Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  


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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.812
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1999-4907
Published by MDPI Homepage  [246 journals]
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1969: Physical and Mechanical Properties
           Performance between Untreated and Treated with CCA Treatment at Different
           Age Groups of Fast-Growing Acacia Hybrid of Sarawak

    • Authors: Gaddafi Ismaili, Ellyne Enduat, Nur Syahina Yahya, Fanthy Moola Malek, Noor Azland Jaimudin, Khairul Khuzaimah Abdul Rahim, Mohd Effendi Wasli, Meekiong Kalu, Iskanda Openg, Ahmad Nurfaidhi Rizalman, Jack Liam, Biha Razali
      First page: 1969
      Abstract: An effort was carried out to fully utilise fast-growing Acacia hybrid usage in the timber engineering field; however, the research data are still lacking. This paper aims to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties performance between untreated (control) and treated with 10% copper chrome arsenic of Acacia hybrid collected from Daikin Plantation Sdn. Bhd. Bintulu, Sarawak at air-dry condition at different age groups using the small clear method. Mechanical properties test refers to shear parallel to grain (tangential and radial directions), cleavage (tangential and radial directions), and tension parallel to grain test. Meanwhile, the physical properties test refers to moisture content (MC) and density test. After treatment, mechanical properties increase with an average of 13.67%; meanwhile, moisture content decreased with an average of 0.58% or 0.09% MC, and density slightly increased with an average of 0.44% or 0.002 g/cm3. Results indicate that 10-year-old Acacia hybrid exhibits the highest strength values in shear parallel to the grain, tension parallel to the grain, and cleavage, followed by 13-year-old and 7-year-old. Treated samples in the tangential direction performed better with consistent mean results than that of the untreated samples, while radial direction gave a high average strength increment when treated.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121969
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1970: Mapping Homogeneous Response Areas for
           Forest Fuel Management Using Geospatial Data, K-Means, and Random Forest

    • Authors: Álvaro Agustín Chávez-Durán, Miguel Olvera-Vargas, Blanca Figueroa-Rangel, Mariano García, Inmaculada Aguado, José Ariel Ruiz-Corral
      First page: 1970
      Abstract: Accurate description of forest fuels is necessary for developing appropriate fire management strategies aimed at reducing fire risk. Although field surveys provide accurate measurements of forest fuel load estimations, they are time consuming, expensive, and may fail to capture the inherent spatial heterogeneity of forest fuels. Previous efforts were carried out to solve this issue by estimating homogeneous response areas (HRAs), representing a promising alternative. However, previous methods suffer from a high degree of subjectivity and are difficult to validate. This paper presents a method, which allows eliminating subjectivity in estimating HRAs spatial distribution, using artificial intelligence machine learning techniques. The proposed method was developed in the natural protected area of “Sierra de Quila,” Jalisco, and was replicated in “Sierra de Álvarez,” San Luis Potosí and “Selva El Ocote,” Chiapas, Mexico, to prove its robustness. Input data encompassed a set of environmental variables including altitude, average annual precipitation, enhanced vegetation index, and forest canopy height. Four, three, and five HRAs with overall accuracy of 97.78%, 98.06%, and 98.92% were identified at “Sierra de Quila,” “Sierra de Álvarez,” and “Selva El Ocote,” respectively. Altitude and average annual precipitation were identified as the most explanatory variables in all locations, achieving a mean decrease in impurity values greater than 52.51% for altitude and up to 36.02% for average annual precipitation. HRAs showed statistically significant differences in all study sites according to the Kruskal–Wallis test (p-value < 0.05). Differences among groups were also significant based on the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney (p-value < 0.05) for all variables but EVI in “Selva El Ocote.” These results show the potential of our approach to objectively identify distinct homogeneous areas in terms of their fuel properties. This allows the adequate management of fire and forest fuels in decision-making processes.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121970
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1971: Epigenetic and Genetic Variability in
           Contrasting Latitudinal Fagus sylvatica L. Provenances

    • Authors: María Ángeles Guevara, David Sánchez-Gómez, María Dolores Vélez, Nuria de María, Luis Miguel Díaz, José Alberto Ramírez-Valiente, José Antonio Mancha, Ismael Aranda, María Teresa Cervera
      First page: 1971
      Abstract: The adaptive capacity of a species and its population is determined by both genetic and epigenetic variation, which defines the potential for adaptive evolution and plastic response to environmental changes. In this study, we used Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), similar genome-wide profiling techniques, to analyze the epigenetic and genetic variability in European beech provenances from Germany (DE), Spain (ES) and Sweden (SE), representing the latitudinal distribution of the species. In addition, we evaluated the effect of moderate water stress on cytosine methylation dynamics by comparing two latitudinal contrasting provenances. Our analysis revealed that trees from ES showed lower values of epigenetic and genetic diversity than those from DE and SE. Analyses of molecular variance for MSAPs and AFLPs showed that 16% and 15% of the among population variations were associated with epigenetic and genetic variation, respectively. The study of the effect of water stress on cytosine methylation dynamics in seedlings from ES and SE revealed no significant levels of epigenetic differentiation between well-watered and stressed plants. Only 2% of the epigenetic variation was explained by the watering regime in ES without changes in SE. The results support that DNA methylation may play a role in the local adaptation of Fagus sylvatica to environmental variation.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121971
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1972: Roosting Behavior of Northern Long-Eared
           Bats (Myotis septentrionalis) in an Urban-Adjacent Forest Fragment

    • Authors: Galen E. Burrell, Scott M. Bergeson
      First page: 1972
      Abstract: Throughout the Midwest United States, agricultural and urban development have fragmented natural areas, with a disproportionate effect on forests and wetlands. The resulting habitat loss, compounded with the spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS), has caused precipitous population declines in several forest-obligate bat species. In 2019, we discovered a remnant northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trouessart) maternity colony in a small forest fragment adjacent to a restored wetland in northeastern Indiana, USA. We investigated roost selection in this colony during the summers between 2019 and 2021 by attaching radio transmitters to northern long-eared bats and tracking them to day roosts. We measured tree, plot, and landscape-level characteristics for each roost and for a randomly selected available tree in the same landscape, then compared characteristics using paired t-tests. Over 70 net nights, we captured and tracked 4 individuals (1 juvenile male, 1 post-lactating female, and 2 lactating females) to 12 different roosts. There were, on average, 3.5 times more standing dead trees (snags) in plots around roosts compared to available trees (t = −4.17, p = 0.02). Bats in this maternity colony selected roosts near a stretch of flooded forest (which contained 83% of roosts) dominated by solar-exposed, flood-killed snags. These roosts likely provide warm microclimates that facilitate energy retention, fetal development, and milk production. By describing roosts within this landscape, we provide insight into the resources that enable an endangered bat species to persist in urbanized forest fragments.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121972
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1973: Impact of Environmental Gradients on
           Phenometrics of Major Forest Types of Kumaon Region of the Western

    • Authors: Vikas Dugesar, Koppineedi V. Satish, Manish K. Pandey, Prashant K. Srivastava, George P. Petropoulos, Akash Anand, Mukunda Dev Behera
      First page: 1973
      Abstract: Understanding ecosystem functional behaviour and its response to climate change necessitates a detailed understanding of vegetation phenology. The present study investigates the effect of an elevational gradient, temperature, and precipitation on the start of the season (SOS) and end of the season (EOS), in major forest types of the Kumaon region of the western Himalaya. The analysis made use of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series that was observed by the optical datasets between the years 2001 and 2019. The relationship between vegetation growth stages (phenophases) and climatic variables was investigated as an interannual variation, variation along the elevation, and variation with latitude. The SOS indicates a delayed trend along the elevational gradient (EG) till mid-latitude and shows an advancing pattern thereafter. The highest rate of change for the SOS and EOS is 3.3 and 2.9 days per year in grassland (GL). The lowest rate of temporal change for SOS is 0.9 days per year in mixed forests and for EOS it is 1.2 days per year in evergreen needle-leaf forests (ENF). Similarly, the highest rate of change in SOS along the elevation gradient is 2.4 days/100 m in evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF) and the lowest is −0.7 days/100 m in savanna, and for EOS, the highest rate of change is 2.2 days/100 m in EBF and lowest is −0.9 days/100 m in GL. Winter warming and low winter precipitation push EOS days further. In the present study area, due to winter warming and summer dryness, despite a warming trend in springseason or springtime, onset of the vegetation growth cycle shows a delayed trend across the vegetation types. As vegetation phenology responds differently over heterogeneous mountain landscapes to climate change, a detailed local-level observational insight could improve our understanding of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121973
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1974: Modeling Forest Fire Spread Using Machine
           Learning-Based Cellular Automata in a GIS Environment

    • Authors: Yiqing Xu, Dianjing Li, Hao Ma, Rong Lin, Fuquan Zhang
      First page: 1974
      Abstract: The quantitative simulation of forest fire spread is of great significance for designing rapid risk management approaches and implementing effective fire fighting strategies. A cellular automaton (CA) is well suited to the dynamic simulation of the spatiotemporal evolution of complex systems, and it is therefore used to model the complex process of forest fire spread. However, the process of forest fire spread is linked with a variety of mutually influencing factors, which are too complex to analyze using conventional approaches. Here, we propose a new method for modeling fire spread, namely LSSVM-CA, in which least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) is combined with a three-dimensional forest fire CA framework. In this approach, the effects of adjacent wind on the law of fire spread are considered and analyzed. The LSSVM is utilized to derive the complex state transformation rules for fire spread by training with a dataset based on actual local data. To validate the proposed model, the forest fire spread area simulated by LSSVM-CA and the actual extracted forest fire spread area were subjected to cross-comparison. The results show that LSSVM-CA performs well in simulating the spread of forest fire and determining the probability of forest fire.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121974
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1975: Simulation of Episodic Winter Warming on
           Dehardening of Boreal Forest Seedlings in Northern Forest Nurseries

    • Authors: Mohammed S. Lamhamedi, Marie-Claude Lambert, Mario Renaud
      First page: 1975
      Abstract: In recent decades, forest nurseries in eastern Canada have been faced with periods of mild winter weather, delayed snowfall, and low seedling protective snow cover combined with winter rains instead of snowfall. These extreme conditions have resulted in the loss of millions of seedlings, in particular those that overwinter outdoors, probably due to their winter dehardening. The main objective of this study is to simulate different periods of warm weather at the beginning and end of winter and evaluate their effects on the dehardening and growth of Picea mariana and Picea glauca seedlings in response to different freezing temperatures. Three warming treatments were simulated (control, 1 day, and 3 days of warming at 10 °C) followed by three freezing temperatures (−4, −12, and −20 °C). In winter, regardless of the warming treatment, the seedlings of the two species tolerated the different freezing temperatures without any apparent damage. However, at the end of winter and in the absence of snow cover, the seedlings did not show frost tolerance at −20 °C. On the other hand, the seedlings showed normal growth after undergoing frosts at −4 °C and −12 °C, similar to that observed for control seedlings. Different cultural practices and protection strategies are proposed to improve frost tolerance and reduce the winter loss of seedlings.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121975
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1976: Using Advanced Machine-Learning Algorithms
           to Estimate the Site Index of Masson Pine Plantations

    • Authors: Rui Yang, Jinghui Meng
      First page: 1976
      Abstract: The rapid development of non-parametric machine learning methods, such as random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and the light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM), provide new methods to predict the site index (SI). However, few studies used these methods for SI modeling of Masson pine, and there is a lack of comparison of model performances. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of different modeling approaches and the variability between models with different variables. We used 84 samples from the Guangxi Tropical Forestry Experimental Centre. Five-fold cross-validation was used and linear regression models were established to assess the relationship between the dominant height of the stand and different types of variables. The optimal model was used to predict the SI. The results show that the LightGBM model had the highest accuracy. The root mean square error (RMSE) was 3.4055 m, the relative RMSE (RMSE%) was 20.95, the mean absolute error (MAE) was 2.4189 m, and the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.5685. The model with climatic and soil chemical variables had an RMSE of 2.7507 m, an RMSE% of 17.18, an MAE of 2.0630 m, and an R2 of 0.6720. The soil physicochemical properties were the most important factors affecting the SI, whereas the ability of the climatic factors to explain the variability in the SI in a given range was relatively low. The results indicate that the LightGBM is an excellent SI estimation method. It has higher efficiency and prediction accuracy than the other methods, and it considers the key factors determining site productivity. Adding climate and soil chemical variables to the model improves the prediction accuracy of the SI and the ability to evaluate site productivity. The proposed Masson pine SI model explains 67.2% of the SI variability. The model is suitable for the scientific management of unevenly aged Masson pine plantations.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121976
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1977: Early Field Performance and Genetic
           Variation of Dalbergia tonkinensis, a Valuable Rosewood in Vietnam

    • Authors: Bernard Dell, Pham Quang Thu, Nguyen Hoang Nghia, Phi Hong Hai, Nong Phuong Nhung, Nguyen Minh Chi
      First page: 1977
      Abstract: Dalbergia tonkinensis is being promoted in Vietnam for the future supply of prized wood for furniture and chemical extraction. Expansion of the plantation area requires a reliable source of quality seed. This study evaluates the field performance of progeny from mature mother trees in natural forests and urban environments. Trials were established in Tan Son and Doan Hung districts of Phu Tho province and assessed 3 years later. There were significant differences in growth and survival between provenances. The best families reached heights of >3.5 m and came from mother trees in a natural forest. The number of leaflets per leaf on mother trees was positively correlated with height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (Dbh) of the trial trees. The individual heritabilities (ĥ2) for Ht and Dbh were 0.39 and 0.49 for Tan Son, and 0.33 and 0.48 for Doan Hung, respectively. The coefficient of additive variation (CVA) of Ht and Dbh were 36% and 58% for Tan Son, and 23% and 30% for Doan Hung, respectively. Interactions between the growth traits in the two trials were strongly correlated (R2 = 0.88 for Ht, 0.90 for Dbh). These results identify D. tonkinensis gene sources with advantages for early growth performance in plantations. These superior genetics can be used for seed orchards, clonal propagation and for implementing a breeding program.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121977
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1978: Seasonal Growth of Pine Tree Rings:
           Comparison of Direct Observations and Simulation

    • Authors: Elena A. Babushkina, Gleb A. Sitnikov, Keshav K. Upadhyay, Dina F. Zhirnova, Grigory K. Zelenov, Eugene A. Vaganov, Liliana V. Belokopytova
      First page: 1978
      Abstract: Repetitive observations (direct measurements) of seasonal kinetics of xylogenesis and simulations (proxy data) with tree growth models are the two main approaches available to assess tree-ring growth and development. Both have drawbacks: short cover period for observations; limited accuracy of simulations depending on input data for models. We proposed an implementation of both approaches on the same trees to find ways for compensation. Cell numbers at subsequent xylogenesis stages were observed for Pinus sylvestris L. over five seasons in moisture-deficient habitats of Southern Siberia. The Vaganov–Shashkin model was parameterized for species and soil-landscape conditions to fit local tree-ring width chronologies (R = 0.56–0.73). Seasonal kinetics variables were then compared among themselves and with the simulated environmentally driven growth rate. The number of cells in the cambial and cell enlargement zone closely followed the curve of the 15-day moving average of the simulated growth rate (R = 0.56–0.87 at one site and R = 0.78–0.89 after shifting rate curve forward by 17–20 days at another site). The maximum number of cambium cells, which occurred within three weeks of the summer solstice, was found to be positively related with the number of tracheids in the complete tree ring (R2 = 0.12–0.75 for individual seasons and 0.49 for total dataset), making it a promising short-term forecast variable for tree radial growth and productivity.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121978
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1979: Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Growth
           Parameters of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Selected Clones under In Vitro

    • Authors: Iwona Szyp-Borowska, Joanna Ukalska, Marzena Niemczyk, Tomasz Wojda, Barb R. Thomas
      First page: 1979
      Abstract: Rapid screening methods for drought-resistant genotypes are urgently needed in tree improvement programs in the face of current climate change. We used a plant tissue culture technique to assess the phenotypic response of three highly productive genotypes of Robinia pseudoacacia to water deficit induced by mannitol and sucrose in a range of water potentials from 0 MPa to −1.5 MPa in an eight-week experiment. Our study showed genotype-specific responses to induced drought stress, indicating the potential for tree improvement in productivity and stress tolerance. Considering that all plantlets were constantly supplied with carbon, from the medium during the drought-induced experiment, our results suggest that hydraulic failure rather than carbon starvation may be the main cause of drought-induced mortality. Furthermore, our results showed different metabolic pathways of sucrose depending on the concentration of sucrose in the medium and different responses to osmoticum (mannitol vs. sucrose) and its concentration among the clones tested. We believe, that for large-scale breeding programs wanting to select for drought-tolerant genotypes, the use of culture media containing 90 gL−1 mannitol or 90 gL−1 sucrose at an early selection stage should provide satisfactory screening results. However, lab-based screening should be supported by further field trials, preferably at multiple sites, to assess the long-term impact and phenotypic stability of the early selection strategies.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121979
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1980: Influence of Phenol–Formaldehyde Resin
           Oligomer Molecular Weight on the Strength Properties of Beech Wood

    • Authors: Qian Lang, Vladimirs Biziks, Holger Militz
      First page: 1980
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of four phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resin treatments with different molecular weights at four different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) in treated beech wood. The mechanical properties of untreated and treated beech wood were evaluated. After impregnation with PF resin, all modified beech wood at all PF resin concentrations exhibited an increase in weight percent gain compared with that in untreated beech samples. PF resins with lower molecular weights more easily penetrate the wood cell wall, leading to increased bulking of the wood structure, which in turn improves the dimensional stability of the wood. The PF resin treatment with a molecular weight of 305 g/mol showed better impregnation ability than that of the other PF resins. The impact bending strength of PF-treated wood was considerably reduced because PF-cured resins formed inside the wood and are rigid and brittle. Additionally, PF resin treatments at all concentrations decreased the modulus of elasticity of the wood. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy revealed that the PF resins were comparatively well fixed in the wood samples. The results indicate that the large molecular weight PF resins are more uniformly distributed in the fiber lumens.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121980
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1981: The Relationship between Landscape Patterns
           and Populations of Asian Longhorned Beetles

    • Authors: Chao Yang, Zhongyi Zhan, Shixiang Zong, Lili Ren
      First page: 1981
      Abstract: The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is one of the most harmful invasive alien species attacking hardwood trees. Increasing human activities have caused changes in the landscape patterns of ALB habitats, disrupting the habitat balance and weakening landscape-driven pest suppression. However, the relationship between landscape patterns (compositional and structural heterogeneity) and ALB populations has not been defined. In this study, we used remote sensing data to calculate landscape metrics and combined them with ground survey data. Using a multivariable linear regression model and a linear mixed model, we analyzed the relationship between landscape metrics and ALB populations and between forest stands attributes and ALB populations. The study results indicated that largest patch index (LPI), mean radius of gyration (GYRATE_MN), mean shape index (SHAPE_MN), and Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI) strongly influenced ALB populations at the landscape level. In addition, at the class level, only the forest class metrics LPI and aggregation index (AI) significantly impacted ALBs. The study also indicated that tree height (TH) and tree abundance (TREEAB) were good predictors of ALB populations.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121981
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1982: Comparative Apparent Hydraulic Conductance,
           Leaf Gas Exchange, and Water Resource Partitioning of Populus euphratica
           Trees and Saplings

    • Authors: Yapeng Chen, Xingming Hao, Chenggang Zhu
      First page: 1982
      Abstract: Water acquisition via the root system of woody species is a key factor governing plant physiology. In order to compare the impact of water acquisition on the hydraulic and photosynthetic characteristics of different-sized Populus euphratic, which is a desert riparian tree species, we quantified leaf hydraulic conductance (KL), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (PN), predawn and midday leaf water potential (Ψ), and the stem δ18O of the saplings and mature trees. The results showed that the saplings had a lower predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) and soil-to-leaf water potential gradient (ΔΨ) and a higher KL than the mature trees but had a similar gs and PN to the mature trees. In arid zones, probably due to root limitation, the saplings were more likely to use unreliable topsoil water (<80 cm), whereas the mature trees typically uptake reliable deep soil water (>80 cm) and groundwater due to having deeper root systems. The unreliability of the water supply might make saplings hold a higher hydraulic conductance to ensure that the water is transported efficiently to the leaves and to satisfy their transpiration need. In contrast, the mature trees, which uptake the more reliable deeper water resources, had a relatively low leaf-specific hydraulic conductance because of the increased path length versus the saplings. However, adult trees can maintain stomatal conductance by upregulating ΔΨ, thereby facilitating their ability to maintain a carbon assimilation rate similar to that of the saplings. This regulating behavior benefits mature trees’ net carbon gain, but it comes at the expense of an increased risk of hydraulic failure. These results imply that the top priority for saplings should be to maintain hydraulic system functioning, whereas, for mature trees, the priority is to assure stable net carbon gain for their growth.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121982
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1983: Greener or Greyer' Exploring the Trends
           of Sealed and Permeable Spaces Availability in Italian Built-Up Areas
           during the Last Three Decades

    • Authors: Marco di Cristofaro, Elena Di Pirro, Marco Ottaviano, Marco Marchetti, Bruno Lasserre, Lorenzo Sallustio
      First page: 1983
      Abstract: Increasing the availability of greenspaces in built-up areas (GSB) is one of the main challenges to improving sustainability and livability in urban landscapes. Concurrently, the availability of brownfields and permeable spaces offers the chance to increase sustainability through the implementation of Nature-Based Solutions. This work aims to evaluate how land use/cover changes influenced the availability of permeable spaces in Italian built-up areas over the last three decades. These spaces were classified according to population density, vegetation type, and average size, to better characterize recent dynamics (2008–2016) and offer remarks and tips concerning ongoing soil sealing dynamics. According to the findings, despite an overall increase of 41.5% in built-up areas with respect to their 1990 extension, permeable spaces increased only by 25.2% during the same time-span, moving from 49.8% coverage in 1990 to 44.7% today, in relation to the whole national built-up area. Moreover, our in-depth analysis for the 2008–2016 period shows that forested spaces increased by 0.4%, while permeable unforested ones decreased by 0.7%, especially in thinly and intermediately populated areas. Overall, the scarcity of these spaces should be carefully considered when assigning residual vacant lots to new buildings and grey infrastructure, especially in densely populated areas. The proposed methodology provides reliable estimates and represents a starting point to develop advanced monitoring tools supporting sustainable urban policies.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121983
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1984: Regional, Site, and Tree Variations of Wood
           Density and Growth in Thuja occidentalis L. in the Quebec Forest

    • Authors: Besma Bouslimi, Ahmed Koubaa, Yves Bergeron
      First page: 1984
      Abstract: Thuja occidentalis L. wood is desirabl, e for wooden structures that require wood density uniformity. Wood density is a wood quality indicator related to numerous morphological, mechanical, physiological, and ecological properties. This study aimed to investigate the regional, site, and tree-to-tree variations of T. occidentalis wood density and growth components through the analysis of X-ray densitometer data. A total of 287 trees were randomly sampled from 11 sites in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue regions in Québec, Canada. The average ring density at breast height was 356 kg m−3, with a small difference between earlywood and latewood (167 kg m−3), indicating a relatively uniform wood. Ring density and width varied significantly between the Abitibi and the Témiscamingue regions, mainly in the juvenile wood. Trees from the Abitibi region showed higher ring density than those in the Témiscamingue region. In contrast, the ring width was higher in the Témiscamingue region. Site, tree, and cambial age significantly (p < 0.001) affected wood density and growth components. However, the largest variation is due to the tree-to-tree variation, accounting for about 15%–31% of the total variation. Compared to ring widths, ring density components showed a considerably smaller tree-to-tree variation and higher variation (7.1%) with cambial age than ring widths (0.6%). Ring width correlated positively and significantly (p < 0.001) with average temperature and annual precipitation, while ring density correlated negatively and significantly (p < 0.001) with average temperature and annual precipitation.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121984
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1985: Strong Responses of Soil Greenhouse Gas
           Fluxes to Litter Manipulation in a Boreal Larch Forest, Northeastern China

    • Authors: Beixing Duan, Ruihan Xiao, Tijiu Cai, Xiuling Man, Zhaoxin Ge, Minglei Gao, Maurizio Mencuccini
      First page: 1985
      Abstract: Alterations in plant litter inputs into the soil are expected to significantly affect soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the influence on boreal forest soils is not clear, given the large amount of accumulated soil organic matter that may buffer the impacts from the input of fresh litter. In this study, we conducted a litter manipulation experiment to explore the effects of the litter layer on soil GHG fluxes in a Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) forest ecosystem in northeastern China. Three litter treatments were implemented, namely aboveground litter removal (LR), litter double (LD), and unchanged litter input (CK). The associated microclimate, litter characteristics, and soil properties were also measured. The results showed that this larch forest soil acts as a source of CO2 and N2O but acts as a sink for CH4 for all litter manipulation treatments. LD increased the soil CO2 and N2O fluxes by 15% and 34%, while LR decreased them by 8% and 21%, respectively. However, soil CH4 uptake decreased by 34% in LD treatment and increased by 22% in LR treatment, respectively. Litter manipulation treatments can not only affect soil GHG fluxes directly but also, via their effects on soil MBC, NH4+−N, and NO3−−N content, indirectly affect variations in soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of the plant litter layer in regulating soil GHG between the atmosphere and soil in a Dahurian larch forest ecosystem, especially for litter addition. Considering the natural increase in litter quantity over time, this important regulatory function is essential for an accurate estimation of the role of boreal forests in mitigating future climate change.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121985
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1986: Assessing Resilience Components in Maritime
           Pine Provenances Grown in Common Gardens

    • Authors: Concetta Lisella, Serena Antonucci, Giovanni Santopuoli, Marco Marchetti, Roberto Tognetti
      First page: 1986
      Abstract: Knowledge acquisition on the response of tree species to drought in the Mediterranean hotspot is an important step to guide adaptation strategies to climate change impacts, e.g., assisted migration. We assessed the resilience components—i.e., resistance, recovery, and resilience–to drought in 2003 in five provenances of maritime pine planted in four common gardens in Sardinia, and analysed the possible influence of climate variables on these indices. The provenances showed differences in growth rate but not in the components of resilience. Among the provenances, Corsica was the most productive, while Tuscany was the least. One of the two provenances from Sardinia (Limbara) showed good performance in terms of tree growth in the comparatively drier site. The resilience components were influenced by prevailing environmental conditions at the common garden sites. In the relatively drier sites, trees showed the lowest resistance but the highest recovery values. However, two sites–which had the lowest stand density–showed the opposite trend during the drought year, probably due to moderate thinning. Predictive models showed different probability in the response of resilience components to climate variables. Resistance and resilience had a similar pattern, both being positively related to temperature, while recovery showed an opposite trend. The models’ results indicate a noticeable adaptation of maritime pine to the drought conditions of Sardinia, though the age factor should be considered as well. Despite only minor differences among provenances being found, environmental conditions and management practices at the common gardens were important in determining tree growth patterns. This study suggests that the provenance of Corsica may provide appropriate material for forest plantations in Mediterranean conditions with mitigation purposes.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121986
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1987: The Effect of Different Remediation
           Treatments on Soil Fungal Communities in Rare Earth Tailings Soil

    • Authors: Yu Wang, Feng Pan, Qiong Wang, Jie Luo, Qin Zhang, Yingying Pan, Chenliang Wu, Wei Liu
      First page: 1987
      Abstract: Extensive mining of rare earth deposits has caused severe soil erosion, resulting in the degradation of plant–soil systems and the reduction in microbial diversity. Combined ecological remediation technology is the key method of vegetation reconstruction and ecological restoration in abandoned tailings. In this study, the effects of different cover crops–biochar–organic fertilizer and biochar–organic fertilizer treatments on soil fungal communities in rare earth tailings soil were analysed using high-throughput sequencing technology. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to analyse saprophytic, mycorrhizal, and potential pathogenic fungi in soils after different combined remediations. Moreover, the effects of soil environmental factors on fungal community species’ composition were analysed by redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning analysis (VPA) after different combined remediations. LEfSe indicated a risk of citrus pathogenicity by Diaporthaceae indicator fungi after biochar–organic fertilizer combined treatment. RDA and VPA revealed that pH was the main environmental factor affecting the fungal community in the different combined remediation treatments. Additionally, the Paspalum wettsteinii cover crops–biochar–organic fertilizer and biochar–livestock manure treatments were more conducive to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi recruitment. We also clarified the fungal community composition structure, soil environmental factors, and fungal community relationships in rare earth tailings soil after different combined remediation treatments.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121987
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1988: Economic Loss Assessment and
           Spatial–Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Forest Fires:
           Empirical Evidence from China

    • Authors: Zhixuan Han, Guangjie Geng, Zhen Yan, Xi Chen
      First page: 1988
      Abstract: Forest fires are a type of disaster with both human and natural factors; they differ from other forest disasters, in that they can cause significant damage not only to the ecological environments but also to the economy and society in many irreversible ways. While the risk factor of forest fires has been large, systematic studies on economic losses caused by forest fires have been lacking in recent years, and there is also a lack of analysis on forest fire economic losses in both spatial and temporal dimensions. Therefore, based on the forest fire data from 2006 to 2018, this paper establishes a forest fire economic loss evaluation system to calculate the economic losses in China and analyzes the spatial distribution characteristics and change trends of the forest fire economic losses in each province through thermal mapping. The results show the following. (1) The economic loss from forest fires in China is generally characterized by a fluctuating decline, but anomalous values due to human factors may occur. (2) The spatial heterogeneity of economic loss in China’s provinces is limited by many factors, such as the differences in resource endowments, showing the characteristics of “low in the eastern and western regions and high in the central region”. (3) Forest fires in China cause the most serious losses to forest ecological benefits. (4) Forest resources and fires are not independent of each other between regions, and areas with similar economic losses related to forest fires are often found in blocks. (5) Although the overall economic losses caused by forest fires in China are fluctuating and decreasing, some provinces are showing signs of increasing economic losses, most notably in Inner Mongolia. Therefore, this paper suggests targeted recommendations based on forest fires in different regions and with reference to the changing trends of economic loss caused by forest fires. For low-loss areas, we can further reduce the economic loss per unit area while ensuring that the losses do not increase any further. For high-loss areas, the main focus should be to find the weak points in the adaptation to forest fires. The right way to permanently reduce the damage caused by forest fires is to improve the adaptive and symbiotic capacity of the ecosystems and residential communities in relation to fires in a targeted manner and to improve the capacity for quick economic recovery after a fire.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121988
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1989: Wall-to-Wall Mapping of Forest Biomass and
           Wood Volume Increment in Italy

    • Authors: Francesca Giannetti, Gherardo Chirici, Elia Vangi, Piermaria Corona, Fabio Maselli, Marta Chiesi, Giovanni D’Amico, Nicola Puletti
      First page: 1989
      Abstract: Several political initiatives aim to achieve net-zero emissions by the middle of the twenty-first century. In this context, forests are crucial as a carbon sink to store unavoidable emissions. Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems is pivotal to the availability of accurate forest variable estimates for supporting international reporting and appropriate forest management strategies. Spatially explicit estimates are even more important for Mediterranean countries such as Italy, where the capacity of forests to act as sinks is decreasing due to climate change. This study aimed to develop a spatial approach to obtain high-resolution maps of Italian forest above-ground biomass (ITA-BIO) and current annual volume increment (ITA-CAI), based on remotely sensed and meteorological data. The ITA-BIO estimates were compared with those obtained with two available biomass maps developed in the framework of two international projects (i.e., the Joint Research Center and the European Space Agency biomass maps, namely, JRC-BIO and ESA-BIO). The estimates from ITA-BIO, JRC-BIO, ESA-BIO, and ITA-CAI were compared with the 2nd Italian NFI (INFC) official estimates at regional level (NUT2). The estimates from ITA-BIO are in good agreement with the INFC estimates (R2 = 0.95, mean difference = 3.8 t ha−1), while for JRC-BIO and ESA-BIO, the estimates show R2 of 0.90 and 0.70, respectively, and mean differences of 13.5 and of 21.8 t ha−1 with respect to the INFC estimates. ITA-CAI estimates are also in good agreement with the INFC estimates (R2 = 0.93), even if they tend to be slightly biased. The produced maps are hosted on a web-based forest resources management Decision Support System developed under the project AGRIDIGIT (ForestView) and represent a key element in supporting the new Green Deal in Italy, the European Forest Strategy 2030 and the Italian Forest Strategy.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121989
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1990: Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus
           Stoichiometry and Its Influencing Factors in Karst Primary Forest

    • Authors: Chen Zhang, Fuping Zeng, Zhaoxia Zeng, Hu Du, Lijin Zhang, Liang Su, Mengzhen Lu, Hao Zhang
      First page: 1990
      Abstract: The stoichiometric characteristics of C, N, and P in plants result from long-term adaptation to environmental conditions. In this study, we analyzed leaf, branch, and soil C, N, and P stoichiometry in a karst primary forest plant community in China. The results showed that N and P content in leaves was higher than that in branches, while C content in the latter was higher than in leaves. Moreover, the coefficient of the variation in C, N, and P content in branches was greater than that in leaves but there was no significant difference in said coefficients in soil. The values of the C:N and C:P ratios were both branch > leaf > soil, whereas the value of the N:P ratio was leaf > branch > soil. There was also a significant positive correlation between leaf nitrogen (LN), leaf phosphorus (LP), branch nitrogen (BN), and branch phosphorus (BP) concentrations but no significant correlation between leaf carbon (LC), branch carbon (BC), and other element concentrations. We found that leaf stoichiometry was strongly influenced by species diversity, whereas branch stoichiometry was mainly influenced by leaf and species diversity; the environmental factors influencing the stoichiometric characteristics of leaves and branches were mainly altitude, soil pH, and total soil P. Finally, these results are relevant as they are helpful to understand the adaptation mechanisms and eco-geochemical processes in karst forest plants and they can also provide a scientific basis for vegetation restoration and reconstruction in these degraded ecosystems.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121990
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1991: Forest Damage by Extra-Tropical Cyclone
           Klaus-Modeling and Prediction

    • Authors: Łukasz Pawlik, Janusz Godziek, Łukasz Zawolik
      First page: 1991
      Abstract: Windstorms may have negative consequences on forest ecosystems, industries, and societies. Extreme events related to extra-tropical cyclonic systems remind us that better recognition and understanding of the factors driving forest damage are needed for more efficient risk management and planning. In the present study, we statistically modelled forest damage caused by the windstorm Klaus in south-west France. This event occurred on 24 January 2009 and caused severe damage to maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) forest stands. We aimed at isolating the best potential predictors that can help to build better predictive models of forest damage. We applied the random forest (RF) technique to find the best classifiers of the forest damage binary response variable. Five-fold spatial block cross-validation, repeated five times, and forward feature selection (FFS) were applied to the control for model over-fitting. In addition, variable importance (VI) and accumulated local effect (ALE) plots were used as model performance metrics. The best RF model was used for spatial prediction and forest damage probability mapping. The ROC AUC of the best RF model was 0.895 and 0.899 for the training and test set, respectively, while the accuracy of the RF model was 0.820 for the training and 0.837 for the test set. The FFS allowed us to isolate the most important predictors, which were the distance from the windstorm trajectory, soil sand fraction content, the MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the wind exposure index (WEI). In general, their influence on the forest damage probability was positive for a wide range of the observed values. The area of applicability (AOA) confirmed that the RF model can be used to construct a probability map for almost the entire study area.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121991
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1992: Multifactorial Analysis of the Axle Load of
           Truck Sets during the Transport of Sawmill By-Products

    • Authors: Grzegorz Trzciński, Łukasz Tymendorf
      First page: 1992
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the actual axle loads of vehicles used for the transport of sawmill by-products, resulting from the total weight of the transport set (GVW) at different times of the year and depending on the type of sets and transported assortment. Sawmill by-product loads were divided into groups: wood chips, sawdust, slabs and recycled wood. The research was carried out at the recipient of the sawmill by-products as well as at the producer. The GVW was determined on the basis of weighing the entire set on a stationary scale at the premises of the companies. The load on the individual axles of high tonnage truck units was measured using Model DINI ARGEO WWSD portable truck scales with a 3590M309 weighing terminal. Almost 230 transports were analyzed. It was shown that the average GVW is 39.25 t for transport sets with a load of 22.44 t of sawmill by-products with the usage of the semi-trailer capacity of 0.85. For all transport sets, the average load on the individual axles range from 6.72 t (axle 5 in a six-axle truck and trailer-TT) to 10.29 t for axle 2 in a truck and semi-trailer (TST), where the highest occurs on axle 2 of the truck (drive axle). The influence of the type of transport set (TST or TT) and the type of the assortments on the axle load is shown, and the existing correlations are at the level of 0.604–0.669 for axles 3–5 in the TST set. The static axle loads of the transport sets for the sawmill by-products and the distribution of the total weight of the set among the axles are different from those for roundwood transport.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121992
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1993: Assessment of the Annual Erosion Rate along
           Three Hiking Trails in the Făgăraș Mountains, Romanian
           Carpathians, Using Dendrogeomorphological Approaches of Exposed Roots

    • Authors: Mihai Jula, Mircea Voiculescu
      First page: 1993
      Abstract: Mountain hiking trails are vital components of tourist infrastructure and provide recreational opportunities for a large number of tourists. Exposed roots along the tourist trails in the forested mountains are impacted by tourist trampling and various natural processes, thus becoming even more exposed and eroded. The aim of our study was to estimate the annual erosion rates along three hiking trails in the Făgăraș Mountains using dendrogeomorphological approaches. The three used routes were: Bâlea Hotel—Bâlea Waterfall (BWFHT), Bâlea Hotel—Bâlea Glacial Lake (BLHT), and Bâlea Hotel—Doamnei Glacial Valley (DVHT). The average annual erosion rates in BWFHT, BLHT, and DVHT were 10.6 ± 4.4, 6.8 ± 3.9, and 6.1 ± 3.3 mm·y−1, respectively. Over a 56-year interval (1965–2021), 610 scars were recorded among the annual growth rings of the sampled tree roots; 172, 213, and 225 scars were recorded in BWFHT, BLHT, and DVHT, respectively. Moreover, we identified 1022 rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) associated with scars: 237, 343, and 442 in BWFHT, BLHT, and DVHT, respectively. Additionally, the climate of the Făgăraș Mountains is humid with a multiannual average precipitation of 1366.2 mm; the precipitation in 24 h, between 1979 and 2021 in seven and three cases exceeded 70 mm/24 h and 100 mm/24 h, respectively. Thus, there were synchronous situations of root exposure with 24 h rainfall. However, it is unclear whether precipitation plays a decisive role in root exposure or in triggering erosion processes on tourist trails. We considered that tourist traffic plays a decisive role in root exposure and erosion, however locally and complementarily, 24 h precipitation must also be considered.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121993
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1994: Spatial-Coherent Dynamics and Climatic
           Signals in the Radial Growth of Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du
           Tour) in Subalpine Stands along the Western Sayan Mountains

    • Authors: Dina F. Zhirnova, Liliana V. Belokopytova, Konstantin V. Krutovsky, Yulia A. Kholdaenko, Elena A. Babushkina, Eugene A. Vaganov
      First page: 1994
      Abstract: Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the keystone conifers in Siberian taiga, but its radial growth is complacent and thus rarely investigated. We studied its growth in subalpine stands near the upper timberline along the Western Sayan Mountains, Southern Siberia, because climatic responses of trees growing on the boundaries of species distribution help us better understand their performance and prospects under climate change. We performed dendroclimatic analysis for six tree-ring width chronologies with significant between-site correlations at distances up to 270 km (r = 0.57–0.84, p < 0.05). We used ERA-20C (European Reanalysis of the Twentieth Century) daily climatic series to reveal weak but spatially coherent responses of tree growth to temperature and precipitation. Temperature stably stimulated growth during the period from the previous July–August to current August, except for an adverse effect in April. Precipitation suppressed growth during periods from the previous July–September to December (with reaction gradually strengthening) and from the current April to August (weakening), while the snowfall impact in January–March was neutral or positive. Weather extremes probably caused formation of wide tree rings in 1968 and 2002, but narrow rings in 1938, 1947, 1967, 1988, and 1997. A subtle increase in the climatic sensitivity of mature trees was observed for all significant seasonal climatic variables except for the temperature in the previous October–January. The current winter warming trend is supposedly advantageous for young pine trees based on their climatic response and observed elevational advance.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121994
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1995: Mechanical Property Prediction of Larix
           gmelinii Wood Based on Vis-Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Chunxu Li, Yaoxiang Li, Yanzheng Zhao, Zheyu Zhang, Zichun Wang
      First page: 1995
      Abstract: Larix gmelinii is the major tree species in Northeast China. The wood properties of different Larix gmelinii are quite different and under strong genetic controls, so it can be better improved through oriented breeding. In order to detect the longitudinal compressive strength (LCS), modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) in real-time, fast and non-destructively, a prediction model of wood mechanical properties with high precision and stability is constructed based on visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) technology. The featured wavelengths were selected with the algorithms of competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), successive projection algorithm (SPA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE), synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) and their combinations. The prediction models were then developed based on the partial least square regression (PLSR). The predictive ability of models was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). It indicated that CARS performed the best among the four methods examined in terms of wavelength-variable selection. The combined featured wavelength selecting method of SiPLS-CARS showed better performance than the single wavelength selection method. The optimal models of LCS, MOR and MOE are the SiPLS-CARS-PLSR model, with the R2 of the calibration set and the validation set are both greater than 0.99, and RMSE the smallest. The NIR optimal models for wood mechanical properties predictions has high predictive accuracy and good robustness.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121995
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1996: Relationships between the Visual Quality and
           Color Patterns: Study in Peri-Urban Forests Dominated by Cotinus coggygria
           var. cinerea Engl. in Autumn in Beijing, China

    • Authors: Yujuan Cao, Yanming Li, Xinyu Li, Xing Wang, Ziyun Dai, Minjie Duan, Rui Xu, Songting Zhao, Xiuping Liu, Jiale Li, Junfei Xie
      First page: 1996
      Abstract: The spatial pattern of color patches plays a crucial role in affecting the visual quality of peri-urban forests dominated by Cotinus coggygria var. cinerea Engl. in autumn. The impact mechanism has been studied to facilitate algorithm-based automatic visual quality estimation. The color patterns of 120 photographs were calculated after color quantization and automatic color substitution. The scenic beauty of the forest was estimated by 698 respondents. Multiple correlations between visual quality and color pattern metrics were explored with stepwise regression. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also employed to investigate the impact mechanism of color patterns on visual quality. Number of patches (NP), largest patch index (LPI), mean patch area (AREA_MN), patch size standard deviation (AREA_SD), and Shannon’s evenness index (SHEI) were the main factors affecting the visual quality of the Cotinus coggygria forest. AREA_MN correlated positively with visual quality, while NP, LPI, AREA_SD, and SHEI correlated negatively. Moreover, AREA_SD had the most significant impact on the visual quality of the landscape, while SHEI, LPI, and AREA_MN had the second-highest impact. The evenness and the size of color patches significantly affected the visual quality of the forest landscapes. Balancing the diversity and evenness of color patches plays a decisive role in creating a forest landscape with high visual quality.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121996
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1997: Species Composition and Diversity of
           Middle-Aged Trees among Different Urban Green Space Types and Tree Age
           Classes in Changchun, Northeast China

    • Authors: Yibo Yang, Xuewen Sheng, Chang Zhai, Zihan Wang, Junjie Wu, Dan Zhang
      First page: 1997
      Abstract: Middle-aged trees refer to trees aged between 50 and 99 years, which are the reserve resources of old trees (trees ≥ 100 years of age). They are vital parts of the urban ecosystem, with important ecological, landscape, cultural, and historical value. Conservation of middle-aged trees in urban areas is important for the development of large old trees in the future. In this study, we investigated the middle-aged trees in Changchun city and analyzed the species composition and diversity characteristics of different urban green space types and tree age classes. The results showed that there were 72 species and 22,376 plants of middle-aged trees in Changchun city, and the coniferous species prevailed. The top five species with a high importance value (IV) were Pinus tabuliformis var. mukdensis, Lavix olgensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, and Abies holophylla. Green space type and tree age were important factors influencing the richness and diversity of middle-aged trees. Tree growth spaces were relatively sufficient, and land use was stable for park green spaces (PGS) and attached green spaces (AGS), which resulted in the abundant, richer, and diverse species richness (SR) of middle-aged trees. Road green spaces (RGS) and square green spaces (SGS) had fewer trees and lower species richness, Margalef richness index (dMa), Shannon–Wiener index (He) and evenness index (Je) which could be attributed to the high intensity of human interference and poor environmental quality. The SR of middle-aged trees decreased with an increase in age class, and the values of SR in Age Class 80–89 years and Age Class 90–99 years were lower than in Age Class 50–59 years. Age Class 70–79 years had the lowest values of dMa, He, and Je, which need to be protected urgently. The results of this study can provide a basis for the conservation and management of middle-aged trees in urban areas and the choice of species for urban greening.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121997
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1998: The Color Changes in and Termite and Fungal
           Resistance of Modified Maesopsis eminii Engl. Wood with Boric Acid and
           Seed Oil

    • Authors: Trisna Priadi, Junah Kistia, Indah Putri Khanifah, Tina Agustin
      First page: 1998
      Abstract: Manii (Maesopsis minii) is a fast-growing wood that is mainly produced for light construction and woodworking. The wood has low durability properties and requires improvements in quality. This research aims to evaluate the combination effect of boric acid, seed oil, and heating on the color of manii wood and its resistance against subterranean termites and decay fungi. The wood samples were modified by combining boric acid, neem oil, tamanu oil, and candlenut oil and heating at 70 °C and 140 °C for 4 h. The color change in the wood was evaluated using the CIELab method, while the resistance against subterranean termites (Coptotermes curvignathus) and decay fungi (Schizophyllum commune) was tested according to the SNI 7207-2014 standard. The results show that a significant color change occurred after the oil treatments. L and b values generally decreased, while the a values usually slightly increased after treatment. Boric acid significantly increased the resistance of manii wood against tested termites and fungi. The seed oils also improved wood resistance against termites, while the wood resistance against fungi significantly improved from the combination of boric acid and seed oil treatment. The lowest weight loss in termite and fungal tests occurred with the combination of boric acid and candlenut oil with heating at 140 °C.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121998
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1999: Transpiration Sensitivity to Drought in
           Quercus wutaishansea Mary Forests on Shady and Sunny Slopes in the Liupan
           Mountains, Northwestern China

    • Authors: Liu, Yu, Zhang, Li, Yu, Wan, Wang, Wang, Liu, Pan, Xu
      First page: 1999
      Abstract: Forests in water source areas are important factors for water supply security, soil, and water conservation, and their water consumption from transpiration is strongly affected by site conditions, including the slope aspect. However, the lack of research on how the slope aspect interferes with the response of stand transpiration to drought has hindered researchers from developing climate-resilient forest–water coordinated, sustainable development plans for different stand conditions. This study was conducted on Quercus wutaishansea forests in the southern part of Liupan Mountain in northwest China, and two sample plots were built on sunny and shady slopes. The responses of stand transpiration to various soil moisture and meteorological conditions on different slope orientations were analyzed. The results showed better-growing stands on shady slopes transpired more and consumed more soil moisture than those on sunny slopes. The soil moisture on shady slopes decreased rapidly below the threshold level during the drought, leading to a limitation of stand transpiration; however, its transpiration recovered rapidly after the drought. In contrast, stand transpiration on sunny slopes was not affected by this drought and maintained its pre-drought rate. Our results suggested that stands with higher water demand on shady slopes were more susceptible to drought when it occurred. This indicated that in the case of frequent droughts, the vegetation should be managed according to the vegetation-carrying capacities resulting from different site conditions.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13121999
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2000: Quantitatively Computing the Influence of
           Vegetation Changes on Surface Discharge in the Middle-Upper Reaches of the
           Huaihe River, China

    • Authors: Yuxin Wang, Zhipei Liu, Baowei Qian, Zongyu He, Guangxing Ji
      First page: 2000
      Abstract: Changes in meteorology, hydrology, and vegetation will have significant impacts on the ecological environment of a basin, and the middle-upper reach of Huaihe River (MUHR) is one of the key regions for vegetation restoration in China. However, less studies have quantitatively accounted for the contribution of vegetation changes to land surface discharge in the MUHR. To quantitatively evaluate the influence of vegetation changes on land surface discharge in the MUHR, the Bernaola–Galavan (B–G) segmentation algorithm was utilized to recognize the mutation year of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time sequence data. Next, the functional relationship between the underlying surface parameter and the NDVI was quantitatively analyzed, and an adjusted Budyko formula was constructed. Finally, the effects of vegetation changes, climate factors, and mankind activities on the surface discharge in the MUHR were computed using the adjusted Budyko formula and elastic coefficient method. The results showed the following: (1) the surface runoff and precipitation from 1982 to 2015 in the MUHR presented a falling trend, yet the NDVI and potential evaporation presented an upward trend; (2) 2004 was the mutation year of the NDVI time series data, and the underlying surface parameter showed a significant linear regression relationship with the NDVI (p < 0.05); (3) the vegetation variation played a major role in the runoff variation during the changing period (2005–2015) in the MUHR. Precipitation, potential evaporation, and human activities accounted for −0.32%, −15.11%, and 18.24% of the surface runoff variation, respectively.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122000
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2001: Attention and Emotion Recovery Effects of
           Urban Parks during COVID-19—Psychological Symptoms as Moderators

    • Authors: Ziliang Jin, Jiangping Wang, Xu Liu
      First page: 2001
      Abstract: Previous research that compared the restorative effects of natural settings with poor-quality urban settings may have exaggerated the restorative benefits of greenspace. Few studies have been conducted to examine the restorative benefits of green streets and other types of park landscapes on attention and emotion. In addition, it is not clear how negative psychological symptoms (e.g., stress, depression) affect natural’s restorative benefits, especially as the current COVID-19 pandemic has added to people’s psychological burden. In this study, 125 participants were randomly assigned to view one of five videos (green street, lawn, plaza, forest, waterside) for a break after completing an emotion and attention fatigue induction task. Attention function and emotion were measured using the backward digit span test and the Self-Assessment Manikin scale. Stress and depressive symptoms experienced over the last month were measured using the Perceived Stress Scale(PSS-10) and the Patient Health Questionnaire(PHQ-9). Our results indicate that the four park settings showed significant attention function recovery and valence improvement compared to the green streets, while subjects’ arousal changed only over time. Hardscapes (plazas) could provide the same attentional and emotional restorative benefits as natural landscapes (forests, watersides, lawns). In addition, we also found that the mood-improving benefits of natural environments may decrease with increasing depressive symptoms, although chronic stress symptoms did not show the same trend.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122001
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2002: Contrasting Soil Microbial Functional
           Potential for Phosphorus Cycling in Subtropical and Temperate Forests

    • Authors: Sha Zhou, Yi Li, Jieying Wang, Liyuan He, Jun Wang, Yaoxin Guo, Fazhu Zhao
      First page: 2002
      Abstract: Microorganisms play important roles in phosphorus (P) cycling via their regulation of P uptake and transport, P mineralization and solubilization, and the mediation of P deficiency in forest biomes. However, the dynamics of microbial P functional genes and the underlying regulatory mechanisms in different forest biomes (e.g., temperate vs. subtropical) have yet to be sufficiently clarified. In this study, we applied a metagenomics approach to investigate changes in the abundance of three microbial P functional gene groups (P starvation response regulation genes, P uptake and transport genes, and P solubilization and mineralization genes) along a subtropical–temperate gradient of forest biomes (23° N–45° N) in China. Our results revealed that the abundances of P starvation response regulation genes in temperate forest biomes were significantly higher than those in the subtropics (p < 0.05), although not in the cases of the other two P functional gene types (p > 0.05). Moreover, in both temperate and subtropical forests, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were identified as key phyla associated with P cycling; moreover, we found dominate species of Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria at genus level were higher in subtropical zones than that of temperate zones, in most cases. Furthermore, our results showed that significant correlation was found between P functional genes and microbial α-diversity along latitude gradient. Furthermore, in both forest biomes, microbial community α-diversity was significantly positively correlated with P starvation response regulation genes (p < 0.05), whereas α-diversity was significantly positively related to P uptake and transport genes in temperate forest biomes (p < 0.001), although not in subtropical forests (p > 0.05). In addition, we found that whereas soil substrates showed significant negative relationships with P solubilization and mineralization genes in temperate forest biomes (p < 0.05), this was not the case in subtropical forests. Collectively, these findings indicate that the responses of microbial P functional genes to the environmental variation in temperate forests are more sensitive than those in subtropical forests, thereby providing a theoretical foundation for further elucidation of the differential regulatory roles of these genes in different forest biomes.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122002
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2003: Effects of Plot Design on Estimating Tree
           Species Richness and Species Diversity

    • Authors: Chenhao Zhao, Yan Zhu, Jinghui Meng
      First page: 2003
      Abstract: Species richness and diversity substantially affect forest structures and function and are critical indicators of sustainable forest management. Sampling surveys are widely used in forest inventories because they efficiently assess forest characteristics. However, an appropriate sample plot design is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of plot design on estimating species richness and species diversity using a simulation. A 20 ha census plot was established in a temperate forest to obtain the true values of species richness and species diversity. One single plot design and nine cluster plot designs were evaluated. The results indicated significant differences in forest species richness and species diversity for different plot designs. The cluster plot design with a square subplot configuration (SCONFIG) and extent of ground area covered by a cluster (EGROUND) of 500 m2 exhibited the best performance (accuracy, precision) in estimating forest species richness. In contrast, a rectangular cluster plot with an EGROUND of 1000 m2 was more suitable for assessing species diversity. This study demonstrates that cluster plots outperform a single plot for evaluating species richness and species diversity in temperate forests.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122003
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2004: Improving the Accuracy of Estimating Forest
           Carbon Density Using the Tree Species Classification Method

    • Authors: Ziheng Pang, Gui Zhang, Sanqing Tan, Zhigao Yang, Xin Wu
      First page: 2004
      Abstract: The accurate and effective estimation of forest carbon density is an essential basis for effectively responding to climate change and achieving the goal of carbon neutrality. Aiming at the problem of the significant differences in the forest carbon model parameters of different tree species, this study used the tree forest in Yueyang City, Hunan Province, China, as the study object and used the random forest classification algorithm through the Google Earth Engine platform to classify the dominant tree species within the forested range of the study area based on the image elements. The overall accuracy in the forest/non-forest classification (primary classification) was 93.79% with a Kappa of 0.9145. The overall accuracy in the dominant species classification (secondary classification) was 87.30% with a Kappa of 0.7747. Based on the classification, a multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) were constructed for different dominant tree species by combining some Forest Resource Inventory data and remote sensing data. The results showed that the RF model had a significantly higher coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.4054−0.7602) than the MLR (R2 = 0.0900−0.4070) and SVM (R2 = 0.1650−0.4450) as well as a substantially lower RMSE and MAE; its spatial distribution of forest carbon density ranged from 3.06 to 62.80 t·hm−2. Compared with the spatial distribution of the forest carbon density (4.64 to 31.96 t·hm−2) without the classification of dominant species, the method eliminated the problems of severe overfitting and significant underestimation of peak values when estimating under unclassified conditions. The method provides a reference for the remote sensing inversion of forest carbon density on a large scale.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122004
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2005: The Adaptive Capacity of Alien and Rare
           Species in China

    • Authors: Quanlai Zhou, Zhiming Xin, Yongcui Wang, Renhui Miao, Zhimin Liu, Lu Zong, Xuehua Li, Qun Ma, Wei Liang, Haibin Yu, Lixin Wang
      First page: 2005
      Abstract: Alien and rare plants tend to adapt to contrasting biotic and abiotic conditions. However, adaptability assessments of alien and rare plants using biological and habitat characteristics in stressful and disturbed environments are limited. We collected and demonstrated the biological and habitat characteristics and assessed the adaptive capacity of alien and rare plants in China using the analytic hierarchy process. Biological characteristics, such as dispersal strategy, sexual and asexual reproduction modes, life form, and habitat characteristics (e.g., habitat type and distribution spatial extent), are important indicators of the adaptability of alien and rare plants to stressful and disturbed environments. Alien plants have a higher adaptive capacity to disturbed environments than rare plants, while rare plants have a higher adaptive capacity to stressful environments than alien plants. Stressful and disturbed environments constrain the adaptive capacity of alien and rare plants, respectively. However, the constraint on alien plants from stressful environments is weaker than that on rare plants from disturbed environments. Understanding the adaptive capacity of alien and rare plants will help researchers and policymakers develop strategies for preventing the invasion of alien plants as well as protecting rare and endangered plants.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122005
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2006: Staple Holding Strength of Furniture Frame
           Joints Constructed of Plywood and Solid Wood

    • Authors: Yanfeng Miao, Sheng Pan, Wei Xu
      First page: 2006
      Abstract: The withdrawal and lateral holding properties of three types of plywood with one stapled as well as one-row multi-stapled joints were studied and compared. The results show that variations in plywood density have a significant effect on withdrawal strength and a relatively small effect on lateral holding strength. At four staples, the withdrawal strength of the eucalyptus plywood with a density of 0.59 g/cm3 is 1821 N, which is 21% higher than that of poplar plywood with a density of 0.51 g/cm3 at 1498 N and 32% higher than that of eucalyptus/poplar composite plywood with a density of 0.53 g/cm3 at 1275 N. In terms of lateral holding strength, eucalyptus plywood has a lateral holding strength of 1603 N 12% lower than the 1807 N of eucalyptus/poplar composite plywood and 10% lower than the 1761 N of poplar plywood. As the number of staples increased from 1 to 4 in increments of 1, the withdrawal strength of eucalyptus plywood continued to increase, while the nodal strengths of the poplar plywood as well as eucalyptus/poplar composite plywood did not differ significantly between 3 and 4 staples, and there is a significant increase in the lateral holding strength for all three plywood nodes. Equations for predicting the withdrawal and lateral holding strengths of one-row multi-stapled joints were derived separately.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122006
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2007: Postural Assessment of Three Wood
           Measurement Options by the OWAS Method: Digital Solutions Seem to Be

    • Authors: Stelian Alexandru Borz, Salvatore F. Papandrea, Marina Viorela Marcu, Jacopo Bacenetti, Andrea R. Proto
      First page: 2007
      Abstract: Ergonomic assessment and validation are important in designing sustainable forest operations. Measurement and grading play a central role in the wood supply chain and updated solutions have started to emerge for such activities. Procuring biometric data by mobile scanning platforms has been shown to have a high potential in replacing traditional wood measurement methods, but no assessments were carried out to see if these solutions are sustainable from an ergonomics point of view. Based on more than 63 k still images, this study evaluates the working postures of three measurement options, namely, traditional measurement, scanning by a smartphone, and scanning by a commercial laser scanner. The OWAS method was used as an assessment framework to compute the postural risk indexes. A correspondence analysis was implemented to explore the association between the studied work tasks and severity of exposure, and the postural similarity of tasks was evaluated by the Canberra metric. The use of digital measurement solutions seems to be better from a postural point of view since their risk indexes were well below 200. In contrast, traditional wood measurement tasks produced postural risk indexes that were close to 250. By considering the body components, digital measurement solutions seemed to indicate a distinct postural profile. Moreover, the digital solutions stood well apart in the range of the first two action categories, indicating no urgent need for postural improvement, which was not the case for manual measurements. The main conclusion of the study is that state-of-the-art digital solutions are better from a postural point of view. For full validation, population-level studies should be carried out.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122007
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2008: Effects of the Root System Architecture of
           Pinus taeda and Phyllostachys edulis on the Index of Hydrological
           Connectivity in Subtropical Forest Ecosystems

    • Authors: Wenqi Zhang, Lu Wang, Zhiying Tang, Yinghu Zhang
      First page: 2008
      Abstract: The hydrological connectivity below the soil surface can influence the forest structure and function, especially soil and plant productivity. However, few studies have determined the changes in the hydrological connectivity below the soil surface with increasing soil depth and have quantified the effects of root systems on the hydrological connectivity in forest ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the index of the hydrological connectivity (IHC) below the soil surface using a field dye tracing method and compared the difference in the index of hydrological connectivity in two subtropical forest stands (i.e., pine trees [SS] and bamboo [ZL]). We analyzed the interactions between the parameters of root system architecture and the index of hydrological connectivity. Back propagation (BP) neural networks were used to quantify which parameter can contribute the most relative importance to the changes of the IHC. The results revealed that the maximum value of the index of hydrological connectivity occurs at the soil surface, and it exhibits a non-linear decreasing trend with increasing soil depth. The parameters of root system architecture (root length, root projected area, root surface area, root volume, and root biomass) were rich in the top soil layers (0–20 cm) in the two sites. Those parameters were positively correlated with the IHC and the root length had the largest positive influence on the hydrological connectivity. Furthermore, we found that root system architecture with different root diameters had different degrees of influence on the index of hydrological connectivity. The very fine root systems (0 < D < 1 mm) had the greatest effect on the hydrological connectivity (p < 0.01). The results of this study provide more information for the assessment of the hydrological connectivity below the soil surface and a better understanding of the effects of root systems in soil hydrology within the rhizosphere.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122008
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2009: Influence of Saw Chain Type and Wood Species
           on the Mass Concentration of Airborne Wood Dust during Cross-Cutting

    • Authors: Miroslav Dado, Marián Kučera, Jozef Salva, Richard Hnilica, Tatiana Hýrošová
      First page: 2009
      Abstract: Chainsaw operation is associated with several hazards, including exposure to wood dust, a risk factor which requires serious attention due to health impacts such as respiratory disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of saw chain type and wood species on the mass concentration of airborne wood dust during chainsaw cross-cutting operations. Real-time inhalable and respirable dust measurements in the breathing zone of the chainsaw operator were carried out using a desktop aerosol monitor. Three types of cutter shape (semi chisel, full chisel, and chamfer chisel) and four types of wood species (oak, beech, spruce, and fir) were used in the experiments. The split-plot ANOVA results showed that both respirable and inhalable mass concentrations of wood dust were affected exclusively by wood species. No statistically significant differences were found among particular levels of cutter shape. The highest average mass concentrations of airborne dust were generated by the combination of oak wood and a full chisel cutter.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122009
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2010: Photosynthetic Processes and Light Response
           Model Fitting of Quercus acutissima Carruth. and Quercus variabilis Bl. in
           the Changjiang River Delta, China

    • Authors: Cunxin Ruan, Haibo Hu, Can Cheng, Pei Fang, Xichuan Jia, Zhaoming Wu, Li Zhu
      First page: 2010
      Abstract: Plants have the capacity to fix CO2 through photosynthesis. To reveal the photosynthetic processes of Quercus acutissima Carruth. and Quercus variabilis Bl., their net photosynthetic rates were quantified during the early and peak growing seasons. To evaluate forest photosynthetic efficiencies, the photosynthetic light response curves of Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis were fitted by the rectangular hyperbola model (RHM), non-rectangular hyperbola model (NHM), and modified rectangular hyperbola model (Ye model). The results revealed the following: (1) All daily variation curves of the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductivity, and transpiration rate were single-peaked. The peak times of the Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis’ net photosynthetic rates appeared at 12:00 am during the early growing season and 10:00 am during the peak growing season. (2) The photosynthetic capacities of both Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis during peak growing seasons were higher than during the early growing season. (3) The net photosynthetic rate was found to be positively correlated with stomatal conductivity, the transpiration rate, and photosynthetically active radiation, and it was negatively correlated with the intercellular CO2 concentration. (4) The Ye model provided the best fit for the light response curves of Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis when compared with the rectangular hyperbola and nonrectangular hyperbola models. The photosynthetic performance of Q. acutissima was superior to that of Q. variabilis; thus, it can be employed as a priority tree species in carbon sink forests.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122010
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2011: Responses of Ecosystem Services to Climate
           Change: A Case Study of the Loess Plateau

    • Authors: Peiqing Jing, Donghai Zhang, Zemin Ai, Haojie Wu, Dingming Zhang, Honghong Ren, Liang Suo
      First page: 2011
      Abstract: Exploring the responses of ecosystem services to climate change is an essential prerequisite for understanding the global climate change impact on terrestrial ecosystems and their modeling. This study first evaluated the ecosystem services including net primary productivity (NPP), soil conservation (SC) and water yield (WY), and climate factors including precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation from 2000 to 2020 on the Loess Plateau, and then analyzed their relationships and threshold effects. The results found that precipitation in the region had significantly increased since 2000 while solar radiation decreased; mean annual temperature however did not change significantly. NPP and SC showed an increasing trend while WY showed a decreasing trend. The most significant climate factor affecting ESs was precipitation. With the increase of precipitation, all three types of ecosystem services showed a significant increasing trend, but the facilitating effect for NPP and WY began to be weakened when precipitation reached the thresholds of 490 mm and 600 mm, respectively. This occurred because in regions with already sufficient precipitation to support NPP there is limited capacity for NPP to increase compared to areas of arid grasslands. In these regions, high vegetation cover leads to increased evapotranspiration which reduces the positive influence of increasing precipitation on WY. The results can offer a reference for the level of ecological restoration success.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122011
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2012: European Yield Model Exponential Decay
           Constant Modification for Glulam after Fire Exposure

    • Authors: Mohd Nizam Shakimon, Rohana Hassan, Nor Jihan Abd Malek, Azman Zainal, Ali Awaludin, Nor Hayati Abdul Hamid, Wei Chen Lum, Mohd Sapuan Salit
      First page: 2012
      Abstract: Many real-scale fire tests have been performed on timber connections to analyze the mechanical behavior of timber connections in previous years. However, little research focused on the bending performance of glued laminated (glulam) timber beam bolted connections after fire exposure. In this paper, the three-dimensional numerical model of the glulam timber beam bolted connections was developed and validated by experimental results. The model can simulate temperature evolution in the connections and their mechanical behavior. In the real-scale test, three (3) samples were prepared for a four-point bending test at normal temperature, while another three (3) samples were tested after exposure to a 30-min standard fire and cooled down to normal temperature. The results show the reduction of the load-carrying capacity before and after exposure to the standard fire by 23.9 kN (71.8%), 8.3 kN (26.1%), and 20.2 kN (47.6%) for bolt diameters of 12 mm, 16 mm, and 20 mm, respectively. The numerical model aims to conduct a parametric study and propose the modification of the exponential decay constant, k, for tropical glulam timber to predict the load-carrying capacity of the glulam timber beam bolted connections after exposure to standard fire.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122012
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2013: Assessing Green Infrastructures Using GIS
           and the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method: The Case of the Al Baha
           Region (Saudi Arabia)

    • Authors: Babikir Mobarak, Raid Shrahily, Alsharif Mohammad, Abdulrhman Ali Alzandi
      First page: 2013
      Abstract: Among the Saudi Vision 2030 programs is the Green Saudi Initiative, which aims to protect the environment, energy conversion, and sustainability projects to build a sustainable future. In the present paper, Green Infrastructures (GI) were assessed, analyzed, and mapped using GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process-based-Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method (AHP-MCDM). Ten criteria were selected to elaborate the GI suitability map (DEM, slope, topographic position index, rainfall, distance to the water lines, topographic wetness index, distance to the road, wind speed, housing income group high (high-income people) map, employment in the agricultural sector, and land use land change). The results revealed four classes of suitability: Poor, Fair, Good, and Excellent. The “Excellent” area for GI planning was estimated at 983 km2 (9%), whereas the “Good” area covered 36% (3987 km2). The excellent and good areas for GI were more localized in the central part of the Al Baha region in the areas of Al Bahah, Elmandaq, Alatawlah, and the central part of Buljurshi. According to the obtained results, the southern part of the study is not suitable for GI planning; this is explained by the large area of barren land and sand. The results obtained by this research may help managers and decision-makers in future planning for GI areas in the Al Baha region.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122013
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2014: Inter- and Intraspecific Variation Patterns
           of Leaf Phenotypic Traits in Two Sympatric Pine Species

    • Authors: Yuan Yang, Meng Hu, Mingyang Fan, Lu Wang, Ting Lv, Huanchao Zhang, Kewang Xu, Yifan Duan, Yanming Fang
      First page: 2014
      Abstract: Individual persistence under changing climate conditions can be aided by phenotypic plasticity. Needle morphology reflects pine species’ adaptation to their habitats, and adaptive plasticity is beneficial to pine survival. As two closely related pines, Pinusmassoniana Lamb. and Pinus hwangshanensis W. Y. Hsia sympatrically occur in the subtropical region of China, forming hilly forests (i.e., subtropical evergreen needleleaf forests) at lower elevations and montane forests (i.e., temperate evergreen needleleaf forests) at medium and high elevations. However, little is known about the intraspecific phenotypic variation patterns of the two pine species and their relationship with environmental factors. Here, we investigated the interspecific and intraspecific variation patterns of needle traits in the two sympatric pine species, focusing on six traits—i.e., leaf length, leaf thickness, leaf width, leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content—as well as the relationship between needle traits and environmental factors. We found significant phenotypic trait differences among populations of each species. Except for leaf length and leaf width, variation within species was greater than variation between species in the needle traits measured. Even more intriguingly, the leaf size traits (i.e., length, width, thickness) were more conservative than the leaf economic traits (i.e., specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). In other words, the intraspecific variability of the former was weaker than that of the latter. The nature of P. massoniana needle traits was mainly shaped by latitude, while the needle traits of P. hwangshanensis were significantly affected by annual precipitation. Therefore, phenotypic plasticity may be an essential mechanism for the two pine species to better cope with changing environmental conditions. The intraspecific variation patterns found in the two pine species and the relationships between traits and environmental factors can provide substantial scientific data for large-scale exploration of intraspecific phenotypic variation in pine species and their breeding practice.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122014
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2015: Effects of Forest Gap on Soil Microbial
           Communities in an Evergreen Broad-Leaved Secondary Forest

    • Authors: Shiyou Chen, Chunqian Jiang, Yanfeng Bai, Hui Wang, Chunwu Jiang, Ke Huang, Lina Guo, Suping Zeng, Shuren Wang
      First page: 2015
      Abstract: Forest gaps play a crucial role in community succession and assembly in forest ecosystems; therefore, they have recently been recognized and implemented as effective forest management practice all over the world. Forest gaps are commonly created as small disturbances in secondary forests to improve forest regeneration, nutrient cycling, ecosystem functioning, and biodiversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of the physico-chemical and biological properties and microbial communities in soil to different sizes of forest gaps—including small gaps (60–80 m2), medium gaps (130–160 m2), and large gaps (270–300 m2)—and to examine the driving factors that influence soil microbial community structure and composition. The results show that Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and actinomycetes were mainly aggregated in the gaps, and the structural diversity of soil microbial communities was related to the gap size (p < 0.05). The soil microbial community diversity increased and then decreased with an increase in gap size. Moreover, the effects of the available phosphorus, soil pH, soil water content, available potassium, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen on changes in microbial biomass were significant (p < 0.05). The gap area and gap position and their combined interactions also had significant effects on soil nutrients, which impacts the soil microbial community. Medium gaps (130–160 m2) always significantly improved the availability of soil nutrients, and good management practices in secondary forests can provide effective microenvironments for soil microbes.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122015
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2016: Toward the Genetic Improvement of Drought
           Tolerance in Conifers: An Integrated Approach

    • Authors: Paolo Baldi, Nicola La Porta
      First page: 2016
      Abstract: The constant rise in the global temperature and unpredictable shifts in precipitation patterns are two of the main effects of climate change. Therefore, there is an increasing amount of interest in the identification of tree species, provenances and genotypes capable of withstanding more arid conditions and tolerating drought stress. In the present review, we focus our attention on generally more susceptible conifers and describe the different strategies that plants adopt to respond to drought stress. We describe the main approaches taken in studies of conifer adaptations to low water availability, the advantages and limitations of each, and the main results obtained with each of these approaches in the recent years. Then we discuss how the increasing amount of morphological, physiological and genetic data may find practical applications in forest management, and in particular in next-generation breeding programs. Finally, we provide some recommendations for future research. In particular, we suggest extending future studies to a broader selection of species and genera, increasing the number of studies on adult plants, in particular those on gene expression, and distinguishing between the different types of drought stress that a tree can withstand during its life cycle. The integration of data coming from different disciplines and approaches will be a key factor to increasing our knowledge about a trait as complex as drought resistance.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122016
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2017: Analysis of Plant Trait Data of Host Plants
           of Lycorma delicatula in the US Suggests Evidence for Ecological Fitting

    • Authors: Alina Avanesyan, Cameron McPherson, William O. Lamp
      First page: 2017
      Abstract: Plant traits, used by the invasive insect herbivores to find and select suitable hosts, can play an important role in insect host range expansion. With regard to invasive Lycorma delicatula, it is not well explored, however, how the plant origin affects insect host selection, and whether native and introduced host plants differ in their morphology, lifespan, as well as environmental requirements for growth. We addressed this issue in our study through the comprehensive assessment of 25 relevant plant traits (a total of 27,601 records retrieved from the TRY database), as well as the origin and phylogenetic relationships of 37 host plants of L. delicatula in the U.S. Our results showed that only leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, and canopy size were significantly greater in the introduced hosts than that in native plants. We did not detect a significant effect of the plant origin on other characteristics. Additionally, no significant differences between native and introduced hosts of L. delicatula in genetic distances from introduced Ailanthus altissima (the most preferred host) were detected. These results, for the first time, suggest strong evidence for ecological fitting which might drive the host plant selection of L. delicatula and its rapid spread in the U.S.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122017
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2018: Exploratory Pressure Impregnation Process
           Using Supercritical CO2, Co-Solvents, and Multi-Cycle Implementation

    • Authors: Diego Elustondo, Laura Raymond, Regis Risani, Lloyd Donaldson, Marie Joo Le Guen
      First page: 2018
      Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is extensively used for extracting chemicals from materials, but the impregnation of materials with chemicals using scCO2 has received little attention in comparison. To the best of our knowledge, most technologies described in the literature operate by the principle of diffusion, where impregnation yield is limited by solubility. The objective of this exploratory study is to prove the feasibility of an scCO2 impregnation process that can extract solutes from one material and release them into another material through a single extraction/impregnation stage that can be applied in cycles to increase the yield. The feasibility of the concept was proven in the laboratory using radiata pine bark wax as the solute and radiata pine wood as the impregnated material. Extraction/impregnation tests were performed at temperatures between 40 and 60 °C, pressures between 12 and 16 MPa, and with the addition of ethanol and acetone as co-solvents. The study demonstrated the feasibility of multi-cycle scCO2 impregnation of wax into wood, where the novelty of the concept is the implementation as traditional pressure impregnation methods.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122018
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2019: Predicting Changes in Forest Growing Season
           (FGS) in the Transitional Climate of Poland on the Basis of Current Grid

    • Authors: Bogdan Wertz, Sławomir Wilczyński
      First page: 2019
      Abstract: The observed climate change determines the silvicultural and productive perspectives of the different species. The use of stand growth simulators, which are important tools for predicting future tree growth, requires verified and consistent data, such as length of forest growing season (FGS). The aim of this study is to determine the current and future FGS on the territory of Poland, which has a highly variable transition climate between maritime and continental types. The analysis is based on the WorldClim grid dataset corrected with the constructed model based on the FGS derived from 245 meteorological stations covering the whole territory of the country. In addition, predictions of changes in FGS depending on different climate scenarios were considered. The results show that the inclusion of geographical location components, i.e., longitude, latitude and especially altitude, is important for the correction of FGS calculated on the basis of raster datasets such as WorldClim. The prediction of climatic changes shows a significant increase in FGS duration in Poland, ranging from 18 to 52 days, mainly affecting the mountainous regions with the shortest actual FGS.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122019
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2020: Machine Learning-Assisted In Vitro Rooting
           Optimization in Passiflora caerulea

    • Authors: Marziyeh Jafari, Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar, Sahar Jafari, Mohsen Hesami
      First page: 2020
      Abstract: In vitro rooting as one of the most critical steps of micropropagation is affected by various extrinsic (e.g., medium composition, auxins) and intrinsic factors (e.g., species, explant). In Passiflora species, in vitro adventitious rooting is a difficult, complex, and non-linear process. Since in vitro rooting is a multivariable complex biological process, efficient and reliable computational approaches such as machine learning (ML) are required to model, predict, and optimize this non-linear biological process. Therefore, in the current study, a hybrid of generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to predict in vitro rooting responses (rooting percentage, number of roots, and root length) of Passiflora caerulea based on the optimization of the level of auxins (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indolebutyric acid (IBA), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)) and the type of explant (microshoots derived from leaf, node, and internode). Based on the results, the GRNN model was accurate in predicting all in vitro rooting responses of P. caerulea (R2 > 0.92) in either training or testing sets. The result of the validation experiment also showed that there was a negligible difference between the predicted-optimized values and the validated results demonstrating the reliability of the developed GRNN-GA model. Generally, the results of the current study showed that GRNN-GA is a reliable and accurate model to predict and optimize in vitro rooting of P. caerulea.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122020
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2021: Evaluation of Yield Improvements in Machine
           vs. Visual Strength Grading for Softwood Species

    • Authors: Gonzalo Moltini, Guillermo Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo Cabrera, Vanesa Baño
      First page: 2021
      Abstract: The current national standard for strength grading in Spain is based on a visual classification, which, for softwood species with small cross-sections (with a thickness equa tol or less than 70 mm), establishes two different visual grades (ME-1 and ME-2). These grades are assigned to the strength classes C24 and C18, respectively, for maritime and radiata pines, and C27 and C18 for Scots pine, according to the European standard EN-1912:2012. The production of engineered wood products, such as glulam or cross-laminated timber is increasing worldwide. The machine grading of wood using non-destructive testing provides the industry with a more reliable, fast, and consistent method for grading. With this background in mind, this study presents the yield comparison of machine grading vs. visual grading for those three pine species from Spain. The machine settings were obtained according to the standard EN 14081-2:2019, providing several possible strength grade combinations. Results allow new possibilities for the industry and improve the structural yield of the studied timber, thus increasing the material optimization.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122021
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2022: Sensitivity of Stand-Level Biomass to
           Climate for Three Conifer Plantations in Northeast China

    • Authors: Shidong Xin, Junjie Wang, Surya Bagus Mahardika, Lichun Jiang
      First page: 2022
      Abstract: The accurate assessment of forest biomass is vital to climate change mitigation. Based on forest survey data, stand biomass models can effectively assess forest biomass carbon at large scales. However, traditional stand biomass models have ignored the potential effects of the climate on stand biomass estimation. There is still a lack of research on whether or not and in what ways the effects of the climate reduce uncertainty in biomass estimation and carbon accounting. Therefore, two types of stand biomass models, including basic stand biomass models (BBMs) and climate-sensitive stand biomass models (CBMs), were developed and tested using 311 plantation plots of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc.), Korean larch (Larix olgensisi A. Henry), and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv.) in Northeast China. The two types of models were developed by applying simultaneous equations based on nonlinear, seemingly unrelated, regression (NSUR) to ensure additivity of the stand total and components biomass (root, stem, branch, and needle). The results of fitting and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) indicated that the CBMs performed better than the corresponding BBMs. The RMSEs of the stand total biomass decreased by 3.5% to 10.6% for the three conifer species. The influence of temperature-related climate variables on the biomass of stand components was greater than that of precipitation-related climate variables. The sensitivity of the three conifer species to climate variables was ranked as Korean pine > Mongolian pine > Korean larch. This study emphasizes the importance of combining climate variables in stand biomass models to reduce the uncertainty and climate effects in forest biomass estimation, which will play a role in carbon accounting for forest ecosystems.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122022
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2023: The Influence of Iron Application on the
           Growth and Cadmium Stress Tolerance of Poplar

    • Authors: Mingwan Li, Changrui Liu, Dangquan Zhang, Bingwen Wang, Shen Ding
      First page: 2023
      Abstract: There is a complex cadmium (Cd) and iron (Fe) interaction in soil. To explore the influences of Fe application on the growth, Cd accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of poplar under Cd exposure, Populus tremula × P. alba ‘717’ was treated with different concentrations of Cd (0 and 100 μM) and Fe (50 and 150 μM). In addition, the root architecture, leaf chlorophyll content, Cd accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the high-dose Fe (150 μM) did not change poplar biomass in zero-Cd treatment but increased the chlorophyll content, total root surface area, net photosynthetic rate, and biomass accumulation of Cd-stressed poplar. In addition, under Cd stress, high-dose Fe increased the translocation factor (TF) of Cd, decreased root and leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and enhanced root and leaf SOD activity. That is, high-dose Fe could alleviate the suppression of Cd on the growth of poplar and enhance the transport of Cd to aboveground tissues and the SOD activity in roots and leaves, thus alleviating the Cd-induced oxidative stress. This study will provide reference for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils using poplar.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122023
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2024: Chemical Composition and Deposition
           Characteristics of Precipitation into a Typical Temperate Forest in
           Northeastern China

    • Authors: Yingying Wang, Feifei Zhu, Ronghua Kang, Linlin Song, Shaonan Huang, Dan Huang, Kai Huang, Abubakari Said Mgelwa, Geshere Abdisa Gurmesa, Xiaoming Fang, Yunting Fang
      First page: 2024
      Abstract: The chemical compositions and deposition characteristics of atmospheric precipitation affect the structure and function of forest ecosystems and reflect regional air quality. Although northeastern China constitutes a vital forested area, few relevant studies reveal the chemical composition and the nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) deposition characteristics within precipitation. In this study, we monitor precipitation chemistry during 2018–2020 at a rural forested site in northeastern China (the Qingyuan site) and compare it with those from background sites (Mondy in Russia and Ochiishi in Japan) and highly anthropogenically influenced areas (Beijing). The precipitation pH range was 4.7–8.0 (volume-weighted average 6.2). The average concentration of total ions in precipitation was 459 μmol L−1, representing a moderate pollution level. Nitrate (NO3−, 73 μmol L−1) and ammonium (NH4+, 133 μmol L−1) were the major anions and cations in the precipitation. Total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) deposition was 12.3–15.9 kg N ha−1 year−1 (NH4+-N deposition accounted for 54–67%), lower than the average level in China (19.4 kg N ha−1 year−1). Annual precipitation sulphate (SO42−) deposition was 4.9–6.7 kg S ha−1 year−1. Seventy-two percent of the precipitation ions at our site originated from human activities. This work has revealed that N and S deposition is an important ion deposition component in atmospheric precipitation in the study of temperate forests in northeastern China. Nitrogen deposition, as a source of vital nutrients in the forest ecosystem, may promote forest growth and, thereby, forest carbon sequestration.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122024
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2025: Dimensional Solution of Wooden Chairs for
           the Adult Bariatric Population of Slovakia: Observational Study

    • Authors: Miloš Hitka, Peter Štarchoň, Ľubica Simanová, Martin Čuta, Maciej Sydor
      First page: 2025
      Abstract: Chairs are furniture that are intended for direct contact with people, they are heavily loaded by forces, and they must meet a number of criteria, such as ergonomics, safety, economic sustainability, feasibility, and aesthetic requirements. This study aimed to define the dimensional solution of wooden chairs for the adult bariatric subpopulation of Slovakia. Long-term observations of the changes in the anthropometric dimensions of the population (secular trend) allowed the determination of the body height of 95% of the adult male population. Based on the analysis of the bariatric population of Slovakia, regardless of gender, the values of weight, waist and hip circumference, and seat width were defined in the years 2020 to 2022. The increased population’s average body mass makes the researched topic highly relevant and necessary. Based on the obtained data, new dimensions of wooden chairs for bariatric respondents were designed: seat height 49 cm, seat width 67 cm, and seat depth 47 cm. Adjusting the dimensions of wooden chairs makes it possible to ensure comfortable sitting and standing for bariatric respondents and prevents many health problems. For furniture manufacturers, the introduction of the production of wooden furniture for bariatric respondents can be a competitive market advantage.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122025
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2026: Contribution of Dry Forests and Forest
           Products to Climate Change Adaptation in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Musse Tesfaye, Ashenafi Manaye, Berihu Tesfamariam, Zenebe Mekonnen, Shibire Bekele Eshetu, Katharina Löhr, Stefan Sieber
      First page: 2026
      Abstract: Despite their ecological importance, dry forests’ contribution to climate change adaptation is often neglected. Hence, this study was initiated to assess the socioeconomic contribution of dry forests to climate change adaptation in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. A mixed quantitative and qualitative research design was used to examine the role of dry forests in climate change adaptation. A household questionnaire survey, key informants, and a focus group discussion were used to collect data. The results indicated that 94% of all households visited a dry forest at least once a month to access the forest and forest products. While the dry forest income level varied significantly (p < 0.05), the overall dry forest income level contributed to 16.8% of the total household income. Dry forest income enabled the reduction of the area between the line of equality and the Lorenz curve by 21% in dry evergreen Afromontane Forest users, by 3.02% in Combretum–Terminalia woodland users, and by 3% in Acacia–Commiphora woodland users. Gender, occupation, wealth status, and distance from the forest to their homes are all factors that significantly affected Combretum–Terminalia woodland users’ income level. Among Acacia–Commiphora woodland users, the respondents’ age influenced the dry forest income level, whereas, among dry evergreen Afromontane Forest users, the family size of the household influenced the dry forest income level. The findings of this study could help policy makers understand the crucial role of dry forest income in the livelihood of the community and in climate change adaptation. Policymakers could reduce the pressure on dry forests by introducing policies that recognize the role of dry forest income in reducing poverty and income inequality and by establishing farmer cooperation in commercializing the non-timber forest products which support the long-term coping and adaptation strategy. Further research is needed to understand the increasing role of dry forest products in climate change adaptation over time and its contribution to the national economy at large.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122026
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2027: Gap Crossing in Flying Squirrels: Mitigating
           Movement Barriers through Landscape Management and Structural

    • Authors: Jeremy M. Howard
      First page: 2027
      Abstract: Habitat fragmentation affects flying squirrels despite their ability to cross canopy gaps. If unable to cross gaps, flying squirrels may suffer from limited access to appropriate resources, inbreeding depression, and even extirpation. North American flying squirrels (Glaucomys) have been the focus of limited research on this issue when compared to other areas of the world tackling this problem. However, as all gliding mammals share similar conservation challenges, findings of other species on other continents can be applied to the Glaucomys species in North America. The purpose of this review is to take a metapopulation approach to the problem of gap crossing. This review first discusses necessary habitat conservation strategies for Glaucomys within the patches they reside. The review then discusses patch size and configuration, honing in on maintaining connectivity between habitat patches. Different structures (natural and manmade) used to maintain connectivity are reviewed using gliding mammal literature from around the world. This information is pertinent to North American conservation ecologists and landscape managers, who can use this information to improve habitat connectivity and facilitate crossings of Glaucomys flying squirrels within metapopulations.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122027
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2028: Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights
           into the Mechanisms of Starch Biosynthesis in the Kernels of Three
           Chestnut Cultivars

    • Authors: Wu Wang, Shijie Zhang, Yu Chen, Yuqiang Zhao, Fenghou Shi, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Xiaoqian Bai, Cancan Zhu
      First page: 2028
      Abstract: The chestnut is widely cultivated fruit tree enriched with nutrients and has pleasant tasting fruit. The starch properties of kernels greatly influence the nutritional quality of chestnuts. Although various studies have examined the production and accumulation of starch in chestnuts, the transcription alteration linked with starch properties in the kernels has not yet been fully assessed. The present study was conducted to compare transcriptomic variation and starch profiling of three chestnut cultivars: “Garrone rosso” (eur), Castanea sativa Mill., native to Europe; “Dahongpao” (dhp) and “Jiandingyouli” (jdy), and Castanea mollissima Bl., native to China. The results revealed that “dhp” and “jdy” had higher amylose, amylopectin and total starch content than “eur”. Based on transcriptome data, we screened 63.17G clean bases, and detected numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism. Through the combined transcriptomic and starch profiling analysis showed that DEGs in “the starch and sucrose metabolism”, “bZIP transcriptional factors”, and “zinc finger protein” pathways were positively correlated with starch accumulation, genes encoding sucrose synthase (CMHBY215664 and CMHBY203813), USPase (CMHBY206855), and PGI (CMHBY200699) were found to participate in the biosynthesis, transport, and regulation of starch according to their expression patterns in chestnut kernels. Furthermore, genes encoding different transcription factors (ERF, bZIP, MYB, and WRKY) that potentially regulate the expression of genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were selected by coexpression analysis, which highlighted that most MYB and WRKY TF members were positively correlated with starch synthase (SS). qRT-PCR assay results of nine selected DEGs confirmed the accuracy of the RNA-Seq data. Our results provide insights into genetic resources for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of chestnut starch accumulation.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122028
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2029: Perspectives on the Psychological and
           Physiological Effects of Forest Therapy: A Systematic Review with a
           Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

    • Authors: Sung Ryul Shim, JinKyung Chang, JooHee Lee, WooJin Byeon, Jeongwon Lee, Kyung Ju Lee
      First page: 2029
      Abstract: The effects of urbanization on the health of city dwellers have spurred research on the health-promoting benefits of forest exposure, and potential health-promoting benefits of human-nature relationships. In this meta-analysis, meta-regression, and systematic review, we aimed to analyze how forest-based interventions improved overall well-being through psychological and physiological changes by examining psychological scores and biomarkers. In December 2021, systematic searches were conducted on bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane) for studies involving psychological scores and physiological indicators. Data from 17 studies with 1418 participants showed that psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, vigor), systolic blood pressure (BP), and malondialdehyde levels significantly improved in the forest-exposed group compared to in the nonexposed group, with high heterogeneity (I2 = 66%–93%). Well-being-related psychological symptoms (friendliness, well-being, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, self-esteem) and physiological markers (diastolic BP and cortisol) exhibited better tendencies in the forest-exposed group, with high heterogeneity (I2 = 16%–91%), and meta-regression showed that moderators (age, country group, number of participants, study design, female participation rate, BMI) were significantly associated with forest-related therapeutic effects. In conclusion, forest visits have health-promoting effects that reduce the incidence of stress and lifestyle-related diseases, and are positively associated with psychological and physiological health.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122029
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2030: Land Change Simulation and Forest Carbon
           Storage of Central Yunnan Urban Agglomeration, China Based on SSP-RCP

    • Authors: Rongyao Wang, Junsan Zhao, Yilin Lin, Guoping Chen, Qing Cao, Yixiang Feng
      First page: 2030
      Abstract: Land use change is closely related to the terrestrial ecosystem. Studying the relationship between land use and ecosystem service carbon storage under future climate change can optimize the regional ecosystem service function and formulate sustainable social and economic development policies, which is of great significance for regional carbon emission management and climate change response. In this paper, the coupled model of SSP-RCP-PLUS-InVEST was constructed to simulate land use change under different scenarios, analyze the influence degree of driving factors on different regions, and explore the spatio-temporal evolution and spatial correlation of carbon storage, taking Central Yunnan City agglomeration as an example. The results showed that: (1) from the perspective of land use change, the overall changes in SSP126 and SSP245 scenarios were similar, and the change rates of different types were slightly different. Under the SSP585 scenario, the forest area decreased, and the urban land and cropland land expanded. (2) Under the three scenarios in the future, the decrease in total carbon storage is the most serious under the SSP245 scenario, and the decrease is the most serious under the SSP585 scenario. (3) Comparative spatial correlation: the carbon storage in the Central Yunnan urban agglomeration is generally correlated among counties, and there is no significant difference under the future scenarios, showing a high accumulation pattern in the east and low accumulation pattern in the middle. In general, reasonable planning of land spatial patterns and increasing the proportion of forest is conducive to the proportion of regional carbon sequestration capacity. The research methods can provide references for addressing climate change and territorial spatial planning.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122030
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2031: Storing More Carbon by Improving Forest
           Management in the Acadian Forest of New England, USA

    • Authors: Robert Alec Giffen, Colleen M. Ryan, Ethan P. Belair, Michael A. Pounch, Seth Brown
      First page: 2031
      Abstract: The capacity of forests to store carbon, combined with time-tested approaches to managing forests, make forests a useful tool for atmospheric carbon mitigation. The primary goals of this study are to determine the amount of unrealized mitigation available from Improved Forest Management (IFM) in the Acadian Forest of New England in the northeastern U.S., and to demonstrate how this mitigation can feasibly be attained. This study used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) to model the impacts of IFM practices articulated by the New England Forestry Foundation on carbon storage in the Acadian Forest. Our results, together with empirical data from well-managed forests, show that if the modeled improved management is employed on privately owned timberland across the Acadian Forest of New England, carbon storage could be increased by 488 Tg CO2e. Our financial modeling shows that IFM could be funded in this region by combining income from carbon markets with the philanthropic funding of conservation easements, timber revenues, and capital investments from private investors who prioritize social and economic goals alongside financial returns. This study adds to the body of evidence from around the world that the potential for managed forests to contribute to climate change mitigation has not been fully realized.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122031
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2032: Novel Recursive BiFPN Combining with Swin
           Transformer for Wildland Fire Smoke Detection

    • Authors: Ao Li, Yaqin Zhao, Zhaoxiang Zheng
      First page: 2032
      Abstract: The technologies and models based on machine vision are widely used for early wildfire detection. Due to the broadness of wild scene and the occlusion of the vegetation, smoke is more easily detected than flame. However, the shapes of the smoke blown by the wind change constantly and the smoke colors from different combustors vary greatly. Therefore, the existing target detection networks have limitations in detecting wildland fire smoke, such as low detection accuracy and high false alarm rate. This paper designs the attention model Recursive Bidirectional Feature Pyramid Network (RBiFPN for short) for the fusion and enhancement of smoke features. We introduce RBiFPN into the backbone network of YOLOV5 frame to better distinguish the subtle difference between clouds and smoke. In addition, we replace the classification head of YOLOV5 with Swin Transformer, which helps to change the receptive fields of the network with the size of smoke regions and enhance the capability of modeling local features and global features. We tested the proposed model on the dataset containing a large number of interference objects such as clouds and fog. The experimental results show that our model can detect wildfire smoke with a higher performance than the state-of-the-art methods.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122032
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2033: Multi-Objective Optimization and Analysis of
           Mechanical Properties of Coir Fiber from Coconut Forest Waste

    • Authors: Shaofeng Ru, Can Zhao, Songmei Yang
      First page: 2033
      Abstract: As a type of natural fiber with excellent elongation, coir fiber has been applied in a wide range of fields. To ensure superb performance, coir fiber is usually treated with alkali before being applied. Previous studies paid little attention to the multiple alkali treatment of coir fiber; however, this study focuses on its influence on the mechanical properties of coir fiber and conducts multi-objective optimization and analysis of the tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of coir fiber. Our objective is the comprehensive enhancement of the mechanical properties of coir fiber. In this study, the experimental design is based on the Box-Behnken design method, and three treatment parameters were selected for the study, namely NaOH concentration, treatment time and treatment temperature. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted to analyze the experimental data, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate how the treatment factors interact with each other and affect the responses values. To improve the tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of coir fiber simultaneously, the experimental parameters were optimized. The results showed that the optimal values of NaOH concentration, treatment time and treatment temperature were 4.12%, 15.08 h and 34.21 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, the tensile strength of coir fiber was 97.14 MPa, the elastic modulus was 2.98 GPa and the elongation was 29.35%, which were 38.28%, 39.91% and 25.59% higher than that of untreated coir fiber, respectively. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the changes in surface, weight loss, composition and crystallinity of coir fiber treated with alkali under optimum conditions compared with untreated coir fiber to obtain a deeper insight into the influential mechanisms of alkali treatment.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122033
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2034: Risk Factors and Occupational Safety
           Failures in Forest Work in the Southeast Asian Region

    • Authors: Tomi Kaakkurivaara, Stelian Alexandru Borz, Nopparat Kaakkurivaara
      First page: 2034
      Abstract: Occupational safety is generally known to be low in forestry work. A similar situation may be found in Southeast Asian countries, where health and safety aspects are not commonly taken care of so rigorously. However, there is also a lack of primary data which could be suitable for evaluating such issues. The auditing reports of FCS certification are a source of useful information to evaluate and analyze health and safety concerns in forestry work. This paper addressed the coverage of available information, classified the risk factors uniformly from different certifying body criteria, compared occurrence of risk factors in groups and checked for dependencies in data. The key findings are that the main issues were those related to the organizations’ failures to protect the workers and to the lack of awareness of safety. In turn, these may explain the high incidence of forestry-related work accidents in Southeast Asia.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122034
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2035: Unraveling the Effects of Pruning Frequency
           on Biomass Productivity, Nonstructural Carbohydrates and Nitrogen Fixation
           Rates of Sesbania sesban

    • Authors: Thabo I. Makhubedu, Brigid A. Letty, Paramu L. Mafongoya, Peter F. Scogings
      First page: 2035
      Abstract: Tree pruning is a management tool in agroforestry systems for reducing shade, enhancing nutrient cycling or providing fodder. However, little information is available on the effect of pruning management on plant growth, nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) levels in the roots and N2 fixation of Sesbania sesban. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of pruning frequency on biomass production, NSC levels and N2 fixation of Sesbania sesban. Pruning treatments consisted of a control (PF0), one pruning at 3 months after transplanting (MAT) (PF1), two successive prunings at 3 and 6 MAT (PF2), and three successive prunings at 3, 6 and 9 MAT (PF3), with each pruning removing shoot biomass above 50% of the initial height. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. Results showed that increasing pruning frequency resulted in decreased nodulation and nonstructural carbohydrate levels in the roots. Above and below ground biomass, root length, percentage N derived from the atmosphere and amount of N2 fixed were decreased in a similar manner whether plants were successively pruned twice or thrice. It can be concluded that two or three successive prunings in nine months significantly reduce nonstructural carbohydrates, DM productivity and N2 fixation of S. sesban, and might result in supply of insufficient biomass required for improving soil N fertility and livestock production.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122035
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2036: Impregnation Properties of Nigerian-Grown
           Gmelina arborea Roxb. Wood

    • Authors: Samuel Oluyinka Olaniran, Sophie Löning, Andreas Buschalsky, Holger Militz
      First page: 2036
      Abstract: The success of any wood treatment process and the measure of protection conferred on treated wood are determined by the uptake and penetration of the treatment chemicals, in addition to the efficacy of the chemicals used for the treatment. Hence, the level of treatability of wood species should be pre-determined prior to the wood treatment to ensure the overall protection of the treated wood. Gmelina arborea wood, due to its low durability, requires impregnation with chemicals for preservation or chemical modification to enhance its durability. However, more details are required to establish the influence of its anatomy on impregnation to recommend appropriate treatment methods. Therefore, gmelina wood samples were treated under pressure to determine the solution uptake and penetration, while anatomical studies were carried out with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. Variations in stem heights, stem diameters, and samples from other tree stands were considered. The outcome of the study showed that the liquid uptake was generally low for gmelina wood among the selected stands (16–23%) and there was no significant difference in stem diameters; meanwhile, penetration was less than 4 mm in the axial direction, and very low in the lateral (radial and tangential) direction. Vessels of gmelina wood have abundant tyloses, while crystalline structures with needlelike shapes are present in a large proportion of the ray parenchyma cells, and are confirmed with SEM-EDX to be made up of calcium oxalate. The low liquid uptake and penetration in gmelina wood suggest that the impregnation of chemicals into its microstructure is next to impossible. Hence, alternative treatment methods other than those involving impregnation with chemicals should be sought to enhance its durability.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122036
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2037: Drought Resistance Evaluation of Casuarina
           equisetifolia Half-Sib Families at the Seedling Stage and the Response of
           Five NAC Genes to Drought Stress

    • Authors: Xu, Yu, You, Xiao, Nie, Li, Ye, Lin
      First page: 2037
      Abstract: Casuarina equisetifolia (L.) is an indispensable tree species in the construction of the backbone of the shelterbelt system in subtropical coastal regions, as it can resist wind, sand, drought, and salt. Under global warming and water shortage, it is important to clarify the mechanisms through which C. equisetifolia adapts to drought stress and to breed drought-resistant varieties in order to enhance the ecological protection provided by coastal shelterbelts. Here, we aimed to explore the response characteristics of C. equisetifolia to drought stress and investigate the associations of NAC genes with drought resistance. Seedlings of 16 half-sib C. equisetifolia families were subjected to drought treatment. Seedling growth, morphology, physiological and biochemical indices, and drought resistance were comprehensively evaluated. The drought-resistant families designated 4-383, 3-80, 3-265, 3-224, and 1-195 were selected using multiple indices and methods. Correlation and structural equation model analyses revealed that CCG007578 might regulate growth and osmoprotection in C. equisetifolia while CCG028838 and CCG004029 may scavenge reactive oxygen species. The correlation and structural equation model analyses of seedling height growth (∆H), survival rate (S), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and CCG007578 expression were used to identify drought resistance in C. equisetifolia. The aforementioned drought-resistant families provide basic materials for future research on genes encoding drought-resistance proteins and the molecular breeding of drought-resistant C. equisetifolia.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122037
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2038: Tropical Forest Disturbance Monitoring Based

    • Authors: Xiong Yin, Weili Kou, Ting Yun, Xiaowei Gu, Hongyan Lai, Yue Chen, Zhixiang Wu, Bangqian Chen
      First page: 2038
      Abstract: Monitoring disturbances in tropical forests is important for assessing disturbance-related greenhouse gas emissions and the ability of forests to sequester carbon, and for formulating strategies for sustainable forest management. Thanks to a long-term observation history, large spatial coverage, and support from powerful cloud platforms such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), remote sensing is increasingly used to detect forest disturbances. In this study, three types of forest disturbances (abrupt, gradual, and multiple) were identified since the late 1980s on Hainan Island, the largest tropical island in China, using an improved LandTrendr algorithm and a dense time series of Landsat and Sentinel-2 satellite images on the GEE cloud platform. Results show that: (1) the algorithm identified forest disturbances with high accuracy, with the R2 for abrupt and gradual disturbance detection reaching 0.92 and 0.83, respectively; (2) the total area in which forest disturbances occurred on Hainan Island over the past 30 years accounted for 10.84% (2.33 × 105 hm2 in total area, at 0.35% per year) of the total forest area in 2020 and peaked around 2005; (3) the areas of abrupt, gradual, and multiple disturbances were 1.21 × 105 hm2, 9.96 × 104 hm2, and 1.25 × 104 hm2, accounting for 51.93%, 42.75%, and 5.32% of the total disturbed area, respectively; and (4) most forest disturbance occurred in low-lying (<600 m elevation accounts for 97.42%) and gentle (<25° slope accounts for 94.42%) regions, and were mainly caused by the rapid expansion of rubber, eucalyptus, and tropical fruit plantations and natural disasters such as typhoons and droughts. The resulting algorithm and data products provide effective support for assessments of such things as tropical forest productivity and carbon storage on Hainan Island.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122038
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2039: How Does the Water Conservation Function of
           Hulunbuir Forest–Steppe Ecotone Respond to Climate Change and Land
           Use Change'

    • Authors: Pu Ma, Shihai Lyu, Zhaoyan Diao, Zhirong Zheng, Jing He, Derong Su, Jingru Zhang
      First page: 2039
      Abstract: The scarcity of water resources is becoming a global focus, and water conservation has become one of the most crucial service functions in the water security and sustainable development of ecosystems. Hulunbuir forest–steppe ecotone, as an important water conservation area in the northeastern provinces of China, plays an irreplaceable role in Northeastern China. However, the water yield and water conservation are rarely understood in the ecotone. In this study, the InVEST model was employed to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of water yield and water conservation from 2000 to 2020. Meanwhile, we explored the response of water conservation to climatic factors and human disturbance. The results demonstrated that water yield and water conservation presented a decreasing trend in the first decade and then increased. The land use transfer obvious from 2000 to 2010, and most vegetation types were converted into unused land. This transition intensified reduction of water conservation. The main factor affecting the water conservation was climate Precipitation had the greatest impact on water conservation. The findings of this study have great and important implications for regional sustainable water resource management and ecological protection policies and provide a convenient method for evaluating water conservation in other areas that are lacking climate, hydrology, and geological data.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122039
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2040: Predicting Growth of Individual Trees
           Directly and Indirectly Using 20-Year Bitemporal Airborne Laser Scanning
           Point Cloud Data

    • Authors: Valtteri Soininen, Antero Kukko, Xiaowei Yu, Harri Kaartinen, Ville Luoma, Otto Saikkonen, Markus Holopainen, Leena Matikainen, Matti Lehtomäki, Juha Hyyppä
      First page: 2040
      Abstract: Reviewing forest carbon sinks is of the utmost importance in efforts to control climate change. This study focuses on reporting the 20-year boreal forest growth values acquired with airborne laser scanning (ALS). The growth was examined on the Kalkkinen research site in southern Finland as a continuation of several earlier growth studies performed in the same area. The data for the study were gathered with three totally different airborne laser scanning systems, namely using Toposys-I Falcon in June 2000 and Riegl VUX-1HA and miniVUX-3UAV in June 2021 with approximate point densities of 11, 1360, and 460 points/m2, respectively. The ALS point cloud was preprocessed to identify individual trees, from each of which different features were extracted either for direct or indirect growth measurement. In the direct method, the growth value is predicted based on differences of features, whereas in the indirect method, the growth value is obtained by subtracting the results of two independent predictions of different years. The growth in individual tree attributes, such as growth in height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and stem volume, were calculated for direct estimation. Field reference campaigns were performed in the summer of 2001 and in November 2021 to validate the obtained growth values. The study showed that long-term series growth of height, DBH, and stem volume are possible to record with a high-to-moderate coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.90, 0.48, and 0.45 in the best-case scenarios. The respective root-mean-squared errors (RMSE) values were 0.98 m, 0.02 m, and 0.17 m3, and the biases were −0.06 m, 0.00 m, and 0.17 m3. The direct method produced better metrics in terms of RMSE-% and bias, but the indirect method produced better best-fit lines. Additionally, the mean growth values for height, diameter, and stem volume intervals were compared, and they are presumed to be usable even for forest modelling.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122040
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2041: Computer Vision-Based Wood Identification: A

    • Authors: José Luís Silva, Rui Bordalo, José Pissarra, Paloma de Palacios
      First page: 2041
      Abstract: Wood identification is an important tool in many areas, from biology to cultural heritage. In the fight against illegal logging, it has a more necessary and impactful application. Identifying a wood sample to genus or species level is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, even when using the most recent methods, resulting in a growing need for a readily accessible and field-applicable method for scientific wood identification. Providing fast results and ease of use, computer vision-based technology is an economically accessible option currently applied to meet the demand for automated wood identification. However, despite the promising characteristics and accurate results of this method, it remains a niche research area in wood sciences and is little known in other fields of application such as cultural heritage. To share the results and applicability of computer vision-based wood identification, this paper reviews the most frequently cited and relevant published research based on computer vision and machine learning techniques, aiming to facilitate and promote the use of this technology in research and encourage its application among end-users who need quick and reliable results.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122041
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2042: The Economic Value of Fuel Treatments: A
           Review of the Recent Literature for Fuel Treatment Planning

    • Authors: Molly E. Hunter, Michael H. Taylor
      First page: 2042
      Abstract: This review synthesizes the scientific literature on fuel treatment economics published since 2013 with a focus on its implications for land managers and policy makers. We review the literature on whether fuel treatments are financially viable for land management agencies at the time of implementation, as well as over the lifespan of fuel treatment effectiveness. We also review the literature that considers the broad benefits of fuel treatments across multiple sectors of society. Most studies find that fuel treatments are not financially viable for land management agencies based on revenue generated from forest products, biomass, or carbon credits at the time of implementation. Fuel treatments also tend to not be financially viable based on future management costs savings (fire suppression and rehabilitation costs) or averted losses in forest products from wildfire over the lifespan of treatment effectiveness. Similarly, most studies that consider benefits beyond those accruing to land management agencies find that the benefits from any single category (e.g., damage to structures and infrastructure, critical watersheds, air quality, or ecosystem values) are not sufficient to offset treatment costs. Overall, the recent literature suggests that fuel treatment projects are more likely to have benefits that exceed costs if they generate benefits in multiple categories simultaneously. The literature also documents tremendous variability in benefits and costs across regions and between projects within regions, which poses a challenge to reaching general conclusions about the benefits and costs of fuel treatments at programmatic scales, and suggests that practitioners should proceed with caution when trying to extrapolate the benefits and costs for a prospective fuel treatment project from estimates reported in the previous literature.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122042
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2043: Using Tree Height, Crown Area and
           Stand-Level Parameters to Estimate Tree Diameter, Volume, and Biomass of
           Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens

    • Authors: Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke, M. Paulina Fernández, Jorge Gayoso, Matias Pincheira, Maxwell G. Wightman
      First page: 2043
      Abstract: Accurate estimates of tree diameter, height, volume, and biomass are important for numerous economic and ecological applications. In this study, we report exponential equations to predict tree DBH (cm), stem volume over bark (VOB, m3), and total above-stump biomass (TASB, kg) using three varying levels of input data for Pinus radiata D. Don, Eucalyptus globulus Labill., and Eucalyptus nitens (H.Deane & Maiden) Maiden planted trees. The three sets of input data included: (1) tree height (HT, m), (2) tree HT and ground projected living crown area (CA, m2), and (3) tree HT, CA, and additional stand parameters. The analysis was performed using a large dataset covering the range of distribution of the species in central Chile and included stands of varying ages and planting densities. The first set of equations using only HT were satisfactory with Adj-R2 values ranging from 0.78 to 0.98 across all species and variables. For all three species, estimation of DBH, VOB, and TASB as a function of HT improved when CA was added as an additional independent variable, increasing Adj-R2 and reducing RMSE. The inclusion of stand variables, such as age and stand density, also resulted in further improvement in model performance. The models reported in this study are a robust alternative for DBH, VOB, and TASB estimations on planted stands across a wide range of ages and densities, when height and CA are known, especially when input data are derived from remote sensing techniques.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122043
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2044: Spatial Distribution Pattern of Root Sprouts
           under the Canopy of Malus sieversii in a Typical River Valley on the
           Northern Slopes of the Tianshan Mountain

    • Authors: Li Li, Mengyu Chen, Xiaoli Zhang, Xiang Jia
      First page: 2044
      Abstract: Malus sieversii is a precious wild fruit tree resource, and its sustainable reproduction is of great significance to the conservation of wild fruit tree germplasm resources and the stability of wild fruit forest ecosystems. In recent years, the natural population number and area of distribution of the Malus sieversii have been declining due to pests, water limitations, and human activities. Root sprouts are a primary means of rejuvenation of the Malus sieversii. A reasonable spatial distribution pattern is conducive to the growth of Malus sieversii plants and the ecological restoration of wild fruit forest populations. However, the spatial distribution pattern of root sprouts still needs to be discovered, which constrains our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the damage and management of Malus sieversii. Therefore, this paper examines the study area of the Gilgalang River Malus sieversii forest in Gongliu County, Ili Valley, Xinjiang. The topographic data and high-resolution images were first obtained using ultra-low-altitude photogrammetry and total station measurement techniques, then spatial pattern analysis and standard deviation ellipse analysis were used to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of root sprouts, and, finally, the factors affecting the spatial distribution pattern of root sprouts were investigated by principal component analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results show that: (1) Under-canopy Malus sieversii root sprouts are clustered and randomly distributed along the root system, with the degree of clustering decreasing with increasing distance; (2) Spatial orientation and distance from the maternal plant are the main factor affecting the sprouting of Malus sieversii roots, explaining 73.69% of the total variance; (3) Under sediment accumulation and water erosion, the root sprouts under the canopy are mainly distributed in the downslope direction. The shape is similar to the “clover type”. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for conserving Malus sieversii germplasm resources and a solid scientific basis for the ecological restoration of plants under anthropogenic disturbance.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122044
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2045: Establishment and Natural Regeneration of
           Native Trees in Agroforestry Systems in the Paraguayan Atlantic Forest

    • Authors: Amado Insfrán Ortiz, José María Rey Benayas, Luis Cayuela
      First page: 2045
      Abstract: The establishment of planted trees and the natural regeneration of trees in agroecosystems is challenging. This study evaluated the establishment and natural regeneration of the following six native tree species in two agricultural systems in the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay: Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cordia trichotoma (Vell) Arráb. ex Steud., Handroanthus albus (Cham.) Mattos, Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos, Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel) Taubert, and Cordia americana (L.) Gottschling and J.S.Mill. At the study site in Caaguazú, 18 plots of 100 m2 each were established in 2 agronomic systems (conventional or agroecological) featuring 3 plantation types (pathsides, agricultural field edges, and islets). Trees were planted at this site in spring 2010 at a density of 1800 individuals ha−1, and the site was monitored for six years. At the study site in Itapúa, 30 plots of 50 m2 each were established in three agronomic systems (conventional, traditional, or agroecological). Trees were planted at this site in spring 2012 at a density of 1600 individuals ha−1, and the site was monitored for four years. Survival and relative growth rates of the planted species and natural regeneration were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models that considered species, agronomic system, and plantation type as fixed factors, and time and plot as random factors. At both sites, survival varied among species. Here, C. fissilis showed lower survival and C. trichotoma higher growth than the other species. Naturally regenerated species were C. trichotoma, H. albus, and P. dubium. The agronomic system and species affected growth and natural regeneration at both locations. Plantation type affected survival and growth in Caaguazú only. We conclude that species contributes more than agronomic system or plantation type to determining the survival, relative growth rate, and natural regeneration in agroforestry systems in the Paraguayan Atlantic Forest.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122045
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2046: Innovation Perspectives for the Bioeconomy
           of Non-Timber Forest Products in Brazil

    • Authors: Sandra Regina Afonso
      First page: 2046
      Abstract: Brazil has great potential for the development of an NTFP bioeconomy as it has 500 million hectares of forest. In this article, I seek to identify, through a literature review, innovations in products and processes inserted in the value chain of Brazilian NTFPs with a greater productive value. The hypothesis is that the prospects for the development of the bioeconomy of NTFPs depend on the establishment of a series of innovations along the value chain and in public policies. The production value of NTFPs reached USD 365 million in 2020 and the main NTFPs were açaí, yerba mate, carnaúba pode, Brazil nut, babassu, and pequi. I observed that the products with the highest production value developed innovations in the cultivation of species and in the development of new products. Innovations related to social and commercial organization have been developed within the scope of working in networks. Several policies were implemented based on the construction of a collective concept for the activity related to the NTFPs, sociobiodiversity. Even so, these actions need to be continued and strengthened for the transition to an inclusive, sustainable bioeconomy that takes into account traditional knowledge. Investment in research needs to be constant for the development of new products. Sustainable planting in diversified systems can also be considered an important strategy. Partnerships between the government and the various actors in the value chains are necessary and urgent to ensure innovations, also in the regulatory and organizational environment of NTFPs’ value chains.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122046
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2047: Riparian Dendrochemistry: Detecting
           Anthropogenic Gadolinium in Trees along an Effluent-Dominated Desert River

    • Authors: Amy L. McCoy, Paul R. Sheppard
      First page: 2047
      Abstract: This research documents spatial and temporal patterns of effluent uptake by riparian trees through development of a new and innovative application for dendrochronology, specifically dendrochemistry. The rare-earth element (REE) gadolinium (Gd) is a known micro-pollutant in its anthropogenic form and enters streams from wastewater treatment plants. Anthropogenic Gd was first used in select medical procedures in 1988 and has since been used as a contrast agent for medical imaging. It is naturally flushed from the body following procedures and is subsequently discharged via treatment plants into waterways. Riparian trees that utilize effluent-dominated surface water take up Gd, which then remains in annual growth rings. The year 1988 serves as presence/absence date stamp for Gd in tree rings, thereby making Gd an ideal marker for this dendrochronological study. Results from this study along the Upper Santa Cruz River in southeastern Arizona show levels of Gd in effluent-dominated surface flows to be elevated above the threshold that distinguishes an anthropogenic anomaly from natural GdSN abundance in freshwater, thereby confirming that anthropogenic Gd is present. Gd was found in the growth rings of cottonwood trees (Populus fremontii var. arizonica (Sarg.) Jeps.) that are growing in the floodway adjacent to the effluent-dominated portion of the stream. The presence of Gd in cottonwood annual rings confirms that the trees are utilizing effluent over the course of the growing season. Furthermore, temporal patterns of Gd concentrations in trees directly adjacent to the stream may be reflective of high-frequency changes in surface water quality. Information on the impacts of effluent quality on the chemical composition of tree rings can be a useful monitoring tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of effluent use in riparian trees and to identify high-frequency changes in surface water quality.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122047
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2048: Precious Tree Pest Identification with

    • Authors: Ying Guo, Junjia Gao, Xuefeng Wang, Hongyan Jia, Yanan Wang, Yi Zeng, Xin Tian, Xiyun Mu, Yan Chen, Xuan OuYang
      First page: 2048
      Abstract: It is crucial to accurately identify precious tree pests in a real, complex natural environment in order to monitor the growth of precious trees and provide growers with the information they need to make effective decisions. However, pest identification in real complex natural environments is confronted with several obstacles, including a lack of contrast between the pests and the background, the overlapping and occlusion of leaves, numerous variations in pest size and complexity, and a great deal of image noise. The purpose of the study was to construct a segmentation method for identifying precious tree pests in a complex natural environment. The backbone of an existing Mask region-based convolutional neural network was replaced with a Swin Transformer to improve its feature extraction capability. The experimental findings demonstrated that the suggested method successfully segmented pests in a variety of situations, including shaded, overlapped, and foliage- and branch-obscured pests. The proposed method outperformed the two competing methods, indicating that it is capable of accurately segmenting pests in a complex natural environment and provides a solution for achieving accurate segmentation of precious tree pests and long-term automatic growth monitoring.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122048
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2049: Observed and Predicted Geographic
           Distribution of Acer monspessulanum L. Using the MaxEnt Model in the
           Context of Climate Change

    • Authors: Hamdi Aouinti, Hassane Moutahir, Issam Touhami, Juan Bellot, Abdelhamid Khaldi
      First page: 2049
      Abstract: Acer monspessulanum (Montpellier Maple) is an important deciduous tree species native to the Mediterranean region. It is largely distributed in the southern part of western Europe; however, it is geographically less present in north Africa and western Asia. The effects of the most significant environmental variables for its habitat suitability, and climate change, are unclear in terms of the future changes to its distribution. The objective of the present study was to model the current and future geographical potential distribution of the Montpellier Maple in the Mediterranean basin and West Asia using maximum entropy modeling software (MaxEnt). The value of the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of MaxEnt was used to analyze the model’s performance. More than 5800 well-distributed presence points, elevation, slope, aspect, topographic wetness index (TWI), natural vegetation characteristics from MODIS products, and 19 bioclimatic variables were used to conduct the study. Regarding the projections of the species distribution under climate change, 17 global climatic models were used under two RCP scenarios (4.5 and 8.5) for the 2040–2060 and the 2060–2080 time periods. The results show that temperature seasonality (40% contribution to the model), elevation (33.5%), mean annual temperature (6.9%), mean annual precipitation (6.2%), and max temperature of the warmest month (4.5%) were identified as the primary factors that accounted for the current distribution of the Montpellier Maple. Under the climate change scenarios, MaxEnt predicts a large decrease in the species suitability area, with a shift towards the southwestern regions of the species distribution, especially to the mountainous zones of the Moroccan Atlas. Our results show that climate largely limits the distribution of the Montpellier Maple in the Mediterranean basin, as its change in the future is expected to significantly reduce the suitable area by more than 99% from the historical climate conditions, to reach only 16,166.9 and 9874.7 km2 under the moderate RCP4.5 and extreme RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, by the end of the 21st century. Our study can provide a good view of the future changes in the distribution of Montpellier Maple for its protection and sustainable management.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122049
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2050: Understanding Species Diversity, Phenology
           and Environmental Implications of Different Life Forms in Coniferous
           Forests: A Case Study from Bhallesa Hills of Pir Panjal Mountain, Western
           Himalaya, India

    • Authors: Opender Surmal, Bikarma Singh, Carmelo Maria Musarella
      First page: 2050
      Abstract: We assessed, for the first time, the plant assemblages in coniferous forests of temperate and alpine ecosystems of the Himalayas to understand the diversity of species and their phenological behaviours that lead to different growth forms in the climax forest community. In this study, we selected the coniferous forests of Bhallesa Hills, situated in Pir Panjal Mountain (Jammu and Kashmir) of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot as a study area and used the quadrat method to document the floristic diversity over four years (2018–2021). The study sites were divided into four sub-sites (Chilli, Kahal, Chanwari, Gandoh), and at each site, 25 replicated plots (each measuring 2500 m2, 50 × 50 m2) were established for repeated surveys and documentation. We then analysed species diversity, lifeforms, phenology and leaf size spectra of coniferous plant communities. We consulted various pieces of literature to understand native and non-native plants. The results showed that the species diversity and species richness, growth forms and phenology varied in the experimental plots. In total, we found 328 plant species belonging to 228 genera and 78 families from different localities of various growth forms. Approximately 68.51% of the plant species were native, and 31.49%of the species were non-native. In angiosperms, dicotyledon species were found to be dominant, with 83.23% of the total plant species, while the family Asteraceae was common, with 38 species. The biological spectrum analysis showed 29% of the species were chamaephytes, followed by 28% as therophytes and 21% as phanerophytes. We observed that plant communities respond differently to the existing environment drivers, with chamaephyte and therophytes being more tightly linked to temperate mixed-coniferous and alpine ecosystems, affected by climates and the availability of substrates for their growth and existence. The leaf size spectra analyses showed nanophyll (42.81%) as the dominant group. Conservation-prioritised species (IUCN, regional most threatened species in India), such as Taxus wallichiana Zucc., Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don, Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle and Euphorbia obovata Decne were found to be the most endangered plants. The results indicated more indigenous species, but there is a slow process of depletion of wild species, leading to colonisation by exotic alien species. This study indicated forests of the Himalayan regions are degrading at a faster rate, species are showing a shift in phenological behaviour due to anthropogenic factors leading to climate change, and indigenous species need conservation measures.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122050
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2051: Water in Wood: A Review of Current
           Understanding and Knowledge Gaps

    • Authors: Emil Engelund Thybring, Maria Fredriksson, Samuel L. Zelinka, Samuel V. Glass
      First page: 2051
      Abstract: Wood-water interactions are central to the utilization of wood in our society since water affects many important characteristics of wood. This topic has been investigated for more than a century, but new knowledge continues to be generated as a result of improved experimental and computational methods. This review summarizes our current understanding of the fundamentals of water in wood and highlights significant knowledge gaps. Thus, the focus is not only on what is currently known but equally important, what is yet unknown. The review covers locations of water in wood; phase changes and equilibrium states of water in wood; thermodynamics of sorption; terminology including cell wall water (bound water), capillary water (free water), fiber saturation point, and maximum cell wall moisture content; shrinkage and swelling; sorption hysteresis; transport of water in wood; and kinetics of water vapor sorption in the cell wall.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122051
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2052: Chances and Limitations of Mixed Oak
           Regeneration under Continuous Canopy Cover—Evidence from Long-Term

    • Authors: Kilian Stimm, Enno Uhl, Hans Pretzsch
      First page: 2052
      Abstract: Traditionally, due to its light ecology, oak is regenerated on clear cuts or areas where the crown coverage is heavily reduced. Thus, the regeneration phase is relatively short. Recently, selective long-term regeneration phases avoiding large gaps in the canopy but fostering mixed-species stands have been advocated as being more in keeping with close-to-nature forestry in Central European forests. However, examples of the successful regeneration of oak in mixtures following this type of regeneration are largely missing. Here, we report the results of long-term experiments located in three different forest types, where oak was long-term regenerated under different mixing and canopy cover situations. The observation periods reached from 26 to 36 years. We focused on the dynamics of stem number reduction, as well as the height and biomass development of oaks and their interaction with interspecific competition and canopy density. The probability of oaks occurring in the regeneration basically decreased over the duration of the regeneration period. Despite this, considerable regeneration biomass growth could be observed, especially in the case of the lower standing volume of the mature stand. The development of beech as the main competitor is scarcely slowed down by the canopy cover compared to oak. Increasing canopy cover noticeably impeded oak regeneration in the considered mixed stands. The model results suggest that a reduction in competition within the regeneration by lowering the proportion of beech below 30% enhanced the success of oak regeneration in the long run even in small patches. The productivity of the remaining stand was primarily driven by standing volume. However, a negative trend of its productivity emerged with high regeneration biomasses. The study results show that small-scale oak regeneration with prolonged regeneration duration is possible in principle. However, oak regeneration requires active and continuous silvicultural assistance, which has to be adjusted to the specific site conditions.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122052
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2053: The Conceptualisation of Inventive and
           Repurposable Children’s Furniture

    • Authors: Zhi Yuan Phuah, Poh Kiat Ng, Boon Kian Lim, Robert Jeyakumar Nathan, Yu Jin Ng, Jian Ai Yeow
      First page: 2053
      Abstract: Every piece of furniture has a certain lifespan. Most furniture is eventually thrown away and ends up in landfill, thus polluting the environment. The idea of repurposability, where a product is used for another purpose at the end of its useful life, was developed to solve this problem. While there have been studies on the sustainability and innovative design of children’s furniture, these studies have not considered factors such as inventiveness and repurposability. This study aimed to conceptualise inventive and repurposable children’s furniture. Five concepts are proposed based on a synthesis of the patent literature, existing products and academic journals. These concepts are evaluated to determine which concept best meets eleven improvement requirements, which include improved aesthetics, cost, simplicity, manufacturability, functionality, comfort, ease of repurposing, durability, safety, sustainability and inventiveness. The result is that the invention can be used as a crib, highchair, bed safety rail, chair, pull-up bar, walker and toilet attachment. The concept is also inventive because (1) it has a large number of unique combinations of repurposable functions; (2) it has a unique shape and design that facilitate the repurposing process from one function to another; (3) it has a simple design so that users can transform the functions with ease. While retaining the added value of many repurposed functions, the extended life of this invention reduces consumer spending and saves space. This concept reduces waste and the consumption of natural resources. Further studies are needed to ensure that the concept meets all technical requirements and specifications for children’s furniture, including usability and safety.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122053
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 2054: Application and Accuracy of Unmanned Aerial
           Survey Imagery after Salvage Logging in Different Terrain Conditions

    • Authors: Andreja Đuka, Kristijan Tomljanović, Milivoj Franjević, David Janeš, Ivan Žarković, Ivica Papa
      First page: 2054
      Abstract: The accuracy of the positioning of the data collected by remote sensing platforms is of great importance in forest and wildlife surveys, salvage logging, soil disturbances after felling operations, fire risk management and many other forestry-based research. The significance of bark beetles in silver fir and Norway spruce stands is an essential factor that can affect the increase in biomass quantity and the reduction of its quality. Due to an Ips typographus (L.) outbreaks in the central part of Croatia from 2016 to 2021, salvage logging was performed in an area of 11,940 ha, with terrain slopes varying from 0 to 172.83%. Two plots of similar sizes (<5 ha) and different terrain conditions (flat vs. sloped terrain) were chosen and were measured in June 2022. Measurements included a total station, a real-time kinematic (RTK) GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) terrestrial receiver and an unmanned aerial system (UAS) in order to determine the accuracy of a digital terrain model (DEM) generated by a photogrammetric UAS. In total, 175 checkpoints were marked in the field. Four different GCP (Ground Control Point) classes (5, 10, 15 and 20) were used to compare validation points acquired from the original point clouds, imagery and orthophotos to the reference positions. This study showed that, in terms of a forest area recognition after conducted salvage logging, the use of 10 GCPs for terrain evaluation is necessary even in small areas below 5 ha and regardless of terrain slope.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/f13122054
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 12 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1955: Tree Information Modeling: A Data Exchange
           Platform for Tree Design and Management

    • Authors: Qiguan Shu, Thomas Rötzer, Andreas Detter, Ferdinand Ludwig
      First page: 1955
      Abstract: Trees integrated into buildings and dense urban settings have become a trend in recent years worldwide. Without a thoughtful design, conflicts between green and gray infrastructures can take place in two aspects: (1) tree crown compete with living space above ground; (2) built underground environment, the other way round, affect tree’s health and security. Although various data about urban trees are collected by different professions for multiple purposes, the communication between them is still limited by unmatched scales and formats. To address this, tree information modeling (TIM) is proposed in this study, aiming at a standardized tree description system in a high level of detail (LoD). It serves as a platform to exchange data and share knowledge about tree growth models. From the perspective of architects and landscape designers, urban trees provide ecosystem services (ESS) not only through their overall biomass, shading, and cooling. They are also related to various branching forms and crown density, forming new layers of urban living space. So, detailed stem, branch and even root geometry is the key to interacting with humans, building structures and other facilities. It is illustrated in this paper how these detailed data are collected to initialize a TIM model with the help of multiple tools, how the topological geometry of stem and branches in TIM is interpreted into an L-system (a common syntax to describe tree geometries), allowing implementation of widely established tree simulations from other professions. In a vision, a TIM-assisted design workflow is framed, where trees are regularly monitored and simulated under boundary conditions to approach target parameters by design proposals.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111955
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1956: Sooty Bark Disease in Sycamore: Seasonal and
           Vertical Variation in Spore Release of Cryptostroma corticale

    • Authors: Nicole Burgdorf, Lisa Härtl, W. Andreas Hahn
      First page: 1956
      Abstract: Fungal pathogens that benefit from climate change have become more prevalent as a consequence of extended drought periods and higher temperatures. Since the dry and hot years of 2018/2019, the causative agent of sooty bark disease Cryptostroma corticale led to an increasing die back in sycamore forest stands in Germany. Thus, in 2019, spore traps were set up in one forest stand to investigate the dispersal of the pathogen under temporal and spatial aspects. The mortality rate in the study site due to sooty bark disease was quite high: 31% in spring, increasing to 49% in autumn 2019. Quantifying the airborne spores of C. corticale in consecutive periods of the year, a correlation with seasonal aspects was detected. In winter and spring, spore release was relatively low compared with summer months. In summer, high abundances of conidia of C. corticale were released. In July, 399 spores were detected per cm2 per day. From June to August, spore release was 12.6 times higher than in springtime. In autumn 2019, a decrease was visible, although the number of conidia was still higher than in spring. The vertical gradient of spore abundances changed over time: the lowest spore release was found along a gradient at 14 m of height in spring, which shifted down to 2 m in autumn. According to our results of spore release, sooty bark disease is strongly driven by the impact of seasonal factors.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111956
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1957: Fire Severity in Reburns Depends on
           Vegetation Type in Arizona and New Mexico, U.S.A.

    • Authors: Larissa L. Yocom, Jeff Jenness, Peter Z. Fulé, Andrea E. Thode
      First page: 1957
      Abstract: After more than a century of low fire activity in the western United States, wildfires are now becoming more common. Reburns, which are areas burned in two or more fires, are also increasing. How fires interact over time is of interest ecologically as well as for management. Wildfires may act as fuel treatments, reducing subsequent fire severity, or they may increase subsequent fire severity by leaving high fuel loads behind. Our goal was to assess whether previous wildfire severity influenced subsequent fire severity across vegetation types and over time in the Southwest U.S. using remotely sensed fire severity data in 2275 fires that burned between 1984 and 2019. Points that reburned tended to be those that burned with lower severity initially. Shrublands burned predominantly at moderate to high severity in initial fires and in reburns. Pinyon-juniper-oak systems burned with mixed severity, and fire severity was consistent from fire to fire. In ponderosa pine and aspen-mixed conifer, fire severity tended to decrease with each fire. Initial and subsequent fire severity was lower in points that reburned after a short interval. These remotely sensed observations of reburn severity need verification through field work to understand specific effects caused by reburns in different ecosystems. However, in ponderosa pine and aspen-mixed conifer forests, it may be beneficial to consider wildfires as fuel treatments and work to maintain the fuel reduction effects they have on forested ecosystems.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111957
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1958: Cost Analysis of Collection and Ex Situ
           Conservation of Seeds of Important Native Tree Species of Mexico

    • Authors: Joel Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Manuel de J. González-Guillén, Horacio Bautista-Santos, Fabiola Sánchez-Galván
      First page: 1958
      Abstract: In Mexico, there are barely any studies that estimate the cost of germplasm conservation especially that carried out ex situ. The objective of this study was to analyze the collection and storage costs (CSC) of seeds of some native tree species that have social and economic importance in Mexico. Information on the importance of native trees was obtained through a literature review and research from a seed bank and forest technical service providers. Based on the environmental and social importance, as well as the conservation status of native species, poverty attention, and food security, an indicator of economic and social importance has been designed using multicriteria analysis. The highest value of the indicator included 32 species; Fabaceae was the most represented family (28%). The CSC analysis was applied to the species with the highest value indicator, currently available market price (CMP), and stored in the seed bank (SB). They were evaluated using the “cost of collection” method comparing CMP vs. SB. The cost of accession in the SB is 11 times higher than the CMP with 7% of nominal interest rate (NIR) and increases 24 times during a storage period of ten years with the same NIR per year. Despite the costs associated with the maintenance and management of SBs, their importance for conservation and contribution to society is highlighted.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111958
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1959: Which Factors Determine the Distribution of
           Low-Impact Horse Logging in the Hungarian State-Owned Forests'

    • Authors: Ákos Malatinszky, Csilla Ficsor, Eszter Tormáné Kovács
      First page: 1959
      Abstract: Nowadays, forest management focuses on nature- and environmentally-friendly methods in Europe with less fossil fuel use; however, animal-powered logging is rarely covered by scientific papers despite the fact that it is considered to be less harmful to topsoil, wood stands, saplings, and natural values than heavy machines. The main goal of this study is to determine its characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages based on structured and semi-structured interviews with loggers and foresters in every Hungarian state-owned forest area. Our results show that while 39 out of the total 116 Hungarian forest districts hired teams that applied horses for logging in 2013, their number fell to 24 in 2021. Despite this negative tendency, 34 out of the 44 forest districts that operate in hilly and mountainous areas still find horses to be useful for timber extraction. Five forest districts own horses, but none of them use animal power for logging (only for touristic and hunting activities). The productivity of a logging team depends on the timber extraction distance, terrain slope, number of workers, and cut timber volume per turn. The average logging capacity of a brigade with horses is 0.78 m3 per load, 15 m3 per day, and 2413 m3 per year. The average terrain slope angle is 15°, situated 350–450 m above sea level. The average timber extraction distance is 185 m, and the width of a track made by a horse is 96 cm. The average distance from the barn to the cut-block area is 11 km. Lower impact of horse logging on the affected area is more important than the amount of the harvested wood. Therefore, from a nature conservation aspect, it is essential to maintain animal logging and promote it with training and financial incentives.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111959
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1960: Forests and Forestry in Support of
           Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A Bibliometric Analysis

    • Authors: Zhiyuan Ma, Chen Hu, Jinlian Huang, Tian Li, Jingpin Lei
      First page: 1960
      Abstract: To address the world’s ongoing environmental challenges, 193 countries have committed to 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) concerning the economy, society, and the environment. However, there are gaps in our understanding of forests and forestry support SDGs. Through a systematized review, we identified which SDGs are relevant to forests and forestry at the target level, along with their interactions (synergies or tradeoffs). In addition, a bibliometric analysis of 377 papers was conducted worldwide between 2015 and 2020, to elucidate the status and development trends of SDG research related to forests and forestry in this study. The research results show that: (1) 11 SDGs and 19 targets are related to forests and forestry, and 47 are interactions between SDG15 and other targets, including 35 synergy effects and 12 tradeoff effects. (2) The USA is the highest publication output country, while the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the highest publication output institution, and Jianguo Liu of the University of Michigan is the highest publication output author. (3) The keyword co-occurrence analysis results show that the research hotspots mainly focused on the impacts of and responses to climate change, biodiversity conservation, land resource protection and management, remote sensing, the impacts of deforestation, and the promotion of sustainable development through governance. (4) The co-citation results reveal the existence of nine research themes: human well-being, food security, land use, land productivity, land tenure, tree loss, simulation models, criteria, and resilience.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111960
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1961: The Macroeconomic Implications of the
           Transition of the Forestry Industry towards Bioeconomy

    • Authors: Alin Emanuel Artene, Lucian-Ionel Cioca, Aura Emanuela Domil, Larisa Ivascu, Valentin Burca, Oana Bogdan
      First page: 1961
      Abstract: In a global economic system where essential resources are limited, demand is increasing and environmental degradation is more pronounced, the only viable option to ensure sustainable development is to create an environmentally friendly and efficient economy in order to produce more economic value with the same or fewer resources. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the macroeconomic implications determined by the transition to a forest bioeconomy, with a focus on the impact on the national gross value added. More specifically, this analysis assesses the relationship between the potential of the macroeconomic value creation on the forestry industry and the measures of progress on the transition towards sustainable forest management and long-term economic growth. The analysis refers to a period between 2013 and 2019, summing-up 133 observations, data that were reported by Eurostat for 23 European Union members. We propose a model that describes a construct of the potential of the value creation that can be generated by each country included in our sample, translated into an efficiency score determined using the Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA)methodology. The results highlighted that the evolution of economic, social, and environmental (ESG) context positively impacted the efficiency score. This positive evolution in time was mainly driven by the higher awareness of governments, companies, and people on the need for a transition to sustainable economic growth and sustainable forest management. Furthermore, this study highlights that the transition to sustainable economic growth implies negative changes to the cost structure of the economies, which lead to higher operational costs and lower gross value added. Moreover, our study provides more insight, from an econometric methodology perspective, regarding the synergy effect as determined by the transformation of business models in the forestry sector towards sustainable forest management.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111961
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1962: Correction: Toledo-Aceves et al. Financial
           Revenues from Timber Harvesting in Secondary Cloud Forests: A Case Study
           from Mexico. Forests 2022, 13, 1496

    • Authors: Tarin Toledo-Aceves, Sven Günter, Manuel R. Guariguata, Martín García-Díaz, Eliza Zhunusova
      First page: 1962
      Abstract: There was an error in the original publication [...]
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111962
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1963: X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Scanning Is a
           Non-Destructive and Modern Technique to Identify and Assess the
           Characteristics of Armillaria solidipes Pathogen Infections in Poplar

    • Authors: Ping Zhang, Mingru Kong, Guangqiang Xie, Theo van der Lee, Lihai Wang, Yanqiu Xing
      First page: 1963
      Abstract: (1) Objective: The opacity of soils complicates studies of root infection. An example of this is the infection of Armillaria solidipes on poplar (Populus davidiana × Populus alba var. pyramidalis Louche) roots systems, which risks damaging trees. (2) Methods: Only one of the four tested substrates for tree species was shown to be suitable to perform X-ray computed tomography (CT). Three-dimensional (3D) imaging was used to reconstruct the root system of poplar seedlings and the changes caused by the infection. (3) Results: We developed a protocol to efficiently grow poplar on a synthetic matrix, vermiculite, that allows for monitoring the root system by X-ray CT. Poplar 3D reconstruction of the root system was automated using the software Win-RHIZO, and various infection parameters were identified. (4) Conclusions: Our procedure allows for monitoring the infection of root systems and provides new opportunities to characterize the complex Armillaria solidipes poplar interaction using X-ray CT.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111963
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1964: Calibration of Thermal Dissipation Probes
           for Xylem Sap Flow in the Wood of a Diffuse-Porous and a Conifer Species
           under Cyclic Heating

    • Authors: Meijun Hu, Changming Ma, Jinsong Zhang, Yujie Ma, Chunyou Li, Wei Xiong
      First page: 1964
      Abstract: The most popular sap flow measurement technique uses thermal dissipation probes. Differences in wood characteristics and the natural temperature gradient between probes have affected the accuracy and applicability of the sap flow equation. In addition, the continued heat of the probe can also cause thermal damage to tree tissue. The objectives of this study were to use cyclic heating and calibrate the probes with two species: Pinus bungeana Zucc. And Salix matsudana Koidz., two typical diffuse-porous species. This experiment evaluated a thermal dissipation probe in three heating modes: continuous heating, 10 min heating and 50 min cooling (10/50), and 30 min heating and 30 min cooling (30/30). The heating modes were evaluated on two species. Temperature differences between the heating needle and the control needle under different heating modes and transpiration water consumption (whole-tree weighing method) were observed simultaneously. The sap flow estimation equation under cyclic heating mode was established by analyzing the relationship between the sap flow rate and the values obtained from whole-tree weighing. The results showed that the original equation underestimated sap flow rate of P. bungeana and S. matsudana by 67% and 60%. Under the cyclic heating modes, the modified equations were different from the original equation, and their accuracy was improved. After verification, the corrected equations [Fd = 0.0264K0.738 (P. bungeana, 30/30, R2 = 0.67), Fd = 0.0722K1.113(S. matsudana, 30/30, R2 = 0.60), Fd is the sap flow density, K is temperature coefficient] reduced the influence of the natural temperature gradient on the estimation of sap flow rate, thereby significantly improving the accuracy of sap flow rate estimation. The resulting equation may be more suitable for actual field observations of sap flow in the two tested species. The cyclic heating mode has the potential to measure plant transpiration for extended periods in the field.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111964
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1965: Forest Ecosystem Services-Based Adaptation
           Actions Supported by the National Policy on Climate Change for Namibia:
           Effectiveness, Indicators, and Challenges

    • Authors: Andreas Nikodemus, Miroslav Hájek, Albertina Ndeinoma, Ratna Chrismiari Purwestri
      First page: 1965
      Abstract: Forest ecosystem services are crucial in adaptation, mitigation, and increasing climate change resilience. Although most climate change policies promote adaptation actions in forest ecosystem services, there are limited studies focusing on the forest ecosystem services-based adaptation actions supported by the National Policy on Climate Change for Namibia (NPCC). This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of forestry adaptation actions of the NPCC. An independent t-test for non-categorical data was used for the statistical analysis to compare mean scores of the implementation effectiveness of adaptation actions and challenges before and after the NPCC implementation, according to the perceptions of forestry and climate change cross-sectoral experts. A p-value less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) was designated as the statistical significance. Adaptation actions in forest ecosystem services were significantly effective after the introduction of the NPCC. Biodiversity and carbon sequestration were significantly effective after the introduction of the NPCC. The most significant challenges identified were the lack of awareness, which affected adaptation actions before and after the policy. Afforestation, reforestation, awareness, and forestry research need strengthening to improve the effectiveness of the NPCC. Although our results showed that adaptation actions supported by the NPCC were generally effective after the introduction of the policy, we identified some implementation areas that require strengthening, mainly through research, to help in sound decision-making. We, therefore, recommend future research to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities (SWOT) of the NPCC and consequently design/propose a framework for forest ecosystem services-based adaptation actions in the policy to improve adaptation actions.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111965
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1966: Impact of Environmental Factors on
           Short-Term Eye Strain Relief during COVID-19 Quarantine: A Pilot Study

    • Authors: Yihao Lu, Jianan Wang, Jianhua Chen, Yufan Yan, Haicong Zeng, Baowei Zhang, Haohao Ma, Tingli Hu
      First page: 1966
      Abstract: Some policies implemented during the pandemic extended the time that students spend on electronic devices, increasing the risk of physical and eye strain. However, the role of different environments on eye strain recovery has not been determined. We recruited 20 undergraduate students (10 males and 10 females) from a university in eastern China and explored the restoration effects of their eye strain in different types of spaces (wayside greenspace, a playground, a square, and woodland) on campus through scale measurements. The results showed that the eye strain of the students accumulated by 15 min of e-learning was significantly relieved after 10 min of greenspace exposure compared to the indoor environment, and the recovery effect varied depending on the type of landscape. The effect of eye strain relief was found to be positively correlated with temperature, wind speed, visible sky ratio, canopy density, tree density, and solar radiation intensity, while it was negatively correlated with relative humidity. These findings enrich the research on the restoration benefits of greenspaces and provide a basis for predicting the effect of different environments on the relief of eye strain.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111966
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1967: Effects of Particle Dimension and
           Constituent Proportions on Internal Bond Strength of Ultra-Low-Density
           Hemp Hurd Particleboard

    • Authors: Johannes Fehrmann, Benoit Belleville, Barbara Ozarska
      First page: 1967
      Abstract: The recent legalisation of hemp seeds for human consumption has revitalised the cultivation of hemp in Australia. This provides opportunities for the valorisation of the stem’s residual xylemic core (hemp hurd). This study investigated the effect of particle dimension and constituent proportions on the internal bond strength (IB) of single-layer, ultra-low-density hemp hurd particleboard (ULHPB) with densities between 219 to 304 kg/m3. Particle size distributions (PSD) and granulometry assessments were conducted on three particle size classes (fine (F), medium (M), coarse (C)) based on digital image analysis using ImageJ. Subsequently, four particle size mixes (100% C, 100% M, 50/50% CM, 25/50/25% CMF) were considered for the ULHPB manufacture with bio-epoxy (EPX), phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and emulsifiable methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) adhesives, respectively. The effect of particle loading and adhesive content varied significantly per adhesive type. Internal bond (IB) performance increased in most ULHPB comprising coarse particles and declined with the addition of smaller particle sizes. The granulometry assessment showed the smallest mean elongation amongst particles in the coarse PSD. The IB results confirmed a strong interdependence of particle size and constituent proportions and indicated that various MDI-ULHPB variants can surpass the minimum IB strength requirement of 0.30 MPa stipulated for standard particleboard (>12–22 mm) in AS/NZS 1859.1. Utilising residual hemp biomass as an alternative, renewable lignocellulosic feedstock in the manufacture of engineered lightweight panel products is a key principle of circular economy and an environmentally friendly strategy to address the increasing resource scarcity in the wood-based panel industry.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111967
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
  • Forests, Vol. 13, Pages 1968: Deciphering the Ramet System of a Bamboo
           Plant in Response to Intensive Management

    • Authors: Guibin Gao, Xing Wen, Zhizhuang Wu, Hao Zhong, Xiaoping Zhang
      First page: 1968
      Abstract: Intensive management is a common practice in bamboo plantations to ensure higher shoot yields. However, the effects of these management practices on ramet systems are understudied. A pot experiment was conducted to explore the process of propagation for potted bamboo seedlings (Phyllostachys praecox C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao “Prevernalis”) from a single mother bamboo to a ramet system exposed to a chronosequence of intensively managed bamboo forest soils. The ramet system of potted bamboo seedlings reached seven branching grades after two growth cycles. During ramet system expansion, the rhizome length and rhizome internodes decreased with increasing branching grade and the extension of intensive management periods. In the bud bank for each branching grade, the front branching grade was dominated by the bud output, which was conducive to consolidating the occupied living space. The back branching grade was dominated by bud input to continue rhizome penetration. With increasing branching, the mulching soil significantly inhibited rhizome bud germination and dormant bud accumulation. The mulching soil was not conducive to branch expansion in the ramet system, and ramet system expansion was predominantly based on the branching of the rhizome modules. With increasing branching and the extension of intensive management periods, rhizome branches decreased markedly. Our findings indicate that bamboo mulching inhibits branching and causes a differential reaction in branching types. The long-term mulching of bamboo forest soil was not conducive to the healthy and sustainable growth of bamboo. These results provide a basis for further research on the relationship between the bamboo ramet system and its productivity, as well as the population construction and maintenance mechanisms of bamboo ramet systems in the field.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f13111968
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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