiphytic lichen assemblages in
           montane silver fir forests

    • Authors: Di Nuzzo L; Masoni A, Frizzi F, Bianchi E, Castellani MB, Balzani P, Morandi F, Sozzi Y, Vallese C, Santini G, Benesperi R
      Abstract: Di Nuzzo L, Masoni A, Frizzi F, Bianchi E, Castellani MB, Balzani P, Morandi F, Sozzi Y, Vallese C, Santini G, Benesperi RRED WOOD ANTS SHAPE EPIPHYTIC LICHEN ASSEMBLAGES IN MONTANE SILVER FIR FORESTSAbstract: The Formica rufa group comprises several ant species which are collectively referred to as “red wood ants” (hereafter RWA). These species have key roles in forest ecosystems, where they are ecologically dominant and greatly influence the dynamics of the habitat they colonise. Various studies have shown how their trophic activity may affect other organisms, which include both other invertebrates and plants. We can therefore hypothesize that their presence could affect the taxonomic and functional composition of epiphytes, despite clear information on such an effect is lacking. This study aimed to fill this research gap by evaluating whether the presence of red wood ants could affect the structure and composition of lichen communities. We selected two sites on the Apennine Mountains in Italy, where the red wood ant F. paralugubris was introduced from the Alps more than 50 years ago. In each site, lichen assemblages on Abies alba trees located within the colonised areas were compared to those from nearby, non-occupied areas. The results allowed for the identification of significant effects of F. paralugubris on the structure of lichen communities. Although there was no detectable impact on lichen species richness, a significant difference in their community composition between colonised and control sites was detected. Furthermore, ant presence seemed to be associated with specific lichen functional traits such as asexual reproduction. We argue that RWA could affect the lichen community either directly, e.g., by actively dispersing the species capable of asexual reproduction through their movements on trees (ant-mediated dispersion), or indirectly through herbivore exclusion. Finally, we also observed differences in β-diversity among the colonised and non-colonised sites.Keywords: Formica paralugubris, Red Wood Ants, Lichen Diversity, Impact, Introduced Species, Functional DiversityiForest 15 (1): 71-76 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3897-014'id=ifor3897-014
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
  • Research Articles: Modeling the risk of illegal forest activity and its
           distribution in the southeastern region of the Sierra Madre Mountain
           Range, Philippines

    • Authors: Barit JB; Choi K, Ko DW
      Abstract: Barit JB, Choi K, Ko DWMODELING THE RISK OF ILLEGAL FOREST ACTIVITY AND ITS DISTRIBUTION IN THE SOUTHEASTERN REGION OF THE SIERRA MADRE MOUNTAIN RANGE, PHILIPPINESAbstract: Illegal activity within protected forests, such as illegal logging, slash-and-burn farming, and agricultural expansion, has brought many plant and animal species to the brink of extinction and threatens various conservation efforts. The Philippine government has introduced a number of actions to combat environmental degradation, including the use of mobile platforms such as the SMART-Lawin system to collect patrol data from the field, which represents a remarkable step towards data-driven conservation management. However, it remains difficult to control illegal forest activity within protected landscapes due to limited patrol and law enforcement resources. A better understanding of the spatial distribution of illegal activity is crucial to strengthening and efficiently implementing forest protection practices. In the present study, we predicted the spatial distribution of illegal activity and identified the associated environmental factors using maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt). Patrol data collected using the SMART-Lawin system from the Baliuag Conservation Area for the period 2017-2019 were used to train and validate the MaxEnt models. We tuned the MaxEnt parameter setting using the ENMeval package in R to overcome sampling bias, avoid overfitting, and balance model complexity. The resulting MaxEnt models provided a clear understanding of the overall risk of illegal activity and its spatial distribution within the conservation area. This study demonstrated the potential utility of data-driven models developed from patrol observation records. The output of this research is beneficial for conservation managers who are required to allocate limited resources and make informed management decisions.Keywords: Philippines, SMART, Ranger Patrol Data, Illegal Forest Activity, Protected Area ManagementiForest 15 (1): 63-70 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3937-014'id=ifor3937-014
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
  • Research Articles: Universal reaction norms for the sustainable
           cultivation of hybrid poplar clones under climate change in Italy

    • Authors: Marchi M; Bergante S, Ray D, Barbetti R, Facciotto G, Chiarabaglio Pier M, Hynynen J, Nervo G
      Abstract: Marchi M, Bergante S, Ray D, Barbetti R, Facciotto G, Chiarabaglio Pier M, Hynynen J, Nervo GUNIVERSAL REACTION NORMS FOR THE SUSTAINABLE CULTIVATION OF HYBRID POPLAR CLONES UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE IN ITALYAbstract: The cultivation of hybrid poplar clones is increasing worldwide. Hundreds of hectares of plantations now occur across Europe and other continents such as North America, using tested clones and novel genotypes. Research effort aims are to develop fast growing disease- and pest-resistant clones to improve production quality and quantity. In this study the phenotypic plasticity of poplar clones was tested across environmental and temporal gradients. The growth performance of 49 hybrid poplar clones recorded between 1980 and 2021 was analysed using a mixed-effects model with climatic data as a predictor variable. Clones were aggregated into two groups according to their breeding protocol (i.e., standard clone, and improved material) and their growth modelled for future climate scenarios of RCPs 2.6 and 8.5 using a downscaled version of the variants 01 and 21 of UKCP18 climate projections dataset for three 30-year normal period time-slices: 2030s, 2040s, 2050s. The fitted growth models showed highly significant results, explaining more than 85% of the variance, with a mean relative absolute error of approximately 2%. Improved material showed more resistance to warmer and drier climates and less sensitivity to the changing climate. While no unique pattern was found when comparing growth performances, new improved clones were more productive than older clones (e.g., “I-214”) with an additional benefit of resistance to rust and pests. Spatial predictions confirmed the Po valley as the most important geographic area for poplar cultivation in Italy, but zones in Central and Southern Italy show potential. However, the Po Valley is also where poplars are predicted to be suitable in the next decades with large uncertainties. The analysis identified the need for more research on the topic of poplar breeding. For example, models using the most extreme (warm and dry) climate projection, variant 01 of RCP8.5 of the UKCP18, exceeded the historic climate threshold, and predictions used model extrapolation, with associated statistical uncertainty. Therefore, predictions should be considered with care and more research effort is required to test clones over wider environmental conditions.Keywords: Forest Tree Breeding, ClimateDT, Universal Response Function, B4ESTiForest 15 (1): 47-55 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3989-015'id=ifor3989-015
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
  • Research Articles: Comparison of extractive chemical signatures among
           branch, knot and bark wood fractions from forestry and agroforestry walnut
           trees (Juglans regia × J. nigra) by NIR spectroscopy and LC-MS analyses

    • Authors: Heim L; Dodeler R, Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Dumarçay S, Gérardin P, Candelier K
      Abstract: Heim L, Dodeler R, Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Dumarçay S, Gérardin P, Candelier KCOMPARISON OF EXTRACTIVE CHEMICAL SIGNATURES AMONG BRANCH, KNOT AND BARK WOOD FRACTIONS FROM FORESTRY AND AGROFORESTRY WALNUT TREES (JUGLANS REGIA × J. NIGRA) BY NIR SPECTROSCOPY AND LC-MS ANALYSESAbstract: Walnut agroforestry systems require regular tree pruning, generating a large volume of biomass residues which are mainly valorized as wood-energy, Ramial Chipped Wood (RCW) or animal litter. However, walnut is recognized as a rich source of different chemical compounds, which could be recovered as valuable chemicals. This study aims to improve the knowledge on the composition of the water and ethanol extractive contents of wood, knot and bark fractions from walnut branches, harvested in agroforestry (AF) and traditional forestry control (FC) systems. LC-MS analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of extracts. Additionally, all samples were analyzed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the aim of developing a fast tool to distinguish walnut branches, knots and bark wood fractions from trees grown under agroforestry and plantation management. Extractive contents and chemical composition of AF and FC wood samples were slightly different among branch, knot and bark. Despite these small chemical differences, PLS-DA models based on NIRS measurements can distinguishing among wood samples from walnut trees grown under different silvicultural regimes. In addition, in the both forestry systems, branch and knot extractive contents were significantly lower than those of bark specimens. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) based on NIR-spectrometry of raw samples revealed that the chemical composition of branch and knot woods are similar to each other and are very different compared to those of bark samples. This study provides new knowledge on branch woods from agroforestry systems, which are still very under-studied at present.Keywords: Agroforestry, Bark, Branches, Extractives, Knot, WalnutiForest 15 (1): 56-62 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3973-014'id=ifor3973-014
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
  • Research Articles: Secondary metabolites of six Siberian and Crimean
           Armillaria species and their in vitro phytotoxicity to pine, larch and

    • Authors: Antipova TV; Zhelifonova VP, Litovka YA, Pavlov IN, Baskunov BP, Kokh ZA, Makolova PV, Timofeev AA, Kozlovsky AG
      Abstract: Antipova TV, Zhelifonova VP, Litovka YA, Pavlov IN, Baskunov BP, Kokh ZA, Makolova PV, Timofeev AA, Kozlovsky AGSECONDARY METABOLITES OF SIX SIBERIAN AND CRIMEAN ARMILLARIA SPECIES AND THEIR IN VITRO PHYTOTOXICITY TO PINE, LARCH AND POPLARAbstract: Basidiomycetes Armillaria infect deciduous, coniferous and fruit trees, causing enormous economic damage. The role of secondary metabolites (tricyclic sesquiterpene aryl esters - melleolides) in the life cycle and pathogenesis of Armillaria is under active investigation. To date, not all species of Armillaria have been tested for the biosynthesis of melleolides. We investigated the secondary metabolite profiles of six root-pathogenic species of the genus Armillaria (A. borealis Marxmüller & Korhonen, A. cepistipes Velenovský, A. gallica Marxm, A. mellea (Vahl) P. Kummer, A. sinapina Bérubé & Dessur, A. ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink) distributed in Siberia (South Krasnoyarsk Krai, Republic of Tyva, Republic of Khakassia, Taimyr Peninsula), Russian Far East (Sikhote-Alin) and Crimea (Krymsky National Park, Chatyr-Dag Mountain Lower Plateau). A total of 15 compounds were identified in the metabolome profile. Two compounds (melleolide D and melledonal C) are synthesized by all investigated strains irrespective of their geographic location and host plant. The maximum spectrum of melleolides (7-8 compounds) was found in isolates of A. borealis, A. gallica, A. sinapina, A. ostoyae. In submerged culture, the maximum accumulation of melleolides varied from 2 up to 239 mg l-1. A mixture of melleolide D and melledonal C (1:1) synthesized by the most productive strain A. mellea Cr2-17 was first found to have a phytotoxic action on the growth parameters of the callus culture Populus balsamifera and 10-day-old conifer seedlings. A 0.5% concentration of melleolides caused a credible decrease of P. balsamifera callus raw biomass; a decrease of the viability of Larix sibirica and, which is especially significant, Pinus sylvestris seedlings; inhibition of stem and root growth processes; dechromation of foliage; loss of turgor. The occurrence of a broad range of melleolides in the metabolome profile and two common compounds in all investigated strains, with a phytotoxic action at their sufficiently high concentration, enables considering the synthesis of melleolides by Armillaria fungi as one of the possible mechanisms of their pathogenicity efficiently realized in strains characterized by overproduction of melleolides under natural conditions.Keywords: Melleolides, Metabolome, Armillaria fungi, Phytotoxicity, Callus, Coniferous PlantsiForest 15 (1): 38-46 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3840-014'id=ifor3840-014
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
  • Research Articles: The impact of pruning on tree development in poplar
           Populus × canadensis “I-214” plantations

    • Authors: Danilović M; Sarić R, Cirović V, Pudja V
      Abstract: Danilović M, Sarić R, Cirović V, Pudja VTHE IMPACT OF PRUNING ON TREE DEVELOPMENT IN POPLAR POPULUS × CANADENSIS “I-214” PLANTATIONSAbstract: The effect of pruning on tree development and the potential structure of wood assortments was investigated in the poplar Populus × canadensis clone “I-214”. The study was carried out in a permanent sample plot within a poplar plantation established in 2006, in the area of the “Vojvodinašume” Public Company, within the “Gornje Potamišje” Forest Management Unit (Republic of Serbia). Pruning was performed on a total of 325 trees at different stem heights and a total of 13,186 branches were pruned. The average number of pruned branches per tree at the stem height of 5 m was 36, while it was 40 at the stem height of 6 m and 46 at the stem height of 7 m. The average diameter of pruned branches was 1.7 cm. The results showed that there are no significant differences in diameters at breast height between pruned and unpruned trees after two different intensities of pruning. Our results showed that pruning do not impact the long-term growth performance in poplar clone “I-214”, while remarkably improving the quality and economic value of wood assortments obtained from pruned trees.Keywords: Poplar, Pruning, Pruning Intensity, Pruning Height, Branch DiameteriForest 15 (1): 33-37 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3865-014'id=ifor3865-014
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
  • Research Articles: Quantifying the vertical microclimate profile within a
           tropical seasonal rainforest, based on both ground- and canopy-referenced

    • Authors: Deng Y; Dong J, Zhang W, Yuan S, Tan Z, Song Q, Deng X, Cao M
      Abstract: Deng Y, Dong J, Zhang W, Yuan S, Tan Z, Song Q, Deng X, Cao MQUANTIFYING THE VERTICAL MICROCLIMATE PROFILE WITHIN A TROPICAL SEASONAL RAINFOREST, BASED ON BOTH GROUND- AND CANOPY-REFERENCED APPROACHESAbstract: Quantifying the microclimate of a tall and complex tropical forest is quite challenging because of the difficulty in accessing the canopy. Traditional ground-referenced methods may underestimate the contribution of canopy heterogeneity to structuring the vertical profiles of forest microclimate. The present study examined how the reference height affects vertical variation of microclimate in a tropical rainforest in southwest China, based on both ground- and canopy-referenced approaches. The results show that the canopy-referenced approach yielded a higher model fit than did the ground-referenced method, and only canopy-referenced method could detect two thresholds in the leaf area index at approximately -22.6 ± 2.7 m and -36.6 ± 6.6 m below the canopy top; the higher threshold is consistent with thresholds of the annual mean temperature, the diurnal ranges of air temperature, and the relative humidity in the vertical profile; while the lower threshold is similar with the breakpoints of annual mean relative humidity, the annual ranges of air temperature and the relative humidity along the profile. The discontinuous variance in the microclimatic factors was due to the canopy structure in the vertical profile. Selecting the top of the canopy as the reference height could be a better approach for quantifying the microclimatic profiles in the studied forest, and this approach can improve our understanding of the effects of the vertical stratification of microclimates on species composition and diversity in this forest.Keywords: Tropical Seasonal Rainforest, Vertical Gradient, Light Environment, Temperature And Humidity, Distance From The Canopy SurfaceiForest 15 (1): 24-32 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3780-014'id=ifor3780-014
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
  • Research Articles: Nursery fertilization affected field performance and
           nutrient resorption of Populus tomentosa Carr. ploidy levels

    • Authors: Wang M; Li G, Liu Y
      Abstract: Wang M, Li G, Liu YNURSERY FERTILIZATION AFFECTED FIELD PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT RESORPTION OF POPULUS TOMENTOSA CARR. PLOIDY LEVELSAbstract: Nutrient resorption (NuR) is an important nutrient conservative strategy but little information is available about the effect of nursery fertilization on NuR in the field. In this study, diploid and triploid one-year-old plants of Populus tomentosa Carr. were fertilized with 9 g N per plant, and non-fertilized plants as control. Initial functional attributes, i.e., height, diameter, stem mass, mineral nutrients and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels of each tissue, were measured before planting. Field performance (survival, total height, diameter, stem volume and their growth, leaf nutrient status, and NuR) were measured in the field. Compared to control, 9 g N per plant was benefit for plant growth, mineral nutrients and NSC accumulation of diploids, but declined plant size of triploids before planting. While in the field, fertilization effect on plant size was inversed for each ploidy level. Nursery fertilization increased nitrogen resorption efficiency (NRE) of triploids and decreased phosphorus resorption efficiency (PRE) of both ploidy levels. Initial plant size were the most effective parameters predicting field performance and NuR. Furthermore, NRE was multi-elements controlled as indicated by the correlation of N and P in green and senesced leaves, while PRE was only positively correlated with P in green leaves. However, there was no relationship between field growth and NuR. This study deepened our understanding of NuR from the perspective of artificial managements, for instance nursery fertilization.Keywords: Nursery Fertilization, Nutrient Resorption, Leaf Nutrient Status, Plant Growth, Initial Functional Attributes, Ploidy LevelsiForest 15 (1): 16-23 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3912-014'id=ifor3912-014
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
  • Research Articles: Contribution of legume and non-legume trees to litter
           dynamics and C-N-P inputs in a secondary seasonally dry tropical forest

    • Authors: Neves NM; Paula RR, Araujo EA, Gorsani RG, Abreu KMPD, Kunz SH
      Abstract: Neves NM, Paula RR, Araujo EA, Gorsani RG, Abreu KMPD, Kunz SHCONTRIBUTION OF LEGUME AND NON-LEGUME TREES TO LITTER DYNAMICS AND C-N-P INPUTS IN A SECONDARY SEASONALLY DRY TROPICAL FORESTAbstract: Many studies have investigated nutrient cycling in seasonally dry tropical forests, but few have assessed the contribution of different functional groups to these processes. Here, we investigated general litter dynamics patterns and the contribution of legume and non-legume trees to litter dynamics and carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) inputs in a fragment of secondary seasonally dry tropical forest after half a century of forest succession in the Atlantic Forest biome in Brazil. Between 2016 and 2017, we quantified litterfall production, canopy cover, forest floor, and soil C and N storage in 11 permanent plots distributed in the fragment. Vegetation identity and structure had been previously assessed. We quantified the seasonal inputs of leaf litter and C, N, and P separately for each functional group (legume and non-legume tree species). We also analyzed the correlations between the variables measured for each functional group with the variables measured at the plot level. Litter dynamics and nutrient input were affected by climate and functional group. Litterfall production during the two driest months was three times higher than during the other periods of the year, suggesting that species synchronicity is likely to minimize drought-related damage on trees. Legume trees had twice the basal area attained by non-legume trees, but while legumes were larger, non-legumes were more abundant and dominant in the smaller diameter class. Legumes deposited twice as much N during the driest period of the year as non-legumes. Although leaf litter, C, and P inputs by legumes were generally higher than those of non-legumes, these differences during the dry season were not statistically significant. We also found that the legume variables correlated better with the plot-level variables, compared to the non-legume functional group. Our results also indicated potential effects of the leaf litter and nutrient inputs by the legume functional group on the decomposition constant and, consequently, on the time of forest floor decomposition. Further studies should assess the role of different functional groups in litter dynamics and nutrient inputs in seasonally dry tropical forests.Keywords: Nutrient Cycling, Litterfall, Nutrient Input, Canopy Cover, Decomposition Rate, Fabaceae, Atlantic ForestiForest 15 (1): 8-15 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3442-014'id=ifor3442-014
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
  • Research Articles: Kretzschmaria deusta, a limiting factor for survival
           and safety of veteran beech trees in Trentino (Alps, Northern Italy)

    • Authors: Cordin G; Messina G, Maresi G, Zottele F, Ferretti F, Montecchio L, Oliveira Longa CM
      Abstract: Cordin G, Messina G, Maresi G, Zottele F, Ferretti F, Montecchio L, Oliveira Longa CMKRETZSCHMARIA DEUSTA, A LIMITING FACTOR FOR SURVIVAL AND SAFETY OF VETERAN BEECH TREES IN TRENTINO (ALPS, NORTHERN ITALY)Abstract: The importance of veteran trees is well recognised nowadays. The sudden breakage of some of these plants in Trentino (Italy), mainly due to Kretzschmaria deusta, prompted a survey of the veteran beeches reported in this area. Visual tree assessment was carried out in 40 sites with either single trees or groups of beeches, for a total of 115 trees evaluated. Most trees showed serious defects or problems in need of management and 19 had a high level of risk of breakage because of the presence of several structural problems. The presence of K. deusta was recorded on 50.4% of the examined trees. The pathogen was also identified in the proximity of investigated trees at 29 sites. Laboratory tests confirmed the identity of K. deusta by microbiological and molecular approaches and also identified Cosmopora berkeleyana as mycoparasite on K. deusta fruiting bodies. Isolates obtained from declining trees and old stumps showed the same pattern of growth at different temperatures. The risk evaluation emphasised how the fungus could affect the survival and safety of these veteran trees; this was confirmed by the collapse of four of the investigated trees in the last years. Therefore, K. deusta, which has been considered as a facultative parasite up to now, could play a more incisive role both in the decline of old beech trees and the natural evolution of aging beech woods.Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, Xilariaceae, Brittle Cinder, Soft-rot, Visual Tree Assessment, Veteran Tree ConservationiForest 14 (6): 576-581 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3830-014'id=ifor3830-014
      PubDate: 2021-12-18
  • Research Articles: Composted sewage sludge as an alternative substrate for
           forest seedlings production

    • Authors: Gabira MM; Silva RBGD, Bortolheiro FPDAP, Mateus CDMD, Villas Boas RL, Rossi S, Girona MM, Silva MRD
      Abstract: Gabira MM, Silva RBGD, Bortolheiro FPDAP, Mateus CDMD, Villas Boas RL, Rossi S, Girona MM, Silva MRDCOMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SUBSTRATE FOR FOREST SEEDLINGS PRODUCTIONAbstract: The production of forest seedlings with adequate morphological and physiological characteristics is essential for the success of plantations. Substrates and irrigation are the major factors determining seedlings’ growth. Substrates made of urban and agricultural residues are a sustainable alternative to peat-based substrates. In this study, we evaluated how composted sewage sludge substrates affect the growth and gas exchange in seedlings of Cedrela fissilis Vell. Seedlings were produced under daily irrigation depths of 6, 9, and 12 mm, and on different substrates. The substrates were based on sewage sludge composted with Eucalyptus bark or sugarcane bagasse, and a commercial substrate based on peat, involving a double factorial design with 12 treatments (3 irrigation depths × 3 substrates). Both physical and chemical characteristics of substrates were analyzed, and morphological traits and gas exchanges of seedlings were measured. Sewage sludge-based substrates presented different characteristics according to the material it was mixed. Eucalyptus bark provided higher bulk density (0.19 g cm-3) and lower total porosity (75%) to the substrate, while sugarcane bagasse increased macroporosity up to 60%. Seedlings produced in sewage sludge-based substrates presented a height up to 17.8 cm and stem diameters of between 8.39-10.29 mm. Higher shoot and root dry mass was obtained in sewage sludge-based substrates with irrigation depth of 9 mm, which were 3.71 and 2.01 g, respectively. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation varied between 2.26 and 3.23 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, and water use efficiency varied from 2.058 to 3.395 µmol CO2 (mol H2O)-1, with the highest values being obtained in seedlings produced in sewage sludge-based substrates with irrigation depth of 6 mm. Our results demonstrate that sewage sludge-based substrates are an efficient alternative to commercial peat-based substrates for seedling production.Keywords: Agricultural Residues, Cedrela fissilis, Forest Nursery, Gas Exchange, Irrigation, Plant Growth, Silviculture, Solid WastesiForest 14 (6): 569-575 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3929-014'id=ifor3929-014
      PubDate: 2021-12-16
  • Research Articles: Adaptability and interspecific variability in growth
           and leaf traits of eucalypt

    • Authors: Makouanzi Ekomono CG; Loubassou CBSV, Mbama MP, Loubota Panzou GJ, Vigneron P
      Abstract: Makouanzi Ekomono CG, Loubassou CBSV, Mbama MP, Loubota Panzou GJ, Vigneron PADAPTABILITY AND INTERSPECIFIC VARIABILITY IN GROWTH AND LEAF TRAITS OF EUCALYPTAbstract: Effective adaptability of plants to new environments can be analysed in terms of survival rate. Analysing the traits that favour adaptation to environmental changes provides a more in-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved. Local adaptation occurs because different environmental factors exert selective pressure across habitats. Understanding the leaf mechanisms underlying plant survival and growth is crucial to determine why local adaptation involves trade-offs. A comparative provenance test on 29 eucalyptus species was conducted to improve our understanding of species adaptation strategies on coastal plains of Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. We studied the different functional traits to determine how plants function and to highlight the different species’ adaptive strategies. For each species, survival, growth traits and leaf traits were measured, and the climatic factors of the origin area for each species was taken into account. Cluster analysis was performed on groups of species with a similar growth strategy. The results revealed general trends that explain the physiological mechanisms involved in the species’ local adaptation. Indeed, species have survived to current environmental changes by adjusting their specific leaf area plasticity. The 32 provenances of eucalyptus were subdivided into four groups by cluster analysis. The first cluster included two species (E. pilularis and E. peltata) that are totally unsuited to the local conditions in Pointe-Noire, with the slowest growth rate and smallest specific leaf area. The second cluster contained species that showed a wide variety of growing strategies, allowing them to adapt to local conditions. The third cluster included a species that is specialised in obtaining large quantities of resources, while investing very little in growth. The fourth cluster included species that acquired and used resources at a slow rate. Leaf anatomy was quite responsive to climatic conditions. We evaluated the different strategies and found that eucalyptus species had very diverse functional traits, which may explain their broad ecological range.Keywords: Adaptability, Eucalyptus, Foliar Traits, Growth Strategies, Clustering AnalysisiForest 14 (6): 560-568 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3660-014'id=ifor3660-014
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3660-014
  • Research Articles: Historical fire ecology and its effect on vegetation
           dynamics of the Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Chiapas, México

    • Authors: Ponce-Calderón LP; Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Villanueva-Díaz J, Bilbao BA, Álvarez-Gordillo GDC, Vera-Cortés G
      Abstract: Ponce-Calderón LP, Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Villanueva-Díaz J, Bilbao BA, Álvarez-Gordillo GDC, Vera-Cortés GHISTORICAL FIRE ECOLOGY AND ITS EFFECT ON VEGETATION DYNAMICS OF THE LAGUNAS DE MONTEBELLO NATIONAL PARK, CHIAPAS, MÉXICOAbstract: Historical information on wildfires and dendrochronological studies offer meaningful clues about fire and climate regimes, factors that affect forest structure and dynamics. This study aimed to determine the effect of fire history on vegetation dynamics and successional pathways of areas under different fire management policies in the Lagunas de Montebello National Park (LMNP), Chiapas, México. The selected study sites were El Parque area under fire exclusion policies since 1961; Tziscao-inhabited area under fire prohibition since 1984; and Antelá area with a traditional agricultural fire management history. A Pinus oocarpa ring-width chronology was used as a proxy for climate variability to which wildfire occurrence was mapped and to determine the establishment patterns of this dominant species. Current vegetation composition and structure and fuel loads were determined to characterise the study sites. Large wildfires, like those occurring in 1984 and 1998, were associated with periods of high humidity followed by intense droughts; they were linked to strong El Niño events and severely impacted the LMNP. Vegetation dynamics indicated simplification of mesophyll forest (climax) to pine-oak-sweetgum forests, with Pinus dominating the overstorey in all sampling sites. Pine, oak and sweetgum species were the dominant juvenile trees in Antelá, El Parque and Tziscao, respectively. Late-successional seedlings (i.e., Prunus) were present in Antelá and El Parque, while were absent from Tziscao where several wildfires had occurred. Fuel accumulation in sites within protected areas subject to fire exclusion policies was very high (40-68 t ha-1); in contrast, it was the lowest in rural Antelá (24 t ha-1). Considering vegetation vulnerability to wildfires associated with extreme humid-dry climate events, increased fire hazard due to fuel accumulation, and the socio-ecological impacts of these events, we recommend revising the fire exclusion policies currently implemented in the LMNP and applying an integrated fire management approach that incorporates local socio-ecological conditions.Keywords: Historical Ecology, Dendrochronology, Fire Ecology, Ecological Succession, Fuel LoadsiForest 14 (6): 548-559 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3682-014'id=ifor3682-014
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3682-014
  • Research Articles: Ectomycorrhizal fungal community in mature white poplar

    • Authors: Milović M; Orlović S, Grebenc T, Bajc M, Kovačević B, Kraigher H
      Abstract: Milović M, Orlović S, Grebenc T, Bajc M, Kovačević B, Kraigher HECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COMMUNITY IN MATURE WHITE POPLAR PLANTATIONAbstract: Ectomycorrhizal communities are rarely studied on seasonal basis, especially in poplar plantations. In this study we analysed the ectomycorrhizal community in a mature twenty-year-old white poplar (Populus alba L.) plantation during four consecutive seasons. Using morpho-anatomical and molecular identification 30 taxa of ectomycorrhizal fungi were recorded of which 15 were identified to the species level, 12 to the genus level, 2 to the family, and one morphotype of ectomycorrhizae remained unidentified. The most abundant among identified ectomycorrhizal fungi were: Inocybe griseovelata, Inocybe splendens, Tuber rufum, and Tomentella sp. 2, which together represented up to 50% of all ectomycorrhizal root tips. The number of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa and the percentage of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips were highest in winter and spring, respectively. The diversity indices of ectomycorrhizae, number of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips, and total fine roots in the studied poplar plantation did not differ between seasons. Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Inocybaceae family and the short-distance exploration strategy were dominant in all four seasons. On the other hand, the abundance of ectomycorrhizal root tips belonging to the medium-distance exploration strategy type was significantly higher in spring in comparison with autumn and winter.Keywords: Populus alba L., Ectomycorrhizal Diversity, Morpho-anatomical Characterization, Molecular Identification, SeasonsiForest 14 (6): 540-547 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3827-014'id=ifor3827-014
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3827-014
  • Research Articles: Local adaptation at a small geographic scale observed
           in Juniperus excelsa populations in southern Turkey

    • Authors: Yücedag C; Çiçek N, Gailing O
      Abstract: Yücedag C, Çiçek N, Gailing OLOCAL ADAPTATION AT A SMALL GEOGRAPHIC SCALE OBSERVED IN JUNIPERUS EXCELSA POPULATIONS IN SOUTHERN TURKEYAbstract: Juniperus excelsa is one of the most common tree species and has a wide geographical and altitudinal distribution in Turkey. It is also resistant to drought and frost damages and can cope with poor soils. In this study, we explore whether there are any differences among eight J. excelsa populations from a narrow geographic region grown in a common garden test site in terms of growth and contents of photosynthetic pigments, proline and nutrients of their 10-year-old saplings. Phenotypic trait differentiation (QST) at all traits, FST at neutral SSRs among six of the populations and associations of traits with environmental conditions at provenance regions were also analysed to test for patterns of local adaptation. Sapling traits of eight J. excelsa populations of from Lakes District in Turkey at the test site showed that populations significantly differed for growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline and nutrient contents. The mean height and diameter of 10-year-old saplings were found as 94.5 cm and 41.6 mm, respectively. EÄŸirdir-Barla and Sütçüler-Tota populations showed the highest performance for the majority of traits at age 10 compared to all other populations. Nutrient contents in leaves were generally in the sufficiency range reported for plant growth. Considering photosynthetic pigments and proline, it could be concluded that the populations were not exposed to severe stress. Among the environmental variables, the best predictors of growth were annual mean minimum temperature and soil texture at the populations’ origin, accounting for 49% of the variation in height and diameter, respectively. Also, higher phenotypic trait differentiation for most traits than genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggests local adaptation at a small geographic scale. The present study revealed adaptive divergence between populations at a small geographic scale. However, environmental similarity between region of origin and test site was not a good indicator of growth-related traits. The results can be used in the early selection of provenances for J. excelsa for plantation establishment.Keywords: Juniperus excelsa, Chlorophyll, Proline, Phenotypic Trait Differentiation, Local AdaptationiForest 14 (6): 531-539 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3769-014'id=ifor3769-014
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3769-014
  • Research Articles: Towards a functional phytosociology: the functional
           ecology of woody diagnostic species and their vegetation classes in
           Northern Italy

    • Authors: Zanzottera M; Dalle Fratte M, Caccianiga M, Pierce S, Cerabolini BEL
      Abstract: Zanzottera M, Dalle Fratte M, Caccianiga M, Pierce S, Cerabolini BELTOWARDS A FUNCTIONAL PHYTOSOCIOLOGY: THE FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY OF WOODY DIAGNOSTIC SPECIES AND THEIR VEGETATION CLASSES IN NORTHERN ITALY: Vegetation is often classified through phytosociology, which defines floristically and ecologically coherent units identified by diagnostic species. Since species- and community-environment relations are regulated by plant functional traits, it is likely that phytosociology has a strong functional underpinning, although the past and current phytosociology does not explicitly tackle this issue. Here we provide an analysis of functional traits of 221 woody species from Northern Italy, diagnostic of 21 European woody vegetation classes (including alien dominated ones). We assessed whether the functional space occupied by selected species corresponds to the physiognomy and ecology of the vegetation they represent, and whether this could help to evaluate major threats, such as invasion by alien species. For each species we collected from
      Authors ’ datasets leaf trait data (leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, leaf nitrogen content) and whole plant (plant height, seed mass) traits, and calculated Competitor, Stress-tolerant, Ruderal (CSR) scores. We identified the multidimensional functional trait space of diagnostic species and clustered classes according to their scores in the functional space, to check whether their physiognomy was coherently represented and mirrored in the CSR space. Lastly, we tested for differences between native and neophyte species and their overlap with classes. Diagnostic species mirrored the global spectrum of plant form and function, and classes showed a functional pattern coherent with their physiognomy and ecology. Evergreen dominated classes showed a similar convergence toward conservative characteristics and the stress-tolerant strategy, as opposed to deciduous forest classes that showed a tendency toward the competitive strategy. None of the classes showed a marked ruderal strategy, thus abiotic stress and biotic competition are the main ecological drivers affecting woody vegetation. Neophyte woody species exhibited relatively more competitive strategies compared to natives, and their invasion could be facilitated in resource-limited or mildly disturbed environments, should climate warming or increased nutrient availability occur. We demonstrated that plant traits and CSR strategies of woody diagnostic species reliably indicate the structure and functions of the phytosociological classes they represent, opening the way to the development of a “functional phytosociology”.Keywords: CSR Adaptive Strategies, Forests, Shrublands, Global Spectrum, Neophytes, Plant Functional Traits, Structure and Functions, Typical SpeciesiForest 14 (6): 522-530 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3730-014'id=ifor3730-014
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3730-014
  • Short Communications: Estimation of canopy attributes of wild cacao trees
           using digital cover photography and machine learning algorithms

    • Authors: Duarte-Carvajalino JM; Paramo-Alvarez M, Ramos-Calderón PF, González-Orozco CE
      Abstract: Duarte-Carvajalino JM, Paramo-Alvarez M, Ramos-Calderón PF, González-Orozco CEESTIMATION OF CANOPY ATTRIBUTES OF WILD CACAO TREES USING DIGITAL COVER PHOTOGRAPHY AND MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMSAbstract: Surveying canopy attributes while conducting fieldwork in the rain forest is time-consuming. Low-cost imagery such as digital cover photography is a potential source of information to speed up the process of vegetation assessments and reduce costs during expeditions. This study presents an image-based non-destructive method to estimate canopy attributes of wild cacao trees in two regions of the rain forest in Colombia, using digital cover photography and machine learning algorithms. Upward-looking photography at the base of each cacao tree and machine learning algorithms were used to estimate gap fraction (GF), foliage cover (FC), crown cover (CC), crown porosity (CP), clumping index (Ω), and leaf area index (LAI) of the canopy cover. Here we used the cacao wild trees found on forestry plots as a case study to test the application of low-cost imagery on the extraction and analysis of canopy attributes. Canopy attributes were successfully extracted from the canopy cover imagery and provided 92% of classification accuracy for the structural attributes of the canopy. Canopy cover attributes allowed us to differentiate between canopy structures of the Amazon and Pacific rainforests sites suggesting that wild cacao trees are associated with different vegetation types. We also compare classification results for the computer extraction of canopy attributes with a digital canopy cover benchmark. We conclude that our approach was effective to quickly survey canopy features of vegetation associated with and of crop wild relatives of cacao. This study allows highly reproducible estimates of canopy attributes using cover photography and state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms such as deep learning Convolutional Neural Networks.Keywords: Canopy Attributes, Cover Photography, Colombia, Machine Learning, Deep LearningiForest 14 (6): 517-521 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3936-014'id=ifor3936-014
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3936-014
  • Research Articles: Soil fauna communities and microbial activities
           response to litter and soil properties under degraded and restored forests
           of Hyrcania

    • Authors: Bazyari M; Etemad V, Kooch Y, Shirvany A
      Abstract: Bazyari M, Etemad V, Kooch Y, Shirvany ASOIL FAUNA COMMUNITIES AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES RESPONSE TO LITTER AND SOIL PROPERTIES UNDER DEGRADED AND RESTORED FORESTS OF HYRCANIAAbstract: Reforestation has long been the best practice to restore degraded forests due to human interventions. In this paper we investigated the effect of forest degradation (DNF) along with reforestation using 4 endemic species (Alnus subcordata, ASP; Acer velutinum, AVP; Cupressus sempervirens, CSP; Quercus castaneifolia Mey, QCP) on forest’s soil chemical and biological indicators compared to a close-to-virgin natural forest (VNF). For this study, a total of 24 physico-chemical and 25 biological and microbial indicators were measured in soils of all 6 forest stands along with the litter properties. Results showed that the lowest soil quality was observed under DNF, CSP, and QCP which was the result of forest cover degradation in DNF and low litter quality, especially low pH and high C:N, in CSP and QCP. Soil fauna communities were significantly affected by tree species. We found two times higher density of earthworms in VNF compared to ASP, but in DNF the density was 5 times lower than VNF. We found no epigeic earthworms in QCP, CSP and DNF and no endogeic earthworms in DNF. Acarina and Collembola density was high in VNF and ASP, but they showed significant differences (VNF>ASP), and their density sharply decreased in other stands, especially in CSP (3 times lower than VNF) and DNF (8 to 10 times lower than VNF). Nematode density was statistically equal in VNF, ASP, and AVP, but significantly lower in other stands. Protozoa, bacteria and fungi densities were significantly higher in VNF and ASP (VNF>ASP) compared to each other and other forest stands. Basal respiration, substrate induced respiration, microbial biomass N and P, and carbon availability index was also higher in VNF and ASP compared to other stands. Although VNF has the best condition because of old forest cover and high diversity, ASP soil showed significant improvements, demonstrating the importance of litter quality in soil restoration. Restoration effectiveness ranking of the four tested species on soil improvement are therefore ASP>AVP>QCP>CSP. The significant improvement of soil quality under ASP compared to other reforestated stands, only after 3 decades, emphasizes the importance of tree species selection and litter quality on soil chemical and biological restoration.Keywords: Forest Restoration, Reforestation, Litter Quality, Soil Biological Activity, Soil Chemical Properties, Soil FaunaiForest 14 (6): 490-498 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3583-014'id=ifor3583-014
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3583-014
  • Research Articles: Improving sustainability in wood coating: testing
           lignin and cellulose nanocrystals as additives to commercial acrylic wood
           coatings for bio-building

    • Authors: Jusic J; Tamantini S, Romagnoli M, Vinciguerra V, Di Mattia E, Zikeli F, Cavalera M, Scarascia Mugnozza G
      Abstract: Jusic J, Tamantini S, Romagnoli M, Vinciguerra V, Di Mattia E, Zikeli F, Cavalera M, Scarascia Mugnozza GIMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY IN WOOD COATING: TESTING LIGNIN AND CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS AS ADDITIVES TO COMMERCIAL ACRYLIC WOOD COATINGS FOR BIO-BUILDINGAbstract: Wood use in bio-building should be considered as one of the main pillars of sustainability. According to international standards, beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a rather less durable species as it is subject to degradation due to weathering, though it is abundantly available to a more intense use. Service life of beech products and wood products in general can be enhanced by different methods, such as heat treatments, but new chances are offered by coating technologies. However, to ensure protection from wood-destroying organisms, most commercial coatings include components that could harm human health, other organisms and the environment. Therefore, coating industry has to develop more eco-friendly solutions in order to decrease its impact on human health and environment. The objective of this article was to modify commercial acrylic varnish by adding cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and lignin (LN) extracted from beech wood and investigate their effect on water sorption, additive dispersion in the coating matrix and coating resistance to bacterial attack. Contact angle, weight gain and colour difference were analysed and FT-IR mapping was applied. The performance of CNC was promising, as it enhanced water sorption of the modified coating. However, protection against bacterial attack was not satisfying. On the other hand, chemically unmodified lignin did not show positive effects as component in the coating formulation. Nevertheless, the currently limited usage of these two renewable and abundant resources urgently calls for their more efficient utilization, in order to create additional value with industry side-streams producing novel bio-based materials. Further experiments are needed in order to obtain better dispersion of the particles and higher resistance to bacterial attacks.Keywords: Acrylic Waterborne Coating, Beech Wood, Fagus sylvatica, Lignin, Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC), FT-IR Mapping, Antibacterial ActivityiForest 14 (6): 499-507 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3782-014'id=ifor3782-014
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3782-014
  • Research Articles: Can species Cedrela fissilis Vell. be used in sites
           contaminated with toxic aluminum and cadmium metals'

    • Authors: Castro Kuinchtner C; Silva Wertonge de Oliveira G, Miranda de Aguilar MV, Bernardy D, Berger M, Tabaldi LA
      Abstract: Castro Kuinchtner C, Silva Wertonge de Oliveira G, Miranda de Aguilar MV, Bernardy D, Berger M, Tabaldi LACAN SPECIES CEDRELA FISSILIS VELL. BE USED IN SITES CONTAMINATED WITH TOXIC ALUMINUM AND CADMIUM METALS'Abstract: Toxic metals are among the main pollutants contributing to environmental degradation. Cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) stand out among these metals as extremely toxic elements. The use of native species in reforestation programs can compensate for degradation and re-establish the ecological conditions of the affected environments. Cedrela fissilis Vell., popularly known as cedar, may be used as an alternative in phytoremediation, since it is a fast-growing native woody species widely distributed in tropical America. In this study we investigated the possibility of using C. fissilis in sites contaminated with Al and Cd by evaluating morphological, physiological, and biochemical variables of seedlings grown in hydroponic system. C. fissilis seedlings were subdivided into two experiments with a completely randomized design. The first experiment evaluated the effect of four Al concentrations, namely: 0 (complete nutrient solution without phosphorus), 25, 50 and 100 mg l-1. The second experiment evaluated four Cd concentrations, namely: 0 (complete nutrient solution), 25, 50 and 100 μM. Each sample unit consisted in a pot with four plants. Morphological, physiological and biochemical variables of seedlings were evaluated after 15-day exposure to different treatments in the hydroponic system. Aluminum concentration of 100 mg l-1 caused oxidative stress in C. fissilis seedlings, reduced shoot and root dry weight, and increased hydrogen peroxide contents, which led to lipid peroxidation. Cadmium concentration of 100 µM also damaged C. fissilis seedlings by significantly reducing root dry weight and involving the most severe effects on photosynthetic variables. Cadmium presence in the nutrient solution negatively affected morphophysiological and biochemical variables of Cedrela fissilis seedlings, and it was also harmful to their growth. Based on our results, the investigated species shows a sensitive behavior upon exposure to cadmium. On the other hand, C. fissilis tolerates high Al concentrations (up to 50 mg l-1), which suggests a moderate tolerance to this metal.Keywords: Phytoremediation, Heavy Metals, Gas Exchange, Morphophysiological VariablesiForest 14 (6): 508-516 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3890-014'id=ifor3890-014
      PubDate: 2021-11-11
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3890-014
  • Research Articles: The willingness of inhabitants in medium-sized city and
           the city’s surroundings settlements to pay for recreation in urban
           forests in Poland

    • Authors: Mandziuk A; Fornal-Pieniak B, Ollik M
      Abstract: Mandziuk A, Fornal-Pieniak B, Ollik MTHE WILLINGNESS OF INHABITANTS IN MEDIUM-SIZED CITY AND THE CITY’S SURROUNDINGS SETTLEMENTS TO PAY FOR RECREATION IN URBAN FORESTS IN POLANDAbstract: The aim of the study was to determine the willingness-to-pay (WTP) in exchange for recreation, to determine the dependency between the frequency of visits and willingness of forest users to make contributions for urban forests and the appearance of the forest, as well as the sociological characteristics of the respondents. The research was carried out on the example of the medium-sized city of Tarnów, southern Poland. To this aim, a survey was conducted on a group of 309 adult respondents inhabitants of Tarnów city and city’s surroundings settlements. For statistical analysis, the Classification And Regression Trees (CART) method was used to determine the dependency between the declared contributions and the characteristics of respondents, and the Principal Components Analysis for examining the dependency between WTP and the appearance (structure) of the forest. The dependency between the frequency of visits to urban forests and the demographics was analysed by chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that 97% of respondents are willing to make payments for urban forests, the amount of which differed depending on their place of residence, education, and age. Also, the vast majority of respondents make their WTP contributions dependent on the appearance of the forest. This applies in particular to a multi-stratum, multi-species forest with the undergrowth and recreational infrastructure. In addition, the frequency of visits to the area is affected by gender and place of residence. The obtained results are especially important for the recreation function of urban forests including willingness of inhabitants in Tarnów city and surroundings settlements.Keywords: Recreation, Urban Forests, Willingness To Pay, Visual Aspect of Forest, Preferences of Tourist, TarnówiForest 14 (5): 483-489 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3758-014'id=ifor3758-014
      PubDate: 2021-10-27
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3758-014
  • Research Articles: Scots pine’s capacity to adapt to climate change in
           hemi-boreal forests in relation to dominating tree increment and site

    • Authors: Mikalajunas M; Pretzsch H, Mozgeris G, Linkevičius E, Augustaitiene I, Augustaitis A
      Abstract: Mikalajunas M, Pretzsch H, Mozgeris G, Linkevičius E, Augustaitiene I, Augustaitis ASCOTS PINE’S CAPACITY TO ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN HEMI-BOREAL FORESTS IN RELATION TO DOMINATING TREE INCREMENT AND SITE CONDITIONAbstract: Forest site (FS) and meteorological conditions are recognized as the main factors affecting tree growth and whole-stand sustainability. This study aims to detect the combined effects of FS and meteorological conditions on tree ring formation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), the most common tree species in Lithuania and hemi-boreal forests of northeastern Europe. We used data on stand structure and productivity from the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory (NFI) and stem radial increment series of dominating trees during the period 1993-2012 collected since 2013. Pine stem basal area increment (BAI) was chosen as the response variable, while temperature in March (°C) and precipitation in June (mm) were used as predictor variables, as they best express the effect of climate change on Lithuanian forests. We simulated the effects on dominating pine annual increment of deciduous tree species, mainly Betula sp. and the level of soil moisture and fertility, accounting in addition for the random effects of NFI network tract, plot direction, and tree number. A nonlinear mixed-effects model explained up to 68% of the variation in the BAI of pine trees. The annual pine trees BAI increased with the increase in the proportion of deciduous trees in pine stands. Increases in temperature and precipitation in considered months reinforced this positive effect on pine BAI, especially in mature pine stands in temporarily waterlogged meso-eutrophic FSs on mineral soils. A negative effect of deciduous trees on pine stem increment was observed only in nutrient-rich eutrophic and drained peatland FSs. Forestry treatments directed towards the increase in deciduous tree proportion in the most common normal or temporarily waterlogged meso-eutrophic and oligotrophic pine stands might increase the biodiversity and productivity of pine stands, and their sustainability in future climate change scenarios.Keywords: Scots Pine, Basal Area Increment, Site Conditions, Meteorology, Mixed-effects, Hemi-Boreal ForestsiForest 14 (5): 473-482 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3703-014'id=ifor3703-014
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3703-014
  • Research Articles: Comparison of alternative harvesting systems for
           selective thinning in a Mediterranean pine afforestation (Pinus halepensis
           Mill.) for bioenergy use

    • Authors: Lerma-Arce V; Oliver-Villanueva JV, Segura-Orenga G, Urchueguia-Schölzel JF
      Abstract: Lerma-Arce V, Oliver-Villanueva JV, Segura-Orenga G, Urchueguia-Schölzel JFCOMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE HARVESTING SYSTEMS FOR SELECTIVE THINNING IN A MEDITERRANEAN PINE AFFORESTATION (PINUS HALEPENSIS MILL.) FOR BIOENERGY USEAbstract: Due to a continuous abandonment of marginal agricultural land, Mediterranean pine forests are growing both in biomass stock and area but remain mainly unmanaged. Pinus halepensis is one of the main pioneer species with strong expansion throughout the Mediterranean basin. In mature forests and pole stands, selective thinnings aimed to eliminate dominated and dead trees are necessary to improve the resilience and persistence of these forest ecosystems. Bioenergy market provides an opportunity to mobilise this woody material, helping to prevent and reduce wildfires in a context of climate change and energy transition. Despite the existing expertise on wood harvesting, there is a lack of practical knowledge about cost-effective methods for bioenergy use of selective thinnings in such forests. The objective of this study was to compare thinning harvesting methods in representative 63-year-old Pinus halepensis afforestation in pole stage for bioenergy uses, following the silvicultural treatments defined in the Spanish forest management plan. Time studies were performed over six representative plots in Navalón (Spain). Treatments included three plots with the traditional stem wood method combined with the logging of forest residues (integrated system), and three plots with the whole tree chipping (whole tree system). Time, productivity and fuel consumption were recorded for both systems. A woodchip quality assessment of each assortment was performed in the laboratory according to European standards. The results obtained demonstrated that time consumption and productivity were similar between the integrated harvesting system and the whole tree system. Regarding the total energy balance, it should be noted that both systems produce woodchips that contain over ten times more energy than that required to mobilise and process the obtained biomass. Fuel consumption, costs and degree of damage were slightly higher in the whole tree system due to the more intensive forwarding operation. The two assortments of woodchips in the integrated system had a higher (chipped log material) and lower quality (chipped crown material) than whole tree woodchips. In conclusion, integrated harvesting is a better option to diminish fuel consumption, cost and environmental impact, and also to obtain better quality woodchips for the production of added value biofuels (pellets).Keywords: Pinus halepensis, Selective Thinnings, Bioenergy Harvesting, Logging Residues, Woodchips, Net Energy Efficiency, Whole-tree BiomassiForest 14 (5): 465-472 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3636-014'id=ifor3636-014
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3636-014
  • Research Articles: Abundance and impact of egg parasitoids on the pine
           processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Bulgaria

    • Authors: Mirchev P; Georgiev G, Georgieva M, Markoff I, Zaemdzhikova G, Matova M
      Abstract: Mirchev P, Georgiev G, Georgieva M, Markoff I, Zaemdzhikova G, Matova MABUNDANCE AND IMPACT OF EGG PARASITOIDS ON THE PINE PROCESSIONARY MOTH (THAUMETOPOEA PITYOCAMPA) IN BULGARIAAbstract: We collected 2297 egg batches of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) during the period 1991-2018 from 44 sites in Bulgaria. The sampling sites were classified into three groups according to T. pityocampa phenological form (early, late and both forms) as well as in two groups of its range (historical and newly colonized areas). Seven primary egg parasitoids were identified: Ooencyrtus pityocampae, Baryscapus servadeii, Pediobius bruchicida, Anastatus bifasciatus, Eupelmus (Macroneura) vesicularis, Eupelmus (Macroneura) vladimiri and Trichogramma sp., and one hyperparasitoid, Baryscapus transversalis. The average impact of egg parasitoids (the percentage of parasitized host eggs) on T. pityocampa in Bulgaria was 13.8%. The two main parasitoids, O. pityocampae and B. servadeii, parasitized about 90% of the host eggs. The remaining parasitoids were of insignificant consequence to the parasitism of the T. pityocampa eggs, but in areas recently colonized by the pest, A. bifasciatus and Trichogramma sp. had a noticeable share (up to 33% of the impact). In old habitats of the host (areas colonized more than 10 years), the impact was almost two times higher than in new ones (15.3% vs. 8.6%). This could be attributed to B. servadeii, which was rare in newly colonized areas of T. pityocampa (impact 0.5%), but strongly dominant in old habitats (impact 7.2%). In contrast, O. pityocampae had a significant impact in new habitats (4.9%), which increased only slightly over time, reaching 6.0% in old habitats. There was no significant difference between the percentage of parasitism of the early and late form of the pine processionary moth (14.8% vs. 15.9%). However, there was a significant difference in the share of separate species in the parasitoid complex: in the early form, B. servadeii definitely dominated (63% of the infested eggs), while in the late form O. pityocampae dominated, although not so strongly (52% of the infested eggs). This difference is most likely due to the phenological characteristics of the parasitoids and the two forms of T. pityocampa. B. transversalis secondarily infested about 5% of the eggs of O. pityocampae and B. servadeii. This percentage was slightly lower for new habitats and habitats of the early form of pine processionary moth (3% and 4%, respectively). The impacts of the main parasitoids O. pityocampae and B. servadeii as well as the total impact of the parasitoid complex as a whole decreased with altitude. Conversely, the impacts of A. bifasciatus and Trichogramma sp. slightly increased with altitude probably due to the reduced competition of the main parasitoids.Keywords: Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Distribution, Habitats, Expansion, Phenological Forms, Egg Parasitism, BulgariaiForest 14 (5): 456-464 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3538-014'id=ifor3538-014
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3538-014
  • Research Articles: Daily prediction modeling of forest fire ignition using
           meteorological drought indices in the Mexican highlands

    • Authors: Vilchis-Francés AY; Díaz-Delgado C, Becerril Piña R, Mastachi Loza CA, Gómez-Albores M&, Bâ KM
      Abstract: Vilchis-Francés AY, Díaz-Delgado C, Becerril Piña R, Mastachi Loza CA, Gómez-Albores M&, Bâ KMDAILY PREDICTION MODELING OF FOREST FIRE IGNITION USING METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHT INDICES IN THE MEXICAN HIGHLANDSAbstract: We analyzed the behavior of forest fires for daily prediction purposes in one of the regions with the highest fire incidence in Mexico. The main objective was to build logistic regression models (LRMs) for daily prediction of forest fire ignition based on meteorological drought indices. We built 252 LRMs for seven types of vegetation cover of greater representativeness and interest for the study area. Three dynamic variables were considered to estimate daily dryness in combustible fuels based on the effective drought index and the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index. Additionally, two weather data sources were included in drought indices: conventional weather stations (CWS) and automatic weather stations (AWS). Prediction efficiency assessment for LRMs was done through the relative operating characteristic (ROC) and model precision efficiency (MPE). The results show that LRMs using data from CWS performed relatively better than those based on data from AWS, as the former data sources have higher spatial density and thus generate predictions with higher accuracy (ROC ≥ 0.700, MPE ≥ 0.934). For both data sources, the use of standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index as a fuel dryness estimator is recommended, as it reflects an atmospheric moisture balance between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ROC ≥ 0.734, MPE = 1). Such predictive models can be used as inputs in early warning systems for forest fire prevention or mitigation.Keywords: Logistic Regression, Effective Drought Index, Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, Conventional Weather Stations, Automatic Weather StationsiForest 14 (5): 437-446 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3623-014'id=ifor3623-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3623-014
  • Research Articles: Using nano-scale Fe0 particles and organic waste to
           improve the nutritional status of tree seedlings growing in heavy
           metal-contaminated soil

    • Authors: Tafazoli M; Hojjati SM, Biparva P, Kooch Y, Lamersdorf N
      Abstract: Tafazoli M, Hojjati SM, Biparva P, Kooch Y, Lamersdorf NUSING NANO-SCALE FE0 PARTICLES AND ORGANIC WASTE TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF TREE SEEDLINGS GROWING IN HEAVY METAL-CONTAMINATED SOILAbstract: The rehabilitation of heavy metal-contaminated lands is a challenging issue worldwide. The application of effective eco-friendly techniques and materials is necessary for amending the contaminated soils, and the in-situ results should be examined. The present study investigated the effect of zero-valent iron-nanoparticles (Fe0-NPs) and cellulosic wastes (CW) on the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) uptake and nutrients’ (N, P, K) concentration of maple seedlings in contaminated soil. First, one-year-old seedlings were planted in pots containing unpolluted soil (volume = 3 Kg), and then the soil was contaminated by adding Pb (0, Pb100, Pb200, and Pb300 mg kg-1) and Cd (0, Cd10, Cd20, and Cd30 mg kg-1) solutions. The CW (0, 10, 20, 30 g/100g soil) and Fe0-NPs (0, 1, 2, 3 mg kg-1) treatments were applied to the soil before and after Pb and Cd addition, respectively. The biomass of seedlings and the concentration of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus in leaves were measured. Leaves, stems, and roots were digested to measure the Pb and Cd concentrations. Results showed that CW and Fe0-NPs improved N, P, and K concentrations in leaves at all levels of contamination. The lowest concentration of Pb and Cd in all organs and treatments was observed in the highest level of Fe0-NPs. The cellulosic waste and Fe0-NPs (the highest level only) significantly increased the soil pH at all levels of contamination. Our findings suggested that the use of Fe0-NPs (3 mg kg-1) and CW (30g/100g soil) could be appropriate for reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Cd in contaminated soil and improving the growth of maple seedlings.Keywords: Soil Amendments, Zero-valent Iron, Heavy Metal Immobilization, Forest RehabilitationiForest 14 (5): 447-455 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3821-014'id=ifor3821-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3821-014
  • Research Articles: A multisource approach helps to detect a forest as a
           reference site in an intensively used rural landscape (Uckermark, NE

    • Authors: Wulf M; Kaiser K, Mrotzek A, Geiges-Erzgräber L, Schulz L, Stockmann I, Schneider T, Kappler C, Bens O
      Abstract: Wulf M, Kaiser K, Mrotzek A, Geiges-Erzgräber L, Schulz L, Stockmann I, Schneider T, Kappler C, Bens OA MULTISOURCE APPROACH HELPS TO DETECT A FOREST AS A REFERENCE SITE IN AN INTENSIVELY USED RURAL LANDSCAPE (UCKERMARK, NE GERMANY)Abstract: The sharp decline in seminatural areas worldwide is undisputed, but the consequences of this decline, apart from the loss of biodiversity, cannot be fully assessed. To restore ecosystems or landscapes, it is essential to have so-called reference sites. We want to show how reliable reference sites can be found in heavily used landscapes with the help of independent sources, and we present an approach that can be used in other regions, because it is very well suited for developing essential databases in the context of theses at different levels. A forest of seminatural stocking was selected in northeast Germany as a case study. The mapping of archival sources and the analyses of historical maps as well as field investigations were combined to reconstruct the dynamics of vegetation and soil for the last several centuries to thousands of years. Palynological data from nearby sites show that the study area has been forested for several millennia and has been less influenced by humans in the last 450 years. Together with historical maps of tree species composition, it allows to infer that the specific forest has been preserved in good ecological conditions for at least 250 years. Soil inventory and field studies on two catenas and corings support this conclusion, as they rarely show signs of anthropogenic erosion and related colluviation. Using a multisource approach, it is possible to identify potential reference sites that provide a reliable basis for ecosystem or landscape restoration.Keywords: Ancient Forest, Geo-bio-archives, Historic Maps, Land Use Legacy, Pollen Analysis, Reference SiteiForest 14 (5): 426-436 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3774-014'id=ifor3774-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3774-014
  • Research Articles: Forest management with carbon scenarios in the central
           region of Mexico

    • Authors: Ramírez-Martínez A; González-Guillén MDJ, De Los Santos-Posadas HM, Ángeles-Pérez G, Santiago-García W
      Abstract: Ramírez-Martínez A, González-Guillén MDJ, De Los Santos-Posadas HM, Ángeles-Pérez G, Santiago-García WFOREST MANAGEMENT WITH CARBON SCENARIOS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF MEXICOAbstract: The search for mechanisms to mitigate global warming has generated a series of proposals to reduce deforestation and promote conservation of forests as carbon stocks through financial or in-kind support. However, the economic implications of including carbon sequestration in forest for timber production have not been dealt with in depth, and the conditions in which combined production might be a profitable option to forest owners, particularly in Mexico, are unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify carbon sequestration in a central region of Mexico and evaluate the profitability of selling carbon credits as well as timber products. Data and information used comes from three inventories (2013, 2014 and 2016) taken in 160 permanent sampling plots of 400 m2 each; forest management costs per hectare were obtained through interviews to the landowners, and the profitability was assessed using the economic indicators Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Return Rate (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), and Land Expected Value (LEV). The results indicate that, in areas of low productivity, carbon sequestration is profitable only at a low discount rate (3.5%) and a high price of the ton CO2e (USD 100 ha-1 year-1). However, under combined production, the optimal rotation periods are longer, depending on the discount rate and price of sequestered carbon. Therefore, timber production will continue to be the main economic activity, until the rules of operation of the different mechanisms created for carbon sequestration become more flexible and the carbon markets offer more attractive incentives.Keywords: Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration, Productivity, Financial Profitability, Optimal RotationiForest 14 (5): 413-420 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3630-014'id=ifor3630-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-15
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3630-014
  • Short Communications: Competition effects and economic scenarios in an
           agroforestry system with cereal crops and wood plantations: a case study
           in the Po Valley (Italy)

    • Authors: Rosso L; Cantamessa S, Chiarabaglio PM, Coaloa D
      Abstract: Rosso L, Cantamessa S, Chiarabaglio PM, Coaloa DCOMPETITION EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM WITH CEREAL CROPS AND WOOD PLANTATIONS: A CASE STUDY IN THE PO VALLEY (ITALY)Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the economic feasibility of agroforestry management in temperate latitudes. The surveys carried out in 1971 by Prevosto on the yields of wheat and rice combined with poplars was revised with updated prices to assess whether an agroforestry system can positively influence farm incomes. Based on Prevosto’s dataset, four scenarios were simulated with poplar clone I-214, assuming four different positions of the poplar row (along the field borders, towards the cardinal points) and the relative shadows. The results show that the agroforestry system is economically advantageous, especially for wheat, and is directly related to wood price. The achievable benefits could be more significant with political and financial support that promotes these practices, taking into account the fundamental ecosystem services they provide.Keywords: Agroforestry, Poplar, Cereal Crop, Shading Effect, Tree Row Orientation, Economic Evaluation, Threshold Area ConvenienceiForest 14 (5): 421-425 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3842-014'id=ifor3842-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-15
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3842-014
  • Short Communications: Is microbial biomass measurement by the chloroform
           fumigation extraction method biased by experimental addition of N and

    • Authors: Mori T; Wang S, Wang C, Mo J, Zhang W
      Abstract: Mori T, Wang S, Wang C, Mo J, Zhang WIS MICROBIAL BIOMASS MEASUREMENT BY THE CHLOROFORM FUMIGATION EXTRACTION METHOD BIASED BY EXPERIMENTAL ADDITION OF N AND P'Abstract: The chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) method determines microbial biomass carbon (MBC) or nitrogen (MBN) by calculating the increase in extractable carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) due to microbial lysis during chloroform fumigation. In China, many studies have focused on the impacts of N and phosphorus (P) addition on soil MBC and MBN in forest ecosystems, where substantial atmospheric N deposition has strongly acidified soils. The addition of nutrients may alter the extraction process applied in the CFE method, potentially influencing the MBC and MBN determined by the CFE method independently of the actual microbial biomass. In this study, we tested whether the MBC and MBN determined by the CFE method were biased by the experimental addition of N and P in strongly acidified Chinese forest soils by adding N and P to the soils immediately before chloroform fumigation, which should not affect the actual microbial biomass. P addition significantly elevated the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, especially after fumigation, while N addition significantly reduced the dissolved nitrogen (DN) content. The added N was subtracted using blank samples without soil. However, the altered DOC and DN contents did not affect the MBC and MBN contents determined by the CFE method. In conclusion, our study suggests that the CFE is a relatively robust method to test the impacts of nutrient addition on microbial biomass in the strongly acidified soils of Chinese forests. We also suggested that: (i) even if a fertilization experiment results in an elevated DOC content following P addition, it does not necessarily indicate a stimulation of DOC production by microbes; and (ii) the soil adsorption capacity or the strength of microbial N uptake during the extraction procedure applied in the CFE method may affect the determination of MBN by influencing the DN extraction efficiency.Keywords: Chloroform Fumigation Extraction, Microbial Biomass, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Soil, Tropical ForestiForest 14 (5): 408-412 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3374-014'id=ifor3374-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-04
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3374-014
  • Research Articles: Cryptogamic epiphytes and microhabitat diversity on
           non-native green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Oleaceae) in urban

    • Authors: Dittrich S; Thiem E, Albrecht BM, von Oheimb G
      Abstract: Dittrich S, Thiem E, Albrecht BM, von Oheimb GCRYPTOGAMIC EPIPHYTES AND MICROHABITAT DIVERSITY ON NON-NATIVE GREEN ASH (FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANICA MARSH., OLEACEAE) IN URBAN HABITATSAbstract: With the increased planting of non-native trees within urban environments there is a need for investigating the impacts they may have on the indigenous biodiversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes as well as the tree-related microhabitats on planted, non-native green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica and compared it to that of indigenous Fraxinus excelsior and Quercus robur. We conducted sampling on trees of similar growing conditions and size within two cities of eastern Germany (Dresden and Dessau-Roßlau). In our analysis we did not find any significant differences in epiphyte diversity and abundance. By contrast, microhabitat diversity was significantly higher on F. pennsylvanica than on the indigenous tree species, which we attribute to the pioneer character of F. pennsylvanica with faster ageing. Our results underline a low impact of F. pennsylvanica on epiphytic lichen and bryophyte diversity, while indigenous animals might even benefit from the higher diversity and frequency of microhabitats on trees of this species. Therefore, its use as an ornamental tree should not be generally rejected in urban environments.Keywords: Alien Trees, Bryophytes, Invasiveness, LichensiForest 14 (5): 393-399 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3739-014'id=ifor3739-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3739-014
  • Research Articles: Characterization of technological properties of
           matá-matá wood (Eschweilera coriacea [DC.] S.A. Mori, E. odora Poepp.
           [Miers] and E. truncata A.C. Sm.) by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Nascimento CSD; Nascimento CCD, Araújo RDD, Soares JCR, Higuchi N
      Abstract: Nascimento CSD, Nascimento CCD, Araújo RDD, Soares JCR, Higuchi NCHARACTERIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MATá-MATá WOOD (ESCHWEILERA CORIACEA [DC.] S.A. MORI, E. ODORA POEPP. [MIERS] AND E. TRUNCATA A.C. SM.) BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPYAbstract: The aim of this study was to determine the technological properties (chemical, mechanical and physical) of Eschweilera sp. woods using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIR spectroscopy proved to be efficient for chemical analysis (extractives, lignin and carbohydrates) and physical-mechanical testing (moisture content, basic density - BD, modulus of elasticity - MOE and modulus of rupture - MOR) of wood, providing a powerful tool for use in sustainable forest management activities in the Amazon. Wood samples from three trees of each Eschweilera species were collected from the Experimental Station of Tropical Forestry/INPA/Brazil. Specimens were extracted from the cross-sectional area (20 × 20 × 30 mm) in the direction sapwood-heartwood. NIR spectra (4.000-10.000 cm-1) were then obtained from the samples (moisture 12%) using Fourier-transform spectrometry. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression prediction models for the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of Amazonian woods were used for quantification. The results for total extractives (both in toluene and ethanol) and hot water solubility showed a maximum extractive concentration of 7.66% and 3.13% for E. odora (yellow matá-matá), including several compounds with low molecular weight, such as resins, gums, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. The highest concentration of phenolic substances (tannins) was found in E. Truncata (black matá-matá, 10.00%). The macrocomponents (primary metabolism) of Eschweilera species were in the range of 44.20-46.33% for cellulose and 28.89-31.21% for lignin. Mineral compounds (ash) were quantified in concentrations < 0.70%. The predictive results for the physical and mechanical properties of matá-matá wood are in the standard range for tropical woods. The higher calorific value (HCV) varied from 4.993-5.033 cal g-1 and the BD from 0.78-0.88 g m-3. Regarding moisture, the highest content was observed in E. truncata (13.46%). Values for mechanical resistance were in the range of 14,253-17,447 MPa for MOE and 146.04-175.73 MPa for MOR, with the greatest strength attributed to E. truncata wood. The values obtained for the wood technological properties of E. coriacea (white matá-matá), E. odora (yellow matá-matá) and E. truncata (black matá-matá) were compatible with those obtained by destructive determination of tropical species and also for other species of the genus Eschweilera.Keywords: Eschweilera, Amazonian Woods, Wood Chemistry, Physico-mechanical Properties, NIR Spectroscopy, Forest ManagementiForest 14 (5): 400-407 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3748-014'id=ifor3748-014
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3748-014
  • Research Articles: Long-term dynamics of stand structure and regeneration
           in high-stocked selection fir-beech forest stand: Croatian Dinarides case

    • Authors: Cavlović J; Teslak K, Beljan K, Vedriš M, Andabaka M
      Abstract: Cavlović J, Teslak K, Beljan K, Vedriš M, Andabaka MLONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF STAND STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION IN HIGH-STOCKED SELECTION FIR-BEECH FOREST STAND: CROATIAN DINARIDES CASE STUDYAbstract: In recent decades, changes in stand structure in Central European fir-beech forests, such as accumulation of large-diameter firs, fir dieback, and poor regeneration, have been well documented. Besides environmental factors, light harvesting was suggested as one of the main drivers of the negative structural dynamics of these forests in Croatia. This study applied the MOSES 3.0 stand simulator on permanent sample plot data to reconstruct stand development over the past 20 years and simulate long-term projections of selection stand structure and regeneration with respect to theoretical values, using three management regimes differing by the applied harvesting intensity (traditionally applied, theoretical intensity, and no management). Sample plot data from three sets of detailed measurements (1992, 2002, and 2012) were used for validation of the simulator, and eleven 10-year cycles of management were then simulated under the above management scenarios. Results showed a positive influence of harvest intensity on stand regeneration and the achievement of a targeted selection structure in the long term. Two management scenarios predicted a decrease in stand volume (34% and 40%, respectively), an increase in the initial percentage (28%) of beech and maple (58% and 75%, respectively), and the achievement of optimal stand regeneration of 11-13 recruited trees per hectare annually (60% firs). No management scenario could achieve old-growth structure (accumulation of standing stock, large trees, and deadwood). The theoretical intensity scenario was evaluated as the better approach to be applied in this type of forest stands in Croatia.Keywords: Selection Harvest, Stand Growth Simulator, Development of DBH Distribution, Tree Species Composition, Natural Regeneration, Old-growth StructureiForest 14 (4): 383-392 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3638-014'id=ifor3638-014
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3638-014
  • Short Communications: Evidence of Alectoris chukar (Aves, Galliformes) as
           seed dispersal and germinating agent for Pistacia khinjuk in Balochistan,

    • Authors: Essa M; Ziauddin Z, Khan MA, Imran M, Saeed AE
      Abstract: Essa M, Ziauddin Z, Khan MA, Imran M, Saeed AEEVIDENCE OF ALECTORIS CHUKAR (AVES, GALLIFORMES) AS SEED DISPERSAL AND GERMINATING AGENT FOR PISTACIA KHINJUK IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTANAbstract: Seed dispersal is a key process for the distribution of wild fruit plants in forests and/or rangeland. The ecological role of Alectoris chukar as a seed dispersal agent was hardly known to date, though its diet consists of herbs, shrubs, and fleshy fruits of wild plants. Here we report the first evidence of seed dispersal and germination of wild pistachio plant (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks) favored by Alectoris chukar from the district Killa Saifullah and Pishin in Balochistan, Pakistan. Fecal droppings of Alectoris chukar were collected by a suitable sampling method from August to September 2020. Fecal droppings were kept in plastic bags, and later washed thoroughly, identified, and counted for Pistacia khinjuk seeds, which have a characteristic rounded and tough seed coat easily distinguishable from other seeds. Out of a total of 840 fecal samples collected, 557 were identified as Pistacia khinjuk seeds. A comparative germination trial was carried out for pistachio seeds both from Alectoris chukar fecal droppings and manually collected from mother trees in the forest. After passing through the chukar gut, the seeds were still viable and showed a faster germination rate as compared with seeds collected from mother trees and directly sown in the soil. The results revealed that Alectoris chukar is an important spreading and germinating agent for seeds of pistachio plants in suitable habitats and could contribute in the long term to modify the ground vegetation of (sub)arid regions depending on its dietary preferences.Keywords: Alectoris chukar, Balochistan, Fecal Dropping, Pistacia khinjuk, Seed Dispersal, Seed GerminationiForest 14 (4): 378-382 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3691-014'id=ifor3691-014
      PubDate: 2021-08-22
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3691-014
  • Research Articles: Temporal patterns control carbon balance in forest and
           agricultural tropical peatlands in North Selangor, Malaysia

    • Authors: Vijayanathan J; Ishak MF, Parlan I, Omar H, Osumanu Haruna A, Lion M, Hassan MG, Jong RM, Samah AKA
      Abstract: Vijayanathan J, Ishak MF, Parlan I, Omar H, Osumanu Haruna A, Lion M, Hassan MG, Jong RM, Samah AKATEMPORAL PATTERNS CONTROL CARBON BALANCE IN FOREST AND AGRICULTURAL TROPICAL PEATLANDS IN NORTH SELANGOR, MALAYSIAAbstract: Tropical peat swamp forests can sequester significant amount of carbon (C). However, there is dearth of understanding on the tropical soils’ C stocks and emissions because of the changes in peatland use, land use policies, and micro-climate. The objective of this study was to determine the C stocks and fluxes of two peat swamp forests and a peatland under mixed cropping in Selangor, Malaysia. Standard procedures were used to determine aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, selected peat soil physical, chemical, and biological properties, and environmental variables that are related to peat soil respirations. The mean C stocks for the peat swamp forest and mixed cropping sites were 1788.79 Mg C ha-1 and 1023.57 Mg C ha-1, respectively. The carbon dioxide emission rates of peat swamp forest and mixed cropping sites ranged from 7.20 to 73.13 tCO2 ha-1 year-1 and 26.50 to 43.43 tCO2 ha-1 year-1, respectively. These emissions are related to seasonal changes because the relative humidity, soil temperature, and ground water of the experimental sites had significant effects on soil respiration. Unlike the mixed cropping sites, the fluxes of the peat swamp forest were significantly higher in the dry season compared with the wet season. These findings suggest that peat soil respiration is controlled by relative humidity, temperature, and the changes in ground water table. Continued monitoring and conservation efforts to preserve stored C in peatlands are essential.Keywords: Peat Characteristics, Carbon Storage, Carbon Dioxide Fluxes, Cash Crop Cultivation, Seasonal VariationsiForest 14 (4): 362-369 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3700-014'id=ifor3700-014
      PubDate: 2021-08-10
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3700-014
  • Research Articles: Short-term effects in canopy gap area on the recovery
           of compacted soil caused by forest harvesting in old-growth Oriental beech
           (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands

    • Authors: Jourgholami M; Feghhi J, Tavankar F, Latterini F, Venanzi R, Picchio R
      Abstract: Jourgholami M, Feghhi J, Tavankar F, Latterini F, Venanzi R, Picchio RSHORT-TERM EFFECTS IN CANOPY GAP AREA ON THE RECOVERY OF COMPACTED SOIL CAUSED BY FOREST HARVESTING IN OLD-GROWTH ORIENTAL BEECH (FAGUS ORIENTALIS LIPSKY) STANDSAbstract: Natural treefall gaps have a substantial role in maintaining soil and plant diversity in old-growth forests. However, the amount of information on the effects of gaps on the recovery of physical and chemical properties of compacted soils is scarce. We tested the hypothesis that natural treefall gaps accelerate the restoration of compacted soil by enhancing biological and microbial activity in the topsoil after a period of five years. Five years after a ground-based skidding operation in the Hyrcanian forest, the recovery levels of soil properties were compared among different treatments including natural canopy gaps with an area of 200 m2 (NCG), clear-cuts with an area of 1600 m2 (CC), disturbed trails under a dense canopy (DDC), and an undisturbed area (UND) as control. The lowest soil bulk density (1.07 g cm-3), penetration resistance (1.11 MPa), and the highest macroporosity (36.3%), and sand content (14.4%) among treatments were recorded for the NCG followed by DDC and CC treatments. Significantly lower values of soil pH, and electric conductivity and the highest values of soil organic C, total N, available P, K, Ca, and Mg were detected under the NCG followed by the DDC and CC treatments, as compared to the UND area. The highest values of earthworm density and dry mass, and soil microbial respiration were found in the NCG followed by the DDC and CC treatments. Fine root biomass was significantly higher in the UND area (92.27 g m-2) followed by the DDC, NCG and CC treatments. We can conclude that the effects of gap size on the recovery values of compacted soil were significant in terms of greater nutrient availability and higher earthworm density and dry mass, suggesting that mimicking natural canopy gap was more effective than the clear-cut gap (CC) for the resilience of the forest stand in the restoration of soil quality.Keywords: Canopy Gap Area, Timber Extraction, Skid Trails, Soil Compaction, Forest Soil Recovery, Earthworm, Hyrcanian ForestiForest 14 (4): 370-377 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3432-014'id=ifor3432-014
      PubDate: 2021-08-10
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3432-014
  • Research Articles: A geographically weighted deep neural network model for
           research on the spatial distribution of the down dead wood volume in
           Liangshui National Nature Reserve (China)

    • Authors: Sun Y; Ao Z, Jia W, Chen Y, Xu K
      Abstract: Sun Y, Ao Z, Jia W, Chen Y, Xu KA GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED DEEP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL FOR RESEARCH ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE DOWN DEAD WOOD VOLUME IN LIANGSHUI NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE (CHINA)Abstract: In natural forest ecosystems, there is often abundant down dead wood (DDW) due to wind disasters, which greatly changes the size and structure of forests. Accurately determining the DDW volume (DDWV) is crucial for sustaining forest management, predicting the dynamic changes in forest resources and assessing the risks of natural disasters or disturbances. However, existing models cannot accurately express the significant spatial nonstationarity or complexity in their spatial relationships. To this end, we established a geographically weighted deep neural network (GWDNN) model that constructs a spatially weighted neural network (SWNN) through geographic location data and builds a neural network through stand factors and remote sensing factors to improve the interpretability of the spatial model of DDWV. To verify the effectiveness of this method, using 2019 data from Liangshui National Nature Reserve, we compared model fit, predictive ability and residual spatial autocorrelation among the GWDNN model and four other spatial models: an ordinary least squares (OLS) model, a linear mixed model (LMM), a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and a deep neural network (DNN) model. The experimental results show that the GWDNN model is far superior to the other four models according to various indicators; the coefficient of determination R2, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Moran’s I and Z-statistic values of the GWDNN model were 0.95, 1.05, 0.77, -0.01 and -0.06, respectively. In addition, compared with the other models, the GWDNN model can more accurately depict local spatial variations and details of the DDWV in Liangshui National Nature Reserve.Keywords: Down Dead Wood Volume (DDWV), Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Model, Linear Mixed Model (LMM), Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Model, Deep Neural Network (DNN) Model, Geographically Weighted Deep Neural Network (GWDNN) ModeliForest 14 (4): 353-361 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3705-014'id=ifor3705-014
      PubDate: 2021-07-27
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3705-014
  • Research Articles: Method for the analysis of the relationship between
           forest cover and streamflow in watersheds

    • Authors: Ferraz FT; Zanetti SS, Cecílio RA, De Carvalho D, De Oliveira FR
      Abstract: Ferraz FT, Zanetti SS, Cecílio RA, De Carvalho D, De Oliveira FRMETHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREST COVER AND STREAMFLOW IN WATERSHEDSAbstract: The relationship between forest cover and streamflow of watersheds is complex and still controversial in the scientific literature. To investigate suchrelationship we propose an alternative method which requires the following information for each watershed: percentage of forest cover, annual rainfall, average specific streamflow (qave), and minimum mean specific streamflow in seven consecutive days (q7). As a case study, we analyzed a dataset composed by 25 watersheds located in the Espírito Santo State (ESS), Brazil. We conducted simple and multiple linear regression analyses as well as partial correlation analysis between the above parameters. To reduce the effect of heterogeneity of environmental factors, watersheds with similar characteristics in term of rainfall, drainage area, and both rainfall and drainage area were grouped by cluster analysis, and the above regression and correlation analysis was repeated on each group. Our results using the whole dataset showed that forest cover has a negative relationship with watershed streamflow. The analysis of homogeneous groups of watersheds showed that the average minimum streamflow during seven days (q7) was more sensitive to the presence of forest cover, showing a negative relationship, especially in watersheds with low annual rainfall, while in areas with high precipitation, the annual rainfall showed a strong influence on the hydrological responses of watersheds, masking the effect of forest cover. The proposed method may be easily extended to other areas, and allowsthe inclusion of other relevant environmental variables according to specific cases.Keywords: Forests, Cluster Analysis, Water Regime, Land Use, Watershed ManagementiForest 14 (4): 344-352 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3536-014'id=ifor3536-014
      PubDate: 2021-07-21
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3536-014
  • Research Articles: Response of Chinese sea buckthorn clonal growth and
           photosynthetic physiological mechanisms toward a soil moisture gradient

    • Authors: Bai S; Nie K, Ji S, Chen S, Yao Z, Li G, Tang C, Guo F
      Abstract: Bai S, Nie K, Ji S, Chen S, Yao Z, Li G, Tang C, Guo FRESPONSE OF CHINESE SEA BUCKTHORN CLONAL GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS TOWARD A SOIL MOISTURE GRADIENTAbstract: Studies have reported on the regulation of clonal growth in Chinese sea buckthorn in response to environmental resource availability, but these studies have been limited to external mechanisms. In this report, we controlled irrigation to generate a soil moisture gradient in order to examine the photosynthetic physiological mechanisms regulating clonal growth in this species. The results indicated that as irrigation intensity increased, the soil water content increased vertically and tissue water content first increased and then decreased. Furthermore, Rubisco activase (RCA) and Mg-chelatase H subunit (CHLH) gene expression levels, photosynthetic capacity (net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance), and clonal growth (ramet growth, clonal proliferation, clonal propagation) all showed a quadratic parabolic change (i.e., first increasing and then decreasing). In addition, gene expression levels and tissue water content, photosynthetic capacity and gene expression levels, and clonal growth and photosynthetic capacity were all significantly positively correlated. When irrigation intensity (soil water content) is exceedingly low or high, the tissue water content is also low, RCA and CHLH gene expression levels are low, photosynthetic capacity is weak, clonal growth ability is inhibited, and clonal growth layout tends toward the “guerrilla type.” This type manifests as fewer and smaller clonal daughter ramets that are sparsely distributed with reduced clonal organ extension ability and branching intensity. When irrigation intensity (soil water content) is moderate, the tissue water content, gene expression levels, and photosynthetic capacity is high, clonal growth ability is completely uninhibited, and the clonal growth layout tends toward the “aggregated type.” This type is associated with numerous large clonal daughter ramets that are densely distributed with high clonal organ extension ability and branching intensity. Therefore, as irrigation intensity continuously changes from inordinately low to moderate to exceedingly high, Chinese sea buckthorn regulates clonal growth by photosynthetic capacity through photosynthetic gene expression. This results in a clonal growth layout continuum of “guerrilla-aggregated-guerrilla” that depends on irrigation intensity.Keywords: Clonal Growth, Irrigation Intensity, Tissue Water Content, Photosynthetic Genes, RCA and CHLH Gene Expression, Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis, Mu Us Sandy LandiForest 14 (4): 337-343 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3564-014'id=ifor3564-014
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3564-014
  • Research Articles: Potential relationships of selected abiotic variables,
           chemical elements and stand characteristics with soil organic carbon in
           spruce and beech stands

    • Authors: Horváth M; Bečvárová PH, Šarapatka B, Vencálek O, Zouhar V
      Abstract: Horváth M, Bečvárová PH, Šarapatka B, Vencálek O, Zouhar VPOTENTIAL RELATIONSHIPS OF SELECTED ABIOTIC VARIABLES, CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND STAND CHARACTERISTICS WITH SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN SPRUCE AND BEECH STANDSAbstract: Increasing attention is given to carbon sequestration in forest soil with regard to climate change and the mitigation of its impacts; therefore, it is very important to know which parameters and variables could influence carbon sequestration and throw light on their relationships. The aim of this study is to assess the role of abiotic variables, chemical elements and stand parameters in soil carbon sequestration, and clarify which of these could affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the surface mineral horizon in Norway spruce and European beech stands in Czech Republic. We analyzed 81 monitoring plots within pure and mixed stands of spruce and beech with different degrees of forest naturalness. In each monitoring plot, SOC content, chemical elements (content of bound forms of oxides: tFe, tAl, tCa, tMg, tK, tMn, tP, tN) and related variables (BS, pH, C/N) were measured. The effect of these variables, including abiotic variables (elevation, temperature, precipitation, duration of growing season and soil group) on SOC content was tested, and differences between represented stands (natural vs. unnatural, pure vs. mixed, spruce vs. beech) were analyzed. The results showed that elevation has a positive relationship to SOC content. Of the studied chemical elements and related variables, only tN content was significantly related to SOC content. A positive relationship was also demonstrated between forest naturalness and SOC content. The highest SOC and tN contents were observed in pure natural Norway spruce stands, which likely play a very important role in SOC sequestration. In the context of the current issue of unnatural Norway spruce stands in the Czech Republic, a higher SOC content was found in mixed natural European beech stands than in either pure or mixed unnatural Norway spruce stands. Therefore, replacing the unnatural Norway spruce stands in the study area with mixed natural European beech stands could represent a viable alternative to current forest management in terms of soil carbon sequestration, especially in the context of global climate change and spruce dieback.Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), Carbon Sequestration, Forest Soil, Norway Spruce, European Beech, Chemical ElementsiForest 14 (4): 320-328 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3654-014'id=ifor3654-014
      PubDate: 2021-07-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3654-014
  • Research Articles: Study on the chemical composition of teak wood extracts
           in different organic solvents

    • Authors: Colbu DE; Sandu I, Vasilache V, Earar K, Paraschiv ED, Sandu IG, Iliescu Bulgaru D, Sandu AV
      Abstract: Colbu DE, Sandu I, Vasilache V, Earar K, Paraschiv ED, Sandu IG, Iliescu Bulgaru D, Sandu AVSTUDY ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TEAK WOOD EXTRACTS IN DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOLVENTSAbstract: Teak wood (Tectona grandis Linn F.) is known for its high natural resistance to attack by microorganisms. For this reason, teak wood is used for restoration works. This paper provides an assessment of the extraction capacity of various organic solvents and the chemical and physical-structural characteristics of extracts of teak wood with an age of 40 years. On the basis of literature data, we selected the solvents with potential synergetic activity in preservation treatments. For this purpose we used the SEM-EDX and GC+MS methods, assisted by computerized processing software, and corroborated the data obtained from these two instrumental techniques.Keywords: Teak Wood, Composition, Organic Solvents, Extracts, SEM-EDX, GC+MSiForest 14 (4): 329-336 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3717-014'id=ifor3717-014
      PubDate: 2021-07-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3717-014
  • Research Articles: Growth and physiological acclimation to shade in young
           plants of Adesmia bijuga Phil., a critically endangered species in central

    • Authors: Yáñez MA; Gómez P, Gajardo J, Espinoza S
      Abstract: Yáñez MA, Gómez P, Gajardo J, Espinoza SGROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACCLIMATION TO SHADE IN YOUNG PLANTS OF ADESMIA BIJUGA PHIL., A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES IN CENTRAL CHILEAbstract: Adesmia bijuga Phil. is an endemic and endangered shrub species of central Chile. Its potential shade intolerance is one of the leading hypotheses for its vigor loss when the species grows beneath closed canopies. The objective of this study was to assess the growth and physiological acclimation to the shade of young plants of A. bijuga. A nursery experiment was established with three light levels based on the interception of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (TRT0: control at full sun; TRT60: 60% shaded; TRT90: 90% shaded), and maintained for 71 days during the summer season. Growth and leaf morpho-physiological responses were evaluated at the beginning, at the middle, and at the end of the experiment. The shading treatment increased plant height (H), live crown percentage (Lcrown), and specific leaf area (SLA) compared to the control treatment at full sun. However, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Amax), dark respiration rate (Rd), and light compensation point (Γi) were higher in TRT60 than in the other treatments, while no differences were found among treatments for the apparent quantum yield (α). At this stage of plant development, our results suggest high acclimation plasticity of A. bijuga to light levels; however, a semi-shade environment (i.e., TRT60) favored a better performance of the species.Keywords: Adesmia bijuga, Shade Tolerance, Photosynthesis, Light Acclimation, Forest RestorationiForest 14 (4): 307-312 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3640-014'id=ifor3640-014
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3640-014
  • Research Articles: Improving dimensional stability of Populus cathayana
           wood by suberin monomers with heat treatment

    • Authors: Zhang R; Ma E
      Abstract: Zhang R, Ma EIMPROVING DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF POPULUS CATHAYANA WOOD BY SUBERIN MONOMERS WITH HEAT TREATMENTAbstract: This paper presents a wood modification method using renewable and non-toxic suberin monomers (SMs) under heat treatment to improve dimensional stability of wood from fast-growing species. Specimens of poplar (Populus cathayana) wood were impregnated with SMs and then subjected to heat treatment at 180°C for two hours. The untreated wood (Control), suberin monomers impregnated wood (Sub) and suberin monomers impregnated wood with heat treatment (Sub 180°C) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hygroscopicity and dimensional stability of modified wood were evaluated. The results showed that SMs in the treated wood were located in the cell lumen of fibers and vessels, as well as in the cell wall which was bulked. The dimensional stability of SMs modified wood was improved, and this enhancement became more pronounced by a combination with heat treatment. The anti-swelling efficiency of Sub and Sub 180°C treatments were 30.0% and 49.6%, respectively. The presented results showed potential of SMs treatment to develop an effective modification approach and improve dimensional stability of wood of fast-growing species, as well as to promote the reuse of suberin from the bark.Keywords: Poplar, Wood Modification, Suberin, Dimensional Stability, Heat TreatmentiForest 14 (4): 313-319 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3684-014'id=ifor3684-014
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3684-014
  • Research Articles: Could cattle ranching and soybean cultivation be
           sustainable' A systematic review and a meta-analysis for the Amazon

    • Authors: da Silveira Bueno R; Marchetti L, Cocozza C, Marchetti M, Salbitano F
      Abstract: da Silveira Bueno R, Marchetti L, Cocozza C, Marchetti M, Salbitano FCOULD CATTLE RANCHING AND SOYBEAN CULTIVATION BE SUSTAINABLE' A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND A META-ANALYSIS FOR THE AMAZONAbstract: Tropical forests are being destroyed to make space for agricultural activities with the assumption that they are required to feed the growing global population. Consequently, more sustainable practices are needed to guarantee food security and environmental protection of highly threatened natural biodiversity hotspots like the Amazon rainforest. Cattle ranching and soybean cultivation are by far the greater drivers of land use change and deforestation in the Amazon region. We performed a systematic review of papers related to these two main drivers and a meta-analysis on the effects of sustainable practices on different ecosystem services. The results of the review highlight a large concern about the negative impacts of cattle ranching and soybean crops on the ecosystem dynamics and functionality of the Amazon biome, in addition to the clear relationship with deforestation. Another relevant finding is the large gap in empirical research concerning the effects of sustainable practices on different ecosystem services. Such a gap is evident since only 13 studies from the initial database met the requirements for a meta-analysis. Of the 171 comparisons between the ecosystem services provided in conventional land-uses and those adopting sustainable practices, the overall model indicated a non-significant effect, although the results were heterogeneous. Crop yield and herbage biomass were negatively affected, while livestock productivity, soil organic carbon, soil fertility and woody biomass were positively affected. Also, the six sustainable practices evaluated showed different outcomes, from a predominance of positive effects in silvopastoral systems, to a predominance of negative effects on agrosilvicultural systems. Our systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that cattle ranching and soybean cultivation can indeed be conducted in a more sustainable way, enhancing the provision of ecosystem services while avoiding deforestation. In turn, our results also highlight the lack of empirical data and the need to standardize the methodologies used to deeply assess the effects of such practices. In conclusion, we suggest a way to advance research into the real effects of sustainable practices aimed at reducing the negative impacts of cattle ranching and soybean crops in the Amazon.Keywords: Tropical Forest, Agroforestry, Ecosystem Services, Silvopastoral Systems, Sustainable Practices, Cattle, SoybeaniForest 14 (3): 285-298 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3779-014'id=ifor3779-014
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3779-014
  • Research Articles: Age and thinning effects on elemental composition of
           Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata needles

    • Authors: Gómez-Rey MX; Couto-Vázquez A, González-Prieto SJ
      Abstract: Gómez-Rey MX, Couto-Vázquez A, González-Prieto SJAGE AND THINNING EFFECTS ON ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF PINUS PINASTER AND PINUS RADIATA NEEDLESAbstract: The information about the impacts of thinning on the availability of micro-nutrients, as well as macro-nutrients other than N, P and K, is still scarce. We assessed the changes in the concentrations of 12 elements (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P and Zn) with needle age (current year or 1-year-old) and three early thinning treatments in two of the most widely distributed pines in SW Europe: P. pinaster and P. radiata. Four treatments were setup in triplicate: control (C), light thinning (LT), heavy thinning (HT) and selection thinning of dominant trees (ST), with 0%, 10%, 20% and 20% of total basal area removed, respectively. Needle δ15N varied little with needle age and most thinning treatments in both species, but ST triggered an increase of N in P. pinaster needles. Needle Ca and Na increased with age, but were unaffected by treatment. Foliar K, Zn and Cu decreased with age in both species and increased with ST only in P. pinaster. Jointly considering all treatments, there was no needle age effect on Mn concentration, neither in P. radiata nor in P. pinaster, but in the latter species Mn levels increased with age in the selection thinning plots. There were significant thinning effects on Mn levels in both P. pinaster (ST>C) and P. radiata (HT> LT, ST). Foliar Fe and Al concentration increased with age in both pines; the former increased with ST only in P. pinaster while the latter was affected by thinning only in current year needles and without a clear tendency. Neither age nor treatment effects on needle Mg and B were found, while for P needle age had a significant effect only in P. pinaster.Keywords: Leaves, Macro-nutrient, Micro-nutrient, Management, PinesiForest 14 (3): 299-306 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3575-014'id=ifor3575-014
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3575-014
  • Research Articles: Validation of visual and machine strength grading for
           Italian beech with additional sampling

    • Authors: Brunetti M; Aminti G, Nocetti M, Russo G
      Abstract: Brunetti M, Aminti G, Nocetti M, Russo GVALIDATION OF VISUAL AND MACHINE STRENGTH GRADING FOR ITALIAN BEECH WITH ADDITIONAL SAMPLINGAbstract: The typical variability of wood properties, higher than for other construction materials, requires a thorough knowledge of its mechanical performance. To make the use of wooden structural products safe and at the same time efficient, a proven methodology for the selection of the raw material is also crucial. As a general rule, the initial sampling is of vital importance to develop effective strength grading processes, but it is rarely verified with additional samples, besides those already included during the development of the grading procedure itself. Here, a new source of sawn timber was collected to verify the original sampling and to validate the visual and machine strength grading early developed for Italian beech. The new pieces were graded, destructively tested and the characteristic values of the graded material were calculated. The dispersion of the new data was found to be entirely included in that of the original data, proving an effective sampling of the resource variability. The correlations between properties were very similar comparing the original and the new sample, with the exception of the correlations between the dynamic modulus of elasticity and both bending strength and stiffness, which were lower in the new sample. The characteristic values of the graded new material were generally higher than the characteristics values of the corresponding strength classes as tabled in the technical standard. Only for one grade in the machine grading the strength reached 98.9% the class value, anyhow above the 90% required by the procedure of the checking of existing settings in a particular location, as provided by the related standard. In conclusion, the earlier development of the strength grading of Italian beech confirmed to be correct and safe.Keywords: Hardwood, Visual Grading, Machine Grading, Structural TimberiForest 14 (3): 260-267 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3649-014'id=ifor3649-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-29
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3649-014
  • Research Articles: Thermo-modified native black poplar (Populus nigra L.)
           wood as an insulation material

    • Authors: Todaro L; Liuzzi S, Pantaleo AM, Lo Giudice V, Moretti N, Stefanizzi P
      Abstract: Todaro L, Liuzzi S, Pantaleo AM, Lo Giudice V, Moretti N, Stefanizzi PTHERMO-MODIFIED NATIVE BLACK POPLAR (POPULUS NIGRA L.) WOOD AS AN INSULATION MATERIALAbstract: Extensive research projects have been carried out on thermal modification of wood material, yet thermal properties of thermally modified poplar wood have not been comprehensively investigated. Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a Eurasian species native to Italy which is rarely used for the production of high-performance products, though it is one of the least expensive hardwoods on the market. To explore alternative applications of poplar wood such as building facade or fire resistance materials, reliable data of thermal behaviour of thermally modified wood at high temperatures are needed. In this work, the thermal behaviour of native black poplar wood after thermal modification at different temperatures (180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C) was analyzed. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and porosity were measured on poplar wood boards, as well as mass loss and wood color changes after heat treatment were quantified. Thermal conductivity of wood samples showed significant changes after treatment at 200 and 220 °C, but not at 180 °C. Wood porosity showed significant differences with the control when the samples were modified at a temperature of 220 °C. Increasing color differences were observed in wood samples by increasing the thermal modification temperature. Also, the mass loss of wood samples increased and equilibrium moisture content significantly dropped down after thermal modification. Our results showed that the use of thermally-modified black poplar wood could be considered as a viable alternative to chemically treated wood products for specific applications where high insulation is needed, such as saunas or windows, and for façades elements.Keywords: Thermal Modification, Poplar, Insulation, Thermal PropertiesiForest 14 (3): 268-273 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3710-014'id=ifor3710-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-29
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3710-014
  • Research Articles: Hardness and contact angle of thermo-treated poplar
           plywood for bio-building

    • Authors: Zanuttini R; Negro F, Cremonini C
      Abstract: Zanuttini R, Negro F, Cremonini CHARDNESS AND CONTACT ANGLE OF THERMO-TREATED POPLAR PLYWOOD FOR BIO-BUILDINGAbstract: The interest towards poplar cultivation and its wood has recently been growing in Italy, where the use of timber and wood-based materials in construction is increasing as well. Poplar plywood, with a national production of around 270.000 m3 in 2017, is a key product for the Italian wood sector, and currently is destined for several applications as component for furniture and motorhomes. Previous research has shown that thermal treatment can be effectively applied to poplar plywood in order to make it suitable to the requirements of new end-uses. The present study aims to widen the knowledge of the effects of thermal treatment on poplar plywood. With this purpose, 7-layered, 12-mm thick plywood bonded with urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) resin was thermally treated for 2 h at 170, 190 and 210 °C through the Termovuoto® process. The treatment aimed to improve the dimensional stability and durability against fungal decay. The process was set at lower temperature and shorter time than those of many thermal treatments commonly used in practice in order to limit the reduction in mechanical properties and to maintain an adequate bonding quality. The above properties were already verified by previous research, whereas in this study Brinell hardness and contact angle of treated panels were investigated as relevant for several end-uses that can be prospected in building and in outdoor environments. Brinell hardness decreased from 10.8 to 8.3 N mm-2 and contact angle increased from 75.8° to 103.6°. Overall, treatment at 190 °C seems the most suitable to induce balanced modifications in the panels. From a technical point of view, these appear ready to enter the market, for instance for use in exterior claddings, partitions and outdoor flooring.Keywords: Brinell Hardness, Contact Angle, Plywood, Poplar, Thermo-treatmentiForest 14 (3): 274-277 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3662-014'id=ifor3662-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-29
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3662-014
  • Research Articles: Estimation of forest leaf area index using satellite
           multispectral and synthetic aperture radar data in Iran

    • Authors: Vafaei S; Fathizadeh O, Puletti N, Fadaei H, Baqer Rasooli S, Vaglio Laurin G
      Abstract: Vafaei S, Fathizadeh O, Puletti N, Fadaei H, Baqer Rasooli S, Vaglio Laurin GESTIMATION OF FOREST LEAF AREA INDEX USING SATELLITE MULTISPECTRAL AND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA IN IRANAbstract: Different satellite datasets, including multispectral Sentinel 2 and synthetic aperture radar Sentinel 1 and ALOS2, were tested to estimate the Leaf Area Index (LAI) in the Zagros forests, Ilam province, in Iran. Field data were collected in 61 sample plots by hemispherical photographs, to train and validate the LAI estimation models. Different satellite data combinations were used as input in regression models built with the following algorithms: Multiple Linear Regression, Random Forests, and Partial Least Square Regression. The results indicate that Leaf Area Index can be best estimated using integrated ALOS2 and Sentinel 2 data; these inputs generated the model with higher accuracy (R2 = 0.84). The combination of a single band and a vegetation index from Sentinel 2 also led to successful results (R2 = 0.81). Lower accuracy was obtained when using only ALOS 2 (R2 = 0.72), but this dataset is helpful where cloud coverage affects optical data. Sentinel 1 data was not useful for LAI prediction. The optimal model was based on the traditional Multiple Linear Regression algorithm, using a preliminary input selection step to exclude multicollinearity effects. To avoid this step, the use of Partial Least Square Regression may be an alternative, as this algorithm was able to produce estimates similar to those obtained with the best model.Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Sentinel 2, ALOS 2, Forest MonitoringiForest 14 (3): 278-284 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3633-014'id=ifor3633-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-29
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3633-014
  • Research Articles: Intra-annual tree growth responds to
           micrometeorological variability in the central Amazon

    • Authors: Antezana-Vera SA; Marenco RA
      Abstract: Antezana-Vera SA, Marenco RAINTRA-ANNUAL TREE GROWTH RESPONDS TO MICROMETEOROLOGICAL VARIABILITY IN THE CENTRAL AMAZONAbstract: Intra-annual distribution of precipitation in central Amazonia leads to a short mild dry season, which is associated with an increase in irradiance and temperature and a decline in relative humidity; however, the independent effect of each individual climatic variable on tree growth is still under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine how tree growth (inferred from radial stem increment) responds to monthly variations of micrometeorological variables in the central Amazon. During five years (2013-2017) we measured tree growth in 51 trees from nine species and, above the forest canopy, collected environmental data, such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature (T), precipitation, air relative humidity (RH), air vapor pressure deficit (VPD), reference evapotranspiration (ETo), and soil water content (SWC). We used principal component regression to evaluate the effect of micrometeorological variability on tree growth. Mean tree growth across species was responsive to variations in almost all the micrometeorological variables examined, with the exception of mean and minimum temperature, maximum RH, and minimum VPD. Mean tree growth across species increased with increasing precipitation, RHmean, RHmin and SWC, while it decreased with increasing PAR, Tmax, and ETo. It was also shown that an increase in VPDmean and VPDmax has a negative effect on tree growth. These results contribute to improve our understanding of effect of climate variability on tree growth, and shed light on the potential effect of severe droughts in the central Amazon.Keywords: Atmospheric Evaporative Demand, Tropical Rainforest, Wood DensityiForest 14 (3): 242-249 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3532-014'id=ifor3532-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-21
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3532-014
  • Research Articles: Factors affecting the quantity and type of tree-related
           microhabitats in Mediterranean mountain forests of high nature value

    • Authors: Marziliano PA; Antonucci S, Tognetti R, Marchetti M, Chirici G, Corona P, Lombardi F
      Abstract: Marziliano PA, Antonucci S, Tognetti R, Marchetti M, Chirici G, Corona P, Lombardi FFACTORS AFFECTING THE QUANTITY AND TYPE OF TREE-RELATED MICROHABITATS IN MEDITERRANEAN MOUNTAIN FORESTS OF HIGH NATURE VALUEAbstract: Tree-related microhabitats (hereafter TreMs) are structures occurring on trees, such as rot holes, cavities, large nests, mould, fruiting bodies and mycelia of decomposer fungi. TreMs have been widely recognized as important substrates and structures useful for biodiversity conservation in forest ecosystems, and they can be used as indicators for describing and monitoring forest naturalness. However, most studies on the occurrence of TreMs have been mainly done in forest ecosystems of Central Europe, while less research has been conducted in Mediterranean mountain forests. In this study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of 23 types of TreMs on living trees and on deadwood in seven Mediterranean mountains unmanaged forests located in the Apennines (Italy). The abundance of TreMs was evaluated by counting the number of TreMs per tree, while the diversity of TreMs was evaluated by means of the Shannon-Wiener index. We focused on the relationships between diversity and abundance of TreMs, and tree size (e.g., diameter, height, volume), and the time since the last harvest. Among the investigated stands, 2612 living trees, 457 standing dead trees and snags, and 1247 lying deadwood pieces were analysed. For living trees, a generalized linear mixed model was applied to test the effect of several variables on the abundance of TreMs per tree. Diameter at breast height (DBH) of tree stems influenced the abundance and diversity of TreMs. The time since the last harvest also significantly affected the probability that TreMs could be formed in a long-term perspective. The interaction of the predictors “DBH2” and “Years since the last harvest” generated a better model than the one in which the two variables were kept separate. Indeed, these two factors together would better represent the transition of a previously managed forest to a more natural state over time. This study might provide useful information to land managers committed to forestry practices towards sustainable management and biodiversity conservation, especially referring to survey and inventory of forests of high nature value.Keywords: Biodiversity Indicators, Forest Structure, Old-growth Forests, Tree Microhabitats, Woody DebrisiForest 14 (3): 250-259 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3568-014'id=ifor3568-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-21
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3568-014
  • Research Articles: Are Mediterranean forest ecosystems under the threat of
           invasive species Solanum elaeagnifolium'

    • Authors: Formozis G; Tsakaldimi M, Ganatsas P
      Abstract: Formozis G, Tsakaldimi M, Ganatsas PARE MEDITERRANEAN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS UNDER THE THREAT OF INVASIVE SPECIES SOLANUM ELAEAGNIFOLIUM'Abstract: Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. is one of the most invasive plant species worldwide that colonizes crops and human disturbed lands, while it appears at the edge of forest ecosystems. Its control still remains an unsolved problem around the world. Understanding its distribution under predicted climate change, could contribute to an effective management and conservation of ecosystems in the future. This research was conducted in order to investigate the capacity of this species to invade Mediterranean forest ecosystems, and if the allelopathy effects of forest tree species could control its regeneration, thus contributing to a natural and biological management practice aimed to prevent the species from pervading into Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Results showed that S. elaeagnifolium can establish itself outside and along the forest edges, but not in a typical forest environment. The leaf extracts of Pinus brutia, Cupressus sempervirens, Quercus coccifera and Quercus pubescens significantly inhibited the germination of S. elaeagnifolium. Root regenerative ability of the cuttings was also significantly affected by the leaf extract treatments. P. brutia leaf extract had significantly the highest inhibitory activity on root regenerative ability of the species. Despite the promising findings of this study, absence of S. elaeagnifolium in Mediterranean forest ecosystems can be attributed to a combination of factors. In the context of climate change, especially in hot and dry Mediterranean areas, and the expected increase of forest disturbances (e.g., fires), the findings of the study could contribute towards the restriction of this invasive alien species by an appropriate management of forest ecosystems.Keywords: Alien Species, Allelopathy, Forest Conservation, Plant Invasion, Weed ControliForest 14 (3): 236-241 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3706-014'id=ifor3706-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-10
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3706-014
  • Commentaries & Perspectives: JRC study on harvested forest area:
           resolving key misunderstandings

    • Authors: Grassi G; Cescatti A, Ceccherini G
      Abstract: Grassi G, Cescatti A, Ceccherini GJRC STUDY ON HARVESTED FOREST AREA: RESOLVING KEY MISUNDERSTANDINGSAbstract: A recent study on forest harvest in the EU (Ceccherini et al. 2020) reported a strong increase in clear-cut harvested area in recent years, based on remote sensing information. This triggered a heated debate and many critical comments. Apart from several fair and constructive criticisms, which were welcome, we found that some comments have been either not based on evidence or affected by serious misunderstandings. Here we clarify some technical aspects that were omitted or misrepresented in the public debate. Overall, the original study used in a scientifically correct way the best information available at that time. After the study was published, a previously undocumented inconsistency in the time series emerged in the original dataset used. After correcting for this inconsistency, updated results confirm an increase in clear-cut harvested area, but not as abrupt as originally reported. Contrary to what many critics say, this information should be seen as complementing and not necessarily contradicting country statistics, because the latter typically refer to total harvest (including thinning, etc.) and not clear-cut only. Finally, it should not be overlooked that the main aim of the original study was to offer a vision for integrating satellite data into the monitoring of forest resources. This was achieved: the JRC study showed the potential (and limitations) for high-resolution satellite maps to track the temporal evolution of clear-cut forest harvest in EU.Keywords: Harvested Forest Area, Remote Sensed Datasets, Global Forest Change (GFC), High-Resolution Satellite MapsiForest 14 (3): 231-235 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor0059-014'id=ifor0059-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-07
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor0059-014
  • Research Articles: Is there an effect of storage depth on the persistence
           of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.)
           seeds' A seed burial experiment

    • Authors: Tiebel K; Huth F, Wagner S
      Abstract: Tiebel K, Huth F, Wagner SIS THERE AN EFFECT OF STORAGE DEPTH ON THE PERSISTENCE OF SILVER BIRCH (BETULA PENDULA ROTH) AND ROWAN (SORBUS AUCUPARIA L.) SEEDS' A SEED BURIAL EXPERIMENTAbstract: Sorbus aucuparia L. (rowan) and Betula spp. (birch) are the most common of the early successional pioneer tree species in central Europe with the ability to form a soil seed bank. Little is known about the reasons for the high variations observed in the persistence in the soil of rowan and birch seeds. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of buried birch and rowan seeds to form short-term persistent soil seed banks and to analyse the influence of burial depth on seed persistence. An artificial seed burial experiment was initiated to study the persistence of birch seeds and rowan seeds, with and without pulp, stored at depths of 2, 5 and 10 cm in mineral soil over 2.5 years. The predicted maximum storability periods for buried birch seeds was 13 years, compared to 4.5 years for rowan seeds with pulp and 3.5 years without pulp. The lower storage capacity of rowan seeds was demonstrated by germinations in the darkness within soil of 3-22% of seeds without pulp and 4-48% of seeds with pulp. Germination percentages of birch and rowan with and without pulp did not differ between depths. Only burial duration had an effect for either tree species. Birch and rowan seeds are able to form short-term persistent soil seed banks. Birch accumulates a seed reserve in the soil over time, until a change in conditions conducive to germination occurs, while rowan seeds germinate promptly after overcoming seed dormancy. The pulp provides no benefits in relation to the persistence of rowan seeds; rather, it appears to act as a physical inhibitor of germination. Therefore, annual input of fresh seeds is required for the success of rowan. Seed input every few years seems sufficient to guarantee a minimum number of viable birch seeds.Keywords: Soil, Propagule Bank, Seed Longevity, Germination Within Soil, Pioneer Trees, DormancyiForest 14 (3): 224-230 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3685-014'id=ifor3685-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3685-014
  • Editorials: Obituary: Ervedo Giordano, silviculturalist and forest
           ecologist from the Mediterranean, open to the world and to international

    • Authors: Scarascia Mugnozza G
      Abstract: Scarascia Mugnozza GOBITUARY: ERVEDO GIORDANO, SILVICULTURALIST AND FOREST ECOLOGIST FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN, OPEN TO THE WORLD AND TO INTERNATIONAL FORESTRYAbstract: Ervedo Giordano passed away in Rome on April 24, 2021. This note describes some of his major scientific contributions to research in silviculture and forest ecology, and sketches out the remarkable personality and character traits that he displayed throughout his life.Keywords: Silviculture, Forest Ecology, Mediterranean Forests, ItalyiForest 14 (3): 221-223 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor0060-014'id=ifor0060-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor0060-014
  • Research Articles: Determination of differences in temperature regimes on
           healthy and bark-beetle colonised spruce trees using a handheld thermal

    • Authors: Majdák A; Jakuš R, Blaženec M
      Abstract: Majdák A, Jakuš R, Blaženec MDETERMINATION OF DIFFERENCES IN TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON HEALTHY AND BARK-BEETLE COLONISED SPRUCE TREES USING A HANDHELD THERMAL CAMERAAbstract: In this study, we compared the daily temperature regimes of healthy uninfected trees in the interior of a forest stand and at the fresh forest edge with infested trees at the forest edge in an area affected by a bark beetle outbreak. We estimated the potential of a handheld thermal camera for early identification of bark-beetle infested trees. We show that infested trees have significantly higher trunk temperatures than uninfested trees, which is more visible on the shine side of the trunk, and we report the differences in temperature between the shine and shadow sides. The differences are more noticeable on a warm, bright, and sunny day than on cold and cloudy day. The different intensity of solar radiation does not affect the distinction between infested and uninfested trees. The handheld thermal camera shows potential for identifying bark-beetle infested trees by scanning tree trunks on bright sunny days.Keywords: Bark-beetle Infested Trees, Handheld Thermal Camera, Incoming Solar Radiation, Norway Spruce, Solar Radiation Modelling, Temperature DifferencesiForest 14 (3): 203-211 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3531-014'id=ifor3531-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-02
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3531-014
  • Research Articles: Density, extractives and decay resistance variabilities
           within branch wood from four agroforestry hardwood species

    • Authors: Terrasse F; Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Guibal D, Pignolet L, Candelier K
      Abstract: Terrasse F, Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Guibal D, Pignolet L, Candelier KDENSITY, EXTRACTIVES AND DECAY RESISTANCE VARIABILITIES WITHIN BRANCH WOOD FROM FOUR AGROFORESTRY HARDWOOD SPECIESAbstract: Agroforestry practices like pruning trees to control the light flux to crops produce every year a large volume of branches which is valorized by farmers as mulching or energy fuel. However, according to the literature, the wood of branches shows higher rates of polyphenols than stem wood and this can open some new perspectives for branch exploitation. In this study, the wood properties (density, mechanical properties, extractive content and decay resistance) were determined on branches of different sizes from oak, chestnut, poplar and walnut trees collected in two agroforestry systems. These properties were evaluated according to the wood age and the sampling position along the radial and longitudinal axes of the branch. All samples were analyzed by NIR-Spectroscopy and a predicting model aimed to assess the branch wood properties has been developed. Wood characteristics largely vary between species and do not exactly follow the same trends from one species to another. Overall, hardwood density of branches is similar to that of trunks, the content in wood extractives follows similar evolutions, and the decay resistance of branch wood does not seem to be really impacted by its position along the branch. Reliable NIRS models were built to easily predict the wood density and extractives content of agroforestry branches. The extractives content and the decay resistance of branch hardwood appear to be substantially lower than those of trunks, which suggests a non-suitability of branch wood for developing high-valued green chemistry.Keywords: Agroforestry, Branches, NIR-Spectrometry, Wood QualityiForest 14 (3): 212-220 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3693-014'id=ifor3693-014
      PubDate: 2021-05-02
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3693-014
  • Research Articles: Mid-rotation fertilization and liming of Pinus taeda:
           growth, litter, fine root mass, and elemental composition

    • Authors: Adam WM; Rodrigues VDS, Magri E, Motta ACV, Prior SA, Moraes Zambon L, Lima RLD
      Abstract: Adam WM, Rodrigues VDS, Magri E, Motta ACV, Prior SA, Moraes Zambon L, Lima RLDMID-ROTATION FERTILIZATION AND LIMING OF PINUS TAEDA: GROWTH, LITTER, FINE ROOT MASS, AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITIONAbstract: Forest floor litter can influence biogeochemical cycling and root growth in Pinus taeda systems, especially on low soil fertility sites. The impact of fertilization and liming on forest floor litter (quantity, elemental composition and root presence) was evaluated in a Pinus taeda stand in southern Brazil. A nutrient omission experiment was initiated in November 2008 on an 11 year-old Pinus taeda plantation. The experiment was a randomized block design with seven treatments and four blocks. The treatments were: complete (macro + micro + lime); minus macronutrients; minus micronutrients; minus K; minus Zn; minus lime; and control. In 2012, forest floor litter samples were collected, divided by layer (new litter, old litter, coarse fragmented forest layer> 2mm, fine fragment forest floor < 2mm, and fine roots) and analyzed for concentrations of Na, Al, and total nutrients. Results indicated that lime increased Ca and Mg concentrations, reduced Al toxicity, and improved fine root growth. An increase in fine roots was observed in treatments without K. There were large increases in Fe and Al as a function of litter age and increased Mn in fragmented litter when lime was applied. There was little variation in forest floor litter accumulation in all treatments. Elemental abundance was C>N>Fe>P>Ca>K>Mg>Mn under control conditions and C>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>K for the complete treatment. Occurrence of needle chlorosis, similar to that reported for Mg, and low growth under lime omission indicate that Mg was a major factor limiting growth. Fertilization and liming affected the bio-cycling of nutrients, Al toxicity, and root growth.Keywords: Nutrient Concentration, Litter, Ca:Al Ratio, Forest ManagementiForest 14 (2): 195-202 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3626-014'id=ifor3626-014
      PubDate: 2021-04-24
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3626-014
  • Research Articles: Developing stand transpiration model relating canopy
           conductance to stand sapwood area in a Korean pine plantation

    • Authors: Park J; Cho S, Moon M, Ryu D, Kim HS
      Abstract: Park J, Cho S, Moon M, Ryu D, Kim HSDEVELOPING STAND TRANSPIRATION MODEL RELATING CANOPY CONDUCTANCE TO STAND SAPWOOD AREA IN A KOREAN PINE PLANTATIONAbstract: With increasing concern for forest water use and anthropogenic alteration of forest structures, understanding the effects of structural changes in forests on transpiration is important. Our aim is to develop a stand transpiration model relating canopy conductance with stand sapwood area (SA) and environmental conditions for assessing the interannual variation in stand transpiration. The stand transpiration model is developed based on multiplicative empirical Gc estimations at eight Korean pine stands with different SAs. The model integrated the response of stomatal conductance to various environmental variables as vapor pressure deficit (D), photosynthetic active radiation (Q), air temperature (Ta), and soil water content (θ). The reference Gc (Gc at D=1kPa) and stomatal sensitivity to D was found to have a significant relationship with the SA, whereas other parameters like stomatal sensitivity to Q or Ta did not show significant relationships with it. The Gc model successfully reproduced changes in stand transpiration with changes in SA and climatic conditions. As this model uses SA, a simple and easily measurable structural variable, it can be easily applied to other Korean pine forests and can help estimate the spatial and temporal variations in stand transpiration.Keywords: Sapwood Area, Canopy Conductance, Stand Transpiration, Empirical ModeliForest 14 (2): 186-194 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3291-014'id=ifor3291-014
      PubDate: 2021-04-14
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3291-014
  • Research Articles: The impact of land use on future water balance - A
           simple approach for analysing climate change effects

    • Authors: Herceg A; Kalicz P, Gribovszki Z
      Abstract: Herceg A, Kalicz P, Gribovszki ZTHE IMPACT OF LAND USE ON FUTURE WATER BALANCE - A SIMPLE APPROACH FOR ANALYSING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTSAbstract: Regional climate change projections for Europe agree in predicting a statistically significant warming in all seasons. The most significant climate change effect is its impact on water cycle through altering precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration processes at multiple scales. The anticipated changes in the distribution and precipitation amounts together with continuously increasing temperatures may induce a higher rate of water consumption in plants, which can generate changes in soil moisture, groundwater, and the water cycle. Thus, climate change can cause changes in the water balance equations structure. A Thornthwaite-type monthly step water balance model was established to compare the water balance in three different surface land cover types: (i) a natural forested area; (ii) a parcel with mixed surface cover; (iii) an agricultural area. The key parameter of the model is the water storage capacity of the soil. Maximal rooting depth of the given area is also determinable during the calibration process using actual evapotranspiration (AET) and soil physical data. The locally calibrated model was employed for assessing future AET and soil moisture of selected land cover types using data from four bias-corrected regional climate models. The projections demonstrate increasing actual evapotranspiration values in each surface cover type at the end of the 21st century. Regarding the 10th percentile minimum soil moisture values, the forested area displayed an increasing trend, while the agricultural field and mixed parcel showed a strong decrease. The 30-year monthly means of evapotranspiration shows the maximum values in June and July, while the minimum soil moisture in September. Water stress analysis indicates water stress is expected to occur only in the agricultural field during the 21st century. The comparison of the three surface covers reveals that forest has the greatest soil water storage capacity due to the highest rooting depth. Thus, according to the projections for 21st century, less water stress is predicted to occur at the forested area compared to the other two surface covers which shows shallow rooting depth.Keywords: Water Balance, Climate Change, Plant Available Water, Evapotranspiration, Soil Moisture, Water StressiForest 14 (2): 175-185 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3540-014'id=ifor3540-014
      PubDate: 2021-04-13
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3540-014
  • Review Papers: Perspectives of plantation forests in the sustainable
           forest development of China

    • Authors: Farooq TH; Shakoor A, Wu X, Li Y, Rashid MHU, Zhang X, Gilani MM, Kumar U, Chen X, Yan W
      Abstract: Farooq TH, Shakoor A, Wu X, Li Y, Rashid MHU, Zhang X, Gilani MM, Kumar U, Chen X, Yan WPERSPECTIVES OF PLANTATION FORESTS IN THE SUSTAINABLE FOREST DEVELOPMENT OF CHINAAbstract: Modern forestry is gradually moving towards man-made forests on a large scale. Plantations with advanced forestry system have been introduced with the goal of sustainable forestry development and to enhance social, ecological, and economic benefits. Forest plantations with native and exotic species have been established in China and worldwide with shorter rotation cycles than natural forests. In this paper, we discuss the role and perspectives of plantation forests in the Chinese sustainable forest development, the evolution of various plantation programs, the ecological effects of plantations, and the measures to improve plantation forestry. The Chinese government has given substantial importance to nurturing plantation forest resources through various large scale afforestation programs. In 2019, the total area covered by plantations in China reached 79.54 million ha, with a stock volume of 3.39 billion m³ (59.30 m³ per ha); coniferous forests (26.11 million ha, 32.83%) and broad-leaved forests (26.45 million ha, 33.25%) are the dominant types. Plantations have been primarily distributed in the central and southern parts of the country. Plantations with fast-growing and high-yielding tree species facilitated Chinese afforestation activities and improved the administration of forest production, which effectively boosted the forest industry. Plantation forest resources offer many potential productive, economic, and social advantages, though they are also associated with a loss of biodiversity and climate change makes them likely susceptible to disease and insect attack. Appropriate forest management practices during planning, execution, and maintenance of plantations can contribute to the conservation, promotion, and restoration of biodiversity, with the final aim of attaining a balance between having forest plantations and natural forests.Keywords: Chinese Fir, Poplar, Eucalyptus, National Forest Inventories of China, Ecological ImplicationsiForest 14 (2): 166-174 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3551-014'id=ifor3551-014
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3551-014
  • Research Articles: Contrasted growth response of hybrid larch (Larix ×
           marschlinsii), jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca)
           to wood ash application in northwestern Quebec, Canada

    • Authors: Bélanger N; Palma Ponce G, Brais S
      Abstract: Bélanger N, Palma Ponce G, Brais SCONTRASTED GROWTH RESPONSE OF HYBRID LARCH (LARIX × MARSCHLINSII), JACK PINE (PINUS BANKSIANA) AND WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA) TO WOOD ASH APPLICATION IN NORTHWESTERN QUEBEC, CANADAAbstract: The use of wood ash as a soil amendment in afforestation and reforestation efforts is increasing. While most studies suggest benefits or neutral results on tree growth and survival, a few studies indicate adverse effects. Hybrid larch, jack pine and white spruce were studied at three northwestern Quebec plantation sites after they received wood ash at two application rates. Soil chemical properties, foliar nutrients and seedling growth and mortality were monitored over a period of eight years. The response of soil to ash application was mostly observed in the forest floor and was more pronounced in year 3 than year 8, likely due to the acidifying nature of the boreal soils studied. Jack pine growth increased linearly with wood ash application rates, white spruce growth showed an inconsistent and delayed positive response under the higher application rate, and hybrid larch growth and survival were either increased or decreased under the lower application rate depending of site but decreased at all sites under the higher application rate. The divergence in growth response between tree species underlines a trade-off between species with rapid acquisition of resources (e.g., pine, larch) to species that use more conservative strategies and store nutrients in their tissues for longer periods (e.g., spruce). In the case of hybrid larch, it accumulated larger amounts of Mn in its needles under the higher application rate and thus, the high bioavailability of Mn appears to have been detrimental to its survival and growth. Its higher sensitivity to Mn addition from ash is likely due to its highly acquisitive (nutrients) nature compared to other coniferous species as well as the initial levels of available Mn levels in the soil. The contrasted growth responses reported here under similar growing conditions highlight the importance of identifying suitable species, sites and application rates to maximize the benefits of wood ash amendments for future tree plantations in the boreal forest.Keywords: Wood Ash, Fertilization, Boreal Forest, Soil Properties, Foliar Nutrition, Tree GrowthiForest 14 (2): 155-165 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3597-014'id=ifor3597-014
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3597-014
  • Research Articles: Are we ready for a National Forest Information
           System' State of the art of forest maps and airborne laser scanning
           data availability in Italy

    • Authors: D’Amico G; Vangi E, Francini S, Giannetti F, Nicolaci A, Travaglini D, Massai L, Giambastiani Y, Terranova C, Chirici G
      Abstract: D’Amico G, Vangi E, Francini S, Giannetti F, Nicolaci A, Travaglini D, Massai L, Giambastiani Y, Terranova C, Chirici GARE WE READY FOR A NATIONAL FOREST INFORMATION SYSTEM' STATE OF THE ART OF FOREST MAPS AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA AVAILABILITY IN ITALYAbstract: Forest planning, forest management, and forest policy require updated, reliable, and harmonized spatial datasets. In Italy a national geographic Forest Information System (FIS) designed to store and facilitate the access and analysis of spatial datasets is still missing. Among the different information layers which are useful to start populating a FIS, two are essential for their multiple use in the assessment of forest resources: (i) forest mapping, and (ii) data from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS). Both layers are not available wall-to-wall for Italy, though different local sources of information potentially useful for their implementation already exist. The objectives of this work were to: (i) review forest maps and ALS data availability in Italy; (ii) develop for the first time a high resolution forest mask of Italy which was validated against the official statistics of the Italian National Forest Inventory; (iii) develop the first mosaic of all the main ALS data available in Italy producing a consistent Canopy Height Model (CHM). An on-line geographic FIS with free access to both layers from (ii) and (iii) was developed for demonstration purposes. The total area of forest and other wooded lands computed from the forest mask was 102.608.82 km2 (34% of the Italian territory), i.e., 1.9% less than the NFI benchmark estimate. This map is currently the best wall-to-wall forest mask available for Italy. We showed that only the 63% of the Italian territory (the 60% of the forest area) is covered by ALS data. These results highlight the urgent need for a national strategy to complete the availability of forest data in Italy.Keywords: National Datasets, Forest Inventory, Forest Monitoring, Forest Mask, Airborne Laser Scanning, LiDARiForest 14 (2): 144-154 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3648-014'id=ifor3648-014
      PubDate: 2021-03-23
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3648-014
  • Research Articles: Modelling taper and stem volume considering stand
           density in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii

    • Authors: Hirigoyen A; Navarro-Cerrillo R, Bagnara M, Franco J, Requin F, Rachid-Casnati C
      Abstract: Hirigoyen A, Navarro-Cerrillo R, Bagnara M, Franco J, Requin F, Rachid-Casnati CMODELLING TAPER AND STEM VOLUME CONSIDERING STAND DENSITY IN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS AND EUCALYPTUS DUNNIIAbstract: Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii are the most planted tree species in Uruguay. Anticipating information about the quantity and quality of wood is important for managing intensive forest plantation. The estimate of merchantable and total wood volume is an essential tool in forest planning and management. The aim of this study was to evaluate four systems of taper and merchantable volume that consisted in a taper, a merchantable volume and a total tree volume function. A modified second-order continuous autoregressive error structure corrected the inherent serial autocorrelation of different observations in one tree. Taper and volume equations were fitted simultaneously after autocorrelation correction by full information maximum likelihood method. The segmented system proposed by Fang et al. (2000) produced the best fit as it explained more than 98% of the taper, merchantable volume and total volume variability for both species. In addition, precision of the segmented system was compared with and without incorporating stand density as a variable. Results of this analysis showed that for E. grandis, the predictive accuracy of the model was improved by including the stand density variable, whereas for E. dunnii this variable was not statistically significant. This modelling framework provides an improvement in taper and tree volume predictions for E. dunnii and E. grandis in Uruguay. The possibilities offered by this methodology could be of interest for its application in countries where fast growing plantations are managed.Keywords: Compatible Systems, Taper, Simultaneous Estimation, Intensive Silviculture, EucalyptusiForest 14 (2): 127-136 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3604-014'id=ifor3604-014
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3604-014
  • Research Articles: Modeling of time consumption for selective and
           situational precommercial thinning in mountain beech forest stands

    • Authors: Arnič D; Krč J, Diaci J
      Abstract: Arnič D, Krč J, Diaci JMODELING OF TIME CONSUMPTION FOR SELECTIVE AND SITUATIONAL PRECOMMERCIAL THINNING IN MOUNTAIN BEECH FOREST STANDSAbstract: Rationalization and optimization of work is becoming increasingly important in the European forestry sector. In this study a tool for modeling three different precommercial thinning approaches in young beech mountain stands was developed based on several field studies. The simulation examines three primary types of precommercial thinning: selective thinning and two types of situational thinning. We studied the impact of the number of candidates/crop trees and the impact of harvesting intensity on the structure and consumption of productive time. We found that in terms of costs situational precommercial thinning is more rational than selective precommercial thinning, that harvesting intensity has a significant impact on time consumption and that the number of candidates or crop trees has a significant impact on time consumption as well as on the relationships between main and auxiliary productive time. The modeling has shown that situational thinning is an alternative to selective thinning and that, in addition to requiring smaller and more efficient harvesting machines, it offers a cost-effective and ergonomic option (more walking, less chainsaw operation) for the pre-commercial thinning of young forest.Keywords: Precommercial Thinning, Selective Thinning, Situational Thinning, Modeling, Crop TreeiForest 14 (2): 137-143 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3556-014'id=ifor3556-014
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3556-014
  • Research Articles: Long-term effects of thinning and mixing on stand
           spatial structure: a case study of Chinese fir plantations

    • Authors: Li Y; Xu J, Wang H, Nong Y, Sun G, Yu S, Liao L, Ye S
      Abstract: Li Y, Xu J, Wang H, Nong Y, Sun G, Yu S, Liao L, Ye SLONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THINNING AND MIXING ON STAND SPATIAL STRUCTURE: A CASE STUDY OF CHINESE FIR PLANTATIONSAbstract: The regular planting and periodic harvesting of a single tree species are features of plantations, which are associated with a reduction of biodiversity. Such plantations are strongly encouraged to be converted into mixed forests. However, the spatial structure dynamics of plantations during the conversion process are poorly understood. In subtropical regions, thinned forest of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook.) and mixed forest of Chinese fir and Michelia macclurei Dandy are considered two ideal modes of plantation management. In this study, we analyzed the spatial structure dynamics of two forest stands and their six main tree populations over a rotation of 27 years, using spatial point analyses. We found that Chinese fir and M. macclurei had a regular distribution pattern (scale, r = 0-1 m) in the early stages of planting (1993), and Chinese fir maintained this pattern after experiencing self-thinning and selective cutting. In addition, non-planted tree species (i.e., natural regeneration of late-seral species, NRLSS) displayed significantly intraspecific clumping, which resulted in the distribution patterns of the forest stands changing from regular to aggregated (r = 0-5.5, 1-20 m), and the species distribution of mixed forest changed from random to clumped (r = 0-20 m). Moreover, during the management period (1993-2018), individuals were significantly differentiated in terms of size, and some small trees in the thinned forest were aggregated together. For the NRLSS, the diameter at breast height was randomly distributed (r = 0-20 m). Furthermore, Chinese fir and M. macclurei were separated at r = 0-1 m in the planting stage, but any pair of the six main populations in the thinned forest and mixed forest were randomly correlated over a rotation. Finally, the nearest neighbor distance of the stands became shorter after conversion, while the values for Chinese fir increased. After 25 years, the mixed plantation and the thinned plantation had a complex spatial structure. They develop towards natural forests and could be used as a template for future plantation management.Keywords: Chinese Fir, Distribution Pattern, Mixed Forest, Plantation, Spatial Correlation, ThinningiForest 14 (2): 113-121 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3489-014'id=ifor3489-014
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3489-014
  • Research Articles: Effects of low-impact logging on understory birds in
           the Brazilian Amazon

    • Authors: Soares JC; Amaral AO, De Moura RS, Cerboncini RA, Klemann Junior L
      Abstract: Soares JC, Amaral AO, De Moura RS, Cerboncini RA, Klemann Junior LEFFECTS OF LOW-IMPACT LOGGING ON UNDERSTORY BIRDS IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZONAbstract: Tropical forests have a great potential for the exploitation of natural resources. Among the economic activities that depend on forest resources, timber production is the most important one. Nevertheless, these activities may negatively affect wildlife, the availability of natural resources, and ecosystem process. Here we analysed the effects of low-impact logging on understory bird species richness, number of individuals captured, species composition, and assemblage structure in central Brazilian Amazon. We compared logged and unlogged areas over a period of three years (from August 2014 to May 2017). We captured a total of 180 birds and 42 species (20 families) in the logged area and 226 birds and 49 species (20 families) in the unlogged area. Bird assemblage structure in the logged area changed more intensely over the three years of study and became more similar to the assemblage found in the unlogged area. The degree of similarity (Jaccard’s index) in species composition between logged and unlogged areas increased from 18% in the third year to 39% in the fifth year after logging. The results suggest that the minor effects of low-impact logging were reduced a few years after the disturbance, probably due to ecological succession. The proximity of logged and unlogged areas and the reduced impact in the study site may facilitate the recovery of the bird assemblage after the disturbance.Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, Environmental Disturbance, Forest Resources, Sustainable DevelopmentiForest 14 (2): 122-126 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3435-014'id=ifor3435-014
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3435-014
  • Research Articles: Tracing the acclimation of European beech (Fagus
           sylvatica L.) populations to climatic stress by analyzing the antioxidant

    • Authors: Visi-Rajczi E; Hofmann T, Albert L, Mátyás C
      Abstract: Visi-Rajczi E, Hofmann T, Albert L, Mátyás CTRACING THE ACCLIMATION OF EUROPEAN BEECH (FAGUS SYLVATICA L.) POPULATIONS TO CLIMATIC STRESS BY ANALYZING THE ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEMAbstract: Through a common garden (provenance) experiment, we investigated the metabolic responses to climatic stress with regard to the acclimation potential of different European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations. Selected enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed in leaves. Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activity, total protein content as well as ABTS [2.2’-azino-bis-(3-etylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid] antioxidant capacity were measured in the leaves of selected populations. Major leaf polyphenols were identified and their relative amounts were compared. Significant correlations were found between phenotypic (diameter growth) response to simulated climatic stress and the activity (and amount) of selected chemical components. The concentrations of certain polyphenols, POD enzyme activity, and total protein content may be chemical indicators of the acclimation potential of populations and may contribute to the forecasting of climate change effects, which can aid in the selection of suitable propagation material for adaptive silviculture.Keywords: Beech, Drought Stress, Antioxidants, Phenotypic Plasticity, Provenance Trial, Climate ChangeiForest 14 (2): 95-103 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3542-013'id=ifor3542-013
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3542-013
  • Review Papers: Climate change impacts on spatial distribution, tree-ring
           growth, and water use of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) forests in the
           Mediterranean region and silvicultural practices to limit those impacts

    • Authors: Mechergui K; Saleh Altamimi A, Jaouadi W, Naghmouchi S
      Abstract: Mechergui K, Saleh Altamimi A, Jaouadi W, Naghmouchi SCLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, TREE-RING GROWTH, AND WATER USE OF STONE PINE (PINUS PINEA L.) FORESTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION AND SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES TO LIMIT THOSE IMPACTSAbstract: Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) has been cultivated since centuries in Mediterranean areas for its products and economic benefits, including edible pine nuts, timber, mushrooms, firewood, and grazing. However, current management objectives of stone pine stands also include recreational use, biodiversity conservation, protection from soil erosion, and CO2 fixation. Stone pine stands are considered to be among the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate change, and the current increase in drought frequency in the Mediterranean Basin has been shown to negatively impact their long-term establishment. Understanding the effects of climate change on the distribution, tree-ring growth and water use of stone pine forests can help assessing the adaptive capacity of the species, and developing management programs aimed at its conservation. This paper reviews the impacts of climate change on stone pine in the Mediterranean region. The high sensitivity of stone pine to climate change has been widely demonstrated in that: (i) climatic models predict the loss of suitable habitats and the shift of its geographical distribution in the next future; (ii) tree-ring analysis showed that winter and spring rainfalls have positive effects on growth, whereas high spring temperature has a negative effect; (iii) the strategy of stone pine to cope with water deficit affects the processes regulating its growth, including wood formation, leading to peculiar tree-ring anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations. The silvicultural interventions and the most effective management strategies for stone pine forests are reviewed and discussed in the context of current climate change in the Mediterranean Basin.Keywords: Stone Pine, Climate Change, Spatial Distribution, Tree-ring, Silvicultural Practices, Mediterranean AreaiForest 14 (2): 104-112 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3385-013'id=ifor3385-013
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3385-013
  • Research Articles: Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry controls
           interspecific patterns of leaf litter-derived dissolved organic matter
           biodegradation in subtropical plantations of China

    • Authors: Wu PP; Ding YD, Li SL, Sun XX, Zhang Y, Mao R
      Abstract: Wu PP, Ding YD, Li SL, Sun XX, Zhang Y, Mao RCARBON, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS STOICHIOMETRY CONTROLS INTERSPECIFIC PATTERNS OF LEAF LITTER-DERIVED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER BIODEGRADATION IN SUBTROPICAL PLANTATIONS OF CHINAAbstract: Leaching of leaf litter is the primary source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in forest soils. However, the interspecific variations of litter-derived DOM characteristics and biodegradation and their controlling factors remain unclear in subtropical plantations. Using fresh leaf litter of two broadleaf trees (Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba) and two coniferous trees (Pinus massoniana and P. elliottii) in subtropical plantations of China, we assessed the effects of tree species on the amounts and properties of litter-derived DOM with a short-term leaching experiment, and examined the interspecific variation of DOM biodegradation using a 56-day laboratory incubation method. Broadleaf tree litter generally leached higher amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) than coniferous tree litter. Compared with coniferous trees, broadleaf trees had higher DOM aromaticity and molecular weight, but lower DOC:DTP and DTN:DTP ratios in the litter leachates. Despite greater DOM aromaticity and molecular weight, broadleaf trees had higher litter-derived DOM biodegradation than coniferous trees because of the relatively lower DOC:DTP and DTN:DTP ratios. These results indicate the distinct patterns of litter-derived DOM characteristics and biodegradation between broadleaf and coniferous trees, and also highlight the predominant role of C:N:P stoichiometry in driving the interspecific variation of litter-derived DOM biodegradation in subtropical plantations of China.Keywords: Broadleaf Trees, Coniferous Trees, DOM Aromaticity, DOM Molecular Weight, LeachingiForest 14 (1): 80-85 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3609-013'id=ifor3609-013
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3609-013
  • Research Articles: Method for classifying sites to Atlantic Rainforest
           restoration aiming to increase basin’s streamflows

    • Authors: Cecílio RA; Oliveira-Ravani LT, Zanetti SS, Mendes HDA
      Abstract: Cecílio RA, Oliveira-Ravani LT, Zanetti SS, Mendes HDAMETHOD FOR CLASSIFYING SITES TO ATLANTIC RAINFOREST RESTORATION AIMING TO INCREASE BASIN’S STREAMFLOWSAbstract: We propose a method to classify priority sites for Atlantic Rainforest restoration aiming to increase basin streamflows. The Rainfall Forest to Water Production (RFWP) method uses multicriteria analysis supported by GIS techniques and hydrological modeling. The method was applied to the Itapemirim River Basin, southeastern Brazil. The application of RFWP provided a map of areas with different priority for forest restoration by overlapping standardized numerical criteria with different weights (climatological, soil type/land use, and relief). The results indicated the influence of the wide distribution of the restoration sites on the streamflows. The RFWP proved to be suitable for the spatial analysis of the effect of different restoring areas on streamflows. Based on simulated scenarios, an increase in the native forest cover by restoration up to 27.6% of the basin area is expected to significantly enhance water production. The priority areas where forest restoration could better contribute to increase streamflows were delineated, especially at high altitude and in pastures, which are mostly in degraded conditions.Keywords: GIS Application, Streamflow, Hydrologic Modeling, DHSVMiForest 14 (1): 86-94 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3658-013'id=ifor3658-013
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3658-013
  • Research Articles: Response of soil bacterial communities to nitrogen and
           phosphorus additions in an age-sequence of subtropical forests

    • Authors: Dai Y; Wang H, Chen M, Wang D, Cao X, Chu B, Xu X
      Abstract: Dai Y, Wang H, Chen M, Wang D, Cao X, Chu B, Xu XRESPONSE OF SOIL BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES TO NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ADDITIONS IN AN AGE-SEQUENCE OF SUBTROPICAL FORESTSAbstract: With global nitrogen (N) deposition continuously increasing, few reports exist describing how soil bacteria respond at the molecular level to long-term addition of excess N in variously aged forests. To reveal the responses of soil bacteria to the elevated N, an experiment was conducted with a chronic nutrient addition within differently aged stands (46-, 78-, and 200-years-old) in the northern subtropical China since 2011, including three treatments, CK (no N nor phosphorus (P) additions), N treatment (N, 100 kg N ha-1), and N with P (N+P, 100 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P ha-1) to examine potential P limitation under N deposition. Metagenomic sequencing was used to examine the snapshot responses of soil bacterial communities. Soil moisture and texture, ammonium, nitrate, SOC (soil organic carbon), TN (soil total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus), DOC (dissolved organic carbon), DON (dissolved organic nitrogen) were measured to explain the influence mechanism of forest age and fertilization on changes of microbial community. Following N addition, soil bacterial community diversity and most dominant phyla increased, but they showed a decrease with increasing stand age. The effects of fertilization on the same taxa were variable across forest ages. Soil bacterial community responded differently in 7-year fertilization, with distinct shift in 46-year-old forest and adaptability to long-term N addition in the 200-year-old forest. Soil texture and moisture, DOC, DON, pH, SOC/TN and TP were significantly correlated with bacterial community across stand ages, while N fertilization affected the bacterial community mostly via inducing soil moisture, NO3--N, DOC and pH in the 46-year-old forest, whose effects decreased with increasing stand age. Our results suggest that due to the variation of soil physicochemical properties among forest ages, soil bacterial communities are more stable and resilient to N deposition with increasing the age of stands. Soil bacterial communities might not encounter P limitation following the long-term addition of N in the subtropics.Keywords: Nitrogen Deposition, Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaved Forest, Forest Age, Metagenomic, Soil Bacterial CommunityiForest 14 (1): 71-79 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3655-013'id=ifor3655-013
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3655-013
  • Research Articles: Aboveground tree biomass of Araucaria araucana in
           southern Chile: measurements and multi-objective optimization of biomass

    • Authors: Kutchartt E; Gayoso J, Pirotti F, Bucarey A, Guerra J, Hernández J, Corvalán P, Drápela K, Olson M, Zwanzig M
      Abstract: Kutchartt E, Gayoso J, Pirotti F, Bucarey A, Guerra J, Hernández J, Corvalán P, Drápela K, Olson M, Zwanzig MABOVEGROUND TREE BIOMASS OF ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA IN SOUTHERN CHILE: MEASUREMENTS AND MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF BIOMASS MODELSAbstract: Estimating carbon stocks in wooded systems is crucial to quantify national greenhouse gas balance estimates. However, inaccurate estimates are likely due to the divergent architecture of many species. The monkey puzzle tree Araucaria araucana, with its umbrella-like architecture is a vivid example. This species, often found in monodominant stands at high elevations, is the greatest carbon reservoir in the landscape, hence estimating its carbon storage is crucial. To provide the necessary basis for these estimations, we documented the variation in basic density and moisture content along the stem profile, identified the most suitable biomass estimation models, and quantified biomass allocation for three age ranges. We measured, felled, weighed, and separated trees into three categories: stem wood, stem bark, and foliage (branches + scaly leaves). The log-linear form of the simple allometric equation Y = aXb, based on diameter at breast height as the explanatory variable, covered a large part of the variation and showed good cross-validation performance (>0.96). Models using more covariates achieved lower absolute errors, but the estimation of the additional model parameters was associated with greater uncertainty. A multi-objective model comparison revealed that the best additional covariate to further improve biomass estimation was total tree height. The mean absolute percentage error was 9.8% for the total aboveground biomass, 8% for stem wood, 12% for stem bark and 24% for foliage. Changes in biomass distribution among tree components were related to age. For older trees, there was a relative increase in stem wood, a decreased proportion of foliage, but no change in stem bark. The proportion of stem bark biomass is similar to that of Araucaria angustifolia, but higher than in other conifers and most trees in general. Our results provide key properties for A. araucana and general guidance for the selection of easily-measurable variables allowing for excellent predictive power for local biomass estimation.Keywords: Monkey Puzzle Tree, Carbon Stocks, Forest Modelling, Multicriteria Optimization, AllometryiForest 14 (1): 61-70 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3492-013'id=ifor3492-013
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3492-013
  • Research Articles: Role of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on the
           long-term rising of intrinsic water use efficiency in dominant trees in
           three old-growth forests in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro

    • Authors: Palandrani C; Motta R, Cherubini P, Curović M, Dukić V, Tonon G, Ceccon C, Peressotti A, Alberti G
      Abstract: Palandrani C, Motta R, Cherubini P, Curović M, Dukić V, Tonon G, Ceccon C, Peressotti A, Alberti GROLE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE ON THE LONG-TERM RISING OF INTRINSIC WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN DOMINANT TREES IN THREE OLD-GROWTH FORESTS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND MONTENEGROAbstract: Old-growth forests have an important role in maintaining animal and plant diversity, are important carbon (C) reservoirs and are privileged sites to study long-term plant physiological responses, long-term forest dynamics and climate change impact on forest ecosystems. Several studies have highlighted how old-living trees undergo age-related declines with hydraulic limitations and reduction in photosynthesis, though some recent works have suggested that such a decline is not always observed. Our study aims at understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 increase on tree C uptake and stomatal conductance (gs) in old-living trees by analysing the long-term patterns of tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in three old-growth forests in the Balkans (Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro), using dendrochronology and isotopic analysis. We hypothesised a long-term increase in iWUE in the studied old-growth forests, mostly related to enhanced photosynthesis rather than reduced stomatal conductance. Tree cores were sampled from dominant silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in each forest. Tree-ring widths were measured and basal area increments (BAI) were assessed for each sampled tree and, from the six longest chronologies, five decades were chosen for cellulose extraction, its isotopic analysis (δ13C, δ18O), iWUE and leaf water 18O evaporative enrichment above the source water (Δ18OL) determination. We observed a continuous and significant increase in iWUE from 1800 to 2010 in the sampled dominant trees at all the three old-growth forests. Our BAI data and our estimates of Δ18OL across the study period support the idea that enhanced photosynthesis rather than reduced stomatal conductance is the major driver of the measured iWUE increase. Thus, our results support some recent findings challenging the hypothesis that iWUE in forests is primarily the result of a CO2-induced reduction in stomatal conductance as well as the so called hydraulic limitation hypothesis.Keywords: Old-growth Forests, Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency (iWUE), Basal Area Increment, Stable C Isotopes, Atmospheric CO2 IncreaseiForest 14 (1): 53-60 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3414-013'id=ifor3414-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-28
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3414-013
  • Short Communications: Not all long-distance-exploration types of
           ectomycorrhizae are the same: differential accumulation of nitrogen and
           carbon in Scleroderma and Xerocomus in response to variations in soil

    • Authors: Trocha LK; Bulaj B, Durska A, Frankowski M, Mucha J
      Abstract: Trocha LK, Bulaj B, Durska A, Frankowski M, Mucha JNOT ALL LONG-DISTANCE-EXPLORATION TYPES OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ARE THE SAME: DIFFERENTIAL ACCUMULATION OF NITROGEN AND CARBON IN SCLERODERMA AND XEROCOMUS IN RESPONSE TO VARIATIONS IN SOIL FERTILITYAbstract: Long-distance-exploration type (LDET) ectomycorrhizae have been reported to be best adapted to infertile soils, but variation within LDET ectomycorrhizae have not been thoroughly examined. Concentrations of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in LDET ectomycorrhizae were examined in Xerocomus-Pinus sylvestris and Scleroderma-Quercus petraea ectomycorrhizae. The study determined how concentrations of these elements vary in ectomycorrhizae in fertile (organic, uppermost mineral) and infertile (brunic) soil layers. The organic horizon in both Scots pine and sessile oak forest soils had the highest mineral status and exchange cations. In contrast, low mineral concentrations, high base saturation, and pH were characteristic of the brunic horizon in both forest stands. Xerocomus ectomycorrhizae had a higher concentration of N in the fertile (organic and uppermost mineral) soil horizons (3.4%) than in the infertile (brunic) soil horizon (2.2%). N concentration in Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae varied from 2.8%-3.0 % and did not differ between the studied soil horizons. The mean concentration of carbon in Xerocomus ectomycorrhizae varied from 29%-46% in Scots pine stands and from 41%-44% in Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae in sessile oak stands. The concentration of carbon in both Xerocomus and Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae was significantly higher in the fertile horizons (organic and uppermost mineral) compared to the brunic (infertile) horizon. In summary, the analysis conducted in the present study indicates that the LDET ectomycorrhizae, Xerocomus and Scleroderma, possess inherent variations in C and N content to manage soil resources.Keywords: Ectomycorrhiza, Soil Interaction, Soil Nitrogen, Nitrogen Utilization, Ectomycorrhizal Adaptation, Soil ChemistryiForest 14 (1): 48-52 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3594-013'id=ifor3594-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3594-013
  • Research Articles: Large-scale spatial distribution of deer browsing
           damage to young tree plantations

    • Authors: Suzuki KK; Watanabe Y, Kubota T, Kuwano Y, Kawauchi Y, Yamagawa H, Yasuda M, Kondoh H, Nomiya H, Oka T
      Abstract: Suzuki KK, Watanabe Y, Kubota T, Kuwano Y, Kawauchi Y, Yamagawa H, Yasuda M, Kondoh H, Nomiya H, Oka TLARGE-SCALE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DEER BROWSING DAMAGE TO YOUNG TREE PLANTATIONSAbstract: The economic loss caused by herbivore browsing in forest plantations is a concerning problem in many areas around the world. Information on the spatial distribution of browsing damage is important for forest owners when selecting locations for new plantations, because planting trees in areas of high browsing pressure increases economic losses. Although it is difficult to survey browsing damage across large areas, sporadic sampling data on browsing damage are often collected by foresters, governments, and researchers. Thus, in this study, we applied a generalized additive model (GAM) for analysis of sporadic data to reveal large-scale spatial variation in deer (Cervus nippon) browsing damage. A map of browsing pressure produced by a GAM that used years after planting (plantation age) and location as independent factors showed a few areas of high browsing pressure. In addition, browsing damage increased with increasing plantation age, and plantation stands aged 2+ years showed more browsing damage. Areas with high browsing damage estimated based on plantation stands aged 2+ years generally coincided with areas of high deer abundance, with some exceptions. Thus, this model reflects large-scale browsing damage relatively well and will help forest owners to avoid locating new plantations in areas of high browsing pressure.Keywords: Cervus nippon, Deer Browsing Damage, Forest Management, Generalized Additive Model, PlantationiForest 14 (1): 34-40 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3387-013'id=ifor3387-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3387-013
  • Research Articles: The economic value of fire damages in Tuscan
           agroforestry areas

    • Authors: Fagarazzi C; Fratini R, Montanino M, Viccaro M, Cozzi M, Romano S, Riccioli F
      Abstract: Fagarazzi C, Fratini R, Montanino M, Viccaro M, Cozzi M, Romano S, Riccioli FTHE ECONOMIC VALUE OF FIRE DAMAGES IN TUSCAN AGROFORESTRY AREASAbstract: The Tuscan Region (Central Italy) spends about 12 million euros every year in the prevention and suppression of forest fires. In this context, this study aims to analyse the economic and environmental benefits derived from fire suppression activities. Starting from a case study of a real fire event in Tuscany, we simulated three hypothetical scenarios (with different fire durations) without fire extinction activities planned by using the open source software FARSITE. Benefits derived from fire extinction activities can be quantified as the avoided damage, which has been calculated through the estimation of the total economic value of forests not destroyed by fire thanks to the extinction action. The avoided damage is represented by the difference between values of forest areas burned by the real fire event and those burned by simulated fire. By providing an economic estimation of avoided damages, our results confirm that forest fire services and forest management have a high impact on both the economy and the environment.Keywords: Fire Damage, FARSITE, Total Economic Value, Fire Simulation, GISiForest 14 (1): 41-47 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3607-013'id=ifor3607-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3607-013
  • Research Articles: Dynamics of humus forms and soil characteristics along
           a forest altitudinal gradient in Hyrcanian forest

    • Authors: Bayranvand M; Akbarinia M, Salehi Jouzani G, Gharechahi J, Alberti G
      Abstract: Bayranvand M, Akbarinia M, Salehi Jouzani G, Gharechahi J, Alberti GDYNAMICS OF HUMUS FORMS AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS ALONG A FOREST ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN HYRCANIAN FORESTAbstract: Humus forms are good indicators of environmental conditions and thus important in forest ecological processes. Altitudinal gradients are considered as natural laboratory for evaluating soil ecological processes and humus form distribution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macromorphology of humus forms along an altitudinal gradient (0-2000 m a.s.l.) covered with plain forest, mixed and pure forests and forest-grassland ecotone, in Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. In total, 225 humus profiles were evaluated. Forest stand variables including tree density, basal area, crown density, and height, forest floor and soil physico-chemical properties along with biological features were measured. We found that altitudinal gradients influence both humus forms distribution and soil properties but with different mechanisms. While soil properties (i.e., temperature, pH, CaCO3, soil N content, soil C/N and microbial biomass N) were significantly correlated with altitude, the forest floor properties were more influenced by tree species composition. Particularly, the abundance of Mull was decreased in plain mixed forests compared to mountain pure forests, whereas the frequency of Amphi was increased. Moreover, Oligomull and Leptoamphi were abundant in mixed beech forests, while Eumacroamphi, Eumesoamphi and Pachyamphi were only observed in pure beech forests. Such a distribution influenced soil fertility where higher values of nitrogen (N), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and pH were observed at lower altitudes under mixed forests compared to pure forests at higher altitudes.Keywords: Altitude Gradient, Plant-humus-soil Relationships, Humus Systems, Soil Microbial BiomassiForest 14 (1): 26-33 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3444-013'id=ifor3444-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-10
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3444-013
  • Research Articles: Estimation of total extractive content of wood from
           planted and native forests by near infrared spectroscopy

    • Authors: Teixeira Mancini L; Guedes Ramalho FM, Trugilho PF, Gherardi Hein PR
      Abstract: Teixeira Mancini L, Guedes Ramalho FM, Trugilho PF, Gherardi Hein PRESTIMATION OF TOTAL EXTRACTIVE CONTENT OF WOOD FROM PLANTED AND NATIVE FORESTS BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPYAbstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of multivariate models using Near infrared (NIR) spectra for predicting total extractives content of solid and powdered wood of planted and native species from tropical savanna. NIR spectra were recorded on the milled wood and radial surface of solid wood specimens of Cedrela sp., Jacaranda sp., Apuleia sp., Aspidosperma sp. and clones of Eucalyptus hybrids via an integrating sphere and fiber optics probe. NIR spectral signatures were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and then associated to the total extractive content quantified by extraction in toluene/ethanol (2:1) solutions, pure ethanol and hot water by Partial Least Squares (PLS) regressions. PCA revealed that NIR spectra measured in solid wood by integrating sphere gave a better discrimination of wood species. A global PLS model was developed based on NIR obtained by integrating sphere with satisfactory estimations both for solid wood (R²cv= 0.87, RMSECV= 1.08%) and wood powder (R²cv= 0.85, RMSECV= 1.19%). An independent test-set validation was performed with 25% of the samples and yielded R²p= 0.93 and RMSEP= 0.95% (for solid wood) and R²p= 0.87 and RMSEP= 1.40% (for wood powder). Both models can be applied for rapid screenings, though models developed from NIR spectra by integrating sphere on solid wood are considered more suitable for rapid predictions of extractive content in unknown wood specimens.Keywords: Lumber, Multivariate Analysis, Non-destructive Testing, Test Set Validation, Wood ChemistryiForest 14 (1): 18-25 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3472-013'id=ifor3472-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3472-013
  • Research Articles: Species interactions in pure and mixed-species stands
           of silver fir and European beech in Mediterranean mountains

    • Authors: Versace S; Garfì V, Dalponte M, Febbraro Mirko D, Frizzera L, Gianelle D, Tognetti R
      Abstract: Versace S, Garfì V, Dalponte M, Febbraro Mirko D, Frizzera L, Gianelle D, Tognetti RSPECIES INTERACTIONS IN PURE AND MIXED-SPECIES STANDS OF SILVER FIR AND EUROPEAN BEECH IN MEDITERRANEAN MOUNTAINSAbstract: Interactions between tree species determine the dynamics of forest communities. Spatial and temporal changes in resource availability, variation in species composition and spatial distribution of trees may alter competitive interactions between species and, therefore, affect tree growth and forest productivity. In this study, we analyzed the intra and inter-specific interactions between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in southern Italy (Molise and Calabria regions), and how these interactions affect basal area increments in mixed-species and pure stands. Results showed that intra-specific interactions have a negative effect on the basal area increment, both in pure and mixed-species stands of Molise and Calabria. Basal area increment was higher influenced by intra-specific interactions in pure stands than in mixed-species stands. Silver fir in Molise showed higher basal area increment in mixed-species stand, probably in relation with stand structure and space occupation that resulted in less competition between individual trees. European beech showed high values of intra-specific interactions in pure stands, likely related to the low self-tolerance of this species and to the spatial arrangement of trees, due to canopy closure. The absence of inter-specific interactions in mixed-species stands could be explained by the sub-dominant position of European beech, which may have limited the benefit derived from niche separation and complementarity for silver fir.Keywords: Abies alba Mill., Fagus sylvatica L., Intra-specific Interactions, Inter-specific Interactions, Stand Productivity, Tree GrowthiForest 14 (1): 1-11 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3476-013'id=ifor3476-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3476-013
  • Research Articles: Interaction between planting spacing and wood
           properties of Eucalyptus clones grown in short rotation

    • Authors: Soares Brito A; Baptista Vidaurre G, da Silva Oliveira JT, Missia Da Silva JG, Ferreira Oliveira R, Dias Júnior AF, Chaves Arantes MD, Cabral Moulin J, Valin M, De Siqueira L, Valverde Zauza EA
      Abstract: Soares Brito A, Baptista Vidaurre G, da Silva Oliveira JT, Missia Da Silva JG, Ferreira Oliveira R, Dias Júnior AF, Chaves Arantes MD, Cabral Moulin J, Valin M, De Siqueira L, Valverde Zauza EAINTERACTION BETWEEN PLANTING SPACING AND WOOD PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS CLONES GROWN IN SHORT ROTATIONAbstract: Wood quality results from the interaction between the genotype of trees and the silvicultural conditions to which they were subjected. Based on this interaction, research on the factors that add value to the woody raw material has an impact on the production of various forest products. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different planting spacings (3×1, 3×2, 3×3 and 3×4 m) on the wood properties of three 4-year-old Eucalyptus clones. The wood of each clone was evaluated based on basic density, dry mass, anatomy, structural chemical composition, ash content and higher heating value. For at least one of the three clones studied, the planting spacing explained the variations in the basic density, dry mass, diameter and frequency of vessels and wall thickness of the wood fibers. Regardless of the eucalyptus clone, the area of vessels, the length and fraction of the fiber wall, as well as the contents of extractives, lignin, ash and the higher heating value of the wood were not influenced by the planting spacing. In summary, the change in the useful area alters the properties of wood in eucalyptus genetic materials in different ways and intensities at 4 years old.Keywords: Wood Quality, Useful Area for Planting, Eucalyptus Genetic Materials, Harvesting AgeiForest 14 (1): 12-17 (2021) - doi: 10.3832/ifor3574-013'id=ifor3574-013
      PubDate: 2021-01-02
      DOI: 10.3832/ifor3574-013
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