Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Selbyana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

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Journal Cover
Forests
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.812
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1999-4907
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 396: The Influence of Bioclimates and Soil
           Physicochemical Properties on Bacterial and Archaeal Communities from
           Forest Ecosystems in Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa)

    • Authors: Anicet E. T. Ebou, Dominique K. Koua, Romain Kouakou Fossou, Chiguié Estelle Raïssa Amon, Adolphe Zézé
      First page: 396
      Abstract: Archaea and bacteria communities play pivotal roles in tropical forest ecosystems’ functioning, especially nutrient cycling, plant phenology, and health. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity of archaeal and bacterial communities in forest soil ecosystem of Côte d’Ivoire and to identify abiotic factors that influence their composition. Using high-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V4V5 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we analyzed 22 soil samples taken from the 2 main forest areas of Côte d’Ivoire, namely the semi-deciduous moist forest and the evergreen moist forest, both of which are located in the humid and sub-humid areas of the country. The analysis revealed that the biodiversity at the phyla level was congruent with previous studies. Richness and Shannon diversity indices revealed the dominance of bacteria over archaea in all studied soils. Moreover, the predominant bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (29.8%), Acidobacteria (15.5%), and Actinobacteria (14.2%), while the archaeal community was dominated by Thaumarchaeota (1.93%). However, at the genus level, patterns emerged. The most abundant and ubiquitous members at the genus level included Bradyrhizobium, Rhodoplanes, Bacillus (bacteria), and Nitrosophaera (archaea). While bacterial core microbiome members were found in almost all soils, Nitrososphaera genus were selective to sub-humid bioclimate and cropland land use. These patterns were correlated to the soils’ physicochemical characteristics, bioclimate, and land use. This study sheds light on the intricate relationships between abiotic factors and microbial communities in Côte d’Ivoire’s forest soils and helps to identify keys species for future soil management.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030396
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 397: Comparison between Different Mechanization
           Systems: Economic Sustainability of Harvesting Poplar Plantations in Italy
           

    • Authors: Valerio Di Stefano, Giorgia Di Domenico, Michele Menta, Elisa Pontuale, Leonardo Bianchini, Andrea Colantoni
      First page: 397
      Abstract: After a period of significant development, poplar cultivation in Italy has been in rapid decline since the 1980s. Because of its marked ductility, poplar is valuable for both wood furniture and energy production. Production could be increased through mechanization, because innovative machinery and equipment can reduce the exposure of forest workers to common risk factors, ensure greater and better productivity, increase the efficiency of operations, and reduce costs. There are various systems for the mechanization of poplar production (from traditional to advanced and pushed mechanization). We describe the range of possibilities (in terms of both the techniques adopted and the machines used) for planting, harvesting, and chopping poplar. Based on our analysis of operating costs, we conclude that mechanized poplar production could reduce the average cost per ton of wood chips (EUR/t) by 23% and the average gross cost per hectare of wood chips produced (EUR/ha) by 37%.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030397
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 398: Analysis of Vegetation NDVI Changes and
           Driving Factors in the Karst Concentration Distribution Area of Asia

    • Authors: Shunfu Yang, Yuluan Zhao, Die Yang, Anjun Lan
      First page: 398
      Abstract: Due to the special nature of karst landforms, quantification of their vegetation dynamics and their underlying driving factors remains a formidable challenge. Based on the NDVI dataset, this study uses principal component analysis to extract comprehensive factors and utilizes an optimized parameter-based geographical detector and geographically weighted regression models to assess the explanatory capacity of comprehensive factors concerning the spatial differentiation of vegetation change. The results of this study revealed the following: (1) In terms of temporal and spatial vegetation changes, the Asian karst concentrated distribution area (AKC) displayed overall stability and an increasing trend between 2000 and 2020. Notably, the northern (Southwest China) karst region experienced the most substantial vegetation increase, with increased areas exceeding 70%, primarily concentrated in the provinces of Guizhou and Guangxi. In contrast, the southern (Indochina Peninsula) karst region, particularly in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (CLV), exhibited a significant decreasing trend, with decreased areas exceeding 30%. (2) By analyzing the driving factors affecting vegetation change, vegetation changes exhibited distinct spatial differentiations, along with positive and negative effects. Human factors, including human activity intensity, urban economic development, and agricultural economic development (explanatory power and local R2 were both greater than 0.2), exerted a more significant impact on vegetation change in the AKC than natural factors such as thermal conditions, water conditions, and soil conditions. This impact was positive in Southwest China but inhibited in the Indochina Peninsula, particularly within the CLV karst area. Notably, the interaction between natural and human factors greatly enhanced their impacts on vegetation changes. These results provide valuable insights into vegetation changes and their driving mechanisms, which are crucial for preserving the stability of delicate karst ecosystems and facilitating vegetation recovery.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030398
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 399: Temporal Analysis of Mangrove Forest Extent
           in Restoration Initiatives: A Remote Sensing Approach Using Sentinel-2
           Imagery

    • Authors: Raheleh Farzanmanesh, Kourosh Khoshelham, Liubov Volkova, Sebastian Thomas, Jaona Ravelonjatovo, Christopher J. Weston
      First page: 399
      Abstract: The significance of mangroves and the associated risks they face have prompted government and the private sector to invest in projects aimed at conserving and restoring mangroves. Despite this interest, there is currently little information available on the effectiveness of these investments in mangrove conservation and restoration efforts. Therefore, this study aimed to use Sentinel-2 imagery with 10-m resolution through the Google Earth Engine to evaluate the effectiveness of these projects in mangrove areas in two regions: the Tahiry Honko project in Madagascar and the Abu Dhabi Blue Carbon Demonstration Project in the United Arab Emirates. The study compared the U-Net and SVM for mangrove classification. The U-Net model demonstrated superior performance, achieving an accuracy of 90%, with a Kappa coefficient value of 0.84. In contrast, the SVM had an overall accuracy of 86% and Kappa coefficient of 0.78. The analysis of changes in the mangrove area using U-Net model revealed a decline of 355 ha over four years in the Tahiry Honko project, while in the Abu Dhabi Project, the mangrove area increased by 5857 ha over 5 years. These findings can provide valuable information for policy-makers and management strategies.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030399
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 400: Effects of Compound Fertilizer Decrement and
           Water-Soluble Humic Acid Fertilizer Application on Soil Properties,
           Bacterial Community Structure, and Shoot Yield in Lei Bamboo
           (Phyllostachys praecox) Plantations in Subtropical China

    • Authors: Huijing Ni, Jiancheng Zhao, Zhenya Yang
      First page: 400
      Abstract: Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) is an economically viable bamboo species with rich nutrition, a good taste, and a high yield. However, heavy fertilization and covering cultivation are used to produce off-season bamboo shoots, resulting in soil degradation and a decline in site productivity. This study investigated how compound fertilizer decrement and water-soluble humic acid fertilizer application affects soil properties and shoot yield in Lei bamboo plantations of subtropical China. The soil nutrients, enzyme activities, and shoot yield were examined, the bacterial community structure was determined using the high-throughput sequencing method, and their relationships were evaluated under different fertilization treatments: single compound fertilizer and compound fertilizer decrement with water-soluble humic acid fertilizer applications. Compared with those after single compound fertilizer treatments (CF1, CF2), water-soluble humic acid fertilizer addition (CF2HA1, CF2HA2) increased soil organic carbon (SOC), available phosphorus (AP), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) contents, the ratio of SOC to total nitrogen (C/N), and sucrase and acid phosphatase (Acp) activities, and decreased alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents. The bacterial community phyla comprised 83.62%–86.16% Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. Water-soluble humic acid fertilizer application also significantly increased yields by over 30%. AP and MBN were important drivers affecting soil bacterial communities, whereas SOC, MBN, and Chloroflexi affected Lei bamboo shoots. Overall, compound fertilizer decrement and water-soluble humic acid fertilizer application shifted the available soil nutrients, sucrase and Acp activity, bacterial community diversity, and shoot yield. An improved understanding of humic acid and the application of humic acid water-soluble fertilizer are of great significance for soil improvement, ecological restoration, and the sustainable management of bamboo forests in the future.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030400
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 401: Correction: Wang et al. Estimation of
           Aboveground Biomass for Different Forest Types Using Data from Sentinel-1,
           Sentinel-2, ALOS PALSAR-2, and GEDI. Forests 2024, 15, 215

    • Authors: Chu Wang, Wangfei Zhang, Yongjie Ji, Armando Marino, Chunmei Li, Lu Wang, Han Zhao, Mengjin Wang
      First page: 401
      Abstract: In the original publication [...]
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030401
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 402: Do Mature Quercus aliena Primarily Use Deep
           Soil Water'

    • Authors: Ranran Ren, Beibei Zhang, Qing Xu, Deqiang Gao, Wenbin Xu, Haijun Zuo, Ying Zhang, Ke Diao
      First page: 402
      Abstract: Seasonal drought events induced by climate change have exacerbated the water deficit in trees. This is particularly pronounced in mature trees with considerable heights and extensive branches, where the long water transport distance leads to a reduction in hydraulic transportation efficiency. Therefore, investigating the water uptake patterns of mature trees is essential to enhance their growth and resilience to climate change. However, previous studies have predominantly focused on trees aged 10–60 years, with limited research on the water uptake patterns of trees over 60 years old. In this study, we employed hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes coupled with the MixSIAR model to determine the water uptake patterns of mature Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (40–60 years, 60–90 years, 120–150 years, >150 years) during the growing seasons of 2021 and 2022 in Baotianman Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China. Additionally, we utilized a random forest model to quantify the relative contributions of vegetation (fine root biomass) and soil properties (soil moisture, bulk density, total porosity, field capacity, and soil texture) to the water uptake patterns of Q. aliena. Our findings demonstrate that most mature Q. aliena predominantly extracted deep soil water (60–100 cm) in the early growing season, but shifted towards utilizing shallow soil water (0–40 cm) in the late growing season. The water uptake pattern of mature Q. aliena was primarily regulated by soil moisture. These results reveal that mature Q. aliena trees exhibit a flexible water use strategy, enabling them to cope with seasonal drought by altering the soil depth from which they extract water. In the future, in the process of the cultivation and conservation of mature oak trees, surface soil irrigation can be increased to prevent tree mortality resulting from water deficit during drought conditions.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030402
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 403: Dimensional Stability and Mechanical
           Properties of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Wood Thermally Modified through Open
           Reactor and Low-Pressure Closed Reactor Systems

    • Authors: Samuel Oluyinka Olaniran, Holger Militz
      First page: 403
      Abstract: This study focused on the thermal modification of Gmelina arborea Roxb. wood following processes using the open reactor and low-pressure closed reactor systems. The aim is to determine the optimum treatment conditions suitable for gmelina wood due to its poor drying characteristics using the low-pressure closed reactor thermal modification. Subsequent to thermal modification under both processes, the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of gmelina wood were investigated. Effects of the thermal modifications under the open and low-pressure closed reactor systems on mechanical properties were additionally reported. The outcome of this investigation revealed that mass loss increased with increasing treatment temperatures, but minimal mass losses were observed for samples modified in the low-pressure closed reactor system. Due to the low-pressure regime used in the closed reactor system, a lesser improvement was found in volumetric shrinkage, fibre saturation point and tangential-to-radial swelling compared to the improvement in these properties in the open reactor system. Results further revealed that the mechanical properties of gmelina wood deteriorated more rapidly after modification in the open reactor system. Since the properties of modified gmelina wood are comparable at 180 °C under both systems, the closed reactor system will be investigated further to arrive at a suitable treatment condition under higher pressure variations. The thermal modification of gmelina wood with the closed reactor system is more promising in delivering a better quality of modified gmelina wood.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030403
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 404: The Role of Wood Density Variation and
           Biomass Allocation in Accurate Forest Carbon Stock Estimation of European
           Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Mountain Forests

    • Authors: Stefan Petrea, Gheorghe Raul Radu, Cosmin Ion Braga, Alexandru Bogdan Cucu, Tibor Serban, Alexandru Zaharia, Dan Pepelea, Gruita Ienasoiu, Ion Catalin Petritan
      First page: 404
      Abstract: The European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most common tree species in Romania, with importance both economically and environmentally. Accurate methods of biomass assessment at the tree compartment level (i.e., stump, stem, branches, and leaves) are necessary for carbon stock estimation. Wood density (WD) is an important factor in determining biomass and, ultimately, the tree’s carbon content. The average tree density was found to be 578.6 kg/m3. For this study, WD was evaluated by the weighting method related to tree volume. Also, to investigate a practical approach to determining the weighted wood density (WWDst), models were run using density at the base of the tree (WDBase), density at breast height level using discs (WDDBH), the wood core density (WDic), and the diameter at breast height (DBH) as predictors. The biomass assessment was conducted using different model evaluations for WWDst as well as allometric equations using the destructive method. From the results, it was noted that using the WWDst, the total biomass was underestimated by −0.7% compared to the biomass measured in the field. For allometric equations that included DBH and tree height as independent variables, the explained variability was around 99.3% for total aboveground biomass (AGBtotal), while it was 97.9% for allometric function using just the DBH. Overall, the distribution of biomass across different compartments was as follows: 73.5% in stems, 23.8% in branches, 1.9% in stumps, and 1.3% in leaves. The study findings offer valuable insights into WD, biomass distribution among different components, and biomass allometric quantification in natural beech forest environments in mountainous areas.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030404
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 405: Development of SSR Markers for and
           Fingerprinting of Walnut Genetic Resources

    • Authors: Suilin Zhang, Yang Li, Yan Li, Yunqi Zhang, Yanbin Hao, Zhixia Hou, Jianxun Qi
      First page: 405
      Abstract: Walnut is one of four major nuts in the world. China has abundant walnut germplasm resources, but there are still shortcomings in the identification of germplasm resources. This study used different walnut varieties as materials and developed 14 high-quality SSR molecular markers from 60 pairs of primers based on genome re-sequencing results. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of Chinese walnut genetic resources using 14 selected SSR markers. A total of 64 alleles were detected in 47 walnut resources, with an average of 4.571 alleles per locus. The variation range of polymorphism information content was 0.096~0.711, with an average value of 0.422. Cluster analysis, population genetic structure, and principal coordinate analysis divided 47 walnut resources into ordinary walnuts, Juglans hopeiensis, and Liaoyi 1. In addition, core SSR markers (Jr45, Jr40, Jr29, Jr35, and Jr11) were selected from 14 SSR markers, which were sufficient to distinguish 47 walnut resources. At the same time, 47 unique molecular fingerprints of walnuts were constructed using these core SSR markers. This study provides strong scientific support for rapid and efficient identification, germplasm innovation, and a variety of property protection of walnut germplasm.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030405
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 406: The Influence of Treatment Methods on Bending
           Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Strips

    • Authors: Shiyu Cao, Jiagui Ji, Haowei Yin, Xuehua Wang
      First page: 406
      Abstract: This study aimed to obtain a comprehensive understanding on bamboo as a curve-member manufacturing material by comparative analysis of how different treatment methods on bending properties improve the effect on bamboo strips. In order to achieve this purpose, bamboo strips were subjected to water boiling, 15% NaOH, and 25% NH3 impregnation; the impact of physical, mechanical and chemical properties were explored. The results revealed that: (1) Water boiling significantly affected crystallinity, cellulose, and lignin content, with a treatment duration of 10 h showing the most favorable results for flexibility and plasticity, greatly improving bending performance. (2) An amount of 15% NaOH treatment significantly increased bending MOE and plastic displacement by 73% and 122.7%. However, it led to a noticeable decrease in bending strength (MOR). A treatment above 8 h could cause irreversible damage to bamboo strips. (3) The improvement of 25% NH3 on bamboo bending ability was lower than water boiling. The effects of chemical composition were obvious in the initial five days and changed little after five days. Generally, water boiling for over 10 h is suitable for applications with significant bending requirements. While for maintaining bamboo color, original strength, and bending performance, 25% NH3 for five days was recommended, and 15% NaOH was not advised for improving bamboo bending performance and its applications.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030406
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 407: ChaWRKY40 Enhances Drought Tolerance of
           ‘Dawei’ Hazelnuts by Positively Regulating Proline Synthesis

    • Authors: Pengfei Zhang, Ruiqiang Chao, Liping Qiu, Wenjing Ge, Jinjun Liang, Pengfei Wen
      First page: 407
      Abstract: Hazelnuts are among the most important nuts worldwide. Drought has severely restricted the development of the hazelnut industry in the wake of global warming and lack of water resources. Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthase (P5CS) is closely related to drought stress as the rate-limiting enzyme of proline synthesis. WRKY40 had been proven to be an important transcription factor regulating drought tolerance in several plants. In this study, the hybrid hazelnut ‘Dawei’ exhibiting drought tolerance was used as the test material. Tests for simulated drought stress and ChaWRKY40 overexpression, and the yeast one-hybrid assay were performed. The results showed that the relative water content of leaves gradually decreased, but the proline content, electrolyte leakage, and expression of ChaWRKY40 and ChaP5CS increased with increasing PEG-6000 concentration in the leaves. A transient ChaWRKY40 overexpression trial indicated that overexpression of ChaWRKY40 improved the proline content and the transcription level of ChaP5CS. The Y1H experiment suggested that ChaWRKY40 directly binds to the W-box-acting element (W-box) on the promoter of ChaP5CS. In conclusion, ChaWRKY40 may increase the proline content by positively regulating the expression of the ChaP5CS gene, thereby improving the drought resistance of hazelnuts.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030407
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 408: Addressing Carbon Storage in Forested
           Landscape Management Planning—An Optimization Approach and
           Application in Northwest Portugal

    • Authors: Susete Marques, Ana Raquel Rodrigues, Joana Amaral Paulo, Brigite Botequim, José G. Borges
      First page: 408
      Abstract: Climate change is driving worldwide efforts to mitigate and reverse the increasing anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Forests can uptake considerable amounts of carbon from the atmosphere, but management decisions and resultant silvicultural practices can largely influence these ecosystems’ carbon balance. This research presents an approach to help land managers cope with the need to ensure the provision of forest products and services while contributing to mitigating climate change via carbon sequestration. The emphasis is on combining a landscape-level resource capability model with a mathematical programming (LP) optimization method to model and solve a land management problem involving timber production, carbon sequestration, and resistance to wildfire targets. The results of an application on a forested landscape in Northwest Portugal showed that this approach may contribute to analyzing and discussing synergies and trade-offs between these targets. They revealed important trade-offs between carbon sequestration and both timber production and fire resistance.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030408
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 409: An Improved Forest Smoke Detection Model
           Based on YOLOv8

    • Authors: Yue Wang, Yan Piao, Haowen Wang, Hao Zhang, Bing Li
      First page: 409
      Abstract: This study centers on leveraging smoke detection for preemptive forest smoke detection. Owing to the inherent ambiguity and uncertainty in smoke characteristics, existing smoke detection algorithms suffer from reduced detection accuracy, elevated false alarm rates, and occurrences of omissions. To resolve these issues, this paper employs an efficient YOLOv8 network and integrates three novel detection modules for enhancement. These modules comprise the edge feature enhancement module, designed to identify smoke ambiguity features, alongside the multi-feature extraction module and the global feature enhancement module, targeting the detection of smoke uncertainty features. These modifications improve the accuracy of smoke area identification while notably lowering the rate of false alarms and omission phenomenon occurrences. Meanwhile, a large forest smoke dataset is created in this paper, which includes not only smoke images with normal forest backgrounds but also a considerable quantity of smoke images with complex backgrounds to enhance the algorithm’s robustness. The proposed algorithm in this paper achieves an AP of 79.1%, 79.2%, and 93.8% for the self-made dataset, XJTU-RS, and USTC-RF, respectively. These results surpass those obtained by the current state-of-the-art target detection-based and neural network-based improved smoke detection algorithms.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030409
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 410: Changes in Relationship between Forest
           Biomass Productivity and Biodiversity of Different Type Subtropical
           Forests in Southern China

    • Authors: Wei Xu, Ping Zhou, Miguel Ángel González-Rodríguez, Zhaowei Tan, Zehua Li, Ping Yan
      First page: 410
      Abstract: Forest productivity is influenced by various factors, including biodiversity, environmental factors, functional traits, and forest types. However, the relative importance of these factors in determining the productivity of subtropical forests in southern China remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed a dataset of 24 forest plots from four subtropical forest types in the Nanling Mountains with the main goal of identifying and quantifying the relative contribution of the main driving factors of forest productivity in these forests. Generalized linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to examine the relationship between forest biomass productivity (aboveground, belowground and total), biodiversity (taxonomic diversity, phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity), and environmental variables (i.e., physiography and climate). The results indicated that both environmental factors and biodiversity played pivotal roles in explaining the biomass productivity of the Nanling subtropical forests. Environmental factors had the greatest influence on total productivity, while the impacts of different types of biodiversity on various productivity components (aboveground and belowground) varied notably. Taxonomic diversity showed the strongest positive effect on the aboveground and belowground biomass productivity. However, phylogenetic and functional diversity had negative effects on productivity. Furthermore, these relationships also exhibited variations when considering different altitude gradients, with low altitudes generally leading to negative biodiversity–productivity correlations. We contextualized our results regarding the three state-of-the-art theories about biodiversity–productivity relationships (selection probability, niche complementarity, and biomass ratio) and concluded that both selection probability and niche complementarity are the driving mechanisms of productivity in the subtropical forests of the Nanling Mountains. This study offers valuable insights into the functioning and biodiversity mechanisms of subtropical forest ecosystems in southern China.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030410
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 411: Forest Adaptation to Climate Change:
           Altitudinal Response and Wood Variation in Natural-Growth Cunninghamia
           lanceolata in the Context of Climate Change

    • Authors: Gongliang Xie, Sen Liu, Ting Chang, Ninghua Zhu
      First page: 411
      Abstract: This research delves into the impact of climate change on the wood traits of Cunninghamia lanceolata across various altitudinal gradients, aiming to understand the influence of altitude and climatic factors like temperature and precipitation on key wood characteristics. Employing a comprehensive approach, samples were collected from different altitudes for detailed phenotypic analysis. Methods included Pearson correlation, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and random forest analysis. Results revealed significant variations in wood traits such as heartwood ratio, tracheid length, and width across altitudes. Notably, wood traits in lower- and middle-elevation populations exhibited higher variability compared to higher elevations, indicating greater environmental diversity and genetic adaptability at these altitudes. Climatic factors, particularly temperature and precipitation, were found to increasingly influence wood trait variation with altitude. The research concludes that the adaptation of Cunninghamia lanceolata to climate change is significantly influenced by both altitudinal and climatic factors, highlighting their importance in forest genetic breeding and conservation strategies amidst global climate change.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030411
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 412: Production of Chestnut Coppice Biomass in a
           Framework of Low Mechanization and High Expectations to Combat Climate
           Change and Other Social Expectations

    • Authors: Francesco Carbone, Luigi Portoghesi, Manuela Romagnoli, Francesco Barbarese, Teresa Grassi
      First page: 412
      Abstract: Climate change has become one of the most critical problems facing modern society. Sustainable forest management can be an important solution to counter the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In particular, management of the chestnut forest could prove to be an effective strategy to absorb carbon dioxide as this species is characterized by sustained growth, so it has a high capacity to store carbon, and through the use of wood products, it is possible to sequester it for a considerable period. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) forests cover an area of about 800,000 ha in Italy, most of which is managed as coppice. It plays a central role in the Latium Region where its productive function is very important, as it provides timber of excellent quality. The purpose of this paper is to verify whether the current management of chestnut is efficient, as well as whether retractable wood products can contribute to the fight against climate change. The chestnut coppice located in the municipality of Tolfa (Lazio region, Italy) produces timber for 352 m3/ha and stores about 390,000 kg of CO2. Wood residues and losses during woodworking, together with emissions for the use of machineries, generate emissions of 368,000 kg of CO2. The chestnut semi-finished products, with long-term use prospects, retain a net volume of 22,000 kg of CO2. Although this is good for combating climate change, the amount of CO2 stored is very low, less than 6% of the CO2 stored by functional unit. Chestnut wood has a high versatility of use, so it could replace several products generated by fossil raw materials. Moreover, the implementation of precision forestry, the adoption of forest management more oriented to favor larger plants, the development of local economies and the reduction in the carbon footprint of the wood supply chain through the use of sustainable technologies would increase the capacity for climate change mitigation and increase the added value of its products.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030412
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 413: Effects of Stand Density, Age, and Drought on
           

    • Authors: Jiajing Li, Dongsheng Chen, Xin Yang, Niqiao Fan, Yiwen Wang, Zhidong Zhang
      First page: 413
      Abstract: The size–growth relationship (SGR) quantifies growth partitioning among different sized trees in a stand and helps to elucidate stand growth dynamics during stand development. SGR strongly correlates with stand density, stand age, and drought severity. This study focused on larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii (Mayr)) forests with different stand ages (17–19 years, 20–29 years, 30–39 years, and 40–46 years) and stand densities (300–1400 trees·ha−1 and 1400–3300 trees·ha−1) as the research subjects. Employing a linear mixed model, we aimed to quantify the effects of stand density, stand age, and drought index on SGR. The results revealed that the Gini coefficient had a significant variation between high-density and low-density larch stands (p < 0.01). Stand age, stand density, and drought index exerted varying degrees of influence on the growth dominance coefficient (GD) and SGR of larch forests. In stands aged less than 39 years, a pronounced growth advantage of large trees over small trees was evident (typically SGR > 1 and GD > 0), indicating a positive growth dominance stage where large trees dominated. Compared to high-density stands, low-density stands exhibited a notably greater positive growth dominance. After 40 years, the growth stage transitioned to a relatively symmetric stage (SGR approximately equal to 1), with a discernible shift towards a reverse growth dominance stage (GD < 0). Compared to stand density and stand age, the drought index had a more influential effect on SGR. As drought severity increased, SGR increased, amplifying the growth advantage of large trees over small ones. The findings underscored the significance of adjusting stand density and optimizing tree size structure to enhance larch resilience against the warming and drying effects.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030413
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 414: Forestry Scenario Modelling: Qualitative
           Analysis of User Needs in Lithuania

    • Authors: Daiva Juknelienė, Michailas Palicinas, Jolanta Valčiukienė, Gintautas Mozgeris
      First page: 414
      Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate the use of qualitative research methods, specifically in-depth interviews, to explore the intangible and often difficult-to-quantify needs for forestry scenario modelling in Lithuania, which are frequently not adequately perceived. The study involved informants representing key actors in forest policy, forest management, research, and education. A total of 21 informants from 11 different institutions, which hold significant power and expertise in forest decision making, were interviewed. The purpose of these interviews was to gather their perspectives on the potential forest decision support system in the country, aiming to address most of their needs. The interview questions explored various aspects, including the requirements for forestry scenario modelling, the desired level of detail and information content for decision making, and both functional and nonfunctional requirements for the scenario modelling system. It is worth noting that the expected functionality of the planned forest DSSs aligns with modern international standards. Nevertheless, the diversity of perspectives, wishes, visions, and intentions of key Lithuanian forestry actors regarding the aims, objectives, and essential functionality of forestry scenario modelling tools were identified. The understanding of the requirements for modern forest DSSs was greatly influenced by the current forestry paradigms in the country and the professional experiences of individual informants. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the utilization of qualitative research, particularly through in-depth interviews, has proven to be a highly effective tool for accurately specifying the requirements of a modern forest DSS. It helped mitigate preconceived notions and address gaps in the envisioned product, specifically by developing a framework of core solutions for the national forestry and land-use scenario modelling system.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030414
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 415: Geographical Differences Weaken the
           Convergence Effect of the Rhizosphere Bacteria of Rubber Trees

    • Authors: Xinnuo Xu, Yaqing Wei, Guoyu Lan
      First page: 415
      Abstract: The rhizosphere has been observed to both enrich and deplete soil microorganisms, but it remains unclear whether rhizosphere microorganisms of the same species exhibit convergence in different climatic regions. This study employed high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze the bacterial communities in the soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane of rubber trees across varying climatic regions. The findings revealed the following: Firstly, the rhizoplane bacteria demonstrated a convergent effect. In Hainan and Xishuangbanna, two core operational classification units (OTUs) were enriched from the soil, while four core OTUs were depleted, indicating that the rhizoplane bacteria were influenced by host regulation and exhibited a certain degree of convergence due to the rhizosphere effect. Secondly, the rhizoplane bacteria exhibited a geographic distribution pattern, with significant differences observed in different climatic regions. Notably, there were significant variations in α- and β-diversity, with Xishuangbanna displaying significantly higher diversity compared to Hainan. Moreover, significant differences were observed at the phylum level in terms of composition. Temperature, soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were identified as the primary factors contributing to these differences. In conclusion, although some convergence was observed in the rhizoplane bacteria, the influence of geographic differences weakened this effect.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030415
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 416: Eleven-Year Canopy Nitrogen Addition Enhances
           the Uptake of Phosphorus by Plants and Accelerates Its Depletion in Soil

    • Authors: Xiaoli Gao, Yinmei Gao, Xiaowei Li, Chenlu Zhang, Quanxin Zeng, Xiaochun Yuan, Yuehmin Chen, Yuanchun Yu, Shenglei Fu
      First page: 416
      Abstract: Soil phosphorus (P) is a critical factor that limits plant productivity. Enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to modify P transformation and availability, thereby potentially affecting the long-term productivity of forests. Here, we conducted an 11-year-long field experiment to simulate N deposition by adding N to the forest canopy in a N-limited northern subtropical forest in central China and assessed the changes in soil organic P mineralization, P fractions, microbial biomass P content, phosphatase activity, and plant P content under N deposition. Our objective was to establish a theoretical framework for addressing the P supply and sustaining plant productivity in soils with low P availability, particularly in a changing global setting. The results demonstrated a substantial reduction in the levels of total, organic, and available P owing to the canopy addition of N. Furthermore, there was a marked decrease in the proportion of organic P in the total P pool. However, no substantial changes were observed in the soil inorganic P content or the proportion of inorganic P within the total P across different treatments. Canopy N addition significantly enhanced the microbial biomass P content, phosphatase activity, and organic P mineralization rate, suggesting that in soils with limited P availability, the primary source of P was derived from the mineralization of organic P. Canopy N addition substantially increased the P content in leaves and fine roots while concurrently causing a considerable decrease in the N:P ratio. This indicates that N deposition increases P demand in plants. Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative association among the total, organic, and available P levels in the soil and plant P concentrations (p < 0.05). This suggests that the primary cause of the reduced fractions of P was plant uptake following canopy N addition. Various studies have demonstrated that N deposition induces an augmented P demand in plants and expedites the utilization of available P. A substantial reduction in potentially accessible soil P caused by N deposition is likely to exacerbate regional P depletion, thereby exerting adverse impacts on forest ecosystem productivity.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030416
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 417: Differences in Soundscape Perception of
           Plants Space in Urban Green Space and the Influence of Factors: The Case
           of Fuzhou, China

    • Authors: Jing Liu, Fan Liu, Huanran Tong, Xiaoying Wang, Jianwen Dong, Minhua Wang
      First page: 417
      Abstract: A soundscape can enhance the acoustic environment of urban areas and support the sustainable development of green spaces. This study is based on field research on plant information and a perception questionnaire conducted in 30 urban park sample sites in China. The study analysed the differences in soundscape perception among different plant spaces using three dimensions: sound source dominance degree (SDD), sound source harmony degree (SHD), and soundscape perception evaluation. Additionally, five physical indicators of plant space were selected to quantify the effects of physical characteristics of plant space on soundscape perception in urban green space (UGS). The results indicated that there were impacts on soundscape perception. The evaluation of soundscape perception between different types of plant spaces revealed notable differences, particularly in open and enclosed spaces. All eight indicators demonstrated significant differences, indicating that soundscape perception was influenced by the type of plant space. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between plant space and soundscape perception. The evaluation of soundscape perception in three dimensions was related to several factors, including the degree of spatial enclosure, crown density, average tree height, the proportion of trees and shrubs, and the number of tree species. The dominant factor affecting sound source dominance was found to be the degree of spatial enclosure, followed by the average height of trees. Additionally, the diversity of trees affected the overall soundscape perception.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030417
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 418: Patterns and Dominant Driving Factors of
           Carbon Storage Changes in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau under Multiple
           Land Use Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Huihui Zhao, Caifeng Yang, Miao Lu, Longhao Wang, Bing Guo
      First page: 418
      Abstract: Revealing the spatial–temporal evolution of carbon storage and its driving mechanisms in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau could provide support for decision making in the protection of regional ecosystems and the achievement of regional dual-carbon goals. In this study, the spatial–temporal evolution of carbon storage in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau was analyzed under various scenarios using PLUS-InVEST and a gravity center model, and the driving mechanisms of carbon storage were clarified with Geodetector. The results are as follows: (1) During 2000–2020, the areas of coniferous forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, closed shrub, temperate shrub desert, multi-tree grassland, and grassland showed an increasing trend, while the areas of deciduous broad-leaved forest and mixed forest showed a decreasing trend. (2) During 2030–2060, there was a decreasing trend in the total carbon storage of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau under three different scenarios. (3) During 2030–2060, the area of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau was mostly represented by carbon balance (56%), while the areas of carbon sources and carbon sinks showed a scattered distribution. (4) The precipitation and topographic factors with a q value of 0.888 played a dominant role in affecting the spatio-temporal variations in carbon storage in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. (5) In future ecological protection and restoration efforts, more high-quality farmlands should be protected and constructed, which could contribute to the achievement of dual-carbon goals. In addition, the hydrothermal conditions should be improved to aid the carbon cycle process in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030418
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 419: NH4+-N and Low Ratios of NH4+-N/NO3−-N
           Promote the Remediation Efficiency of Salix linearistipularis in Cd- and
           Pb-Contaminated Soil

    • Authors: Dongliu Di, Shaokun Wang, Guangcai Chen, Qian Wang, Jingwei Zhang, Xiaoyun Niu, Dazhuang Huang
      First page: 419
      Abstract: (1) Background: the utilization of fast-growing trees for phytoremediation in heavy-metal-contaminated soil is increasingly recognized as an effective remediation method. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer enhances plant tolerance to heavy metals, yet the impact of various N levels and ammonium (NH4+-N)/nitrate (NO3−-N) ratios on the remediation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by trees remains unclear. (2) Methods: the efficiency of Salix linearistipularis in remediating Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil was investigated using a pot experiment with three N levels (60, 120, 200 kg hm−1 year−1) and five NH4+-N/NO3−-N ratios (6/0, 4/2, 3/3, 2/4, 0/6) employed, resulting in 16 treatments including a control. (3) Results: the levels and ratios of NH4+-N/NO3−-N significantly affected the Cd and Pb uptake by S. linearistipularis. The highest increases in Cd and Pb in S. linearistipularis were observed for the N120-6/0 treatment, which increased by 104.36% and 95.23%, respectively. In addition, in the N120-6/0 treatment, the stem and leaf bioconcentration factors of Cd were significantly enhanced by 28.66% and 40.11%, respectively. Structural equation modeling revealed that the uptake of Cd and Pb was predominantly influenced by plant traits (biomass and root traits) rather than soil properties. (4) Conclusions: Our findings highlight the potential of the NH4+-N/NO3−-N ratio to regulate plant traits, thereby improving the phytoremediation efficiency of heavy-metal-contaminated soil.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030419
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 420: Comparative Analysis of Water Isotopic
           Compositions: Evaluating Isotope Analyzer for Soil and Extraction Method
           for Stem Water

    • Authors: Jihyeon Jeon, Hojin Lee, Minsu Lee, Jeonghyun Hong, Seohyun Kim, Chanoh Park, Hyun Seok Kim
      First page: 420
      Abstract: Stable isotopes of water (δ2H and δ18O) are reliable tracers for the investigation of plant–soil–water interactions in forest ecosystems. However, variations in isotopic compositions may arise due to differences in analytical instruments and water extraction methods. In this study, we conducted three different experiments to identify isotopic differences caused by analytical and methodological variations. First, we analyzed soil water by using the two most commonly applied methods: isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Second, we compared the isotopes in xylem water extracted from the stems of nine tree species using cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD) with different heating times. Third, we compared the compositions in xylem water extracted with three different methods: mechanical squeezing using a pressure chamber (PC), an induction module (IM), and CVD. The differences in isotopic composition between IRMS and CRDS were significant but minimal. Soil properties were not significant factors contributing to differences between the two instruments. For the xylem water extraction with CVD, each of the nine tree species required heating for more than three hours. Significant differences were observed in δ2H among the three extraction methods for xylem water. Xylem water extracted by CVD showed more depleted values compared to those obtained by PC and IM. Our results highlight the importance of considering analytical and methodological variations in stable isotope analysis.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030420
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 421: Patterns in Tree Cavities (Hollows) in
           Euphrates Poplar (Populus euphratica, Salicaceae) along the Tarim River in
           NW China

    • Authors: Tayierjiang Aishan, Reyila Mumin, Ümüt Halik, Wen Jiang, Yaxin Sun, Asadilla Yusup, Tongyu Chen
      First page: 421
      Abstract: Populus euphratica Oliv., an indicator species for eco-environmental change in arid areas, plays a key role in maintaining the stability of fragile oasis–desert ecosystems. Owing to human interference as well as to the harshness of the natural environment, P. euphratica forests have suffered severe damage and degradation, with trunk cavities (i.e., hollows) becoming increasingly pronounced, and thus posing a great threat to the growth, health, and survival of the species. Currently, there is a gap in our understanding of cavity formation and its distribution in P. euphratica. Here, cavities in the trunks and branches of a P. euphratica in a typical transect (Arghan) along the lower Tarim River were studied based on field positioning observations combined with laboratory analysis. The results revealed a large number of hollow-bearing P. euphratica stands in the study area; indeed, trees with hollows accounted for 56% of the sampled trees, with approximately 159 trees/ha. Sixty-six percent of hollow trees exhibited large (15 cm ≤ cavity width (CW) < 30 cm) or very large (CW > 30 cm) hollows. The main types of cavities in the trees were trunk main (31.3%), trunk top (20.7%), branch end (19.5%), and branch middle (19.5%). Tree parameters, such as diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height (TH), east–west crown width (EWCW), height under branches (UBH), and crown loss (CL) were significantly different between hollow and non-hollow trees. Both cavity height and width were significantly and positively correlated with DBH and CL, as well as with average crown width (ACW) (p < 0.001) and the distance from the tree to the river. The proportion of P. euphratica trees with cavities showed an overall increasing trend with increasing groundwater depth. Our findings show that cavities in P. euphratica varied with different tree architectural characteristics. Water availability is a major environmental factor influencing the occurrence of hollowing in desert riparian forests. The results provide scientific support for the conservation and sustainable management of existing desert riparian forest ecosystems.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030421
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 422: Involvement of Lophodermella sulcigena in
           Endemic Disease of Pinus mugo Needles in the Polish Tatra Mountains

    • Authors: Tadeusz Kowalski, Czesław Bartnik, Piotr Bilański
      First page: 422
      Abstract: Pinus mugo plays a significant ecological role in the natural environment at high altitudes in the mountains including the Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathians, and Balkans. In such severe conditions, it is subjected to the harmful effects of various abiotic and biotic factors. In one of the areas of its natural occurrence in Tatra Mts. (southern Poland), for the last few years, a significant intensification of needle disease has been observed. Symptoms similar to those recorded in Tatra Mts. also occur on other Pinus species in Europe and North America, where they are caused by fungi belonging to the genus Elytroderma, Lophodermella, Lophophacidium or Ploioderma (Rhytismataceae). The current paper presents the results of research which was mainly aimed at characterization of disease symptoms observed for the first time in Poland on P. mugo needles, and identification of the main causal agent with use of the morphological and molecular technique. Based on the analyses performed at different times of the year (2015–2020), it was found that dieback symptoms initially appeared only on first-year needles, a few weeks after their development. Symptoms occur on one or both needles in the bundle. The distal parts of the needles died, while the basal parts remained green. In the following year, mainly in June and July, on the previous year’s needles attached to the shoots, mature ascomata can be seen. The fungus Lophodermella sulcigena has been identified as the cause of these symptoms. So far, the related species L. conjuncta has not been found. The morphological features of the pathogen microstructure produced on P. mugo needles are presented. Attention was drawn to certain features that may make its identification difficult, especially in terms of shapes and sizes of ascospores. The phylogenetic position of the identified causal agent in relation to closely related other species was determined. The current results confirmed that L. sulcigena shows great phylogenetic similarity to L. montivaga, which is found in North America. Nine rDNA barcode sequences of L. sulcigena obtained in this work will enrich the NCBI GenBank database. The obtained results, indicating the presence of other fungi in L. sulcigena ascomata, which may limit the spread of its ascospores, were also discussed.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030422
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 423: Soil Hydrology Characteristics among Forest
           Type, Stand Age and Successive Rotation in Eucalyptus Plantations in
           Southern China

    • Authors: Yu Tan, Kaijun Yang, Jiashuang Qin, Longkang Ni, Suhui Liao, Danjuan Zeng, Huibiao Pan, Daxing Gu
      First page: 423
      Abstract: The water holding capacity of forest soil plays a crucial role in ensuring forest productivity, particularly in Eucalyptus urophylla plantations. In this study, we investigated the soil water holding capacity and hydrological properties of Eucalyptus in a subtropical area of Guangxi, China. Different stand ages (five years old, seven years old, and 15 years old) and successive rotations (first, second, and third) of Eucalyptus plantations were compared, with Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese Fir) and Pinus massoniana (Pine) plantations serving as references. Soil physical properties, soil hydrological parameters, and litter characteristics were analyzed to assess soil water retention and conservation variations. Our findings revealed that Eucalyptus and Chinese Fir plantation forests exhibit superior soil physical characteristics compared to Pine plantations, resulting in better soil water retention. However, an increase in the age of Eucalyptus plantations significantly diminished the capillary water holding capacity of the soil, despite an increase in surface litter accumulation and litter moisture content. Furthermore, successive rotations led to a notable reduction in soil capillary porosity, soil moisture content, soil saturated permeability, and overall soil water holding capacity. In addition, soil bulk density emerged as a critical factor relating to the hydrological characteristics of Eucalyptus plantation forests. Decreasing soil bulk density in Eucalyptus forests may offer potential for optimizing their water retention function. These results reveal that Eucalyptus management practices significantly alter the hydrological properties of soil through their effects on soil and litter properties, and consequently, stand age, rotation, and species mixing should be given intensive attention in maintaining the maximization of soil water holding capacity.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030423
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 424: Spatial, Geographical, Climatic, and Edaphic
           Influences on Moss Community Structure: A Case Study from Qinhuangdao,
           China

    • Authors: Guochen Zheng, Jiqi Gu, Wei Zhao, Yuhan Zhang, Zidan Guan, Ming Lei, Chenyang He
      First page: 424
      Abstract: In the realms of ecology and biogeography, the interaction between biodiversity and environmental factors is a critical area of research. This intersection highlights how biological communities, especially among groups like bryophytes, are influenced and shaped by their surrounding environmental conditions. This study presents a pioneering investigation into the diversity and community structure of mosses in Qinhuangdao, Hubei Province, China, a region marked by its diverse topography and climate. Employing extensive field surveys across 30 plots, we gathered and analyzed the relationship between moss species distribution and environmental variables, including topographical, climatic, and soil factors. Utilizing a range of analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM), we characterized the intricate relationships between moss biodiversity and environmental gradients. The research has documented 84 species distributed among 36 genera and 13 families. Solar radiation has a great impact on moss diversity. There were significant differences between Form. Entodon compressus and Form. Plagiobryum demissum. Climate has a great impact on the community structure of mosses. Geographical factors were also identified as key secondary influences, affecting moss community structures both directly and indirectly by creating suitable microenvironments and influencing climate and soil properties. Additionally, the study highlights the indirect impact of spatial factors on these environmental variables, which in turn shape the structure of biological communities. The findings indicate that the annual temperature range is a key factor influencing the distribution and formation of moss community structures. The findings provide new insights into the ecological adaptation of mosses in diverse environmental settings and lay a crucial foundation for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management in the Qinhuangdao area.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030424
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 425: A Comparison of Probability Density Functions
           Fitted by Moments and Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods Used for
           Diameter Distribution Estimation

    • Authors: Jose Javier Gorgoso-Varela, Segun M. Adedapo, Friday N. Ogana
      First page: 425
      Abstract: Modeling diameter distribution is a crucial aspect of forest management, requiring the selection of an appropriate probability density function or cumulative distribution function along with a fitting method. This study compared the suitability of eight probability density functions—A Charlier, beta, generalized beta, gamma, Gumbel, Johnson’s SB, and Weibull (two- and three-parameter)—fitted using both derivative methods (Moments) fitted in SAS/STATTM and optimization methods (MLE) fitted with the ‘optim’ function in R for diameter distribution estimation in forest stands. The A Charlier and Gumbel functions were used for the first time in this type of comparison. The data were derived from 167 permanent sample plots in an Atlantic forest (Quercus robur) and 59 temporary sample plots in tropical forests (Tectona grandis). Fit quality was assessed using various indices, including Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Cramér–von Mises, mean absolute error, bias, and mean squared error. The results indicated that Johnson’s SB function was more suitable for describing the diameter distribution of the stands. Johnson’s SB, three-parameter Weibull, and generalized beta consistently performed well across different fitting methods, while the fits produced by gamma, Gumbel, and two-parameter Weibull were of poor quality.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/f15030425
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 326: Sawlog Recovery in Birch, Black Alder, and
           Aspen Stands of Hemiboreal Forests in Latvia

    • Authors: Jānis Donis, Guntars Šņepsts, Pauls Zeltiņš, Jurģis Jansons, Pēteris Zālītis, Āris Jansons
      First page: 326
      Abstract: In any forest stand, the theoretically modelled output of sawlogs (the most valuable roundwood assortments) will differ from what is actually obtained. The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to characterise this difference by site properties or forest inventory parameters for birch, black alder, and aspen. We compared theoretically modelled sawlog recovery with actual recovery according to harvester data from final fellings. The difference between the theoretically modelled and actually recovered sawlog outcomes varied from −24.32 to −60.96 percentage points, with overestimations reaching up to three times for aspen. The differences in yield of sawlogs varied among soil types and increased with age and the average diameter of a tree. The sawlog recovery was underestimated up to the mean diameter at breast height of 16 cm and age of 20 years while being overestimated for larger and older trees. The results highlight the necessity to consider decreasing wood quality with increasing age to account for decay, such as stem rot, in assortment tables.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020326
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 327: Determination of Particle Size Distribution:
           Comparison of Standard Hydrometer Method and Laser Diffraction Analysis
           for Use in Forestry

    • Authors: Kateřina Sedláčková, Lenka Ševelová, Dušan Igaz, Elena Aydın
      First page: 327
      Abstract: Laser diffraction analysis is an alternative to standard sedimentation methods designed to determine particle size distribution. In this article, five samples from the forested part of the floodplain of the Svitava River in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Laser diffraction analysis and sedimentation hydrometer method were performed for each sample. The samples were divided according to soil classification into two groups depending on their classification–group A and group B. The results of laser diffraction analysis and hydrometer method were compared. Correlation relationships between both methods were established, and values were recalculated from laser diffraction analysis to the hydrometer method according to correlation equations. The article is a part of the methodology under preparation, which will include the most common soil types in the Czech Republic. This methodology focuses on the use of laser diffraction for the establishment of structures in forest environments using the regional specific standards for particle size distribution determination.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020327
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 328: Effect of the Moso Bamboo Pyllostachys edulis
           (Carrière) J.Houz. on Soil Phosphorus Bioavailability in a
           Broadleaf Forest (Jiangxi Province, China)

    • Authors: Dou Yang, Fuxi Shi, Xiangmin Fang, Ruoling Zhang, Jianmin Shi, Yang Zhang
      First page: 328
      Abstract: Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière) J.Houz.) is a fast-growing species that commonly invades neighboring broadleaf forests and has been widely reported in subtropical forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect on soil phosphorus (P) bioavailability and its potential influence factor during the P. edulis expansion. Here, the four soil P bioavailable fractions (i.e., CaCl2-P, Citrate-P, Enzyme-P, and HCl-P), acid phosphatase activity, iron and aluminum oxides (Fed and Ald), and soil total P pool at depths of 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, and 20–40 cm were measured in three expanding interfaces (a broadleaf forest, a mixed bamboo–broadleaf forest, and a pure P. edulis forest) in subtropical forests of southern China. Regardless of soil depths, the CaCl2-P content was significantly lower in the mixed bamboo–broadleaf forest than the other two forest types, with contents ranging from 0.09 to 0.16 mg/kg, whereas the HCl-P content was significantly lower in the broadleaf forest, with contents ranging from 3.42 to 14.33 mg/kg, and the Enzyme-P content and acid phosphatase activity were notably lower in P. edulis forest with contents of 0.17–0.52 mg/kg and 68.66–74.80 μmol MUF released g−1 min−1, respectively. Moreover, the soil total P pool was enhanced in the mixed bamboo–broadleaf forest in 0–10 cm depth compared to broadleaf and P. edulis forests, with increases of 27.40% and 31.02%, respectively. The redundancy analysis showed that soil pH plays an important role in regulating soil P bioavailability during the P. edulis expansion (p < 0.01). From the above results, the invasion of P. edulis into broadleaf forests has resulted in soil P bioavailability and storage capacity. The results of this study suggest that when P. edulis invades broadleaf forests, it could affect the soil P bioavailability by elevating soil pH, which in turn drives and facilitates the completion of the expansion. This is important for understanding P cycling during the P. edulis forest expansion in subtropical regions.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020328
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 329: Molecular Phylogenetics and Light Microscopy
           Reveal “True” and “False” Calacarines and Novel
           Genital Structures in Gall Mites (Acariformes, Eriophyoidea)

    • Authors: Philipp E. Chetverikov, Charnie Craemer, Vladimir D. Gankevich, Nhung Thi Tuyet Le, Viet Duc Nguyen, Hoat Xuan Trinh, James Amrine
      First page: 329
      Abstract: Gall mites (Eriophyoidea) are cosmopolitan microscopic phytoparasites that often transmit viruses and induce callogenesis. The tribe Calacarini is diagnosed by a set of plesiomorphic and homoplastic traits, including elimination of setae sc shared with other lineages of Eriophyoidea. We reviewed data on the generic diversity of calacarines, revised the concept of the type genus Calacarus Keifer 1940, and proposed three zones (MZ, SMZ, LZ) in the prodorsal shields of calacarines to simplify descriptions of their shield patterns. We describe three new calacarine species (Calacarus baviensisn. sp., C. burchelliaen. sp., and Viginticus searsiaen. sp.) from indigenous dicotyledonous trees from South Africa and Vietnam and report on new findings of Paracalacarus podocarpi Keifer in Brazil, Jiangsuacarus sp. in the USA, and Calacarus pusillus Pye in Latvia and Russia. The latter represents the new most northern locality of Calacarini. Reinvestigating the type species of Jaranasia Chandrapatya & Boczek 2000 revealed that absence of setae l’’ II is the only character separating it from Jiangsuacarus Xue 2009. We proposed two new combinations: Jiangsuacarus sesleriae (Skoracka 2004) n. comb. (transferred from Jaranasia) and Procalacarus mussaendae (Keifer 1977) n. comb. (transferred from Calacarus). Partial sequences of Cox1 and 28S genes were obtained for six calacarines, some of them originating from old ethanol material kept at room temperature. Molecular phylogenetics revealed a stable cluster of “true” calacarine sequences comprising Calacarus, Jaranasia, Latitudo, and Viginticus and a polyphyletic group of erroneous sequences assigned to Calacarini in GenBank. All investigated females of calacarines have a pair of genital tubules associated with the vestibulum and hypothesized to participate in fertilization. This finding may contribute to resolving the question on how the fusion of gametes happens in gall mites.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020329
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 330: The Impact of the Urban Forest Park
           Recreation Environment and Perceived Satisfaction on Post-Tour Behavioral
           Intention—Using Tongzhou Grand Canal Forest Park as an Example

    • Authors: Xuhui Yao, Yan Sun, Bowen Sun, Yan Huang
      First page: 330
      Abstract: The positive behaviors that urban forest parks encourage in urban residents (such as recommendations, repeat visits, etc.) are important considerations in the planning and construction of such forest parks. Recreators’ environmental preferences and perceived satisfaction with urban forest parks are responses to individuals’ perceptions and attitudes toward the external environment. Clarifying the interactive relationship between the two is of great significance to improving positive behavioral intentions in urban forest parks. In this paper, the concept of the urban forest park recreational environment is proposed, and in this concept, the three dimensions of the spatial physical environmental preference, regional cultural characteristics, and service experience that the urban forest park recreational environment has on tourists’ perception are separated out. A model of the structural relationship between park environment perception, perceived satisfaction, and post-tour behavioral intention was tested using Tongzhou Grand Canal Forest Park as an example. The psychological path of tourists’ behavioral intention after visiting the urban forest park can be divided into two categories: the direct influencing path is “urban forest park recreation environment → post-tour behavioral intention”; the indirect influencing path is “urban forest park recreation environment → perceived satisfaction → behavioral intention after the trip”. This shows that tourists’ preference for the urban forest park recreation environment will promote the generation of perceived satisfaction and then stimulate in-depth comprehensive experience evaluation after visiting. By enhancing tourists’ experience of the urban forest park recreational environment through their environmental preference perception and improving tourists’ perceived satisfaction with the urban forest park recreational environment, urban forest parks can improve tourists’ positive behavioral intentions. Clarifying these complex psychological processes provides a new perspective for understanding people’s cognition of urban forest parks, the physiological and psychological benefits produced, and the resulting behavioral tendencies. At the same time, it also provides a new perspective for the planning and design of similar types of urban forest parks. It provides a certain reference value for forest park management.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020330
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 331: Changes in Soil Chemistry and Microbial
           Communities in Rhizospheres of Planted Gastrodia elata on a Barren Slope
           and under a Forest

    • Authors: Xia Xie, Rui Shi, Xinru Yan, Ao Zhang, Yonggui Wang, Jinlong Jiao, Yang Yu, Abraham Rami Horowitz, Jincai Lu, Xiahong He
      First page: 331
      Abstract: Continuous cropping of the important achlorophyllous medicinal orchid Gastrodia elata Blume causes an imbalance in soil microecology leading to soil-borne diseases. However, the impacts on different land covers remain largely unknown. Hence, this study aimed to investigate changes in the soil nutrient composition and the global microbial community structure in rhizospheres of G. elata cultivated on a barren slope (HPGJ) and under a forest (LXT) using integrated shotgun metagenomics and an analysis of soil chemical properties. High-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Mucoromycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota, which drive N- and C-cycling genes in HPGJ and LXT. Notably, the fungal community was significantly improved in the HPGJ (from 0.17% to 23.61%) compared to the LXT (from 0.2% to 2.04%). Consequently, mineral cycling was enhanced in the HPGJ, resulting in a more improved soil nutrient composition than in the LXT. The soil chemical properties analysis unveiled a significant increase in the contents of the total nitrogen, NO3−-N, organic matter, total carbon, organic carbon, total sulfur, and total phosphorus in the HPGJ, while no changes were recorded in the LXT. It was noteworthy that the abundance of pathogenic microorganisms increased significantly in the HPGJ compared to the LXT. Our results provide supporting data to optimize G. elata cultivation on slopes.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020331
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 332: Antifungal Activity of Culture Filtrate from
           Endophytic Fungus Nectria balsamea E282 and Its Fractions against
           Dryadomyces quercus-mongolicae

    • Authors: Manh Ha Nguyen, Il-Kwon Park, Jong Kyu Lee, Dong-Hyeon Lee, Keumchul Shin
      First page: 332
      Abstract: A key role that fungal endophytes play in interacting with their host plant can be defined by the fact that they promote the growth of plants and enhance the tolerance of the host against plant pathogens using bioactive compounds that they produce. Several studies utilizing endophytic fungi as a source of biological control against plant pathogens were conducted, and a representative example includes Aureobasidium protae from common wheat (Triticum aestivum), which inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight disease. Our previous study indicated that three endophytic fungal isolates, E089 (Daldinia childiae), E282 (Nectria balsamea), and E409 (Colletotrichum acutatum), showed antifungal activities against D. quercus-mongolicae, an ascomycetous fungus that is reported to be associated with oak mortality in South Korea. The objectives of this study were to optimize and evaluate antifungal efficiency for these endophytic fungi against D. quercus-mongolicae, and this was achieved using culture filtrate retrieved from the three above-mentioned endophytes and fractions isolated from the culture filtrate. Of those, the culture filtrate from E282 showed higher mycelial growth and sporulation inhibitions on PDA medium where D. quercus-mongolicae was grown. In addition, three fractions, including hexane, CHCl3, Et2O, and H2O, were tested for antifungal activities against D. quercus-mongolicae. The results revealed that the Et2O fraction showed higher mycelial growth and sporulation inhibition rates. Taking these results together, the endophytic fungus, N. balsamea, which exhibited high antifungal efficiency, can be effectively used as a biocontrol agent for the management of oak wilt disease in the country.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020332
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 333: Landsenses in Green Spaces

    • Authors: Jiang Liu, Xinhao Wang, Xinchen Hong
      First page: 333
      Abstract: Green spaces, serving as crucial ecological infrastructure, offer numerous ecological system services and enhance human well-being, particularly in densely built environments [...]
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020333
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 334: Analysis of Factors Driving Subtropical
           Forest Phenology Differentiation, Considering Temperature and
           Precipitation Time-Lag Effects: A Case Study of Fujian Province

    • Authors: Menglu Ma, Hao Zhang, Jushuang Qin, Yutian Liu, Baoguo Wu, Xiaohui Su
      First page: 334
      Abstract: Subtropical forest phenology differentiation is affected by temperature, precipitation, and topography. Understanding the primary contributing elements and their interactions with forest phenology can help people better comprehend the subtropical forest growth process and its response to climate. Meanwhile, the temporal and spatial variations of phenological rhythms are important indicators of climatic impacts on forests. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze both a total area and different forest growth environments within the whole (i.e., coastal site areas (II, IV) and inland site areas (I, III)) as to spatiotemporal patterns associated with subtropical forests in Fujian Province, which is located at the boundary between the middle and south subtropical zones. Considering the asymmetric effects of climate and forest growth, this study chose pre-seasonal and cumulative temperature and precipitation factors and utilized the GeoDetector model to analyze the dominant drivers and interactions within phenology differentiation in Fujian Province. The results show the following: (1) All of the phenological parameters were advanced or shortened over the 19-year observation period; those of shrubland and deciduous broadleaf forests fluctuated greatly, and their stability was poor. (2) The phenological parameters were more distinct at the borders of the site areas. Additionally, the dates associated with the end of the growth season (EOS) and the date-position of peak value (POP) in coastal areas (i.e., II and IV) were later than those in inland areas (i.e., I and III). Among the parameters, the length of the growth season (LOS) was most sensitive to altitude. (3) Precipitation was the main driving factor affecting the spatial heterogeneity of the start of the growth season (SOS) and the EOS. The relatively strong effects of preseason and current-month temperatures on the SOS may be influenced by the temperature threshold required to break bud dormancy, and the relationship between the SOS and temperature was related to the lag time and the length of accumulation. The EOS was susceptible to the hydrothermal conditions of the preseason accumulation, and the variation trend was negatively correlated with temperature and precipitation. Spatial attribution was used to analyze the attribution of phenology differentiation from the perspectives of different regions, thus revealing the relationships between forest phenology and meteorological time-lag effects, the result which can contribute to targeted guidance and support for scientific forest management.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020334
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 335: Insights into the Root Sprouts of Toona
           fargesii in a Natural Forest: From the Morphology, Physiology, and
           Transcriptome Levels

    • Authors: Qiangqiang Cheng, Jikai Ma, Chunce Guo, Qiuwei Zhong, Wanwen Yu, Ting Jia, Lu Zhang
      First page: 335
      Abstract: Toona fargesii (T. fargesii) is a deciduous tree of the Meliaceae family which is utilized for high-value timber. Interestingly, root sprouting is a typical reproductive pattern in T. fargesii. Nevertheless, the genetics underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. Here, three type of roots of T. fargesii were used for histological observation, plant endogenous hormone determination, non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) determination, and sequencing using the Illumina next-generation and PacBio SMRT platforms. Our results indicated that root sprouts originated from cork cambiums. Furthermore, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin riboside (ZR), gibberellic acid 3 (GA3), and abscisic acid (ABA) content was significantly increased, while soluble sugar content was significantly decreased in the root sprouts. In addition, transcriptomic analysis suggested a total of 36.19 G of raw data from which 210 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of were identified in RS vs. SR. Of these, the candidate DEGs were largely enriched in the citrate cycle, gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction pathways. We therefore speculated that the accumulation of cytokinin and auxin might be induced by ATP-binding cassette-B 19 (ABCB19) and ABCG14, which were necessary for root sprouting. Additionally, transcription factors SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like 18 (SPL18) and NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2-14 (NAC14) were found in response to environmental water and epigenetic modification in RS. Overall, this study was to unravel the physiological and transcriptomic levels of the development of root sprouting in T. fargesii.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020335
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 336: Differences in Fine Root Foraging Traits of
           Two Dominant Tree Species (Cunninghamia lanceolata and Quercus acutissima)
           in Subtropical Forests

    • Authors: Xinying Xu, Rui Tan, Huimei Shao, Jiacun Gu, Weifeng Wang, Guobing Wang, Shuiqiang Yu
      First page: 336
      Abstract: Root biomass and length growth, functional traits, and their responses to soil nutrient availability are crucial for resource acquisition under environmental change. Previous studies have focused on the response of root morphological, architectural, and chemical traits to fertilization, while less attention has been given to root biomass and length growth, as well as mycorrhizal symbiosis, impeding a full understanding of root resource acquisition strategies. Here, using a nutrient addition experiment (control, inorganic, and organic nutrients), we explored the responses of function-based root (absorptive fine roots [AFRs] versus transport fine roots [TFRs]) growth, functional traits (morphological, architectural, and chemical traits), and mycorrhizal colonization of C. lanceolat and Q. acutissim, which are the dominant tree species in subtropical China. The results showed that the fine root biomass and total root length of AFRs for both tree species basically decreased significantly after nutrient addition, but TFRs responded less sensitively than AFRs. Nutrient addition significantly increased the mycorrhizal colonization rate in C. lanceolata but decreased it in Q. acutissima. The diameter of AFRs for C. lanceolata increased significantly, while the branch ratio and branch intensity decreased significantly in both inorganic nutrients (NPK) and organic nutrients (F); however, the opposite response pattern occurred for Q. acutissima. Fine root biomass, total root length, and root nutrient concentration exhibited the most plastic responses to changes in nutrient availability. The magnitude of the plastic response of fine root traits was slightly higher in the NPK treatment than in the F treatment. Our findings suggest that the responses of fine root traits and mycorrhizal fungi to nutrient addition were species-specific: C. lanceolata depended on mycorrhizal fungi for resource acquisition, while Q. acutissima could acquire soil nutrient resources by increasing root branching. The contrasting nutrient acquisition strategies between tree species may facilitate plant species coexistence and distribution under soil nutrient change. Fine root biomass and total root length emerged as more pivotal indicators for nutrient acquisition strategies compared to morphological traits.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020336
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 337: Exceptionally Uniform Bat Assemblages across
           Different Forest Habitats Are Dominated by Single Hyperabundant Generalist
           Species

    • Authors: Mateusz Ciechanowski, Zuzanna Wikar, Katarzyna Borzym, Emilia Janikowska, Julia Brachman, Martyna Jankowska-Jarek, Konrad Bidziński
      First page: 337
      Abstract: Woodland bat assemblages are usually structured in a space according to the distance from the ground, water, and obstacles, features that often define chiropteran hunting tactics. Consequently, the bat species composition differs strongly among various habitats, even within the same forest patch. However, when conducting local bat surveys in Wolin National Park (WPN), we revealed an unexpected uniformity in the qualitative and quantitative structure of bat assemblages, based on mist netting and ultrasound recording. In total, 10 vespertilionid species were detected. Across all methods and sampled habitats, a single species, Pipistrellus pygmaeus, predominated, while no Barbastella barbastellus, an old forest specialist, were detected, despite the abundance of their preferred daily roosts. We also reviewed the literature for mist-netted bat samples in four different habitats in lowland Polish forests. The samples usually clustered based on habitats, and the same habitat classes often clustered very closely despite representing geographically distant forests. The exception was WPN, where all four habitat classes formed a tightly packed cluster. We hypothesize that P. pygmaeus might act as a hyperabundant native species, a successful generalist that reduces the contribution of more specialized taxa in the assemblage. It probably benefits from both forest renaturation and anthropogenic cross-boundary subsidy.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020337
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 338: Temporal and Spatial Dynamics in Carbon
           Utilization Efficiency and Driving Mechanisms in Southeast Tibet from 2012
           to 2022

    • Authors: Qi Shi, Jie Lu, Qiang Yu, Jiahua Han
      First page: 338
      Abstract: Carbon utilization efficiency (CUE) in terrestrial ecosystems stands as a pivotal metric for assessing ecosystem functionality. Investigating the spatiotemporal dynamics of regional CUE within the context of global climate change not only provides a theoretical foundation for understanding terrestrial carbon cycling but also furnishes essential data support for formulating sustainable management strategies at a regional scale. This study focuses on the southeastern region of Tibet. Utilizing monthly and yearly MOD17A2HGF as primary sources, we employ Thiel–Sen estimation and Mann–Kendall trend analysis to scrutinize the spatiotemporal dynamics of CUE. Systematic analysis of the stability of CUE spatiotemporal changes in the Southeast Tibet region is conducted using the coefficient of variation analysis. The Hurst model is then applied to prognosticate future CUE changes in Southeast Tibet. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis of CUE is undertaken by integrating meteorological data and land-use data. The findings reveal the following: (1) At the monthly scale, regional CUE exhibits discernible variations synchronized with the growth season, with different vegetation types displaying diverse fluctuation patterns. The high-altitude forest area manifests the least annual CUE fluctuations, while evergreen needleleaf forests and evergreen broadleaf forests demonstrate larger variations. At the yearly scale, CUE reveals a non-significant upward trend overall, but there is an augmented fluctuation observed from 2019 to 2022. (2) CUE in Southeast Tibet demonstrates sensitivity to temperature and precipitation variations, with temperature exhibiting a more pronounced and strongly correlated impact, especially in Gongjo County and Qamdo Town. Temperature and precipitation exert opposing influences on CUE changes in the Southeast Tibet region. In the southern (below 28° N) and northern (above 31° N) regions of Southeast Tibet, the response of CUE to temperature and precipitation variations differs. Moreover, over 62.3% of the areas show no sustained trend of change. (3) Vegetation type emerges as a principal factor determining the scope and features of vegetation CUE changes. Grassland and sparse grassland areas exhibit markedly higher CUE values than evergreen broadleaf forests, deciduous broadleaf forests, evergreen needleleaf forests, and deciduous needleleaf forests. Notably, the CUE fluctuation in shrublands and areas with embedded farmland vegetation surpasses that of other vegetation types.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020338
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 339: Response of Vegetation Productivity to
           Greening and Drought in the Loess Plateau Based on VIs and SIF

    • Authors: Xiao Hou, Bo Zhang, Jie Chen, Jing Zhou, Qian-Qian He, Hui Yu
      First page: 339
      Abstract: In the context of global warming, the frequent occurrence of drought has become one of the main reasons affecting the loss of gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems. Under the influence of human activities, the vegetation greening trend of the Loess Plateau increased significantly. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the response of GPP to drought in the Loess Plateau under the greening trend. Here, we comprehensively assessed the ability of vegetation indices (VIs) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) to capture GPP changes at different seasonal scales and during drought. Specifically, we utilized three vegetation indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), near-infrared reflectance of vegetation (NIRV), and kernel NDVI index (kNDVI), and determined the drought period of the Loess Plateau in 2001 based on the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and the standardized soil moisture index (SSMI). Moreover, the anomalies of VIs and SIF during the drought period and the relationship with GPP anomalies were compared. The results showed that both SIF and VIs were able to capture changes during the drought period as well as in normal years. Overall, SIF captured drought changes better due to water and heat stress as well as GPP changes compared to VIs. Across different time scales, SIF showed the strongest relationship with GPP (meanR2 = 0.85), followed by NIRV (meanR2 = 0.84), NDVI (meanR2 = 0.76), and kNDVI (meanR2 = 0.74), suggesting that SIF is more sensitive to physiological changes in vegetation. Notably, kNDVI performed best in sparse vegetation (meanR2 = 0.85). In capture during drought, NIRV and kNDVI performed better in less productive land classes; SIF showed superior capture as land use class productivity increased. In addition, GPP anomalies correlated better with kNDVI anomalies (meanR2 = 0.50) than with other index anomalies. In the future, efforts to integrate the respective strengths of SIF, NIRV, and kNDVI will improve our understanding of GPP changes.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020339
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 340: Assessing the Distribution and Driving
           Effects of Net Primary Productivity along an Elevation Gradient in
           Subtropical Regions of China

    • Authors: Bo Xu, Zhongke Feng, Yuan Chen, Yuchen Zhou, Yakui Shao, Zhichao Wang
      First page: 340
      Abstract: Globally, forest ecosystems, especially subtropical forests, play a central role in biogeochemical cycles and climate regulation, demonstrating their irreplaceable function. The subtropical region of China, characterized by its unique forest ecosystem, complex terrain, climate heterogeneity, diverse vegetation types, and frequent human activities, underscores the importance of the in-depth study of its net primary productivity (NPP). This paper employs the eddy covariance–light use efficiency (EC-LUE) model to quantitatively estimate the gross primary productivity (GPP) of this region from 2001 to 2018, followed by an estimation of the actual net primary productivity (ANPP) using the carbon use efficiency (CUE). The results showed that over these 18 years, the annual average ANPP was 677.17 gC m−2 a−1, exhibiting an overall increasing trend, particularly in mountainous areas, reserves, and the cultivated lands of the northeastern plains, whereas a significant decrease was observed around the urban agglomerations on the southeast coast. Furthermore, the Thornthwaite memorial model was applied to calculate the potential net primary productivity (PNPP), and diverse scenarios were set to quantitatively evaluate the impact of climate change and human activities on the vegetation productivity in the study area. It was found that in areas where the ANPP increased, both human activities and climate change jointly influenced ANPP dynamics; in areas with a decreased ANPP, the impact of human activities was particularly significant. Additionally, the heterogeneous distribution of ANPP across different altitudinal gradients and the driving effects of various climatic factors were analyzed. Finally, a partial correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between the temperature, precipitation, and ANPP. This study indicated that temperature and precipitation have a substantial impact on the growth and distribution of vegetation in the region, yet the extent of this influence shows considerable variation among different areas. This provides a robust scientific basis for further research and understanding of the carbon dynamics of subtropical forest ecosystems and their role in the global carbon cycle.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020340
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 341: The phoD-Harboring Microorganism Communities
           and Networks in Karst and Non-Karst Forests in Southwest China

    • Authors: Min Chen, Hanlian Qin, Yueming Liang, Dan Xiao, Peidong Yan, Mingshan Yin, Fujing Pan
      First page: 341
      Abstract: Phosphorous (P) limitation is common not only in tropical rainforest and savanna ecosystems, but also in karst forest ecosystems. Soil phoD-harboring microorganisms are essential in soil P cycles, but very little information is available about them in karst ecosystems. A total of 36 soil samples were collected from two types of forest ecosystems (karst and non-karst) over two seasons (rainy and dry), and the diversity and community structure of soil phoD-harboring microorganisms were measured. The contents of available P (AP), soil total P (TP), microbial biomass P (MBP) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in karst forest soils were higher than those in non-karst forest soils, whereas the contents of CaCl2-P, citrate-P, enzyme-P and the activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) were the opposite. Soil AP content was significantly higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, whereas ALP activity was the opposite. The community structure of phoD-harboring microorganisms was more influenced by forest-type than season. The network connectivity was higher in non-karst forests than in karst forests. Two dominant orders, Burkholderiales and Rhizobiales, were the keystone taxa in these networks in two forests, and their relative abundances were higher in non-karst forests than in karst forests. The microorganic diversity indices (e.g., Shannon–Wiener, Evenness, Richness, and Chao1) were substantially higher in karst than in non-karst forests. These indices were positively correlated with the contents of SOC and TN in the two forests; meanwhile, richness and evenness indices were positively correlated with citrate-P, HCl-P, and TP in non-karst forests. Structural equation modelling results showed that the relative abundance of phoD-harboring microorganisms was mainly influenced by pH and AP, with direct affection of soil AP, pH, and ALP activity, and indirect affection of ALP activity through affecting AP. These findings highlight that the P cycle is mainly regulated by the diversity of phoD-harboring microorganisms in karst forest ecosystems, whereas it is mainly regulated by dominant taxa in non-karst forest ecosystems. In future, regulating the interaction networks and keystone taxa of phoD-harboring microorganisms may be critical to alleviating P limitations in karst forest ecosystems.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020341
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 342: Effects of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys
           pubescens) Expansion on the Stock and Nutrient Characteristics of the
           Litter Layer in Subtropical Coniferous and Broad-Leaved Mixed Forests,
           China

    • Authors: Xi Chen, Yang Liu
      First page: 342
      Abstract: To reveal the changes on the stock of the litter layer and its nutrient storage capacity during Moso bamboo expansion in subtropical coniferous and broad-leaved forests, permanent plots were set up in the transitional zone in Wuxie National Park, Zhuji, Zhejiang, China. The plots contained conifer and broad-leaved forests (CFs), transition forests (TFs), and Moso bamboo forests (MFs), which represented three stages of the expansion of Moso bamboo to the surrounding forests. Litter samples were collected and analyzed by un-decomposed, semi-decomposed, and decomposed layers. The stock of the litter layer, the content and storage of the main nutrient elements, and their release rate were measured. It was revealed that the stock of the litter layer and each decomposition layer decreased as the bamboo expands. However, the litter decomposition rate exhibited a positive correlation with the expansion of Moso bamboo, which might be due to the change in the physical properties of the litter. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in the un-decomposed and semi-decomposed layers of the litter contents of C, N, and P between the three forests, but the contents of C, N, and P in the decomposed layer gradually decreased with the expansion of Moso bamboo. There were no remarkable differences in the N content, C/N, C/P, and lignin/N values of the un-decomposed layer of the three forests, indicating that the litter quality was not the principal reason affecting the decomposition rate. The total nutrient storage in the litter layer decreased significantly with the bamboo expansion, and the release rate of nutrient elements increased, which was adverse to the accumulation and storage of the nutrients. The material cycle of the original forest ecosystem is likely to deteriorate gradually with the bamboo expansion.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020342
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 343: Mechanical Properties of Furniture Joints
           Using Loose Tenons and Connectors

    • Authors: Seda Bas, Levente Denes, Csilla Csiha
      First page: 343
      Abstract: The investigation conducted in this study focused on assessing the withdrawal resistance of T-joints and the bending moment capacity in the tension and compression of corner joints. For samples, preparation glued-in loose tenons (Domino dowels) and dismountable connectors were used as connecting elements. The joints were made of European beech wood and a D3-grade PVAc adhesive was utilized for bonding. The effect of the joint type, the shoulders’ bonding, and the load application direction were investigated. The test results revealed that the withdrawal resistance of Domino dowel joints exhibited twice the strength compared to Domino connectors. Moreover, the presence of a bonded area on the shoulders did not significantly impact the strength of the joints. In the case of corner joints, the bending moment capacity in compression was notably influenced by the bond line on the shoulders, although such an effect was not significant in tension. Domino dowel joints provided a robust and reliable permanent connection between wooden elements, surpassing Domino connectors; however, in both cases, the strength values exceeded those of conventional dowels and cam lock connector joints.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020343
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 344: Financial Comparison of Continuous-Cover
           Forestry, Rotational Forest Management and Permanent Carbon Forest Regimes
           for Redwood within New Zealand

    • Authors: Horacio E. Bown, Michael S. Watt
      First page: 344
      Abstract: Continuous-cover forestry (CCF), which maintains a relatively intact forest cover through selective harvesting, has emerged over the last few decades as a popular alternative to rotational forest management (RFM). Coast redwood, which is native to the western United States, grows rapidly in New Zealand and is well suited to CCF as it has high shade tolerance, an ability to coppice from the cut stem, and resistance to pests, diseases, wind and fire. A forest estate model was used to compare the carbon sequestration, timber production and profitability of redwood CCF, RFM and permanent carbon forestry (PCF) regimes at a regional level within New Zealand. Through linear programming, this model optimised carbon accumulation and harvesting decisions across a large forest to meet a series of constraints associated with each regime. All three regimes represented good investment decisions, but CCF had the highest soil expectation value (SEV) within most North Island regions while PCF had a slightly higher SEV within the South Island regions. Under the transitional CCF (CCFt), revenue from carbon initially increased before levelling out at 40 years, after which time a sustainable harvest of high-value timber commenced in perpetuity without additional revenue from carbon. The CCFt regime transitioned to a steady-state condition, with a uniform age class distribution from year 150 onwards (CCFs), after which time a very high SEV was attained that exceeded that of CCFt by four-fold in the North Island (NZD 136,126/ha vs. NZD 34,430/ha) and seven-fold (NZD 44,714 vs. NZD 6267/ha) in the South Island. This study highlights the profitability of managing redwood under CCF and how initial carbon revenue can be used to finance the transition of the forest to a steady-state condition that produces a stream of valuable timber with a very high rate of return.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020344
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 345: Growth Response of Thai Pine (Pinus latteri)
           to Climate Drivers in Tak Province of Northwestern Thailand

    • Authors: Sasiwimol Inthawong, Nathsuda Pumijumnong, Chotika Muangsong, Supaporn Buajan, Binggui Cai, Rattanakorn Chatwatthana, Uthai Chareonwong, Uthaiwan Phewphan
      First page: 345
      Abstract: The long-term effects of climate change and climate extremes have been associated with changes in tree growth and forest productivity worldwide, and dendrochronological analyses are important tools that can be used to investigate the influence of climatic forces on tree growth at a particular site. In this study, a 180-year tree ring width chronology (spanning from 1843 to 2022) of living pine trees (Pinus latteri) in Tak province, northwestern Thailand, was developed. The analysis of the climate–tree growth relationship indicated the influences of the annual total rainfall (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) and annual averaged relative humidity (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) on tree growth in this area. Anomalously high (for example, in 1853, 1984, 2011, and 2018) and low growths (for example, in 1954, 1983, 1992, and 1996) were found. Growth anomalies in the Thai pine in this study were related to changes in abnormal and extreme rainfall (r = 0.94, p < 0.001) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Our results confirm that rainfall and relative humidity are the main climatic factors regulating the radial growth of Thai pine. This finding could be an important contribution to further research on the effects of climate change and extreme weather events on the vulnerability of tropical and subtropical trees in this region.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020345
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 346: Interannual Variation in Gas Exchange and
           Leaf Anatomy in Cenostigma pyramidale Is Exacerbated through El
           Niño and La Niña Climate Events

    • Authors: Marcelo F. Pompelli, Alfredo Jarma-Orozco, Juan de Dios Jaraba-Navas, Yirlis Yadeth Pineda-Rodriguez, Luis Alfonso Rodríguez-Páez
      First page: 346
      Abstract: This study sheds light on the remarkable physiological adaptations that the Cenostigma pyramidale makes, particularly during periods of extreme water scarcity, and their remarkable ability to rebound when a new rainy season arrives. C. pyramidale employs a survival strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of water shortage and then endures challenging environmental conditions and sustaining vital functions. Previously, this species was classified as deciduous since it retained at least 40% of its leaves to sustain basal gas exchange rates. The discrepancy in classification arises from differences in study methodologies, with this research being conducted in the field under natural conditions. This study demonstrates a negative correlation between rainfall and specific leaf area (SLA), highlighting that plants with smaller SLA are more drought-tolerant. Changes in leaf anatomy, including an increase in palisade parenchyma and reduction in spongy tissue, serve as adaptive strategies to enhance photosynthesis under water stress conditions. Hydraulic conductance plays a crucial role in plant adaptation to water scarcity. An intricate interplay between leaf anatomy and hydraulic conductance is observed, with adjustments in xylem characteristics influencing leaf gas exchange. The phenotypic plasticity is high in C. pyramidale, demonstrating the species’ ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In summary, this study illuminates the multifaceted strategies employed by plants to cope with water scarcity, from leaf shedding to anatomical and physiological adaptations, highlighting the resilience of native species in arid environments. These findings offer valuable insights into plant responses to environmental stress and their ability to thrive in challenging conditions.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020346
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 347: Multi-Year Monitoring of Asclepias syriaca L.
           Spread in the Deliblato Sands Protected Reserve in Serbia

    • Authors: Stevan Avramov, Danijela Miljković, Nataša Barišić Klisarić, Uroš Živković, Aleksej Tarasjev
      First page: 347
      Abstract: The invasion of non-native plant species has a detrimental effect on native biodiversity. In a seven-year research project, we investigated the occurrence of the invasive species Asclepias syriaca L.in the Deliblato Sands protected area, located at a south-eastern part of the Pannonian Plain, and identified the factors that contribute significantly to its colonisation. The distribution of this invasive species was monitored on more than 300 km of the accessory, bordering and selected internal roads. A. syriaca occurs within the protected area but is much more widespread on accessory and bordering roads. The number of locations of A. syriaca increased every year of the study, even within the protected area, indicating a further spread of this species. A. syriaca is much more abundant on the north-eastern edge than in the south-west. The reason for this is most likely the much larger area of abandoned agricultural land in the north-east. Roads used for public transport are the main entry points for the further spread of A. syriaca. In contrast, recreational trail use does not enhance the spread in the Deliblato Sands natural reserve. This study can be used to further analyse the ecological dynamics of A. syriaca and to develop timely strategies by which to prevent or slow down its spread.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020347
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 348: Effect of Climate and Land-Use Changes on a
           Threatened Forest Resident Bird

    • Authors: Yuze Zhao, Shuai Lu, Junqin Hua, Zhengxiao Liu, Jiliang Xu
      First page: 348
      Abstract: Endangered species are being threatened by climate and land-use changes. However, the relative effects of climate and land-use changes on forest resident birds remain unclear. In this study, we employed an ecological niche model to forecast the potential influence of climate and land-use changes on Reeves’s pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii), while taking into account topographical limitations. We observed that climate and land-use changes would have a remarkably negative impact on Syrmaticus reevesii, and climate change would play a dominant role. Consequently, the potential distribution range of Syrmaticus reevesii would sharply decrease, and this species may face a significant risk of extinction in 2070. In addition, we found that the area change predicted by climate and land-use changes would be significantly lower inside the China Nature Reserve Network (NNR) than outside the NNR. However, less than 15% of the area suitable for Syrmaticus reevesii has been covered by NNR. Furthermore, our results showed that the response of Syrmaticus reevesii to climate and land-use changes largely depended on topographical factors, and Syrmaticus reevesii would face greater impacts from climate and land-use changes under topographical limitations. Taken together, we highlight that it is imperative to adjust and develop nature reserve networks and conservation strategies to cope with rapid global environmental change.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020348
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 349: Response of Individual-Tree Aboveground
           Biomass to Spatial Effects in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis Forests by
           Stand Origin and Tree Size

    • Authors: Chunxiao Liu, Yong Wu, Xiaoli Zhang, Hongbin Luo, Zhibo Yu, Zihao Liu, Wenfang Li, Qinling Fan, Guanglong Ou
      First page: 349
      Abstract: To enhance forest carbon sequestration capacity, it is important to optimize forest structure by revealing the spatial effects of the aboveground biomass of individual trees, with particular emphasis on stand origin and tree size. Here, 0.3 ha clear-cut plots of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis forest were selected in a typical plantation and natural stand. Then, the ordinary least squares model and spatial regression models were used to analyze the different responses between spatial position and individual tree biomass based on the stand origin and diameter at breast height (DBH) of the tree. Our study shows the following: (1) The spatial effect produced a stronger response in the natural stand than in the plantation. The amount of change in the adjusted R-squared (ΔRadj2) of tree component totaled 0.34 and 0.57 for Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis and other trees in the natural stand, compared to only 0.2 and 0.42 in the plantation; (2) Spatial effects had a stronger impact on the accuracy of the fit for the crown (ΔRadj2 = 0.52) compared to the wood and bark (ΔRadj2 = 0.03) in the plantation, and there were no significant differences in the natural stand (ΔRadj2 = 0.42, ΔRadj2 = 0.43); (3) When DBH reached a certain size, the impact of spatial effect for the crown showed a significant change from positive to negative. The sizes of DBH were 19.5 cm, 14 cm and 34.6 cm, 19 cm for branches of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis and other tree species in the plantation and natural stand, and were 20.3 cm and 31.4 cm for the foliage of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis. Differences in stand structure led to varied responses in the biomass of tree components to spatial effects.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020349
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 350: Investigating Water Storage Dynamics in the
           Litter Layer: The Impact of Mixing and Decay of Pine Needles and Oak
           Leaves

    • Authors: Anna Ilek, Ewa Błońska, Kamil Miszewski, Adrian Kasztelan, Magdalena Zborowska
      First page: 350
      Abstract: Little is known about how the degree of mixing various forest-forming species affects forest floor hydrology. We evaluated the water storage capacity of the resulting litter layer by mixing the litterfall of Scots pine and sessile oak and studying their decomposition time. We prepared 90 artificial samples containing pure pine litter, pure oak litter, and mixed pine–oak litter with varying shares of pine needles. These samples were subjected to 15 months of decomposition in soil. After every three months of decay, some samples were removed from the soil, and their water storage capacity, bulk density, and C:N ratio were evaluated. Our findings indicate that samples with the greatest water storage capacity had a low C:N ratio and a predominant share of oak leaves. Conversely, samples with a high C:N ratio and a predominant share of pine needles had the lowest water storage capacity. After 12 and 15 months of decomposition, the water storage capacity increased by more than 52% compared to the initial water capacity of the samples. The highest increase in water storage capacity (>40%) was observed in samples with a predominant share of oak leaves, while the lowest (approximately 28%) was recorded in samples with 80 and 100% of pine needles. Our findings suggest that introducing mixed-species stands, with deciduous species as the predominant component, can yield several ecological benefits, such as an increased ability to store water in forest floor.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020350
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 351: Nutrient Variations and Their Use Efficiency
           of Pinus massoniana Seedling Tissues in Response to Low Phosphorus
           Conditions

    • Authors: Jin Xu, Zunji Jian, Yuanzheng Zhang, Xiuxiu Deng, Lei Lei, Lixiong Zeng, Wenfa Xiao, Yanyan Ni
      First page: 351
      Abstract: Investigating the mechanisms by which plants adapt to low phosphorus content in ecosystems is crucial for nutrient dynamics division. Our study investigated the growth adaptation strategies of Pinus massoniana seedlings to low phosphorus conditions, including nutrient and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) allocation, nutrient stoichiometry, and changes in nutrient resorption efficiency along a fact-based gradient. Our results showed that the total biomass and aboveground biomass proportion increased with substrate phosphorus content, reaching maximum biomass in the one-time phosphorus treatment. The nutrient concentration of components remained relatively stable, with the allocating preference to roots and needles under low phosphorus conditions. NSC was allocated as starch in fine roots and as soluble sugar in needles. Seedlings did not show signs of phosphorus limitation, even in the non-phosphorus group. The nitrogen resorption efficiency to phosphorus resorption efficiency ratio (NRE: PRE) of needles significantly varied between the high and low phosphorus treatments. In response to phosphorus deficiency, seedlings demonstrated homeostatic adjustments to maintain the relative stability of nutrient concentration. Fine roots and needles were prioritized to ensure nutrient uptake and photosynthetic product production. Additionally, it was necessary to differentiate the indicative function of nitrogen/phosphorus for various species and components, and NRE: PRE potentially provides a sensitive indicator of nutrient limitation status.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020351
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 352: Predicting the Distributions of Morus
           notabilis C. K. Schneid under Climate Change in China

    • Authors: Hui Gao, Qianqian Qian, Xinqi Deng, Yaqin Peng, Danping Xu
      First page: 352
      Abstract: As one of the common mulberry tree species, Morus notabilis C. K. Schneid plays a significant role in various industries such as silkworm rearing, papermaking, and medicine due to its valuable mulberry leaves, fruits, and wood. This study utilizes the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to predict the potential distribution of M. notabilis in China under future environmental changes. By integrating the relative percentage contribution score of environmental factors with jackknife test analysis, important variables influencing the distribution of M. notabilis were identified along with their optimal values. The results indicate that Annual Precipitation (bio12), Precipitation of Driest Month (bio14), Min Temperature of Coldest Month (bio6), Temperature Annual Range (bio5-bio6) (bio7), Precipitation of Warmest Quarter (bio18), and Precipitation of Coldest Quarter (bio19) are the primary environmental variables affecting its potential distribution. Currently, M. notabilis exhibits high suitability over an area spanning 11,568 km2, while medium suitability covers 34,244 km2. Both current and future suitable areas for M. notabilis are predominantly concentrated in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou provinces, as well as Chongqing city in southwest China. Under the SSP5-8.5 scenario representing high greenhouse gas concentrations by 2050s and 2090s, there is an increase in high suitability area by 2952 km2 and 3440 km2, with growth rates reaching 25.52% and 29.74%, respectively. Notably, these two scenarios exhibit substantial expansion in suitable habitats for this species compared to others analyzed within this study period.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020352
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 353: Pedodiversity and Organic Matter Dynamics in
           the North Apennines (Italy): Relationships among Soil Types, Biodiversity,
           and Ecological Functionality

    • Authors: Livia Vittori Antisari, Mauro De Feudis, William Trenti, Gloria Falsone, Federico Puliga, Alessandra Zambonelli, Giulia Tabanelli, Fausto Gardini
      First page: 353
      Abstract: Pedodiversity is generally neglected in studies concerning soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, this investigation aimed to explore the effect of soil types on the following: (1) soil processes related to organic matter (OM) dynamics along the profile; and (2) the microbial community and functionality within the uppermost horizon. Humic Dystrudepts (HD), Typic Dystrudepts (TD), and Humic Lithic Dystrudepts (HLD) were selected in beech forests of the Apennine ridge in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). Soils were sampled by horizons until parent material, and physico-chemical and functional analyses were performed. The results showed that both HD and HLD soils had a higher SOC accumulation than TD, particularly within the deeper horizons. Such accumulation might be due to the lower turnover rate of soil OM forms, namely fulvic acid-like substances, humic acid-like substances, and non-extractable OM. Noteworthy, the A horizons showed slight differences in SOC among the soil types, suggesting similar SOC decomposition processes. This fact was confirmed by the lack of differences in microbial DNA-based diversity and functionality. This study highlighted the importance of combining pedodiversity and microbial diversity for a wider perspective on SOC dynamics.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020353
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 354: Unveiling the Essential Role of Green Spaces
           during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond—A Systematic Literature
           Review

    • Authors: Mariusz Ciesielski, Piotr Gołos, Fruzsina Stefan, Karolina Taczanowska
      First page: 354
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the essential role of urban and rural green spaces for societies coping with global public health crisis. During this particular time, a significant body of research was devoted to human–nature relationships, as well as the use and importance of green spaces, both from the management and visitors’ perspectives, along with the vital role of nature in human health and wellbeing. Furthermore, the pandemic experience induced new paradigms in spatial and urban planning, along with the management of forest and protected areas seeing the crucial role of green spaces in shaping long-term socio-environmental resilience and sustainability. Thus, after the official end of the pandemic, our study aimed to provide a systematic review of the international research related to green spaces within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on those published between 2020 and 2023. The literature search within SCOPUS and Web of Science databases was conducted on 16 May 2023. A dataset of 161 articles was analyzed using a two-stage analysis. In the first stage, screening based on the title, abstract, and keywords was carried out. In the second stage, a detailed full text analysis was carried out, resulting in a final dataset of 66 articles related to the scope of this review. This article gives an in-depth methodological and conceptual overview, also referring to the applied research and management context related to green spaces in urban and rural environments. It concludes with lessons learned and poses open questions for future research related to green space planning and management. The literature review shows that institutions managing green spaces in cities and forests are facing new challenges. These include pursuing sustainable management policies in cities, ensuring equitable access to urban green space and community participation in the decision-making process, adapting suburban forest management to social expectations, and the recreational development of forest areas taking into account social needs and ecosystem sustainability.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020354
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 355: The Pulses of Soil CO2 Emission in Response
           to Rainfall Events in Central Siberia: Revisiting the Overall Frost-Free
           Season CO2 Flux

    • Authors: Anastasia V. Makhnykina, Eugene A. Vaganov, Alexey V. Panov, Nataly N. Koshurnikova, Anatoly S. Prokushkin
      First page: 355
      Abstract: Boreal forests nowadays act as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide; however, their sequestration capacity is highly sensitive to weather conditions and, specifically to ongoing climate warming. Extreme weather events such as heavy rainfalls or, conversely, heat waves during the growing season might perturb the ecosystem carbon balance and convert them to an additional CO2 source. Thus, there is an urgent need to revise ecosystem carbon fluxes in vast Siberian taiga ecosystems as influenced by extreme weather events. In this study, we focused on the soil CO2 pulses appearing after the rainfall events and quantification of their input to the seasonal cumulative CO2 efflux in the boreal forests in Central Siberia. Seasonal measurements of soil CO2 fluxes (both soil respiration and net soil exchange) were conducted during three consecutive frost-free seasons using the dynamic chamber method. Seasonal dynamics of net soil exchange fluxes demonstrated positive values, reflecting that soil respiration rates exceeded CO2 uptake in the forest floor vegetation layer. Moreover, the heavy rains caused a rapid pulse of soil emissions and, as a consequence, the release of additional amounts of CO2 from the soil into the atmosphere. A single rain event may cause a 5–11-fold increase of the NSE flux compared to the pre-rainfall values. The input of CO2 pulses to the seasonal cumulative efflux varied from near zero to 39% depending on precipitation patterns of a particular season. These findings emphasize the critical need for more frequent measurements of soil CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season which capture the CO2 pulses induced by rain events. This approach has inevitable importance for the accurate assessment of seasonal CO2 soil emissions and adequate predictions of response of boreal pine forests to climatic changes.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020355
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 356: Spruce Protection against Ips typographus
           with Anti-Attractant Blend of Tree-Based Semiochemicals: From Small
           Experimental Plots to Stand Scales

    • Authors: Rastislav Jakuš, Aleksei Trubin, Vivek Vikram Singh, Khodabakhsh Zabihi, Anna Jirošová, Roman Modlinger, Andrej Majdák, Nataliya Korolyova, Antonioni Acacio Campos Moliterno, Jaroslav Kašpar, Martin Slavík, Peter Surový, Marek Turčáni, Fredrik Schlyter
      First page: 356
      Abstract: Tree-killing bark beetles require rapid management, such as anti-attractants, to stop the enlargement of attack hot-spots. We tested two newer anti-attractant blends, both without verbenone and one with the addition of trans-4-thujanol, in traps against standard pheromone baits for inhibition of catch. Both blends provided effective catch reduction (>95%). We also tested these anti-attractant blends in tree protection experiments for two years. We had experimental plots with a center of an anti-attractant protected tree zone, with no traditional control area, but we followed tree kills in 10 m wide concentric rings to 100 m. In 2020, we had 12 plots, and 9 plots in 2021. Monitoring by low-strength pheromone traps followed beetle flight averaging 300/trap during the shorter period, August 2020, and 5000/trap during the longer period, May to August 2021. The blends of anti-attractants were 100% effective in avoiding tree mortality in both treated trees and their surroundings. There were no bark beetle attacks on any treated trees, and there was zero tree mortality up to 19 m in 2020, and up to 30 m in 2021, thus full protection to circa 20 m. The density of killed trees then increased from close to zero, over 20 to 50 m, reaching a level of ca 30 (trees/ha) then declined. The spatial pattern of tree mortality on our experimental plots was highly heterogeneous and individual 10m-ring data points on tree kill density could not be statistically separated. In contrast, a non-linear regression model showed a continuous increase of attacks over the distance from the center to a peak ca 60m, followed by a decline. This model agrees partly with the only similar study in the literature, but importantly, it does not give a peak of kill density at distances between the first and second rings close to treatment zones. Such patterns of close-quarter kills have been observed as a “switching” of attack in this and other scolytid systems manipulated by anti-attractants, but not in the present study, likely due to the elimination of verbenone from our blends.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020356
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 357: The Dynamics of Stand Structure Development
           and Natural Regeneration of Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Plitvice
           Lakes National Park

    • Authors: Tomislav Dubravac, Damir Barčić, Roman Rosavec, Željko Španjol, Sead Vojniković
      First page: 357
      Abstract: The authors investigate the structural characteristics, regeneration processes, growth, development, and survival of a young generation of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) based on three periodic measurements (1998, 2009, and 2018). The studied forest community (Lamio orvale-Fagetum sylvaticae (Ht. 1938) Bohridi 1963) is situated within a forest reserve in Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia. Monitoring was carried out according to UN/ECE (2000) for systematic and repeated research. The basic structural indicators, structural canopy elements, and appearance of the young generation were measured as the basic conditions of natural restoration in repeated phytocenological surveys (1980, 1988, 2004). The distribution of the number of trees of the first two measurements (1998–2009) indicates a distribution with pronounced right asymmetry. The structural dynamics observed during the surveys and alongside vegetation surveys indicate the dynamics of the growth and development of beech. The results show that the main drivers of development dynamics in protected forest ecosystems are structural breaks (gaps) that occur in stands due to the action of abiotic and biotic factors. The passive management model in effect in the national park should be replaced with a more active approach to facilitate natural processes with the aim of preserving and renewing the forest ecosystem.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020357
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 358: Ipomoea cairica (L.) from Mangrove Wetlands
           Acquired Salt Tolerance through Phenotypic Plasticity

    • Authors: Jiatong Zou, Benqi Yuan, Weihua Li, Xiaoting Xie, Minghao Chen, Tiantian Xiong
      First page: 358
      Abstract: Palmate-leaved morning glory (Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet) is a fast-growing perennial herbaceous twining vine that was recently discovered to invade mangrove wetlands in China. To understand the mechanism of its successful invasion, the salt tolerance of a coastal ecotype from Zhuhai and a terrestrial ecotype from Guangzhou were compared under salt stress. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters related to growth, ion homeostasis, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were measured in both ecotypes. Monitoring apoptosis showed that the protoplasts of the coastal ecotype underwent apoptosis and were later compared with those of the terrestrial ecotype. The coastal ecotype was also found to have higher regenerated stems; less water loss, sodium (Na+) uptake, and membrane damage; higher salt gland density and area; and better photosynthetic performance than the terrestrial ecotype. The coastal ecotype probably prevented salt-related damage by reducing its water loss and secreting excess Na+ through its lower stomatal density and higher density and area of salt glands. The coastal ecotype also maintained a better balance of Na+, potassium ions, nitrogen, and phosphorus under salt stress. Moreover, the coastal ecotype had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and a higher content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, including proline and anthocyanins, which indicate a stronger antioxidant ability. Our results suggest that the coastal ecotype adapts to a higher salt tolerance than the terrestrial ecotype by enhancing its exclusion of salt, adjusting its osmolytes, and through photosynthetic efficiency, which could explain its successful invasion in the mangrove wetland ecosystem.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020358
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 359: How to Optimize Carbon Sinks and Biodiversity
           in the Conversion of Norway Spruce to Beech Forests in Austria'

    • Authors: Johannes Kobler, Eduard Hochbichler, Gisela Pröll, Thomas Dirnböck
      First page: 359
      Abstract: Assessments of synergies and trade-offs between climate change mitigation and forest biodiversity conservation have focused on set-aside areas. We evaluated a more comprehensive portfolio of silvicultural management adaptations to climate change and conservation measures exemplary for managed European beech forests. Based on the available literature, we assessed a range of common silvicultural management and conservation measures for their effects on carbon sequestration in forest and wood products and for substituting more carbon-intensive products. We complemented this review with carbon sequestration simulations for a typical mountainous beech forest region in Austria. We propose three priority actions to enhance the synergies between climate change mitigation and biodiversity. First, actively increase the proportion of European beech in secondary Norway spruce forests, even though beech will not be unaffected by expected water supply limitations. Secondly, optimize the benefits of shelterwood systems and promote uneven-aged forestry, and thirdly, enhance mixed tree species. Targeted conservation measures (deadwood, habitat trees, and old forest patches) increase the total C storage but decrease the annual C sequestration in forests, particularly in wood products. The establishment of a beech wood market with an extended product portfolio to reduce the use of fuelwood is essential for sustainable climate change mitigation. Since there are limitations in the production of saw timber quality beech wood on low fertility sites, C accumulation, and biodiversity can be emphasized in these areas.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020359
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 360: A Simulation Study of Noise Exposure in
           Sledge-Based Cable Yarding Operations

    • Authors: Stelian Alexandru Borz, Piotr S. Mederski, Mariusz Bembenek
      First page: 360
      Abstract: Ensuring the safety of forestry workers is a key challenge, particularly when working with partly mechanized harvesting systems. Cable yarding is typically used in steep terrain timber harvesting. For long-distance extraction, one of the few alternatives is to use sledge yarders, but these machines may expose workers to high doses of noise. The goal of this study was to model haulers’ exposure to noise in sledge-based cable yarding operations, based on a simulation approach that considered variable factors such as the yarding distance, lateral yarding distance, and average skyline height. Taken into consideration were 165 scenarios developed by examining the variation in yarding distance (500 to 1500 m, with a step of 100 m), lateral yarding distance (10 to 50 m, with a step of 10 m), and average skyline height above the ground (10, 15, and 20 m). The simulations assumed an 8-h working day with a break of 1 h. The models and statistics published by other studies were used to calculate the time consumption and number of work cycles completed within a working day. These data were used to compute the equivalent exposure to noise (LAeq) for each scenario, as well as for those work elements that were likely to expose the haulers to noise the most. The presented findings indicated that (i) the exposure to noise was higher than 100 dB(A), irrespective of variation in the considered factors; (ii) the trend in exposure was characterized by polynomials in relation to the extraction distance, and the magnitude of exposure was consistently affected by variation in the considered factors; and (iii) without hearing protection, the empty and loaded turns exposed workers to noise over the permissible limits. These findings strongly suggest the use of hearing protection when working in close proximity to sledge-based cable yarding operations. The methods proposed in this study in the form of simulation may help benchmark other forest operations.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020360
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 361: Evidence for Soil Phosphorus Resource
           Partitioning in a Diverse Tropical Tree Community

    • Authors: Robert Müller, Helmut Elsenbeer, Benjamin L. Turner
      First page: 361
      Abstract: Soil phosphorus (P) partitioning could contribute to species diversity and structure in plant communities, but field-scale evidence for P partitioning remains scarce. We hypothesized that the presence of P partitioning could be inferred from statistical associations between the spatial distributions of plants and chemical forms of bioavailable soil P. We investigated this in a diverse tropical tree community on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We quantified potentially bioavailable forms of soil P by extraction in 2 mM citric acid followed by treatment with phosphatase enzymes. We then linked these P forms to the distribution of 189 tree species in a 50 ha forest dynamics plot by testing species–P associations against null models of random dispersal. We found that 20% of tree species were significantly (α = 0.05) associated with the depletion of at least one soil organic P fraction, although around half of these associations might be false rejections of the null hypothesis due to type I error. Species in the Fabaceae (legumes), which are known to express high rates of phosphatase in their roots, were most frequently associated with soil P fractions. We interpret our findings as evidence of widespread P partitioning at the community scale, affecting a relatively small proportion of tree species in this moderately fertile forest. We predict that stronger evidence of partitioning will be found at sites with lower P availability.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020361
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 362: Effect of Forest Thinning on Soil Phosphorus
           Stocks and Dynamics on a Global Scale

    • Authors: Yulian Yang, Qing Dong, Jiaping Yang, Bo Tan, Zhenfeng Xu, Qinggui Wu, Hongwei Xu
      First page: 362
      Abstract: As an important part of terrestrial ecosystems, the forest soil nutrient content is easily affected by thinning. However, the effects of thinning on soil phosphorus (P) stocks and dynamics have not yet been systematically analyzed. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of thinning on the soil P stock and rate of soil P stock change in the 0–30, 30–60, and 0–60 cm soil layers by integrating 237 data points on a global scale. In addition, we aimed to determine whether these factors are regulated by forest type, recovery time, and thinning intensity. The results indicated that thinning increased the soil P stock in the 0–30, 30–60, and 0–60 cm soil layers by 9.0, 13.2, and 10.2%, respectively, and the soil P stock change rates were 0.017, 0.013, and 0.025 Mg ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Furthermore, the promoting effect of thinning on soil P stocks was greater in coniferous forests than in broadleaf and mixed forests. In addition, the stocks and change rates of soil P increased with recovery time and decreased with thinning intensity and mean annual precipitation. This study highlights the effects of thinning on forest soil P accumulation on a global scale. The results are of great significance for understanding soil nutrient cycling and sustainable forest management.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020362
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 363: Ecosystem Services Value Realization and
           Ecological Industry Design in Scenic Areas of Karst in South China

    • Authors: Huanhuan Chang, Kangning Xiong, Dayun Zhu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Wenxiu Zhang
      First page: 363
      Abstract: Ecosystem services (ESs) value realization and ecological industry (eco-industry) are essential components of regional development. Due to the vulnerability and non-renewability of natural landscape resources in Karst areas, once unreasonable resource development takes place, it is easy to pose threats and causes damage to its ecosystem. This article selects the grain data correction equivalent factor coefficients in Guizhou Province, China, and establishes accounting indicators for Karst scenic areas. It is found that the total economic value of ESs is as follows: Shanmuhe Scenic Area (CNY 5096.3 thousand) > DaXiaoQiKong Scenic Area (CNY 2778.6 thousand) > Huangguoshu Scenic Area (CNY 2130.7 thousand). Among them, the value of regulating services plays a dominant role in the composition of ESs, and the value of forests accounts for the largest proportion. Through web crawlers, tourism data can be acquired, and the Product–Experience–Feedback–Improvement (PEFI) model can be applied to reveal that tourists have a predominantly positive perception of Karst scenic areas. This indicates that karst landscape resources are deeply loved by domestic and foreign tourists, especially mountain, water and forest landscapes. Based on the results of the ES value accounting of the scenic area and the external perception data of tourists towards the scenic area, the eco-industry spatial layout development plan is formulated. According to local conditions, the development, construction, and protection of the scenic area are carried out, jointly promoting the realization of the ecological product value (EPV) of the Karst scenic area, to determine the optimal development direction of the eco-industry, and to promote the coordinated development of ecological resources and assets.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020363
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 364: Identification and Characterization of a
           Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium and Its Growth-Promoting Effect on Moso
           Bamboo Seedlings

    • Authors: Yang Zhang, Songze Wan, Fuxi Shi, Xiangmin Fang, Chao Huang
      First page: 364
      Abstract: Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) offer an eco-friendly approach to boost plant growth in soils low or deficient in phosphorus (P). In this study, we isolated 97 PSB strains from the soil around moso bamboo roots in Jiangxi Province, China. The RW37 strain was identified as Enterobacter soli through its physical characteristics and genetic sequencing. Our experiments revealed that RW37 could dissolve phosphate at levels exceeding 400 mg L−1 across a wide range of environmental conditions, including temperature (25–35 °C), pH levels (3.5–7.2), salinities (0–2.0%), and volumes of medium (1/5–3/5 of flask volume), showcasing its adaptability. Furthermore, RW37 showed remarkable phosphate-solubilizing abilities at various pH levels using different phosphate sources, with the highest capacity observed in a medium containing CaHPO4. This study also found a negative correlation between P-solubilizing capacity and fermentation broth pH, indicating that RW37 likely secretes organic acids to dissolve phosphate sources. Pot experiments demonstrated that applying RW37 significantly improved the plant height, biomass, root growth, and P uptake of moso bamboo seedlings in red soil. Our results highlight the potential of RW37 as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for subtropical bamboo forests.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020364
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 365: Beta Diversity Patterns and Determinants
           among Vertical Layers of Tropical Seasonal Rainforest in Karst
           Peak-Cluster Depressions

    • Authors: Gang Hu, Qingling Pang, Cong Hu, Chaohao Xu, Zhonghua Zhang, Chaofang Zhong
      First page: 365
      Abstract: Karst peak-cluster depressions in tropical China are characterized by high habitat heterogeneity, supporting complex seasonal rainforest communities, and harboring a rich abundance of endemic and endangered plants. However, for these rainforests, species and phylogenetic beta diversity and their limiting factors are poorly understood. In this study, the relationships between the beta diversity of three vertical layers (herb, shrub, and tree), environmental factors, and physical distance in China’s tropical karst seasonal rainforest were studied. The results showed that each layer exhibited high species and beta diversity, with species turnover being the dominant contributing factor. Environmental filtering and dispersal limitations were significant drivers of community assembly. Environmental filtering exerted a strong influence, with slope position, soil availability of phosphorus and potassium, pH, and organic matter being the key factors. These findings elucidate seasonal rainforest species and beta diversity spatial patterns within karst peak-cluster depressions, providing a foundation for developing karst ecosystem forest management and vegetation restoration measures.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020365
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 366: Feedstock-Induced Changes in the
           Physicochemical Characteristics of Biochars Produced from Different Types
           of Pecan Wastes

    • Authors: Miaomiao Zhang, Fangren Peng, Jinping Yu, Zhuangzhuang Liu
      First page: 366
      Abstract: Large amounts of residues are generated in pecan cultivation processes. Biochar is an environmentally friendly way to utilize residues but attempts to prepare and apply biochar with pecan residues are rare. In this study, six types of biochars were produced from pecan branches, trunks, roots, nutshells, husks, and leaves under pyrolysis, and their physicochemical properties were compared to assess their application perspective in environmental and agricultural fields. The yields of six pecan biochars were 32.1%–45.9%, with the highest yield for husk biochar (HB) (45.9%). Among the pecan biochars, trunk biochar (TB) and root biochar (RB) had much larger specific surface areas. Branch biochar (BB), TB, and RB presented tubular structures with elliptical pores, while nutshell biochar (NSB), HB, and leaf biochar (LB) appeared flaky or as clustered structures with relatively rougher outer surfaces and irregular pores. The functional group types of pecan biochars were generally similar, but the intensities of the peak near 2900 cm−1 in BB were obviously higher than those of the other biochars. RB and LB contained significantly more ash and volatile than those of the other pecan biochars, with the highest fixed carbon content being found in NSB (70.1%). All of the pecan biochars were alkaline (7.90–9.87), and HB, LB, and NSB had significantly higher pH values than those of the other biochars. Elemental analysis indicated that RB, NSB, and LB had higher carbon levels (more than 70%) with lower O/C ratios (no more than 0.2). HB possessed a relatively high content of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium; the phosphorus content was highest in NSB; LB had the highest calcium content. The results of principal component analysis showed that BB, LB, and NSB were clustered in the same quadrant with relatively close relationships. The results of this study can guide the utilization of pecan wastes and their application as biochar in different fields.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020366
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 367: Construction of Riboswitches for Screening
           Antibacterial Agents from Forest Plants

    • Authors: Zhanjun Liu, Taotao Li, Xingyu Zhang, Shiquan Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Songlin Yu, Xiaohong Zhou
      First page: 367
      Abstract: Forest plants contain abundant natural products, providing a valuable resource for obtaining compounds with various functional activities, such as antimicrobial, lipid-lowering, and immunoregulatory activities. The development of efficient tools for rapidly screening functional natural products from forest plants is essential for human health. In this study, we constructed some transgenic strains (Escherichia coli) containing Ahy1-1 riboswitches that respond to cyclic di-guanylate (c-di-GMP), serving as a novel bacteriostatic target. The Ahy1-1 riboswitches contained the LacZ gene (encoding β-galactosidase) and c-di-GMP aptamer in order to monitor β-galactosidase activity due to changes in c-di-GMP. After co-incubating with extracts from fresh orange peel, fresh tea leaves, and Fuzhuan brick tea, the orange peel exhibited a significant inhibition of c-di-GMP generation. The extract of tea leaves had a minor influence on the synthesis of c-di-GMP, whereas Fuzhuan brick tea, which is fermented by various microorganisms, inhibited the production of c-di-GMP. Our constructed transgenic strains could be used to screen for antibacterial agents from forest plants. Beyond antibacterial agents, other functional compounds from forest plants could be selected by designing diverse riboswitches.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020367
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 368: Modeling the Geometry of Tree Trunks Using
           LiDAR Data

    • Authors: Fayez Tarsha Kurdi, Zahra Gharineiat, Elżbieta Lewandowicz, Jie Shan
      First page: 368
      Abstract: The effective development of digital twins of real-world objects requires sophisticated data collection techniques and algorithms for the automated modeling of individual objects. In City Information Modeling (CIM) systems, individual buildings can be modeled automatically at the second Level of Detail or LOD2. Similarly, for Tree Information Modeling (TIM) and building Forest Digital Twins (FDT), automated solutions for the 3D modeling of individual trees at different levels of detail are required. The existing algorithms support the automated modeling of trees by generating models of the canopy and the lower part of the trunk. Our argument for this work is that the structure of tree trunk and branches is as important as canopy shape. As such, the aim of the research is to develop an algorithm for automatically modeling tree trunks based on data from point clouds obtained through laser scanning. Aiming to generate 3D models of tree trunks, the suggested approach starts with extracting the trunk point cloud, which is then segmented into single stems. Subsets of point clouds, representing individual branches, are measured using Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). Trunks and branches are generated by fitting cylinders to the layered subsets of the point cloud. The individual stems are modeled by a structure of slices. The accuracy of the model is calculated by determining the fitness of cylinders to the point cloud. Despite the huge variation in trunk geometric forms, the proposed modeling approach can gain an accuracy of better than 4 cm in the constructed tree trunk models. As the developed tree models are represented in a matrix format, the solution enables automatic comparisons of tree elements over time, which is necessary for monitoring changes in forest stands. Due to the existence of large variations in tree trunk geometry, the performance of the proposed modeling approach deserves further investigation on its generality to other types of trees in multiple areas.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020368
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 369: Forest Canopy Height Estimation by
           

    • Authors: Hongbo Zhu, Bing Zhang, Weidong Song, Qinghua Xie, Xinyue Chang, Ruishan Zhao
      First page: 369
      Abstract: As an important component of forest parameters, forest canopy height is of great significance to the study of forest carbon stocks and carbon cycle status. There is an increasing interest in obtaining large-scale forest canopy height quickly and accurately. Therefore, many studies have aimed to address this issue by proposing machine learning models that accurately invert forest canopy height. However, most of the these approaches feature PolSAR observations from a data-driven viewpoint in the feature selection part of the machine learning model, without taking into account the intrinsic mechanisms of PolSAR polarization observation variables. In this work, we evaluated the correlations between eight polarization observation variables, namely, T11, T22, T33, total backscattered power (SPAN), radar vegetation index (RVI), the surface scattering component (Ps), dihedral angle scattering component (Pd), and body scattering component (Pv) of Freeman-Durden three-component decomposition, and the height of the forest canopy. On this basis, a weighted inversion method for determining forest canopy height under the view of structural equation modeling was proposed. In this study, the direct and indirect contributions of the above eight polarization observation variables to the forest canopy height inversion task were estimated based on structural equation modeling. Among them, the indirect contributions were generated by the interactions between the variables and ultimately had an impact on the forest canopy height inversion. In this study, the covariance matrix between polarization variables and forest canopy height was calculated based on structural equation modeling, the weights of the variables were calculated by combining with the Mahalanobis distance, and the weighted inversion of forest canopy height was carried out using PSO-SVR. In this study, some experiments were carried out using three Gaofen-3 satellite (GF-3) images and ICESat-2 forest canopy height data for some forest areas of Gaofeng Ridge, Baisha Lizu Autonomous County, Hainan Province, China. The results showed that T11, T33, and total backscattered power (SPAN) are highly correlated with forest canopy height. In addition, this study showed that determining the weights of different polarization observation variables contributes positively to the accurate estimation of forest canopy height. The forest canopy height-weighted inversion method proposed in this paper was shown to be superior to the multiple regression model, with a 26% improvement in r and a 0.88 m reduction in the root-mean-square error (RMSE).
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020369
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 370: Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Normalized
           Difference Vegetation Index and Its Response to Climate Change in
           Xinjiang, 2000–2022

    • Authors: Qianqian Zhang, Lei Gu, Yongqiang Liu, Yongfu Zhang
      First page: 370
      Abstract: Based on the NDVI and climate data from 2000 to 2022, this study systematically investigated the spatial and temporal patterns, trend characteristics, and stability of the NDVI in Xinjiang using the one-way linear regression method, Theil–Sen Median trend analysis, the Mann–Kendall significance test, and the coefficient of variation. Meanwhile, the persistence of the NDVI distribution was analyzed by combining the trend results and Hurst index. Finally, partial correlation analysis was used to deeply explore the response mechanisms of interannual and seasonal-scale NDVI and climatic factors in Xinjiang, and the characteristics of multi-year vegetation distribution were comprehensively analyzed with the help of human footprint data. The findings indicate the following: (1) The NDVI of interannual and seasonal vegetation in Xinjiang showed a significant increasing trend during the 23-year period, but the spatial distribution was heterogeneous, and the improvement of the vegetation condition in the southern part of the region was remarkable. (2) The NDVI is relatively stable across the region. Unlike in other regions, in general, it is difficult to maintain the existing trend in NDVI in the study area for a long period of time, and the reverse trend is more persistent. (3) On the interannual scale, both precipitation and temperature are positively correlated with the NDVI, and the influence of temperature (80.94%) is greater than that of precipitation (63.82%). Precipitation was dominantly positively correlated with the NDVI in spring, summer, and the growing season, while it was negatively correlated with it in autumn. Temperature and NDVI were positively correlated, with the greatest influence in the spring. (4) Human activities had the greatest impact on the areas with low vegetation cover and areas with medium–low vegetation cover, and there was a high degree of overlap between the areas where the interannual human footprints and NDVI showed an increasing trend. The percentage of human footprints that significantly correlated with interannual NDVI was 34.79%. In the future, the protection and management of ecologically fragile areas should be increased to increase desert-vegetation cover.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020370
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 371: Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties of
           Bamboo Charcoal/ZnO-Modified Bamboo Fiber/Polylactic Acid Composites

    • Authors: Chunlin Liu, Shuai Zhang, Shi Yan, Mingzhu Pan, Hui Huang
      First page: 371
      Abstract: In this study, biodegradable bamboo fiber/PLA composites (BPCs) modified using bamboo charcoal (BC)/ZnO were prepared. The effects of BC/ZnO addition on the mechanical properties and antibacterial properties of BPCs were investigated. The chemical structure, microscopic morphology, and crystallization of the composites were analyzed using FTIR, SEM, and XRD, respectively. The results showed that in terms of mechanical strength, when the addition of BC was 2%, the tensile impact and flexural strength of the BPCs were most obviously improved, with a tensile strength of 51.6 MPa. However, when the addition of BC was more than 2%, the uneven dispersion of too much BC in the BPCs resulted in a reduction in their mechanical strength. A certain amount of ZnO did not affect the crystallinity of the BPCs. In addition, the uneven distribution of ZnO and its poor compatibility with PLA resulted in a deterioration in the tensile properties of the BPCs. In terms of antibacterial properties, when 2% ZnO was added, the BPCs had better antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with values of 58.9% and 52.5% against both, respectively. BPC biodegradable materials with both mechanical strength and antimicrobial properties have promising medical uses.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020371
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 372: Long-Term Nitrogen Addition Accelerates
           Litter Decomposition in a Larix gmelinii Forest

    • Authors: Miao Wang, Guancheng Liu, Yajuan Xing, Guoyong Yan, Qinggui Wang
      First page: 372
      Abstract: Elevated atmospheric N deposition has the potential to alter litter decomposition patterns, influencing nutrient cycling and soil fertility in boreal forest ecosystems. In order to study the response mechanism of litter decomposition in Larix gmelinii forest to N deposition, we established four N addition treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 kg N ha−1 yr−1) in the Greater Khingan Mountains region. The results showed that (1) both needle and mixed leaf litter (Betula platyphylla and Larix gmelinii) exhibited distinct decomposition stages, with N addition accelerating decomposition for both litter types. The decomposition of high-quality (low C/N ratio) mixed leaf litter was faster than that of low-quality needle litter. (2) Mixed leaf litter increased the decomposition coefficients of litter with lower nutrients. (3) All N addition treatments promoted the decomposition of needle litter, while the decomposition rate of mixed leaf litter decreased under high-N treatment. (4) N addition inhibited the release of N and P in needle litter and promoted the release of N in mixed leaf litter, while high-N treatment had no positive effect on the release of C and P in mixed leaf litter. Our research findings suggest that limited nutrients in litter may be a key driving factor in regulating litter decomposition and emphasize the promoting effect of litter mixing and nitrogen addition on litter decomposition.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020372
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 373: Charting the Research Terrain for Large Old
           Trees: Findings from a Quantitative Bibliometric Examination in the
           Twenty-First Century

    • Authors: Chunping Xie, Chang Liu, Dawei Liu, C. Y. Jim
      First page: 373
      Abstract: Despite their relatively small numbers, large old trees play disproportionately important roles in global biodiversity and ecosystem functions. There is a lack of systematic reviews and quantitative analyses of the accumulated literature. Understanding the research context and evolution could pump prime research and conservation endeavors. Using the comprehensive Web of Science, we applied VOSviewer (1.6.19) and CiteSpace (6.1R2) bibliometric software to examine the large old tree research field in 2000–2022. The queries of the bibliographic database generated quantitative–visual depictions in the form of knowledge maps. The nodes denote research intensity, and inter-node linkages denote the pathways and frequencies of collaborative activities. The research outputs differed significantly in terms of regions, countries, institutions, high-citation articles, productive researchers, hot topics, and research frontiers. Conspicuous spatial disparities were displayed, with the U.S.A., China, and Australia leading in publication counts and a cluster of European countries making considerable collective contributions. The research collaboration demonstrated a dichotomy: European countries networked more by geographical propinquity, and the top three countries connected by long-distance leap-frog jumps. The entrenched discrepancies between the endowed developed domains vis-à-vis the deprived developing domains were clearly expressed. The research productivity progressed through three stages: initial, growth, and flourishing. The leading institutions, researchers, and highly cited papers were recognized. The keyword analysis pinpointed diverse research hotspots: growth dynamics, conservation and management, ecological functions, and environmental response. This study informs recommendations for future research directions and cooperation on longevity mechanisms, evolutionary adaptation, dynamic monitoring, and temporal–spatial patterns. The integrated application of GIS, machine learning, and big data technologies could strengthen research capability.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020373
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 374: Predicting Individual Tree Mortality of Larix
           gmelinii var. Principis-rupprechtii in Temperate Forests Using Machine
           Learning Methods

    • Authors: Zhaohui Yang, Guangshuang Duan, Ram P. Sharma, Wei Peng, Lai Zhou, Yaru Fan, Mengtao Zhang
      First page: 374
      Abstract: Accurate prediction of individual tree mortality is essential for informed decision making in forestry. In this study, we proposed machine learning models to forecast individual tree mortality within the temperate Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii forests in Northern China. Eight distinct machine learning techniques including random forest, logistic regression, artificial neural network, generalized additive model, support vector machine, gradient boosting machine, k-nearest neighbors, and naive Bayes models were employed, to construct an ensemble learning model based on comprehensive dataset from this specific ecosystem. The random forest model emerged as the most accurate, demonstrating 92.9% accuracy and 92.8% sensitivity, making it the best model among those tested. We identified key variables impacting tree mortality, and the results showed that a basal area larger than the target trees (BAL), a diameter at 130 cm (DBH), a basal area (BA), an elevation, a slope, NH4-N, soil moisture, crown density, and the soil’s available phosphorus are important variables in the Larix Principis-rupprechtii individual mortality model. The variable importance calculation results showed that BAL is the most important variable with an importance value of 1.0 in a random forest individual tree mortality model. By analyzing the complex relationships of individual tree factors, stand factors, environmental, and soil factors, our model aids in decision making for temperate Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii forest conservation.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020374
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 375: Development of a Real-Time PCR Assay for the
           Early Detection of the Eucalyptus Pathogen Quambalaria eucalypti

    • Authors: Roberto Faedda, Gabriela B. Silva
      First page: 375
      Abstract: Quambalaria eucalypti is a fungal pathogen that causes leaf spot, shoot blight, and stem canker on Eucalyptus spp. Early diagnosis of the disease is difficult, although the symptoms are clear in its advanced phase. To enable a rapid and sensitive screening of asymptomatic or latently infected plant material for Q. eucalypti, a SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay targeting the partial histone-H3 region was developed. The assay demonstrated specificity for Q. eucalypti, not showing cross-reactivity with other Quambalaria species or the other eucalyptus fungal pathogens tested. The primers developed in this study ensured high analytical sensitivity, allowing the detection of Q. eucalypti DNA concentrations as low as 10 fg DNA from asymptomatic plants. The robustness and efficacy of the assay was demonstrated by interlaboratory comparisons with similar results. This newly developed quantitative PCR assay can be used for more comprehensive epidemiological investigations, testing the plant material in known Q. eucalypti distribution areas for early management strategies, or collecting data for resistance breeding programs.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020375
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 376: Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Key
           Regulatory Roles of the WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Gene Family in Yellowhorn
           (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge)

    • Authors: Wentao Zhang, Xinyao Xie, Linlin Le, Fuliang Cao
      First page: 376
      Abstract: The WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene family plays a crucial role in regulating embryonic development, organ formation, and stress resistance. Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge), a drought-resistant tree known for its oil production, lacks sufficient information regarding the WOX gene family. To understand the evolutionary mechanisms and potential functions of this gene family in yellowhorn, we conducted a comprehensive investigation on its expression patterns and evolutionary characteristics. Our analysis revealed the presence of nine XsWOX genes in the yellowhorn genome, which could be categorized into three distinct clades through a phylogenetic analysis. A chromosomal localization analysis indicated that these nine XsWOX genes were situated on six out of the fifteen chromosomes. An intra-species collinear analysis revealed only one pair of tandem duplicated genes within the XsWOX family. The promoter regions of the XsWOX family were found to contain responsive cis-acting elements associated with plant growth and development, stress responses, and hormone signaling. Moreover, an analysis of the gene expression profiles in different developmental stages of callus revealed significant expressions of XsWOX1, XsWOX4, and XsWOX5 in embryogenic callus and somatic embryo formation, suggesting that they have special roles in regulating yellowhorn’s somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, the expression level of XsWOX5 indicated its potential involvement not only in organ formation but also in responding to low temperature, salt, and saline-alkali stresses. Overall, our findings lay a solid foundation for future in-depth studies on the functionality and evolution of XsWOX genes in yellowhorn.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020376
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 377: Efficacy and Antifungal Mechanism of Rosemary
           Essential Oil against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    • Authors: Tiantian Yuan, Yang Hua, Dangquan Zhang, Chaochen Yang, Yong Lai, Mingwan Li, Shen Ding, Song Li, Yuanyuan Chen
      First page: 377
      Abstract: The antifungal activity and mechanism of rosemary essential oil against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the walnut anthracnose pathogen, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), index determination and transcriptome technique. The results showed that rosemary essential oil could inhibit the growth of C. gloeosporioides with minimum inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of 15.625 μL/mL and 31.25 μL/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the mycelium morphology became shriveled, twisted, and severely deformed after being treated with rosemary essential oil. The activity of chitinase, which decomposes fungal cell wall components in C. gloeosporioides, increased. The ergosterol content in the plasma membrane decreased, while the cell contents including nucleic acids, soluble protein and soluble reducing sugar were released resulting in the extracellular electrical conductivity being changed. For metabolic activity, the enzymes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), ATPase and ATP decreased, whereas phosphofructokinase (PFK) increased. Transcriptome sequencing results showed that the antifungal mechanism of rosemary essential oil involves the destruction of the cell wall and membrane, inhibition of genetic material synthesis, and cell division and differentiation. The results are helpful to understand the efficacy and antifungal mechanism of rosemary essential oil against C. gloeosporioides and provide a theoretical basis for the development of rosemary essential oil as a biological control agent.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020377
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 378: The Impact of Aesthetic Expectations and
           Aesthetic Experiential Qualities on Tourist Satisfaction: A Case Study of
           the Zhangjiajie National Forest Park

    • Authors: Ying Wen, Fen Luo, Hao Li
      First page: 378
      Abstract: Aesthetic expectations often constitute the primary focus in marketing nature-based tourist destinations. However, academic research has insufficiently explored the disparity between tourists’ aesthetic expectations and the actual aesthetic quality maintenance in shaping satisfaction. Employing the Expectation Confirmation Theory, this study utilized structural equation modeling techniques to analyze survey data (n = 446). It proposed and tested an Aesthetic Expectation Confirmation Model to examine the relationship between aesthetic expectations, experiential qualities, and tourist satisfaction in the Zhangjiajie National Forest Park. The empirical findings show that aesthetic expectations have a direct, negative impact on satisfaction, while aesthetic expectation confirmation has a positive direct impact on satisfaction. Moreover, aesthetic expectation confirmation also plays a mediating role in the influence of aesthetic expectations and experiential quality on satisfaction. Specifically, aesthetic expectations indirectly impact satisfaction negatively through aesthetic expectation confirmation, whereas aesthetic experiential qualities have a positive, indirect impact on satisfaction through the same process. These findings offer theoretical contributions to the literature on forest recreation aesthetics and hold practical significance for the planning and management of destination aesthetics.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020378
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 379: Potential Distribution Projections for
           Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton under Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Jiaqi Fang, Jianfei Shi, Ping Zhang, Minghao Shao, Na Zhou, Yongdong Wang, Xinwen Xu
      First page: 379
      Abstract: The gum acacia Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a drought-tolerant plant belonging to the genus Acacia of the Leguminosae family, possessing significant economic and ecological value. Despite its importance, there is a knowledge gap regarding the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of S. senegal, crucial for the conservation of plant resources and optimizing its use in introductory silviculture. In this study, we selected 23 environmental variables and utilized the optimized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to analyze the key environmental factors affecting the distribution of S. senegal worldwide and simulate the current and future distribution range of S. senegal in Pakistan under the SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5 climate change scenarios. The results highlight key environmental factors influencing the distribution of S. senegal, including BIO3 (isothermally), BIO4 (coefficient of seasonal variation of temperature), BIO11 (mean temperature of the coldest season), and BIO12 (annual precipitation). Regions with higher and less fluctuating temperatures exhibit a higher potential for S. senegal distribution. Currently, suitable habitats of S. senegal are concentrated in the southern region of Pakistan, covering provinces such as Punjab, Sindh, and Balochistan, with highly suitable habitats accounting for 6.06% of the total area. Under the current climatic conditions, this study identifies the spatial patterns of suitable habitats and their concentration in specific regions. With climate change, a notable expansion of suitable habitats towards higher latitudes is observed, with the most significant expansion under the extremely severe climate change scenario (SSP5-8.5), reaching 223.45% of the current level. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the dynamics of S. senegal distribution under climate change and offer valuable insights into the long-term introduction of S. senegal for afforestation and soil conservation in Pakistan. This study provides theoretical support for the sustainable development of the local ecosystem and socio-economy, emphasizing the importance of proactive measures to adapt to changing climatic conditions.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020379
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 380: CsAFS2 Gene from the Tea Plant Intercropped
           with Chinese Chestnut Plays an Important Role in Insect Resistance and
           Cold Resistance

    • Authors: Jianzhao Wang, Mei Dao, Ziyun Yang, Yan Bai, Ying Qin, Tian Wu
      First page: 380
      Abstract: α-Farnesene, a crucial secondary metabolite in sesquiterpenes, is crucial for plant biotic and abiotic stress resistance. In this study, we screened an AFS gene from transcriptome data of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) intercropped with Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), resulting in the cloning of CsAFS2. CsAFS2 expression increased following treatment with MJ (Methyl jasmonate), SA (Salicylic acid), GA3 (Gibberellin A3), and various plant growth regulators, as well as under high-salt, drought, and low-temperature conditions. The heterologous genetic transformation of tobacco with CsAFS2 led to an enhanced resistance to low-temperature stress and aphid feeding, evident from elevated levels of osmotic regulatory substances, increased protective enzyme activity, and the upregulation of cold and insect resistance-related genes. Trichomes, crucial in cold and insect resistance, exhibited significantly greater length and density in transgenic tobacco as compared to control plants. These results confirm the vital role of CsAFS2 in enhancing cold and insect resistance, providing comprehensive insights into stress regulation mechanisms in tea plants and advancing stress-resistant tea plant breeding.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020380
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 381: Robots for Forest Maintenance

    • Authors: Tiago Gameiro, Tiago Pereira, Carlos Viegas, Francesco Di Giorgio, NM Fonseca Ferreira
      First page: 381
      Abstract: Forest fires are becoming increasingly common, and they are devastating, fueled by the effects of global warming, such as a dryer climate, dryer vegetation, and higher temperatures. Vegetation management through selective removal is a preventive measure which creates discontinuities that will facilitate fire containment and reduce its intensity and rate of spread. However, such a method requires vast amounts of biomass fuels to be removed, over large areas, which can only be achieved through mechanized means, such as through using forestry mulching machines. This dangerous job is also highly dependent on skilled workers, making it an ideal case for novel autonomous robotic systems. This article presents the development of a universal perception, control, and navigation system for forestry machines. The selection of hardware (sensors and controllers) and data-integration and -navigation algorithms are central components of this integrated system development. Sensor fusion methods, operating using ROS, allow the distributed interconnection of all sensors and actuators. The results highlight the system’s robustness when applied to the mulching machine, ensuring navigational and operational accuracy in forestry operations. This novel technological solution enhances the efficiency of forest maintenance while reducing the risk exposure to forestry workers.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020381
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 382: Urban Vegetation Classification for Unmanned
           Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing Combining Feature Engineering and Improved
           DeepLabV3+

    • Authors: Qianyang Cao, Man Li, Guangbin Yang, Qian Tao, Yaopei Luo, Renru Wang, Panfang Chen
      First page: 382
      Abstract: Addressing the problems of misclassification and omissions in urban vegetation fine classification from current remote sensing classification methods, this research proposes an intelligent urban vegetation classification method that combines feature engineering and improved DeepLabV3+ based on unmanned aerial vehicle visible spectrum images. The method constructs feature engineering under the ReliefF algorithm to increase the number of features in the samples, enabling the deep learning model to learn more detailed information about the vegetation. Moreover, the method improves the classical DeepLabV3+ network structure based on (1) replacing the backbone network using MoblieNetV2; (2) adjusting the atrous spatial pyramid pooling null rate; and (3) adding the attention mechanism and the convolutional block attention module. Experiments were conducted with self-constructed sample datasets, where the method was compared and analyzed with a fully convolutional network (FCN) and U-Net and ShuffleNetV2 networks; the migration of the method was tested as well. The results show that the method in this paper is better than FCN, U-Net, and ShuffleNetV2, and reaches 92.27%, 91.48%, and 85.63% on the accuracy evaluation indices of overall accuracy, MarcoF1, and mean intersection over union, respectively. Furthermore, the segmentation results are accurate and complete, which effectively alleviates misclassifications and omissions of urban vegetation; moreover, it has a certain migration ability that can quickly and accurately classify the vegetation.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020382
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 383: Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungal Communities
           in Soil and Wood from Contrasting Zones of the AWPA Biodeterioration
           Hazard Map across the United States

    • Authors: Grant T. Kirker, Amy B. Bishell, Jed Cappellazzi, Samuel V. Glass, Jonathan A. Palmer, Nathan J. Bechle, William J. Hickey
      First page: 383
      Abstract: Wood deterioration due to basidiomycetous decay fungi shortens the useful life span of wood and wood-based materials. Prescriptive preservative treatment is the most effective way to reduce the detrimental effects of these microorganisms, particularly in soil contact and areas of critical use (difficult to replace or vital to structure). Current American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) guidelines in the standardized use category system specify 3 zones of severity regarding wood decay fungal hazards but contain very little information on the diversity and abundance of these fungi colonizing soil and wood. In this study, amplicon based sequencing was utilized to compare fungal communities in wood and adjacent soil to provide baseline data on the fungi involved in the process. A thorough understanding of decay hazards is critical for the proper selection and use of wood in soil contact. The goal of this work is to provide baseline data on basidiomycete fungal diversity and species composition in different zones of the existing 3-zone AWPA hazard map as compared to the previous 5-zone hazard map and Scheffer decay indices and discuss the ecological implications for wood decay.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020383
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 384: Preparation and Properties of
           Soft-/Hard-Switchable Transparent Wood with 0 °C as a Boundary

    • Authors: Yang Liu, Yi Zhang, Jianhui Guo, Gaiping Guo, Cheng Li
      First page: 384
      Abstract: Transparent wood has excellent optical and thermal properties and has great potential utilization value in energy-saving building materials, optoelectronic devices, and decorative materials. In this work, transparent wood with soft-/hard-switchable and shape recovery capabilities was prepared by introducing an epoxy-based polymer with a glass transition temperature of about 0 °C into the delignified wood template. The epoxy resin was well filled in the pore structure of the delignified wood, and the as-prepared wood exhibited excellent transparency; the optical transmittance and haze of the transparent wood with a thickness of 2.0 mm were approximately 70% and 95%, respectively. Because the glass transition temperature of the epoxy-based polymer was about 0 °C, the prepared transparent wood was rigid below 0 °C and flexible above °C; meanwhile, the transparent wood exhibited shape change and shape recovery properties. Incorporating optical transparency and soft-/hard-switchable ability into the transparent wood opens a new avenue for developing advanced functional wood-based materials.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020384
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 385: Contrasting Effects of Nitrogen Deposition
           and Phosphorus Addition on Soil Organic Carbon in a Subtropical Forest:
           Physical Protection versus Chemical Stability

    • Authors: Xiaodong Wang, Anqi Wu, Fu-Sheng Chen, Xiangmin Fang, Huimin Wang, Fangchao Wang
      First page: 385
      Abstract: Soil organic carbon (SOC) not only contributes to maintain soil health, but is also important in regulating global climate change. How atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and phosphorus (P) addition affects SOC dynamics remains unclear, especially in subtropical forests. The response of SOC in three layers to N deposition and P addition in this study is estimated by analyzing the soil aggregates and C chemical stability composition fertilized with N (100 kg N hm−2 a−1) and/or P (50 kg P hm−2 a−1) over 9 years in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation. Treatments involving N deposition increased the SOC concentration, while P addition alone decreased the SOC concentration in soil layers above 10 cm. The addition of N significantly increased the mean diameter of topsoil aggregates, macroaggregates SOC concentration, and the contribution of N to total SOC. P addition decreased the relative abundances of aromatic and aliphatic functional groups while decreasing the chemical stability of SOC in the topsoil. A structural equation model indicated that N deposition promoted SOC concentration by mainly improving the physical protection of soil aggregates, while P addition reduced SOC sequestration by decreasing the chemical stability of SOC. Our research suggested that elevated N deposition might promote the soil C sink, while P fertilization would not be recommended under increased N deposition to protect soil C storage in subtropical forests.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020385
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 386: Utilizing Comprehensive Criteria and
           Indicators for Post-Fire Forest Restoration in Spatial Decision Support
           Systems (SDSS)

    • Authors: Rahaf Alayan, Zoltán Lakner
      First page: 386
      Abstract: Amidst the increasing frequency and severity of forest fires globally, the imperative of effective post-fire forest restoration has gained unprecedented significance. This study outlines a comprehensive approach to post-fire forest restoration and discusses its implementation through spatial decision-making systems. The methodology involves utilizing multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to identify and prioritize criteria based on their relative importance. This allows for the creation of easily assessable alternatives and their application to spatial maps, providing local officials with valuable information. To achieve optimal decision-making, the study utilized the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methods along with Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) to generate a suitability map. The results highlight that 28% of the study area is well-suited for post-fire forest restoration, with 44% moderately appropriate, while 3% is deemed unsuitable for restoration until the end of 2023 due to severe soil loss or inherent geographical challenges.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020386
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 387: Design and Implementation of an Intelligent
           Log Diameter Grading and Sorting Line Based on Machine Vision

    • Authors: Zhigang Ding, Yangyang Gong, Linghua Kong, Jishi Zheng
      First page: 387
      Abstract: In order to address the challenges posed by elevated manual labor costs and limited automation in traditional log diameter grading and sorting processes, this paper centers on the design and research of an intelligent log diameter grading and sorting line utilizing machine vision. The study focuses on logs with smaller diameters located in Fujian province, China. By analyzing production requirements, the study formulates the structure of the feeding, alignment, detection, and sorting zones to fulfill sorting functions. Using the YOLOv5 model, the system achieves accurate log end face positioning, and the diameter is computed through a designated algorithm. The operational process of the system is examined, and the control logic governing the production line is elucidated. Evaluating the practical performance of the production line, the study assesses the accuracy of diameter recognition, precision in grading, and operational efficiency. The results reveal that the absolute error in diameter detection for the sorting line averages 1.12 mm, with sorting accuracy exceeding 95%. The sorting line can automatically categorize logs with diameters ranging from 60 mm to 300 mm and lengths ranging from 2 m to 6 m, achieving an annual sorting capacity of 120,000 to 130,000 cubic meters. The research findings illustrate that the system fulfills the industry’s demands for log diameter grading and sorting, thereby enhancing economic efficiency for enterprises.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020387
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 388: Evaluating Dendrolimus superans (Lepidoptera:
           Lasiocampidae) Occurrence and Density Modeling with Habitat Conditions

    • Authors: Daxiao Han, Shuo Wang, Jili Zhang, Rong Cui, Qianxue Wang
      First page: 388
      Abstract: Dendrolimus superans, a prominent forest pest in northeast China, exerts detrimental effects on tree growth and development, disrupts the ecological functioning of forests, and even alters the trajectory of succession. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of habitat conditions on the occurrence probability and density of overwintering D. superans, aiming to provide scientific insights for the effective prevention of and control measures against this pest infestation. The investigation encompassed 142 plots (20 m × 20 m) in various forest types within the primary distribution area of D. superans in the Great Xing’ an Mountains, focusing on factors such as topography, forest vegetation, and larval density. Binary logistic regression was employed to establish models for predicting the occurrence probability of D. superans, while generalized linear models (GLMs) and categorical regression (CATREG) were utilized to develop models for estimating its population size. Subsequently, an evaluation was conducted to assess the performance of these models. The occurrence probability model showed high accuracy (AUC = 0.826) in predicting infestation. The slope aspect and herb cover were the key factors affecting the occurrence of D. superans. The occurrence probability was the lowest on shady slopes and the highest on sunny slopes. The occurrence probability of D. superans increased with the increase in herb cover. The model of quantification showed that the density of D. superans was the least on shady slopes and the highest on sunny slopes. As the slope gradient increased, the density decreased. D. superans occurred most frequently on ridges. Similarly, with the increase in canopy cover or the decrease in diameter at breast height (DBH) and stand density, the density of D. superans increased. The influence of the topography factors surpassed that of the forest vegetation factors in shaping the population dynamics of D. superans, despite both being significant contributors. The study revealed that D. superans is prone to occur on sunny slopes, flat slopes, and ridges, which should be the focus of prevention and control in forest management practices, such as replanting, thinning, and regular weeding, to help restrain the growth of the population of this pest.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020388
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 389: Effects of Soil Fauna on the Home-Field
           Advantage of Litter Total Phenol and Condensed Tannin Decomposition

    • Authors: Lingyuan Lei, Jing Zeng, Quanwei Liu, Lijuan Luo, Zhiliang Ma, Yamei Chen, Yang Liu
      First page: 389
      Abstract: Soil fauna play a vital role in contributing to the home-field advantage (HFA: litter decomposes faster in its natural habitat than elsewhere) during litter decomposition. Whether the presence of soil fauna affects the HFA of the decomposition of total phenols and condensed tannins, which are important components of litter, has rarely been investigated. In this study, litterbags with different mesh sizes were transplanted reciprocally, 0.04 mm (basically excluding soil fauna) and 3 mm (basically allowing all soil fauna to enter), in Lindera megaphylla and Cryptomeria fortunei forests. The results illustrated that the loss rates of total phenols and condensed tannins reached 64.07% to 84.49% and 69.67% to 88.37%, respectively, after 2 months of decomposition. Moreover, soil fauna positively contributed to the decomposition of condensed tannins in high-quality litter. After 2 months of decomposition, a significantly positive HFA (HFA index: 10.32) was found for total phenol decomposition in the coarse mesh, while a significantly negative HFA (HFA index: −1.81) was observed for condensed tannin decomposition in the fine mesh after 10 months of decomposition. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly influenced by litter types. The loss rates of total phenols and condensed tannins were significantly negatively correlated with the initial N content, P content, N/P ratio, and POD activity and were positively related to the initial C content, total phenol content, condensed tannin content, C/P ratio, and C/N ratio. Only the loss of condensed tannins was negatively correlated with PPO activity (after 2 months’ decomposition). However, none of these correlations were observed after 10 months of decomposition. Our study illustrated that (1) soil fauna contributed to the decomposition of total phenols and condensed tannins but were influenced by litter type for condensed tannins. (2) The soil fauna had inconsistent effects on the HFA of total phenols and condensed tannins, possibly due to the combined regulatory effects of environmental context, litter quality, and rapid decomposition rates. In sum, the results indicated that soil fauna played an important role in the decomposition of condensed tannins and total phenols in litter, and additional studies on the effects of soil faunal abundance and class on HFA of condensed tannins and total phenols are needed.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020389
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 390: Fine Classification of Urban Tree Species
           Based on UAV-Based RGB Imagery and LiDAR Data

    • Authors: Jingru Wu, Qixia Man, Xinming Yang, Pinliang Dong, Xiaotong Ma, Chunhui Liu, Changyin Han
      First page: 390
      Abstract: Rapid and accurate classification of urban tree species is crucial for the protection and management of urban ecology. However, tree species classification remains a great challenge because of the high spatial heterogeneity and biodiversity. Addressing this challenge, in this study, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based high-resolution RGB imagery and LiDAR data were utilized to extract seven types of features, including RGB spectral features, texture features, vegetation indexes, HSV spectral features, HSV texture features, height feature, and intensity feature. Seven experiments involving different feature combinations were conducted to classify 10 dominant tree species in urban areas with a Random Forest classifier. Additionally, Plurality Filling was applied to further enhance the accuracy of the results as a post-processing method. The aim was to explore the potential of UAV-based RGB imagery and LiDAR data for tree species classification in urban areas, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of the post-processing method. The results indicated that, compared to using RGB imagery alone, the integrated LiDAR and RGB data could improve the overall accuracy and the Kappa coefficient by 18.49% and 0.22, respectively. Notably, among the features based on RGB, the HSV and its texture features contribute most to the improvement of accuracy. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the optimal feature combination could achieve 73.74% and 0.70 with the Random Forest classifier, respectively. Additionally, the Plurality Filling method could increase the overall accuracy by 11.76%, which could reach 85.5%. The results of this study confirm the effectiveness of RGB imagery and LiDAR data for urban tree species classification. Consequently, these results could provide a valuable reference for the precise classification of tree species using UAV remote sensing data in urban areas.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020390
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 391: An Assessment Framework for Mapping the Air
           Purification Service of Vegetation at the Regional Scale

    • Authors: Yu Liu, Wudong Zhao, Liwei Zhang, Xupu Li, Lixian Peng, Zhuangzhuang Wang, Yongyong Song, Lei Jiao, Hao Wang
      First page: 391
      Abstract: Efficiently mitigating the severe air pollution resulting from rapid progress is crucial for the sustainable development of the socio-ecological system. Recently, concerns about nature-based solutions have emerged in the research on the treatment of air pollution. Studies on the purification of PM2.5 using vegetation currently concentrate on the individual scale of tree species or urban vegetation, ignoring the regional scale, which could better assist ecological governance. Therefore, taking the Fenwei Plain of China as the study area, an assessment framework of the air purification service’s spatial distribution reflecting regional vegetation was constructed. The dry deposition model and GeoDetector were used to quantify the spatial-temporal pattern and explore natural driving factors on the removal of PM2.5. The results showed that (1) the PM2.5 purification services offered by various types of vegetation exhibit notable variations. The average removal rates of PM2.5 by vegetation were 0.186%, 0.243%, and 0.435% in 2000, 2010, and 2021, respectively. (2) Meanwhile, a wide range of spatial mismatch exists between the PM2.5 concentration and PM2.5 removal. Insufficient supply regions of PM2.5 purification services account for 50% of the Fenwei Plain. (3) PM2.5 removal was strongly influenced by the types of vegetation and the Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI), followed by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and less affected by meteorological factors; a strong joint effect was shown among the factors. The findings in this research provide a new perspective on regional air pollution management at the regional scale.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020391
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 392: Contrasting Altitudinal Patterns and
           Composition of Soil Bacterial Communities along Stand Types in Larix
           principis-rupprechtii Forests in Northern China

    • Authors: Yajie Niu, Xin Li, Chuanxu Wang, Youzhi Han, Zhuo Wang, Jing Yang
      First page: 392
      Abstract: Bacterial communities inhabiting the soil of mountain ecosystems perform critical ecological functions. Although several studies have reported the altitudinal distribution patterns of bacterial communities in warm-temperate mountain forests, our understanding of typical zonal vegetation dominated by Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr (abbreviated as larch hereafter) and the understory elevation distribution patterns of soil bacterial communities is still limited. In this study, the Illumina NovaSeq 6000 sequencing platform was used to investigate the changes of surface and subsurface soil bacterial communities along an altitudinal gradient (from 1720 m to 2250 m) in larch forests in northern China. Altitude significantly affected the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi (bacterial dominant phylum) and Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria (bacterial dominant classes). The diversity of bacterial communities showed a concomitant increase with altitude. The variations in available nitrogen and soil temperature content at different altitudes were the main factors explaining the bacterial community structures in pure stands and mixed stands, respectively. Altitude and the contents of soil organic carbon and soil organic matter were the main factors explaining the dominant phylum (taxonomy). Our results suggest that stand type has a greater effect on the structure and composition of soil bacterial communities than elevation and soil depth, and bacterial communities show divergent patterns along the altitudes, stand types, and soil profiles.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020392
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 393: Empirical Study on the Impact of Different
           Types of Forest Environments in Wuyishan National Park on Public
           Physiological and Psychological Health

    • Authors: Yuxi Weng, Yujie Zhu, Yabing Huang, Qimei Chen, Jianwen Dong
      First page: 393
      Abstract: Amidst the challenges of global environmental change and urbanization, the salutary effects of natural environments on public health are increasingly being recognized. This study investigates the specific effects of varied forest environments in China’s Wuyishan National Park on physiological and psychological health. Eight distinct forest environments were carefully selected, and a repeated-measures ANOVA approach was used to evaluate 41 participants over three days. Physiological assessments included Heart Rate Variability, Skin Conductance Level, and surface Electromyography, complemented by psychological evaluations using the Profile of Mood States. The key findings include the following: (1) Notable variations in physiological indicators were observed among different forest types. In valley tea gardens and broadleaf forest streamside, significant changes in heart rate indicators highlighted the influence of these settings on autonomic nervous activities. Skin Conductance Level and surface Electromyography also indicated varying emotional arousal and pleasure across the forests. The mixed broadleaf and coniferous forest valley, along with the rock-bedded streamscape, elicited emotions of low arousal but high pleasure, inducing feelings of calmness and pleasure. The valley’s tea gardens were associated with low arousal and pleasure, suggesting tranquility without positive emotional induction, while the broadleaf ridge forest induced high arousal and pleasure, reflecting an exciting and joyful environment. (2) The study found that different forest environments had a notable impact on participants’ mood states, indicating reductions in tension, anger, fatigue, and depression, along with an increase in vigor levels. In summary, forest environments offer unique psychological and physiological health benefits compared to urban settings. These findings underscore the importance of integrating forest environments into urban development and public health frameworks, and the need to further explore their impact on the health of diverse populations.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020393
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 394: Improving Pinus densata Carbon Stock
           Estimations through Remote Sensing in Shangri-La: A Nonlinear
           Mixed-Effects Model Integrating Soil Thickness and Topographic Variables

    • Authors: Dongyang Han, Jialong Zhang, Dongfan Xu, Yi Liao, Rui Bao, Shuxian Wang, Shaozhi Chen
      First page: 394
      Abstract: Forest carbon sinks are vital in mitigating climate change, making it crucial to have highly accurate estimates of forest carbon stocks. A method that accounts for the spatial characteristics of inventory samples is necessary for the long-term estimation of above-ground forest carbon stocks due to the spatial heterogeneity of bottom-up methods. In this study, we developed a method for analyzing space-sensing data that estimates and predicts long time series of forest carbon stock changes in an alpine region by considering the sample’s spatial characteristics. We employed a nonlinear mixed-effects model and improved the model’s accuracy by considering both static and dynamic aspects. We utilized ground sample point data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) taken every five years, including tree and soil information. Additionally, we extracted spectral and texture information from Landsat and combined it with DEM data to obtain topographic information for the sample plots. Using static data and change data at various annual intervals, we built estimation models. We tested three non-parametric models (Random Forest, Gradient-Boosted Regression Tree, and K-Nearest Neighbor) and two parametric models (linear mixed-effects and non-linear mixed-effects) and selected the most accurate model to estimate Pinus densata’s above-ground carbon stock. The results showed the following: (1) The texture information had a significant correlation with static and dynamic above-ground carbon stock changes. The highest correlation was for large-window mean, entropy, and variance. (2) The dynamic above-ground carbon stock model outperformed the static model. Additionally, the dynamic non-parametric models and parametric models experienced improvements in prediction accuracy. (3) In the multilevel nonlinear mixed-effects models, the highest accuracy was achieved with fixed effects for aspect and two-level nested random effects for the soil and elevation categories. (4) This study found that Pinus densata’s above-ground carbon stock in Shangri-La followed a decreasing, and then, increasing trend from 1987 to 2017. The mean carbon density increased overall, from 19.575 t·hm−2 to 25.313 t·hm−2. We concluded that a dynamic model based on variability accurately reflects Pinus densata’s above-ground carbon stock changes over time. Our approach can enhance time-series estimates of above-ground carbon stocks, particularly in complex topographies, by incorporating topographic factors and soil thickness into mixed-effects models.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020394
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Forests, Vol. 15, Pages 395: The Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanisms
           Exploration of Jujube Biological Traits through Multi-Omics Analysis

    • Authors: Shulin Zhang, Zhuo Chen, Luying Feng, Zhaokun Zhi, Yiteng Liu, Mengmeng Zhang, Huafeng Yue, Gao-Pu Zhu, Fuling Gao
      First page: 395
      Abstract: Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) stands as a pivotal fruit tree with significant economic, ecological, and social value. Recent years have witnessed remarkable strides in multi-omics-based biological research on jujube. This review began by summarizing advancements in jujube genomics. Subsequently, we provided a comprehensive overview of the integrated application of genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics to explore pivotal genes governing jujube domestication traits, quality attributes (including sugar synthesis, terpenoids, and flavonoids), and responses to abiotic stress and discussed the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying these traits. Furthermore, challenges in multi-omics research on jujube biological traits were outlined, and we proposed the integration of resources such as pan-genomics and sRNAome to unearth key molecules and regulatory networks influencing diverse biological traits. Incorporating these molecules into practical breeding strategies, including gene editing, transgenic approaches, and progressive breeding, holds the potential for achieving molecular-design breeding and efficient genetic enhancement of jujube.
      Citation: Forests
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/f15020395
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 2 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Selbyana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

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