Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Plant Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.383
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0008-4220 - ISSN (Online) 1918-1833
Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Mid-summer annual forage performance in organic, grass-fed production
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Myra Van Die, Martin H. Entz
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Grass-fed ruminant production does not have the convenience of feeding easily-storable grains during periods of low forage availability. This study examined the forage yield, quality, and utilization of warm- and cool-season annual forages grown under organic management during the mid-summer “feed gap” period. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tetra Brand), winter triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack cv. common), oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Souris), millet (Panicum miliaceum L. cv. Crown Proso), corn (Zea mays L. cv. BMR84 and CM440 Canamaize), and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench × Sorghum sudanense [Piper] Stapf cv. common) were grown in Carman, Manitoba, over 3 site-years in 2018 and 2019. Combined forage and weed dry matter (DM) yield was 7159 kg·ha−1 for sorghum-sudangrass (29% weeds), 5506 kg·ha−1 for corn (36% weeds), 4687 kg·ha−1 for oat (45% weeds), 4617 kg·ha−1 for annual ryegrass (95% weeds), 4542 kg·ha−1 for millet (28% weeds), and 2945 kg·ha−1 for winter triticale (51% weeds); significant differences in crop and weed biomass were observed. All forage systems were palatable to sheep with utilization rates from 47% to 65%. When all quality parameters were considered, corn, winter triticale, millet, and oat displayed adequate quality for mid-summer grazing, while sorghum-sudangrass had suboptimal crude protein concentrations. Direct measurements of forage quality on weeds showed that weeds did not compromise forage quality. This Canadian first study demonstrated the potential of forage production for mid-summer grazing in an organic, grass-fed regime with oat, millet, and corn resulting in the best combination of yield and quality.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T06:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0112
       
  • Wheat germplasm development by gene pyramiding for resistance to race
           TTKSK of stem rust

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      Authors: Xiaojie Jin, Dawn Chi, Danielle Wolfe, Colin Hiebert, Tom Fetch, Wenguang Cao, Allen Xue, Gavin Humphreys, George Fedak
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      To develop wheat germplasm with resistance to race TTKSK of stem rust, five stem rust resistance genes were used to produce pyramids with up to 4 Sr genes of various combinations by marker-assisted selection (MAS) and doubled haploid (DH) technology. Thirteen desired pyramids with 2 to 4 of the Sr genes were recovered, and wheat cultivar Hoffman was improved by stacking Sr35 and Sr36. TTKSK resistance test showed that pyramided lines with three or four genes plus improved Hoffman with Sr35+Sr36 were all immune to TTKSK. This type of germplasm will be a useful tool for the production of cultivars with long-term sustainability.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T06:30:34Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0251
       
  • Pollination ecology of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton)
           in an island ecosystem

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      Authors: Rachel E. Noone, Stéphanie M. Doucet, Patricia L. Jones
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Plant pollination is influenced by plant traits, pollinator community, plant community, and abiotic conditions. Island ecosystems, which often have reduced pollinator communities, provide unique insights into pollination ecology. Lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton, has predominantly been studied in managed agricultural areas with introduced honeybees. We examined diurnal and nocturnal pollination of unmanaged lowbush blueberry patches on an 80 ha island in New Brunswick without honeybees. We restricted pollinator access to blueberry stems in five different treatments. Using mesh bags, we made stems accessible to pollinators 24 h a day (positive control), only during the day, only at night, or never (negative control), with an additional sham control. Blueberry stems accessible only to diurnal visitors had 70.55% fruit set and a mean 7.33 viable seeds per fruit. Stems accessible only to nocturnal visitors had 63.76% fruit set and 5.87 viable seeds, significantly higher than the continuously bagged negative control stems. The most common diurnal insects observed visiting flowers were bumblebees and two wasp species. Insects collected from plants at night were beetles and flies. There was substantial variation between blueberry patches in fruit set and fruit size. We examined whether flower color could be driving patch differences in pollination, and quantified flower color using spectrophotometry. We found no effect of flower color on metrics of pollination. As well as demonstrating substantial nocturnal pollination, we record unusually high fruit set, especially for an island without managed bees. We discuss some of the potential drivers of this high fruit set.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T06:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0216
       
  • Phytochrome contributes to blue-light-mediated stem elongation and flower
           initiation in mature Arabidopsis thaliana plants

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      Authors: Yun Kong, Youbin Zheng
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      To examine whether phytochromes contribute to blue-light-mediated stem elongation, plant phenotypic responses were investigated in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0), and its quintuple phytochrome (phyA phyB phyC phyD phyE) mutant plants under the following light treatments: (1) R, a pure red light from 660-nm LED; (2) B, a pure blue light from 455-nm LED; (3) BR, a impure blue light from LED combination of 94% B and 6% R; and (4) BRF, another impure blue light from LED combination of BR and 6 μmol·m−2·s−1 of FR (735 nm). A photosynthetic photon flux density of ≈100 μmol·m−2·s−1 was provided for all the light treatments. The calculated phytochrome photoequilibrium was 0.89, 0.50, 0.69, and 0.60 for R, B, BR, and BRF, respectively, indicating a higher phytochrome activity under R and BR than B and BRF. After 18 days of light treatment, B or BRF increased main stem length in wild-type plants compared with R, but BR had an inhibition effect similar to R. Also, B and BRF relative to R or BR induced earlier flowering and reduced leaf size in wild type plants, showing typical shade-avoidance responses. In phytochrome-deficient mutant plants, the above shade-avoidance responses were inhibited under B or BRF. However, hypocotyl length, a growth trait characterizing the de-etiolation stage, was reduced under B, BR and BRF vs. R regardless of phytochrome absence. These findings suggest that for mature Arabidopsis plants, phytochrome plays a role in blue-light-mediated stem elongation and the associated shade-avoidance responses.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T01:50:45Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0018
       
  • Functional relationship between leaf/stem pseudobulb size and
           photosynthetic pathway in the Orchidaceae

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      Authors: Zhenzhu Fu, Craig E. Martin, Jeney Do, Che-Ling Ho, Babs Wagner
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Water storage has been commonly cited as an important function of orchid pseudobulbs, and it is reasonable to assume that orchids which utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis have larger pseudobulbs than those of C3 orchid taxa, because these foliar (or stem) structures may reflect another type of succulent tissue in CAM plants. On the other hand, it is equally plausible that C3 orchids have larger pseudobulbs, as they lack succulent tissue, as well as the water-conservative CAM pathway. The goal of this study was to compare pseudobulb size in over 100 living orchid species growing at the Missouri Botanical Garden by measurement. Pseudobulb volumes of C3 species did not differ from those of species with CAM photosynthesis in a family-wide comparison of all sampled species, as well as in comparisons of taxa with these two photosynthetic pathways among three subtribes and within one genus. The results did not support a functional relationship between pseudobulb volume and photosynthetic pathway in the Orchidaceae. Pseudobulbs are equally important structures in C3 and CAM orchid taxa, and may function similarly in water, carbohydrates, and (or) essential elements storage in the two groups of orchids. This study lays a foundation for further research into pseudobulb evolution in orchids.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2020-0311
       
  • Colonization of Brachypodium distachyon by Gluconacetobacter
           diazotrophicus and its effect on plant growth promotion

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      Authors: Xuan Yang, Kathleen Allen Hill, J. Kevin Vessey, Lining Tian
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen (N) fixing bacterium originally isolated from sugarcane in Brazil. Understanding the interactions between this bacterium and plants is important to exploit the nitrogen-fixing feature of G. diazotrophicus in different crops. Research was conducted to establish, monitor and optimize methods for introducing G. diazotrophicus into Brachypodium distachyon, a model for molecular research involving monocot plants. Colonization was studied in three plant growth media including liquid, semi-solid, and solid media. The effect of mineral nitrogen on colonization was also studied in each of these three media. The colonization of B. distachyon by G. diazotrophicus was analyzed by a histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay, PCR using G. diazotrophicus specific primers and bacterial re-isolation. Colonization was established in all tested plant growth conditions. The highest level of colonization was achieved in the liquid media without mineral nitrogen. Microscopic observations showed that G. diazotrophicus colonizes B. distachyon through the lateral root emergence sites, root hairs, and root tips. The colonization was found to be limited to root tissues and not found in other organs. These results indicate that B. distachyon roots are the primary organ of interaction and colonization by the bacterium. Plant fresh weight and lateral root numbers were significantly increased in inoculated plants indicating that G. diazotrophicus can stimulate growth of B. distachyon. This study indicates that B. distachyon is a useful model to study the mechanisms of G. diazotrophicus colonization and growth enhancement in monocot plants.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2020-0143
       
  • 12W932-349 Soft red winter wheat

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      Authors: Lily Tamburic-Ilincic
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      12W932-349 is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar registered for Ontario, Canada. It has high grain yield with good pastry quality and is moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight. 12W932-349 is well adapted for the winter wheat growing areas of Ontario.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0088
       
  • Introgression of pre-harvest sprouting resistance from hexaploid wheat
           into high yielding durum wheat germplasm

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Guillermo Gerard, Pierre Hucl, Curtis Pozniak, Connie Briggs
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a critical factor affecting wheat producing regions characterized by rainfall and high humidity combined with cool temperatures at harvest. This phenomenon is particularly important in durum wheat (Triticum durum L.), which is generally susceptible to PHS, in contrast to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) which expresses better resistance. The transfer of PHS from hexaploid common wheat into tetraploid durum wheat germplasm is one option for genetic improvement, because the two species share two related sub-genomes. In the present study, through interspecific hybridization and modified backcross approaches, we developed experimental durum lines that showed greater PHS resistance than the recurrent durum wheat parent, with some expressing better PHS performance than the resistant common wheat donor. The introgression of PHS resistance did not negatively impact additional traits in the durum background and several backcross derived experimental lines expressed superior grain yield related and quality traits when compared with the recurrent parent. These lines represent a promising genetic resource for the development of new sprouting resistant durum wheat cultivars. Our results demonstrate that PHS resistance can be transferred from common wheat to improve PHS of durum wheat germplasm.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0109
       
  • AAC Excellence oat

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      Authors: Weikai Yan, Judith Fregeau-Reid, Brad deHaan, Steve Thomas, Matt Hayes, Richard Martin, Allan Cummiskey, Denis Pageau, Isabelle Morasse, Savka Orozovic, Jennifer Mitchell-Fetch, Jim Menzies, Allen Xue, Nathan Mountain
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Excellence is a covered, spring oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivar developed by the Ottawa Research and Development Center (ORDC), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). It was derived from a four-way cross, OA1250-1/MN07205//Rigodon/HiFi, made in 2009. It has been tested in the Quebec provincial Oat Registration and Recommendation (QCORR) trials since 2017. Based on orthogonal data from the 2018–2021 QCORR trials, AAC Excellence yielded 6% higher than the mean of official checks (AAC Dieter, Canmore, and CS Camden) and its yield was more stable across years than the checks and other cultivars. AAC Excellence had similar levels of test weight and kernel weight to those of the checks, a β-glucan level similar to Akina and better than AAC Nicolas and all checks, and a groat content level similar to AAC Nicolas and AC Dieter and better than Akina and other checks. It had a superior package of yield and quality and is most adapted to Quebec, the Maritimes, and northern Ontario.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0276
       
  • AAC Reid oat

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      Authors: Weikai Yan, Judith Fregeau-Reid, Brad deHaan, Steve Thomas, Matt Hayes, Richard Martin, Allan Cummiskey, Denis Pageau, Isabelle Morasse, Savka Orozovic, Jennifer Mitchell-Fetch, Jim Menzies, Allen Xue, Nathan Mountain
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Reid is a white-hulled, covered spring oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivar developed by the Ottawa Research and Development Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. It is highly resistant to crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and demonstrated superior levels of grain yield, test weight, kernel weight, lodging resistance, β-glucan, and groat content in the crown rust-prone regions (Areas 2 and 3) of Ontario from 2016 to 2021.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2022-0009
       
  • Resistance to bacterial spot (Xanthomonas gardneri) on foliage and fruit
           of commercial processing tomato cultivars

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      Authors: Tina E. Simonton, Darren Robinson, Chris Gillard, Katerina Jordan, Cheryl L. Trueman
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Bacterial spot of tomato (Xanthomonas gardneri Šutić) is an economically important disease of processing tomatoes in Ontario, Canada, resulting in premature defoliation and fruit damage. Breeding efforts for host resistance focus on assessments of foliar health as opposed to fruit health but anecdotal reports from industry suggest a poor relationship between fruit and foliar resistance. To investigate this, nine commercial cultivars were inoculated at the vegetative (foliar experiment) or reproductive (fruit experiment) stages in replicated field experiments from 2016 to 2018. In the foliar experiment, the standardized area under the disease progress curve (sAUDPC) for defoliation was 51% to 54% higher for ‘TSH18’ than ‘H9706’, ‘Hypeel 696’, and ‘H3406’, but equivalent to ‘CC337’. Fruit disease incidence was 49% and 47% lower for ‘CC337’ than ‘TSH18’ and ‘H9706’, but equivalent to ‘H3406’ and ‘Hypeel 696’. Fruit disease severity was 63% and 60% lower for ‘CC337’ than ‘H9706’and ‘H3406’, respectively, but equivalent to ‘TSH18’ and ‘Hypeel 696’. However, in the fruit experiment, fruit disease incidence was equivalent among cultivars, while the disease severity index for ‘H9706’ (3.4) was higher than ‘Hypeel 696’ (0.7). Furthermore, rank correlation analysis between sAUDPC and fruit disease variables failed to meet the criteria for a significant and strong relationship (r ≥ 0.8 or  ≤ −0.8 and P ≤ 0.05). Additional research is needed to better understand the mechanisms of fruit infection by X. gardneri. In the meantime, scientists should consider the limitations of assessing only foliar damage as an evaluation method for bacterial spot management tools in tomato.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0231
       
  • Interactive effects between cover crop management and the environment
           modulate benefits to cash crop yields: a meta-analysis

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      Authors: Bérenger Bourgeois, Anaïs Charles, Laura L. Van Eerd, Nicolas Tremblay, Derek Lynch, Gaétan Bourgeois, Maxime Bastien, Valérie Bélanger, Christine Landry, Anne Vanasse
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Several governmental programs have been established throughout Canada to foster agriculture sustainability. As a best management practice, cover crops (CCs) limit soil erosion and prevent nutrient losses in agroecosystems. Yet, the variable effects of CCs on cash crop productivity previously reported may limit their large-scale adoption by farmers. To address this variability, we conducted an unweighted meta-analysis including 2274 observations from 86 field studies conducted under humid temperate climate to evaluate yield response to CCs for three annual cash crops. Overall, CCs increased corn and small grain cereal yields by 13% and 22% respectively, but did not affect soybean yield. Legume CCs alone or mixed with grasses provided the highest small grain cereal and corn yield increases compared with non-legume broadleaf and grass CCs. CC benefits increased with nitrogen (N) content in CC aboveground biomass but decreased when N fertilizer inputs applied to corn exceeded 60 kg N ha−1. Greater precipitation and N fertilizer inputs reduced the negative effect of grass CCs on corn yield, while benefits of legume CCs were highly resilient to precipitation variations. CC benefits on corn yield increased through time and at low soil organic matter content, especially at low N fertilizer inputs. These results evidence the complex interplay between cash crop productivity, CC management, and environmental factors — related to N inputs from CCs, changes in soil properties (e.g., increased organic matter, improved soil structure or microbial activity), or potential competition for water under drier conditions — which provide new perspectives to promote CC inclusion in cropping systems.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0177
       
  • Vascular occlusion associated with abiotic stress is a causal agent of
           silvertop in perennial grasses

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      Authors: Juliana J. Soroka, Garry L. Lees, Bruce D. Gossen
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Silvertop (sterile heads) of perennial cool-season grasses is common in aging stands grown for seed production. It is associated with yield reduction, but the causal agent(s) has not been determined. A study was conducted to examine the cytology of grass tillers with and without silvertop. A series of cross sections of stems from field samples of Kentucky bluegrass and meadow bromegrass (where signs of insect injury or fungal infection were absent) revealed abnormalities in the tissues above the last node in tillers exhibiting silvertop, while cells in the stems of healthy tillers appeared normal. Most cells from stems exhibiting silvertop became irregular and distorted, and eventually lost their integrity and shape altogether. At the terminal nodes of these stems, the sieve plates of xylem vessels were occluded with unidentified material, preventing the passage of water to the seed head. The xylem and phloem cells in the leaf sheath and blade surrounding the silvertop stems appeared normal. Spherical bodies in x-section, believed to be fungal mycelium and spores, were occasionally found above the point of tissue necrosis above the last node. Very few spherical bodies were observed below the symptomatic tissue, and none were found in the terminal node. The blockages observed in the water-conducting vessels to the seed head appear to have been induced by the plant as a response to abiotic stress, rather than by external biotic factors such as insects or pathogens.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0232
       
  • Effect of precision planting and seeding rates on canola plant density and
           seed yield in southern Alberta

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Gurbir Singh Dhillon, Lewis Baarda, Mike Gretzinger, Ken Coles
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Precision planters are recently being adopted for seeding canola to improve crop establishment and seed yield. This study determined the effect of seeding canola using precision planters (30.5 and 50.8 cm seeding row width) and conventional air drill seeders at different rates (20, 40, 60, 80, and 160 seeds m−2) on plant density and seed yield. The study was conducted for 4 yr (2016 to 2019) at three locations in southern Alberta. Plant density increased with higher seeding rates following the negative exponential function distribution. The yield-density relationship was non-linear asymptotic in nature and weak-to-moderate in strength at most site-years. The parameters of yield-density relationship did not show statistically significant differences among the air drill and precision planters. When averaged among seeding rates, canola yield was higher for the narrow row precision planter at 5 site-years and for the air drill at 2 site-years out of a total of 12 site-years. Under irrigated and high-precipitation conditions, seed yield in narrow-row precision planted canola was higher than air drill seeded canola. There was an average increase of 463 kg ha−1 (10%) in the seed yield in narrow-row precision planted canola compared with the air drill seeded canola among irrigated systems; however, under water-limited conditions, seed yield in air drill seeded canola was comparable or higher than the precision planted canola. Wide-row planter led to poor crop establishment and seed yield under both irrigated and dryland conditions, attributed to higher in-row plant density due to wider row spacing.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2020-0186
       
  • Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat
           markers for the estimates of genetic diversity by using two oilseed
           Brassica napus populations carrying genome contents of Brassica oleracea

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      Authors: Junye Jiang, Berisso Kebede, Habibur Rahman
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Reliable estimates of genetic diversity among the accessions in a breeding population is important knowledge for use in breeding. Among the different types of molecular markers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) are largely used by breeders; however, our knowledge of the reliability of the estimates of genetic diversity based on these two types of markers in multiple populations is limited. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH) and an inbred population developed from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea interspecific crosses were used for comparative analysis of these two types of markers. The estimates based on SNP and SSR markers showed a stronger correlation in the inbred population which was expected to carry greater genetic diversity as compared to the DH population. This inference was also evident from the analysis of different diversity groups (least, intermediate, and most similar) of these two populations for significant difference between the groups for six agronomic and seed quality traits, where this analysis failed to differentiate the diversity groups of the DH population for any of the traits. However, both marker types could differentiate the diversity groups of the inbred population for several traits. Furthermore, the six sub-populations of the inbred population could also be differentiated by both marker types. Thus, the results demonstrate the greater utility of the SSR and SNP markers in a genetically diverse population. This knowledge can be used while grouping a breeding population for diversity groups; however, caution needs to be taken while using the markers in a genetically narrow population.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0204
       
  • Low-activity cryptochrome 1 plays a role in promoting stem elongation and
           flower initiation of mature Arabidopsis under blue light associated with
           low phytochrome activity

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      Authors: Yun Kong, Youbin Zheng
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      To explore whether cryptochrome contributes to stem elongation and flowering promoted by blue lights associated with low phytochrome activity, wild-type Arabidopsis was compared with its cryptochrome-deficient mutants and cryptochrome-overexpressing transgenic plants. Results indicated that the promotion effects were mainly related to low CRY1 activity, despite partial involvement of high-activity CRY2.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0122
       
  • AAC McRae soybean

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      Authors: K. Yu, L. Woodrow, C. Shi
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC McRae is a high yielding food grade soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivar with yellow hilum, high protein concentration, and acceptable processing quality for foreign and domestic tofu, soymilk, and miso markets. It has excellent soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) and soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) (Fusarium virguliforme O'Donnell & T. Aoki) resistance. AAC McRae was developed at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) Harrow Research and Development Centre (Harrow-RDC), Harrow, Ontario, and is adapted to areas of southwest Ontario with 3100 or more crop heat units and has a relative maturity group of 2.2 (MG 2.2).
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0246
       
  • Multi-year investigation on the rate, timing, and use of surfactant for
           thinning apples with post-bloom applications of metamitron

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: John A. Cline, Catherine J. Bakker, Amanda Beneff
      Pages: 1 - 28
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Several experiments were conducted in Simcoe, Ontario, to evaluate the efficacy of metamitron (MET) as a post-bloom thinner for Ambrosia, Gala, and Honeycrisp apple trees. Trees were treated with rates of MET ranging from 165–480 mg·L−1, as well as different timings ranging from 5–22 mm fruit diameter. The effect of including a non-ionic surfactant on thinning efficacy with MET was also evaluated. Treatments were compared with untreated trees and industry standard sprays of carbaryl, 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzyladenine (6-BA), or combinations thereof. Response to MET varied by cultivar and season. In six of the seven experiments MET reduced fruit set, but only in four experiments did MET reduce the number of fruit per tree or crop load compared with the untreated control trees. Petal fall (5–7 mm) applications of MET were less effective than later timings. Thinning response increased with higher rates of MET in four of the seven studies. For Honeycrisp and Ambrosia, 175 mg·L−1 MET was effective in reducing fruit set and crop load, while rates at or above 263 mg·L−1 MET were required to thin Gala. MET improved fruit size distribution into larger categories and caused minimal leaf phytotoxicity with or without a non-ionic surfactant. Environmental factors such as nighttime temperature and solar radiation largely could not account for the seasonal or application timings in thinning response to MET. Greater understanding of the carbon balance and interplay of solar radiation, nighttime temperature, cultivar and fruitlet size on thinning response is required to improve the predictive thinning response of apple to MET.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0206
       
  • Haskap maturity stages and their influence on postharvest berry quality

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      Authors: R. Leisso, B. Jarrett, R. Richter, Z. Miller
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Limited information is available regarding haskap berry maturity and corresponding postharvest characteristics. We assessed detached berry quality, respiration rate, and ethylene production at five stages of maturity and compared postharvest storage influence on berries harvested at half-blue and softening stages. Ethylene’s increase at successive stages suggests its involvement with berry maturation, but concomitant respiration does not support classifying haskap ripening as climacteric. Results indicate harvesting at the less mature half-blue stage is not recommended, as berries had lower fresh weight and inferior quality relative to those harvested at the softening stage, both at harvest and following 14 d storage.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0219
       
  • Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in cold climates
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Mohamed Amine Ayari, Marie-Pier Denis, Guy-Anne Landry, Line Lapointe
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Saffron, an autumn crocus that produces a highly valuable spice, is grown mainly in Mediterranean climates. Nevertheless, saffron farms have been established recently in the province of Quebec. This led us to test cultivation practices that could influence plant phenology, saffron yield, and corm growth, including planting depth, planting period, and the application of fertilizers, mycorrhizal fungi, and biostimulants at planting. Soil temperature was monitored at the different planting depths throughout the year. Floral initiation was also monitored during spring and summer. Shoot emergence was delayed and final emergence reduced as planting depth increased; however, more shoots were produced by shallow-planted corms, which could lead to the production of corms too small to flower. The best time for planting saffron corm is between the end of July and the third week of August. Mineral fertilization hastened leaf emergence and improved corm production and their nutrient content. Neither the addition of mycorrhizal fungi or of biostimulants had any significant impact on saffron growth or flowering. Floral induction likely took place in July as flower bud appeared in early August. In most years, flower and saffron production was low in this location. It appears that soil temperature did not remain high for long enough during the summer to promote floral induction and autumn temperatures decreased too fast, limiting shoot and flower emergence most years. However, these climatic conditions did not affect corm production; corms could thus be sold to secure revenues for producers.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0053
       
  • Rotational grazing increases purple prairie clover frequency in the
           rangeland plant communities under semi-arid environment

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      Authors: Tianqi Zhao, Alan D. Iwaasa
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Purple prairie clover (PPC, Dalea purpurea Vent.) is a grazing tolerant perennial legume with good nutritional quality and is widely distributed across North America. Deferred rotational grazing (DR) and continuous grazing (CG) are the most widespread grazing systems on North American grasslands. We conducted a 10 yr grazing study to assess the effects of environmental factors and grazing on the frequency of PPC in plant communities. The results showed that the frequency of PPC decreased and then increased with increasing precipitation under CG (P  0.05). Meanwhile, PPC frequency increased with temperature under DR (P  0.05). Both grazing systems and the number of grazing years had a significant effect on PPC frequency (P  0.05). We found that from 2011 to 2020, the growth rate of PPC population is 18.24% and 11.69% per year under DR and CG grazing, respectively. Moreover, after 10 yr of grazing, the PPC increase in DR was 22.86% higher than that of CG. Thus, selecting the DR grazing system can increase PPC and is an effective practice for coping with environmental changes.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0141
       
  • CDC Lewochko yellow field pea

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      Authors: Tom Warkentin, Bunyamin Tar’an, Sabine Banniza, Albert Vandenberg, Kirstin Bett, Gene Arganosa, Brent Barlow, Jaret Horner, Devini de Silva, Stacey Wagenhoffer, Yong Liu, Kevin Mikituk, Anoja Weerasinghe, Dayna Raymond
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      CDC Lewochko, a yellow cotyledon field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivar, was released in 2018 by the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada, for distribution to Select seed growers through the Variety Release Committee of the Saskatchewan Pulse Growers. CDC Lewochko has good lodging resistance, medium time to maturity, medium-sized round seeds, mean seed protein concentration of 21.0%, and good yielding ability. It is resistant to powdery mildew and moderately susceptible to Mycosphaerella blight and Fusarium root rot. CDC Lewochko is adapted to the field pea growing regions of western Canada.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0224
       
  • CDC Tollefson yellow field pea

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      Authors: Tom Warkentin, Bunyamin Tar’an, Sabine Banniza, Albert Vandenberg, Kirstin Bett, Gene Arganosa, Brent Barlow, Jaret Horner, Devini de Silva, Stacey Wagenhoffer, Yong Liu, Kevin Mikituk, Anoja Weerasinghe, Dayna Raymond
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      CDC Tollefson, a yellow cotyledon field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivar, was released in 2021 by the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada, for distribution to Select seed growers through the Variety Release Committee of the Saskatchewan Pulse Growers. CDC Tollefson has good lodging resistance, medium time to maturity, medium-sized round seeds, mean seed protein concentration of 23.9%, and good yielding ability. It is resistant to powdery mildew and moderately susceptible to Mycosphaerella blight and Fusarium root rot. CDC Tollefson is adapted to the field pea growing regions of western Canada.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0225
       
  • CDC Hickie yellow field pea

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      Authors: Tom Warkentin, Bunyamin Tar’an, Sabine Banniza, Albert Vandenberg, Kirstin Bett, Gene Arganosa, Brent Barlow, Jaret Horner, Devini de Silva, Stacey Wagenhoffer, Yong Liu, Kevin Mikituk, Anoja Weerasinghe, Dayna Raymond
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      CDC Hickie, a yellow cotyledon field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivar, was released in 2021 by the Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan (SK, Canada), for distribution to Select seed growers through the Variety Release Committee of the Saskatchewan Pulse Growers. CDC Hickie has good lodging resistance, medium time to maturity, medium-sized round seeds, mean seed protein concentration of 24.4%, and good yielding ability. It is resistant to powdery mildew and moderately susceptible to Mycosphaerella blight and Fusarium root rot. CDC Hickie is adapted to the field pea growing regions of western Canada.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0226
       
  • AAC Richard soybean

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      Authors: K. Yu, L. Woodrow, C. Shi
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Richard is a food grade soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivar with yellow hilum, high protein concentration, and good processing quality for foreign and domestic soymilk, tofu, and miso markets. It has resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe). AAC Richard was developed at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) Harrow Research and Development Centre (Harrow-RDC), Harrow, Ontario, and is adapted to areas of southwest Ontario with 3100 or more crop heat units and has a relative maturity of 2.3 (MG 2.3).
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0261
       
  • Relationships among blueberry species within the section Cyanococcus of
           the Vaccinium genus based on EST-PCR markers

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      Authors: Lisa J. Rowland, Elizabeth L. Ogden, James R. Ballington
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Commercial blueberry species of North America belong to the Vaccinium genus, section Cyanococcus. Phylogenetic relationships of 50 accessions of different ploidy levels within Cyanococcus were investigated using 249 expressed sequence tag-polymerase chain reaction markers and standard clustering methods. Of the commercial species, tetraploid V. corymbosum grouped most closely with the diploids, V. fuscatum and V. caesariense, followed by the diploid V. elliottii. Tetraploid V. angustifolium grouped with the diploids, V. boreale and V. myrtilloides. Hexaploid V. virgatum grouped most closely with the diploid V. tenellum, thus shedding light on the origins of these polyploid species.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-13T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0221
       
  • Dimethoate insecticide application seldom reduces silvertop incidence in
           grass seed fields on the Canadian prairies

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      Authors: J.J. Soroka, B.D. Gossen
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Many arthropods have been reported (but none confirmed) as causal agents of sterile seed heads in perennial grass seed fields, known as silvertop or white head. Field studies to identify the arthropods that cause silvertop were conducted in five perennial grass species at seven sites in Saskatchewan, Canada, over several years. The effect timing of insecticide application in spring — early, mid, or late — and of post-harvest residue management — mowing, close mowing with straw removed (scalping), and burning — on subsequent arthropod populations, silvertop incidence, and seed yield were assessed. Samples of grass tillers and sweep net collections were taken regularly, and the arthropods collected were identified to family level and counted. Arthropod populations from sweep samples varied among sites and dates in number and taxon composition, but no arthropod assemblage was consistently associated with silvertop in any grass species. Thrips were the most numerous arthropods on tillers at all sites. Insecticide application often temporarily reduced arthropod populations, but reduced silvertop incidence at only 1 of 15 site-years, and increased seed yield at only 1 of 17 site-years. Scalping or burning did not reduce silvertop incidence but often increased healthy seed head numbers and seed yield relative to mowing, the standard treatment. The majority of Kentucky bluegrass fields had extremely low seed yields unrelated to silvertop or arthropod levels. This extensive study, across a range of grass species and management regimes, provides strong support for the conclusion based on previous work that arthropod pests are not the sole cause of silvertop.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0187
       
  • Nitrogen management strategies on plant growth and severities of
           Sclerotinia stem rot of canola in eastern Canada

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      Authors: Fen Gao, Yuanhong Chen, SeaRa Lim, Allen G. Xue, Bao-Luo Ma
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Effective nitrogen (N) management strategies are important for ensuring a balance between optimizing plant growth and minimizing disease damage. A field experiment was conducted for three years to (i) assess the effects of N fertilizer application on the growth and seed yield of canola and severities of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), and (ii) to determine a reasonable N-rate for optimizing plant growth and minimizing the loss from SSR in eastern Canada. The experiment was designed with factorial combinations of eight N treatments and two canola hybrids. All N treatments reduced canola emergence with increasing preplant N application rates above 100 kg ha−1, but had a positive impact on plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and seed yield. The development of SSR showed differential responses to N application rates. Of all the treatments, the split application (50 kg N ha−1 at preplant plus 100 kg N ha−1 side-dressed at the 6-leaf stage) increased canola growth and often produced the highest or similar seed yields to those of equivalent N rate applied as preplant. At the 150 kg ha−1 N rate, no severe development of SSR was observed in either preplant-only or split application. Overall, this study demonstrates that the split-N management strategy (50 + 100 kg ha−1) maintained a balance between enhancing plant growth and mitigating the negative impacts of SSR on canola.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-12-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0160
       
  • Evolutionary pattern of the presence and absence genes in Fragaria species

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      Authors: Yan Zhong, Ping Wang, Qinglong Shi, Zong-Ming Cheng
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Presence and absence polymorphisms (PAPs) exist extensively and have been investigated in different organisms. However, PAPs have rarely been detected between strawberry species at the genome level. This study identified the presence and absence genes (P/A genes) between wild strawberry species (Fragaria vesca) and octoploid cultivated species (F. × ananassa) under a relatively strict criterion. In total, 333 P/A genes present in the wild strawberry but absent in the cultivated strawberry were detected. Of the P/A genes, 91.89% (306/333) were single genes, and only 8.11% were confirmed as multi-genes. The majority of the identified P/A genes in Fragaria were generated by tandem duplications. The P/A genes were unevenly distributed on the seven chromosomes of woodland strawberry, and they clustered preferentially near the telomeric regions of the chromosomes. The P/A genes tended to encode proteins with domains closely associated with responses to varying ecological factors, such as PPR, Protein kinases (PKs), NB-ARC, F-box and EF-hand domains. This indicated that the P/A genes were associated with coping with biotic and abiotic stresses to improve the adaptability of plants to changing environments.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2020-0316
       
  • Glyphosate- and acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant kochia (Bassia
           scoparia) control in field pea

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Alysha T. Torbiak, Robert E. Blackshaw, Randall N. Brandt, Bill Hamman, Charles M. Geddes
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] is an invasive C4 tumbleweed in the Great Plains of North America, where it impedes crop harvest and causes significant crop yield losses. Rapid evolution and spread of glyphosate- and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant kochia in western Canada limit the herbicide options available for control of these biotypes in field pea (Pisum sativum L.); one of the predominant pulse crops grown in this region. Field experiments were conducted near Lethbridge, Alberta, in 2013–2015 and Coalhurst, Alberta, in 2013–2014 to determine which herbicide options effectively control glyphosate- and ALS inhibitor-resistant kochia in field pea. Visible injury of field pea was minor (0%–4%) in all environments except for Lethbridge 2013, where pre-plant (PP) flumioxazin and all treatments containing post-emergence (POST) imazamox/bentazon resulted in unacceptable (14%–23%) visible injury in field pea. Herbicide impacts on field pea yield were minor overall. Carfentrazone + sulfentrazone PP and saflufenacil PP followed by imazamox/bentazon POST resulted in ≥80% visible control of kochia in all environments, while POST imazamox/bentazon alone resulted in ≥80% reduction in kochia biomass in all environments compared with the untreated control (albeit, absent of statistical difference in Coalhurst 2014). These results suggest that layering the protoporhyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides saflufenacil or carfentrazone + sulfentrazone PP with the ALS- and photosystem II-inhibiting herbicide combination imazamox/bentazon POST can effectively control glyphosate- and ALS inhibitor-resistant kochia in field pea while also mitigating further selection for herbicide resistance through the use of multiple effective herbicide modes-of-action.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-11T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0178
       
  • Evaluation of barley testing locations in Ontario

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      Authors: Raja Khanal, Ana Badea
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      To develop new barley cultivars, promising genotypes are evaluated for their performance each year at several test locations representing the target region. In this study, we analyzed the Ontario barley registration trial data from 2015 to 2020 to understand the barley mega-environment in Ontario and to evaluate the suitability of the test locations. The analysis showed that the barley test locations fall into two mega-environments, with a major mega-environment consists of five test locations and a minor mega-environment with a single test location. Among the six test locations used for the barley registration trials, Palmerston was found to be the most desirable for the barley cultivar evaluation representing the Ontario barley growing region. This study also identified OB2930-35, a recently released cultivar, to be both high yielding and stable across Ontario. These findings are useful for future barley breeding and cultivar evaluation in Ontario.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0149
       
  • The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 159. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Hafsa T. Ahmed, Ardath Francis, David R. Clements, Elyse Dyck, Natalie Ross, Mahesh K. Upadhyaya, Linda M. Hall, Sara L. Martin
      Pages: 1 - 24
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik, shepherd’s purse, is a cosmopolitan summer or winter annual weed species distributed throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world and is considered one of the most common plants on earth. It is an opportunistic annual that colonizes newly disturbed, open or dry environments and is ubiquitous in cultivated lands in Canada. In annual crops in western Canada, C. bursa-pastoris has been among the 20 most abundant weeds since the first weed surveys in 1970. It is most easily distinguished by its small white four-petalled flowers and its heart-shaped seed-pods, but exhibits considerable variation in leaf shape and flowering time. It has been used for food and medicine by numerous cultures. Its golden-brown seeds are produced in large numbers predominantly through self-pollination and can form a substantial seed bank, with reported values ranging to several hundred thousand seeds m−2. While seeds usually disperse near the mother plant, long-distance dispersal by attaching to vehicles, people and other vectors may be facilitated by its mucilaginous coat. Capsella bursa-pastoris does not produce fertile hybrids with other species of economic or ecological significance. It is generally well controlled by soil-applied and foliar (post-emergence) herbicides although its presence in agricultural fields may result in substantial yield loss, as documented in cole crops in North America and grain crops in Europe. The species can host a wide range of insect, nematode, fungal, viral, and bacterial pests that may damage crop species.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0059
       
  • Cold hardiness of select apple cider cultivars in Canada

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      Authors: John A. Cline, Amanda Beneff, A. Michelle Edwards
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      There is increasing interest in growing European origin apple cultivars for the production of hard cider in Canada; however, little is known about their winter hardiness. Eleven promising cider cultivars were evaluated for cold hardiness over two consecutive winters and compared with the winter tender cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. Sections of the current season’s dormant shoots were frozen in a series of test temperatures ranging from −20 °C to −40 °C in a programmable freezer. Xylem tissue browning ratings were used to assess injury after thawing. The temperature of incipient damage (TID), the warmest temperature at which 1-yr-old shoot segments begin to show injury, was obtained from tissue browning curves using non-linear regression. TID varied significantly among cultivars and between sampling years. Overall, the cultivars could be classified according to relative winter hardiness as follows: Ashmead’s Kernel, Bramley’s Seedling (very tender) 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0167
       
  • Weed emergence and seedbank after three years of repetitive shallow
           cultivation in a muck soil field

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      Authors: Marie-Josée Simard, Robert E. Nurse, Audrey-Kim Minville, Lydia Maheux, Martin Laforest, Kristen Obeid
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Frequent cultivation is often used to control weeds in crops such as lettuce. The efficacy of this technique on weed populations has been evaluated, but the effect on weed emergence and seedbanks is less documented. Studies in mineral soil indicate that soil disturbance can increase both weed emergence and seed persistence depending on where seeds are redistributed in the soil profile. Evaluations done in muck soil are scarce. This study evaluated the effect of two and four repetitive shallow (3.4 to 7.1 cm deep) cultivations on weed emergence and the weed seedbank in muck soil. Cultivation treatments (0, 2, and 4 cultivations using a inter-row rototiller) were done in lettuce plots from 2017 to 2019. Weed density was evaluated by species before each cultivation date and after crop harvest. Viable seedbanks were evaluated by collecting soil samples before and after each growing season and placing them in greenhouse flats. Statistical analyses were based on mixed models. Results showed that shallow cultivation modified the emergence patterns of weeds but did not reduce total emergence during the subsequent years or viable seedbanks. After two seasons without seed inputs, total emergence was reduced by 46.6% and the seedbank was reduced by 31.7% regardless of the cultivation treatment. However, the seedbank of the very abundant common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) remained high.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0200
       
  • Elk (Cervus elaphus) grazing reduces volunteer soybean density
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Emily N. Barteaux, Eric G. Lamb
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Management of glyphosate resistant volunteer soybean can be challenging and costly in other glyphosate resistant crops. This study examined the effect of elk (Cervus elaphus) grazing on volunteer soybean (Glycine max) management. Volunteer soybean density was assessed in four fields grazed by elk and three without elk in western Manitoba, Canada. This study determined that elk grazing of soybean stubble significantly reduced soybean volunteer density in the following crop. These results demonstrate that winter elk grazing can be an effective management technique for volunteer soybeans.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-11-01T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0135
       
  • Intercropping organic field peas with barley, oats, and mustard improves
           weed control but has variable effects on grain yield and net returns

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Will Bailey-Elkin, Michelle Carkner, Martin H. Entz
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Interest in intercropping semi-leafless field peas (Pisum sativum L.) is increasing as a means of weed control in organic production. We evaluated field pea (cv. CDC Amarillo) grown alone or intercropped with three seeding rates of either barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), or oat (Avena sativa L.). A full seeding rate of field pea was used in each instance, resulting in an additive intercropping design. Each crop combination was conducted in a separate experiment, three times over two years (2019 and 2020) in Carman, MB. Measurements included crop and weed biomass production, grain yield and quality, and net return. Intercrops reduced weed biomass at maturity from 17% to 44% with barley and oat being more suppressive than mustard. Intercrops also reduced field pea yield from 6% to 26%, but increased field pea seed mass. Barley at the high seeding rate provided the most weed suppression per unit of field pea yield loss (2.62 kg of weed suppression per kg of field pea yield loss) compared with oat (1.29) and mustard (0.87). Barley and mustard intercrops decreased net return compared with monoculture field pea. Under low weed pressure (1150 kg·ha−1 weed biomass at maturity) and earlier seeding, oat intercrops reduced net return. However, under weedy conditions (2649 kg·ha−1) and later seeding, field pea-oat intercrops significantly increased net return. In conclusion, while all three intercrop mixtures reduced weed biomass, reductions in field pea yields were observed, and net return benefits were observed only in certain circumstances.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0182
       
  • Early performance of several Prunus interspecific hybrid rootstocks for
           Redhaven peach in southern Ontario

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      Authors: J.A. Cline, C.J. Bakker
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      A multi-year orchard experiment was established to measure the performance of Rootpac®-R, Rootpac®-20, Rootpac®-40, and Rootpac®-70 rootstocks using ‘Redhaven’ peach (Prunus persica var. persica) as the scion, compared with the ‘Bailey’ peach seedling rootstock, the current industry standard. Tree survival after five years was 79% on Rootpac-40, whereas the remaining rootstocks showed no tree mortality. Tree vigour and canopy height and width were influenced by rootstock genotype beginning the year of planting in 2016. For the first five years of production, Rootpac-70 consistently produced the largest trees based on truck cross-sectional area (TCSA) and by year five, all rootstocks produced trees with similar TCSAs, except for Rootpac-70, which was 38% larger than Bailey. By year five, cumulative yields were greatest on Rootpac-70, which were 10% higher than Bailey; cumulative yields of Rootpac-R, Rootpac-20, and Rootpac-30 were 98%, 89%, and 84% that of Bailey, respectively. Cumulative yield efficiency was significantly influenced by rootstock although the magnitude of the differences was small and likely of insignificant commercial importance. Rootpac-40 consistently produced the largest fruit. These results are only reflective of the orchard establishment years and additional data are required before peach producers can make fully informed decisions concerning the rootstocks evaluated in this study for their orchard systems. However, at this juncture, all the Rootpac rootstocks evaluated in this study are likely to impart excessive vigour to be used in a higher density system and offer little advantage over Bailey.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0128
       
  • Eight cycles of half-sib family recurrent selection to improve rubber
           yield in Russian dandelion

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      Authors: David J. Wolyn, Gregory Innes
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz) produces natural rubber which can complement the world’s supply of this strategic commodity, derived mainly from the Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Four cycles of half-sib family recurrent selection conducted previously in Russian dandelion improved rubber yield nearly 50%. The objectives of this research were to continue selection for four additional cycles and evaluate progress from eight generations of breeding, and assess the potential for future gains. Rubber yield increased from 0.205 to 0.378 g/plant from Cycle 0 (C0) to C8, representing an 84% improvement, or 10% per cycle. Increases from C0 to C4 were similar to those from C4 to C8. Root dry weight did not increase from selection and improved yield only resulted from enhancing rubber percentage which changed from 4.35% to 7.62%. Selection response has not plateaued, and phenotypic variation has not decreased, indicating continued gains can occur with additional breeding.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0134
       
  • Impact of gum arabic and cactus mucilage as potential coating substances
           combined with calcium chloride treatment on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum
           L.) fruit quality attributes under ambient storage conditions

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      Authors: Fayez Sati Daraghmah, Tawfiq Qubbaj
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      The current work investigates the impact of postharvest applications of calcium chloride (CaCl2) in combination with either 10% gum arabic or 50% cactus mucilage on the quality parameters and storability of tomato fruit (Izmir variety), at ambient storage conditions [21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity (RH) 45% ± 2%]. The tomato fruits were dipped in 6% CaCl2 for 10 min and then coated with either 10% gum arabic or 50% cactus mucilage for 3 min. During the time-course of storage, the fruit attributes, such as fresh fruit weight loss, fruit decay, firmness, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and color development were assessed. The results revealed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of fruit postharvest treatment with 6% CaCl2 for 10 min combined with postharvest coating treatments with either 10% gum arabic or 50% cactus mucilage for 3 min on reducing fruit fresh weight loss, and decay percent of fruits. Fruit firmness, TA, and TSS were preserved compared with untreated fruit. In addition, treated fruits took more time to develop from pink to full red compared with untreated fruit. Hence, coating with natural substances combined with CaCl2 preserved the overall quality parameters and enhanced the shelf life of tomato fruit even after three weeks of storage at ambient temperature.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-28T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0164
       
  • AAC Hodge Canada western red spring wheat
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Santosh Kumar, S.L. Fox, Kirby T. Nilsen, Denis Green, Thomas Fetch, Brent McCallum, Reem Aboukhaddour, Maria Antonia Henriquez
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Hodge (BW1069) is a hollow-stemmed, awned and high yielding Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat cultivar suited to the growing conditions in Western Canada. AAC Hodge was 6% higher yielding than AAC Viewfield, the highest yielding check in the Central Bread Wheat Cooperative (CBWC) registration trials (2017–2019). Within the same test, AAC Hodge was 16% higher yielding than Carberry. AAC Hodge matured 1 d earlier than Carberry and 2 d later than Unity; Unity is the earliest maturing check in the eastern prairie growing conditions. AAC Hodge was 7 cm shorter with better lodging resistance than Unity. The lodging score for AAC Hodge was lower than the mean of the checks. The test weight of AAC Hodge was similar to the mean of the checks. Over the 3 yr of testing (2017–2019), the 1000-kernel weight of AAC Hodge was equal to, or higher than all the checks. The grain protein content of AAC Hodge was equal to that of AAC Viewfield. AAC Hodge was rated moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight (FHB; Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) and resistant to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend), stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn), and common bunt [Tilletia caries (DC) Tul. & C. Tul.]. AAC Hodge ranged from resistant to moderately susceptible for its reaction to the Ug99 family of stem rusts. AAC Hodge was resistant to orange wheat blossom midge (OBWM) (Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin). AAC Hodge was registered under the CWRS class.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-21T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0197
       
  • Rapid increase in glyphosate resistance and confirmation of
           dicamba-resistant kochia (Bassia scoparia) in Manitoba

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Charles M. Geddes, Mattea M. Pittman, Robert H. Gulden, Tammy Jones, Julia Y. Leeson, Shaun M. Sharpe, Scott W. Shirriff, Hugh J. Beckie
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Increased adoption of crops with stacked traits conferring glyphosate and dicamba resistance, and recent confirmation of kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] biotypes resistant to these herbicides in Alberta and Saskatchewan, warrant surveillance of herbicide-resistant kochia in Manitoba. A randomized–stratified survey of 315 sites in Manitoba was conducted in the fall of 2018. Overall, 58% of the kochia populations tested were glyphosate-resistant, while 1% were dicamba-resistant. This survey documents rapid increase in glyphosate-resistant kochia over a five-year time frame, and also confirms the first cases of kochia in Manitoba with dicamba resistance alone and in combination with glyphosate resistance.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0169
       
  • AAC Redberry hard red spring wheat
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: R.D. Cuthbert, R.M. DePauw, R.E. Knox, A.K. Singh, B. McCallum, T. Fetch, Y. Ruan
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Redberry hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a grain yield significantly higher than the check cultivars Katepwa, and Lillian and is similar to Carberry. AAC Redberry matures in a similar number of days as Katewpa and Lillian, and is significantly earlier maturing than Carberry. AAC Redberry has an awned spike, and a low lodging score indicative of strong straw that is significantly lower than Katepwa and Lillian but significantly higher than Carberry. Plant stature is taller than Carberry, but shorter than Lillian and Katepwa. AAC Redberry expressed resistance to prevalent races of leaf rust, stem rust, yellow rust, loose smut, moderate resistance to common bunt and intermediate resistance to Fusarium head blight. AAC Redberry has quality attributes within the range of the check cultivars and is eligible for grades of Canada Western Red Spring wheat.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0129
       
  • CO477, CO478, CO479, and CO480 inbred lines

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      Authors: A.Z. Kebede, L.M. Reid, C. Voloaca, R. De Schiffart, J. Wu, T. Woldemariam, K.K. Jindal, X. Zhu, M.J. Morrison
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      CO477, CO478, CO479, and CO480 are mid- to late-season [75–81 d to flowering, crop heat units (CHU) = 1720–1855] corn (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with high stalk sugar levels. The level of sugar in the stalks are very high especially when grown as inbred lines. On average, the inbred lines yield three times more sugar than their testcrosses. These inbred lines are the first to be developed and released for biofuel production, from the corn breeding program of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Additionally, these inbred lines can be used for sugar and (or) silage production. They have moderate to intermediate resistance to common rust, eyespot, northern corn leaf blight and fusarium stalk rot but are susceptible to gibberella ear rot.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0071
       
  • Effect of light quality and extended photoperiod on flower bud induction
           during transplant production of day-neutral strawberry cultivars

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Varinder Sidhu, Valérie Bernier-English, Marianne Lamontagne-Drolet, Valérie Gravel
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Day-neutral (DN) strawberry cultivars are increasingly grown in Canada because they produce flowers and fruits continuously until October. Appropriate artificial lighting conditions during preparation of high-quality transplants is critical. Unfortunately, systematic evaluation of appropriate artificial lighting conditions during transplant production is limited. The objective of this study was to determine how an extended photoperiod supplemented with different light quality affects the vegetative and reproductive growth of a day-neutral cultivar during transplant production. In the first trial, we investigated the photoperiodic nature of the DN cultivar ‘Albion’ under low intensity incandescent light. Transplants were grown under three light combinations with different far-red : blue ratios (1:5, 5:1 and 1:1), supplemented for long day (LD; 24 h), short day (SD; 10 h) photoperiods and during a night interruption (NI) for 2 h. ‘Albion’ cultivar exhibited similar degree of flowering sensitivity regardless of photoperiod duration when incandescent light was used as predominant light source. In case of light emitting diodes (LEDs), dominant blue (1:5) LEDs prompted a significant increase in flower bud induction (FBI), more explicitly under the LD photoperiod. Furthermore, transplants grown under dominant blue light (1:5) supplied during NI produced eight flower buds per plant, the highest among all treatments, and promoted flower development outside the crown. Based on the results, it appears that lower wavelengths advance flowering and higher wavelengths contribute towards the morphological traits especially during transplant production. Results suggest that combination of far-red and blue LEDs at 1:5 ratio could be a potential light source to improve flower bud induction and floral development to subsequently increase fruit production.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0081
       
  • Canadian spring hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars exhibit
           broad adaptation to ultra-early wheat planting systems

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Graham R.S. Collier, Dean M. Spaner, Robert J. Graf, Cindy A. Gampe, Brian L. Beres
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Ultra-early wheat growing systems based on soil temperature triggers for planting instead of arbitrary calendar dates can increase grain yield and overall growing system stability of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the northern Great Plains. We conducted field trials at three sites in western Canada from 2017 to 2019 to evaluate the suitability of Canadian spring hexaploid wheat cultivars and market classes for use within ultra-early spring wheat growing systems. All cultivars and classes exhibited improved grain yield stability (lower adjusted coefficient of variation values) and optimal grain yield when planted ultra-early at 2 °C soil temperature rather than delaying planting to 8 °C.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0155
       
  • Effects of clipping frequency on tiller development of crested wheatgrass
           and hybrid bromegrass at vegetative and reproductive stages

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      Authors: Ru-Yue Fan, David MacTaggart, Hu Wang, Ravindra N. Chibbar, Qing Feng Li, Bill Biligetu
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Information on the tiller development of hybrid bromegrass (Bromus inermis × Bromus riparius) is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of clipping frequency at the vegetative and reproductive stages on the tiller development and concentrations of sugars of c.v ‘AC Knowles’ hybrid bromegrass compared with c.v ‘Kirk’ crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.). This experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using the tillers of the vernalized plants dug from the field. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Grasses were clipped once or four times at either vegetative or reproductive stage. Regardless of the growth stage, four clippings reduced the tiller number of hybrid bromegrass by 25.9% compared with the undefoliated control, while single clipping had no impact. The four clippings had no impact on the tiller number of crested wheatgrass, while single clipping increased its tiller number on average by 50.4% at both growth stages. Crested wheatgrass produced 16.6% more tillers than hybrid bromegrass under the single clipping. The two grass species had a similar number of axillary buds under different clipping treatments. The axillary bud size of crested wheatgrass was larger than hybrid bromegrass. All axillary buds were viable under the two clipping treatments for both grasses. Four clippings significantly decreased the stem base glucose concentration of the two grasses and the root sucrose concentration of crested wheatgrass. Hybrid bromegrass was less tolerant to frequent clippings than crested wheatgrass. Therefore, intensive grazing of hybrid bromegrass pasture may result in a thin stand.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0087
       
  • AAC Profit field pea

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      Authors: Deng-Jin Bing, Don Beauchesne, Richard Cuthbert, Hamid Naeem
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Profit is a semi-leafless, yellow cotyledonary field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivar developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Lacombe Research and Development Centre, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada. It has a maturity of 101 d, thousand-seed weight of 218 g, and a lodging score of 4.1 on the scale of 1–9 (1 = upright, 9 = prostrate). The seed crude protein content of AAC Profit is 24.5%. AAC Profit is resistant to powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe pisi), and moderately susceptible to mycosphaerella blight (caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes) and fusarium wilt (caused by Fusarium oxysporum).
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0153
       
  • AAC Delhi field pea

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      Authors: Deng-Jin Bing, Don Beauchesne
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Delhi is a semi-leafless, large-seeded yellow field pea (Pisum sativum L.) variety developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Lacombe Research and Development Centre, Lacombe, AB, Canada. It has high yielding potential, medium maturity and good lodging resistance. AAC Delhi has the maturity of 95 d, and one-thousand-seed weight of 288 g. AAC Delhi is resistant to powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe pisi Syd.) and is moderately susceptible to mycosphaerella blight (caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes) and fusarium wilt (caused by Fusarium oxysporum). AAC Delhi is adapted to all field growing regions in western Canada.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-20T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0154
       
  • Seasonal patterns of forage quality in six native forb species

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      Authors: Roy Vera-Velez, Eric G. Lamb
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      The forage value of native forbs is rarely considered in pasture mixtures, even though such species can make up a substantial proportion of the diet of cattle on native rangelands. Incorporating non-leguminous forbs into pasture grazing systems can provide additional ecosystem services such as pollination habitat, and ideally those forbs would also provide some forage value. We therefore assessed the seasonal variation in protein and fiber [neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF)] content of six common western Canadian native forb and sub-shrub species: yarrow (Achillea millefolium), smooth aster (Symphyotricum laeve), prairie crocus (Pulsatilla patens), prairie rose (Rosa arkansana), Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), and American vetch (Vicia americana). The legume V. americana displayed the highest protein followed by S. canadensis and S. laeve. V. americana also has the highest fiber concentration through the growing season. S. canadensis and S. laeve had lower fiber content; thus, making them a good choice for addition in seed mixes to meet the energy and nutrient requirements of cattle. Forb protein and fiber content showed opposite trends during the growing season. Crude protein decreased while NDF and ADF increased as a general pattern tied to physiological stage and degree of senescence. The promising nutritional profile of some forb species suggests that these species should be considered in pasture mixes.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0151
       
  • AAC Vortex hard red winter wheat
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: R.J. Graf, B.L. Beres, A. Laroche, R. Aboukhaddour, R.J. Larsen, D.G. Humphreys, H.S. Randhawa, N.A. Foroud
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      AAC Vortex is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar well-adapted to all areas of western Canada and classified for grades of Canada Western Red Winter (CWRW) wheat. It was developed using doubled-haploid methodology. AAC Vortex was evaluated for registration relative to CDC Buteo, Emerson, Moats, and AAC Elevate across Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Based on 44 replicated trials over 4 y (2016/17–2019/20), AAC Vortex had significantly higher grain yield than CDC Buteo and Emerson, and higher grain protein concentration than all of the checks except Emerson. AAC Vortex expressed winter survival and lodging resistance equal to the best checks, medium maturity and height, and acceptable test weight. AAC Vortex was resistant to stem, leaf and stripe rust, moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight, and susceptible to common bunt. AAC Vortex produced flour of higher protein concentration than all of the checks except Emerson, had higher clean wheat flour yield and loaf volume than all of the checks, and was similar in gluten strength to Emerson.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0142
       
  • Pathogenicity, anastomosis groups, host range, and genetic diversity of
           Rhizoctonia species isolated from soybean, pea, and other crops in Alberta
           and Manitoba, Canada

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      Authors: Haitian Yu, Qixing Zhou, Sheau-Fang Hwang, Andrew J. Ho, Kan-Fa Chang, Stephen E. Strelkov, Yuhua He, Robert L. Conner, Michael W. Harding
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Root rot is a common disease in soybean (Glycine max) and field pea (Pisum sativum), which restrain increased production in Canada. Sixty-seven isolates of Rhizoctonia were recovered from various diseased plants in Alberta, Canada along with three isolates from diseased soybean plants in Manitoba, Canada. According to their anastomosis behavior, 23 (32.9%) of the isolates were identified as anastomosis group (AG) 4 (AG4), 7 (10.0%) were AG2-1, 10 (14.3%) were AG2-2, 7 (10.0%) were AG5, 3 (4.3%) were AG-E and the AGs of the remaining 20 (28.6%) isolates could not be determined. Isolates belonging to AG4 produced typical symptoms of stem rot and root rot on seedlings of soybean and pea and were more aggressive than the AG2-1, AG2-2, AG5 and AG-E isolates. Selected isolates of AG4, AG2-1, AG2-2, AG5 and AG-E were to some degree able to infect common crops in Alberta, which included barley, canola, corn, faba bean, flax, lupin, lentil, pea, potato, soybean, and wheat. The genetic variability among these isolates was evaluated using phylogenetic analysis based on the rDNA ITS sequences and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. For the ITS sequence analysis, a neighbour-joining tree was constructed using the PAUP program, which clustered the Rhizoctonia isolates into five groups (Groups I to V). However, no correlation was observed between AGs, locations, aggressiveness or host origins. For the ISSR analysis, 54 polymorphic ISSR patterns were identified, indicating a high level of diversity among the isolates.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0039
       
  • Effect of nanosized calcium and magnesium particles on absorption in peach
           tree leaves

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      Authors: Jae-Ryoung Park, Yoon-Hee Jang, Il Kyung Chung, Kyung-Min Kim
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Plants require a variety of elements to grow. Of these, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) play an important role in strengthening the cell wall. Although peaches (Prunus Persica) are highly preferred by consumers, they ripen quickly and become soft over a relatively short period of time after harvesting, making them difficult to transport and store. In addition, the ripening process of peaches proceeds very quickly; cell walls are weakened during maturation, and various pathogens can easily grow, causing rapid decay. Therefore, yield loss occurs during long-term storage or transport. To increase the storage period, a method to delay softening action is required. One potential means to improve firmness is to improve Ca and Mg content as these elements make up and strengthen cell walls. However, Ca and Mgare not readily absorbed by plants. In this study, the size of Ca and Mg particles were reduced to less than 900 nm via grinding and their absorption rates were evaluated in the leaves of peach trees. When plant nutrients with a small particle size by nanotechnology were sprayed on peach trees, the content of Ca and Mg was increased in the petioles, adaxial, abaxial, and leaf side. Therefore, a reduction in the particle size of Ca and Mg increases the absorption rate in peach leaves.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2020-0271
       
  • Fluroxypyr-resistant kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] confirmed in
           Alberta

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Charles M. Geddes, Teandra E. Ostendorf, Mallory L. Owen, Julia Y. Leeson, Shaun M. Sharpe, Scott W. Shirriff, Hugh J. Beckie
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Ahead of Print.
      Recent confirmation of dicamba-resistant kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] in Alberta warrants investigation of resistance to other commonly used synthetic auxin herbicides like fluroxypyr. A randomized-stratified survey of 305 sites in Alberta was conducted in 2017 to determine the status of fluroxypyr-resistant kochia. Overall, 13% of the kochia populations were fluroxypyr-resistant. Only 4% of the populations were both fluroxypyr- and dicamba-resistant, indicating that different mechanisms may confer resistance to these herbicides. When combined with estimates of dicamba resistance, about 28% of the kochia populations sampled in Alberta in 2017 were resistant to at least one synthetic auxin herbicide.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-23T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2021-0111
       
 
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