Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Trees
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.726
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0931-1890 - ISSN (Online) 1432-2285
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Temporary immersion system for in vitro propagation via organogenesis of
           forest plant species

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      Abstract: Key message This article summarizes the latest findings on the parameters affecting shoot efficacy in TIS and the effects of intermittent immersion on the morpho-physiological characteristics and ex vitro survival of forest plant species. Tissue culture techniques for forest plant species are essential to meet the growing demand in the global plant market and to ensure the environmental sustainability of production; therefore, it is necessary to resort to innovative tools that allow to increase the number of plants in a short time. Various propagation protocols using semi-solid media systems have been described. However, in these protocols, the use of gelling agents contributes significantly to higher costs and limits the possibility of automation in commercial propagation. The solution is to use liquid culture media, which reduces production costs and facilitates automation of the in vitro propagation process. This system not only solves some problems caused by the use of a static liquid culture medium, such as hyperhydricity, but also opens up the possibility of automating some stages of in vitro culture. However, effective control of hyperhydricity may be one reason why few forest species have been successfully propagated in temporary immersion systems. This review focuses on the use of these systems for in vitro propagation of forest plant species. The parameters affecting the efficacy of shoots in temporary immersion systems are discussed, as well as the effects of temporary immersion on the morpho-physiological characteristics and ex vitro survival of forest plant species, considering several scientific articles by researchers.
      PubDate: 2023-02-04
       
  • The science of urban trees to promote well-being

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      Abstract: Key message Urban trees and forests are one of the main tools available in cities to face current and future environmental challenges and ultimately promote well-being. More than half of the world’s population lives in cities nowadays. This rural exodus to cities resulted from a pursuit of better life quality. However, the urban population increase led to new levels of complexity. Such complexity calls for multifunctional solutions such as Nature-based Solutions (NbS). Trees are at the core of NbS, for all the ecosystem services they provide. Nevertheless, managing them is challenging and requires both the empirical knowledge of practitioners and a deep scientific understanding of the tree’s structure and function. This special issue on “Urban Trees” advances our knowledge of their ecosystem services, tolerance and resilience to the urban environment, their possible disservices, and steps forward on new proposals for managing urban trees. It is clear from the current literature and the studies in this special issue that decision-making on urban trees must be supported by scientific evidence to promote well-being in cities.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Elevational pattern and temperature sensitivity of spring leaf phenology
           of three co-occurring tree species in a subtropical mountain forest

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      Abstract: Key message Spring leaf phenology delayed with increasing elevation, and the onset of bud development showed less response to elevation. Bud development advanced under increased forcing and delayed under decreased chilling. Plant phenology is highly sensitive to environmental changes and is driven mostly by temperature. However, elevational pattern, adaptation strategies, and temperature sensitivity of spring leaf phenology of trees in subtropical mountain forests remain rarely explored, despite their important implications for predicting how plant phenology may respond to global warming. Here, we monitored the timing and duration of bud development for three rare, endangered, and deciduous tree species (Euptelea pleiospermum, Cercidiphyllum japonicum, and Tetracentron sinense) along an elevational gradient in the Shennongjia Mountains in central China. We then conducted a twig experiment in the climate chambers to test the phenological sensitivity of leaf to forcing and chilling. The results showed that with increasing elevation, the onset of bud development and leaf unfolding were consistently delayed and the duration of bud development was lengthened. The magnitude of the phenological responses to elevational change differed between phenological stages, and the onset of bud development showed a lower response to elevation than leaf unfolding. Additionally, after accounting for elevation, a negative relationship between the onset and duration of bud development was observed. The results from twig experiments showed that the timing of bud development advanced under increased forcing and delayed under decreased chilling. We infer that leaves may unfold earlier under warmer springs, but the advance may be slowed down by warmer winters. The phenological sensitivity to temperature is species-specific, and E. pleiospermum was the most sensitive species. Our results suggest that the spring leaf phenology of rare and endangered tree species in subtropical mountain forests has a significant elevational trend and is sensitive to temperature changes. We also highlight that the important role of chilling should be considered when predicting the phenological shift under climate change.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • Quantifying terminal white bands in Salix from the Yenisei river, Siberia
           and their relationship to late-season flooding

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      Abstract: Key Message Wood fiber cell wall thickness best characterizes white bands found at the end of certain growth rings in Salix alba. Evidence suggests these features are related to late-season hydrology. Recent, record-breaking discharge in the Yenisei River, Siberia, is part of a larger trend of increasing river flow in the Arctic driven by Arctic Amplification. These changes in magnitude and timing of discharge can lead to increased risk of extreme flood events, with implications for infrastructure, ecosystems, and climate. To better understand the effect of these changes on riparian tree growth along the lower reaches of the Yenisei River, we collected white willow (Salix alba) cross sections from a fluvial fill flat terrace that occasionally floods when water levels are extremely high. These samples displayed bands of lighter colored wood at the end of certain annual growth rings that we hypothesized were related to flood events. To identify the characteristics and causes of these features, we use an approach known as quantitative wood anatomy (QWA) to measure variation in fiber cell dimensions across tree rings, particularly fiber lumen area (LA) and cell wall thickness (CWT). We investigate (1) which cell parameters and method to extract intra-annual data from annual tree rings best capture terminal white bands identified in Salix, and (2) if these patterns are related to flood magnitude and/or duration. We find that fiber CWT best captures terminal white bands found in Salix rings. Time series derived from CWT measurements correlate with July water-level durations, but at levels too low to be labeled flooding. Although both terminal white bands and July flooding have reduced since 1980, questions remain as to the cause of terminal white bands. Understanding how riparian vegetation responds to changes in hydrology can help us better manage riparian ecosystems and understand the impacts of a changing Arctic hydrological regime.
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
       
  • Complete chloroplast genomes of three sand-fixing Salix shrubs from
           Northwest China: comparative and phylogenetic analysis and interspecific
           identification

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      Abstract: Key message By comparing the chloroplast genomes of three willows, it is found that the genome structure is relatively conservative, and the large variations are more derived from the noncoding regions. Salix L., the largest genus in Salicaceae, has great value in ecology and economy. Here, we compared the chloroplast genomes of three important sand-fixing shrubs of the genus Salix: Salix gordejevii (size: 155,279 bp); S. cheilophila (size: 155,322 bp); and S. psammophila (size: 155,278 bp). The quadripartite circular structures of these genome sequences have the same structure and gene contents with 84 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. Long repeats including forward and palindromic repeats were found in three plastomes. The mononucleotide simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were dominant and accounted for more than 64% in all three plastomes, whereas hexanucleotide SSRs existed only in S. gordejevii. The noncoding and intergenic regions have greater variations than the coding regions, and eight highly variable regions were identified within the Salix chloroplast genomes, which could be utilized as potential markers for phylogenetic studies and phylogeography. In addition, we found 34 indels with more than 5 bases, which can be used to further identify S. gordejevii and S. psammophila with similar morphologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole cp genomes showed that S. gordejevii and S. magnifica are closely related, S. psammophila was a sister to S. suchowensis, and S. cheilophila clustered with them. The completed genomes in this study provide useful genetic resources for future research on species identification, phylogenetic relationships, and the adaptive evolution of Salix species.
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
       
  • Geometry matters for sonic tomography of trees

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      Abstract: Key Message Due to the simplifying assumptions used to analyze acoustic wave propagation in trees, the accuracy of sonic tomograms varies significantly according to the geometry of the measured tree part. For trees growing in communities, arborists routinely check for evidence of damaged wood during tree risk assessment, and sonic tomography is occasionally used to measure the amount of internal damage in trees. Existing studies investigating the accuracy of commercially available sonic tomography devices have mostly considered a limited range of measurement conditions, limiting their application in practice. Using measurements incorporating greater variability in test conditions, this study examined the accuracy of sonic tomography by comparing the percent damaged cross-sectional area in tomograms with the destructively measured internal condition of trees. Although the accuracy of tomograms differed between the examined temperate and tropical tree species, the variation was largely explained by underlying differences in the cross-sectional geometry of the measured tree parts. The amount of decay was repeatedly underestimated in measurements of small, circular cross sections, and, conversely, it was consistently overestimated in measurements of large, irregularly shaped cross sections. Using different approaches to generating and interpreting tomograms, a wide range of decay estimates was obtained for a given set of measurements. By adjusting software settings, it was possible to obtain tomograms with the least error for a given cross-sectional geometry, and the tomograms could be visually interpreted to similarly compensate for the anticipated measurement error. Although practitioners can use the identified strategies to compensate for the expected measurement error in different situations, there is also a fundamental need to develop improved measurement and analysis routines for sonic tomography relying on physically realistic assumptions about acoustic wave propagation in wood.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
       
  • Climatic control of high-resolution stem radius changes in a
           drought-limited southern boreal forest

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      Abstract: Key message Stem radius changes measured at high temporal resolution in a drought-limited southern boreal forest were primarily related to soil temperature and partly soil moisture variation, but only weakly to VPD. Forest productivity at the southern fringe of the boreal forest biome in Inner Asia is strongly drought-limited, as is evident from dendrochronological analyses. Using electronic point dendrometers, we studied the climate response of stem radius changes at high temporal resolution (10-min intervals) in a mixed larch–birch forest in northern Mongolia in a drought year and two subsequent moist years. Larch trees showed stronger stem radius fluctuations than birches, and this difference was more pronounced in dry than in moist years. Stem radius changes were most tightly related to soil temperature variation, while soil moisture was the dominant controlling factor only in birch in the dry year. Correlations with the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and even more so with air temperature, were much weaker. While the linkage between radius change and VPD might primarily reflect diurnal transpiration-driven stem shrinkage and expansion, soil temperature is thought to directly affect cambial cell division and elongation during wood formation. We conclude that the phenology of stemwood increment is strongly controlled by soil temperature even in drought-limited southern boreal forests under continental climate due to the combination of cold and dry climate.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
       
  • Accuracy differences in aboveground woody biomass estimation with
           terrestrial laser scanning for trees in urban and rural forests and
           different leaf conditions

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      Abstract: Key Message Terrestrial laser scanning data can be converted to reliable woody aboveground biomass estimates, but estimation quality is influenced by growing environment, leaf condition, and variation in tree density affecting volume to mass conversion. Both rural and urban forests play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Forest carbon stocks are typically estimated from models predicting the aboveground biomass (AGB) of trees. However, such models are often limited by insufficient data on tree mass, which generally requires felling and weighing parts of trees. In this study, thirty-one trees of both deciduous and evergreen species were destructively sampled in rural and urban forest conditions. Prior to felling, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data were used to estimate tree biomass based on volume estimates from quantitative structure models, combined with tree basic density estimates from disks sampled from stems and branches after scanning and felling trees, but also in combination with published basic density values. Reference woody AGB, main stem, and branch biomass were computed from destructive sampling. Trees were scanned in leaf-off conditions, except evergreen and some deciduous trees, to assess effects of a leaf-separation algorithm on TLS-based woody biomass estimates. We found strong agreement between TLS-based and reference woody AGB, main stem, and branch biomass values, using both measured and published basic densities to convert TLS-based volume to biomass, but use of published densities reduced accuracy. Correlations between TLS-based and reference branch biomass were stronger for urban trees, while correlations with stem mass were stronger for rural trees. TLS-based biomass estimates from leaf-off and leaf-removed point clouds strongly agreed with reference biomass data, showing the utility of the leaf-removal algorithm for enhancing AGB estimation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
       
  • Tolerance and sensitivity of Inga marginata and Allophylus edulis to
           copper excess

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      Abstract: Key Message Inga marginata can tolerate high Cu concentrations. In contrast, A. edulis was sensitive to Cu. High Cu levels changed root morphology and photosynthetic variables in both species. The excess of heavy metals such as copper (Cu) in degraded areas worldwide has increased pollution and toxicity in plants. Thus, it is necessary to use phytoremediation species in reforestation programs to reestablish the ecological conditions of the environment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the tolerance/sensitivity of Inga marginata and Allophylus edulis to excess Cu by evaluating morphological, physiological and biochemical variables to define species to be cultivated in environments contaminated with Cu. Seedlings of I. marginata and A. edulis were cultivated at five Cu concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μM. Each sampling unit consisted of a pot with five plants. Shoot and root morphological variables, photosynthetic variables, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activity, hydrogen peroxide concentration, lipid peroxidation, Cu concentration and accumulation in tissues were assessed. We found that A. edulis is sensitive to excess Cu and that it can be used as an indicator of contaminated areas. Seedlings of I. marginata tolerated high Cu concentrations, which mainly accumulated in the roots, and did not show a decrease in root and shoot dry weight. Therefore, I. marginata has great potential to be used in the phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated soils.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
       
  • Use of terrestrial laser scanning to obtain the stem diameters of Larix
           olgensis and construct compatible taper-volume equations

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      Abstract: Key message Using Hough transform to extract the stem diameter from TLS data to relative height of 0.7, the established compatible taper-volume equations was able to accurately estimate the stem volume. The profile or volume of trees usually needs to be measured by felling. As a nondestructive way to obtain forest parameters, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) plays an important role in establishing forest inventories. In this study, compatible taper-volume equations was established based on single-tree point cloud data to verify the applicability and reliability of TLS in estimating stem volume. Thirty Larix olgensis sample trees were used in the study, and they were scanned by TLS and felled for trunk analysis. Hough transformation was used to automatically extract the diameters of the sample trees at different relative heights, to establish the Max–Burkhart segmental taper-volume equations and to validate the model using the tenfold cross-validation approach. The taper-volume equations fitted with TLS data were used to predict the diameter at a specific trunk height, the height at a tree diameter of 10 cm, and the stem volume. The results showed that the accuracy of the diameter extracted by Hough transformation from 0 m to relative height of 0.7 was above 92%, and there was no significant difference between the extracted value and the field-measured value, except at relative height of 0.9. The lower and upper inflection points of the segmental taper equation of L. olgensis fitted to the TLS data were 0.04 and 0.75, respectively, and the predicted R2 values for diameter, height and volume were greater than 0.97. The predicted profile shows that below the relative height of 0.8, the TLS estimations were almost equal to the field measurements. In reference to the field-measured volume, the bias values of the total volume, merchantable volume and partial volume predicted by the volume equation were − 0.0012 m3, − 0.0046 m3 and − 0.0001 m3, respectively. TLS provides an alternative to stem analysis, and a compatible taper-volume model based on point cloud data can be used to accurately predict tree attributes and estimate stem volume.
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
       
  • Does drought stress intensify the allelopathy of invasive woody species
           Rhus typhina L.'

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      Abstract: Key Message Drought stress intensified the allelopathy of Rhus typhina L. and Sapindus mukorossi Gaerten, and drought stress reinforced the allelopathy of S. mukorossi more significantly than R. typhina. The allelopathy mediated by the allelochemicals may be one of the vital issues driving the invasion process of invasive plants. Indigenous plants may also generate obvious allelopathy via the released secondary metabolites on the adjacent plants to occupy more habitats. However, the differences in the allelopathy of invasive plants and indigenous plants may be changed under increasing drought stress. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the differences in the allelopathy (using aqueous leaf extracts) between invasive woody species (Rhus typhina L.) and indigenous woody species (Sapindus mukorossi Gaerten) on seed germination and seedling growth performance of the horticultural plant Lactuca sativa L. (hypersensitive to allelochemicals) under drought stress. R. typhina and S. mukorossi created obvious allelopathy on seed germination and seedling growth performance of L. sativa, and the allelopathy of R. typhina was notably stronger (55.03% higher) than that of S. mukorossi. Drought stress intensified the allelopathy of R. typhina (14.59% higher) and S. mukorossi (54.17% higher). However, drought stress reinforced the allelopathy of S. mukorossi more significantly (67.86% higher) than R. typhina. Thus, drought stress can accelerate the invasion process of invasive plants as well as the expansion process of indigenous plants via the reinforced allelopathy, but the invasion process mediated by the allelopathy of invasive plants may be relatively weakened by the stronger reinforced allelopathy of indigenous plants to some extent under drought stress.
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
       
  • Photosynthetic and gene expression analyses in Rhizophora mangle L. plants
           growing in field conditions provide insights into adaptation to
           high-salinity environments

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      Abstract: Key message Rhizophora mangle plants tolerate high salinity under field conditions by increasing the transcription of genes involved in photosynthesis, antioxidant system, and salt transport. Rhizophora mangle is a mangrove species adapted to a wide range of salinity and has great ecological importance for mangrove ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about the genetic basis underlying the salt-tolerance mechanisms of this species. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular basis of the salt tolerance in R. mangle under field conditions based on analyses of gas exchange, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and gene expression by qRT-PCR. The gas exchange data showed that the plants growing on both mangrove sites, of low and high salinity, present comparable CO2 assimilation rates and stomatal conductance. Our data suggest that the photosynthetic maintenance under high-salinity conditions was supported by an improved PSII activity, as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll a/b ratio, including the increase of active reaction centers (RCs) and stable oxygen-evolving complexes (OECs). Additionally, the psbA (D1 protein of the RC) and PSBO2 (subunit of the OEC) genes were up-regulated under high salinity, which may be related to increased efficiency to repair injuries in the RC and OEC through the synthesis of new subunits, improving the PSII activity. Likewise, the expression of genes involved in ATP synthesis, RubisCO activation, ROS scavenging, GABA synthesis, and vacuolar Na+ sequestration was up-regulated under high salinity. Thereby, the energy balance and the avoidance of oxidative stress and ion toxicity are also important means by which R. mangle deals with increasing salt levels in natural environments. Taken together, our data shed light on the salt-tolerance mechanisms of R. mangle in its natural ecosystem, including the findings of some possible salt-regulated genes.
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
       
  • Retrieval of forest height information using spaceborne LiDAR data: a
           comparison of GEDI and ICESat-2 missions for Crimean pine (Pinus nigra)
           stands

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      Abstract: Key message Despite showing a cost-effective potential for quantifying vertical forest structure, the GEDI and ICESat-2 satellite LiDAR missions fall short of the data accuracy standards required by tree- and stand-level forest inventories. Tree and stand heights are key inventory variables in forestry, but measuring them manually is time-consuming for large forestlands. For that reason, researchers have traditionally used terrestrial and aerial remote sensing systems to retrieve forest height information. Recent developments in sensor technology have made it possible for spaceborne LiDAR systems to collect height data. However, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the utility and reliability of these data in varying forest structures. The present study aims to assess the accuracies of dominant stand heights retrieved by GEDI and ICESat-2 satellites. To that end, we used stand-type maps and field-measured inventory data from forest management plans as references. Additionally, we developed convolutional neural network (CNN) models to improve the data accuracy of raw LiDAR metrics. The results showed that GEDI generally underestimated dominant heights (RMSE = 3.06 m, %RMSE = 21.80%), whereas ICESat-2 overestimated them (RMSE = 4.02 m, %RMSE = 30.76%). Accuracy decreased further as the slope increased, particularly for ICESat-2 data. Nonetheless, using CNN models, we improved estimation accuracies to some extent (%RMSEs = 20.12% and 19.75% for GEDI and ICESat-2). In terms of forest structure, GEDI performed better in fully-covered stands than in sparsely-covered forests. This is attributable to the smaller height differences between canopy tops in dense forest conditions. ICESat-2, on the other hand, performed better in thin forests (DBH < 20 cm) than in large-girth and mature stands of Crimean pine. We conclude that GEDI and ICESat-2 missions, particularly in hilly landscapes, rarely achieve the standards needed in stand-level forest inventories when used alone.
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
       
  • Changes in herbivory patterns and insect herbivore assemblages associated
           to canopy of Quercus laurina: importance of oak species diversity and
           foliar chemical defense

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      Abstract: Key message Oak community diversity increase diversity of canopy insect herbivores and herbivory rates in Q. laurina through changes in foliar chemical defense. Tree diversity is a key factor that explains the variation in the composition of insect herbivores in the canopy, but for temperate ecosystems has been little study. Mexico has some geographical zones that are rich in oak species, coexisting between two and up to six species locally. Considering the associational effects such as vegetation complexity and the characteristics of neighboring plants, we evaluated whether communities of more diverse oak species harbor greater diversity of canopy insect herbivores, increasing the herbivory rates through changes in foliar chemical defense in Quercus laurina. Five study sites were selected representing a gradient of oak diversity. Five mature Q. laurina trees were selected per site to collect canopy phytophagous insects using fogging techniques and foliar chemical defense and herbivory were measured collecting leaves from the canopy. We found 3693 insects associated to Q. laurina trees along the oak diversity gradient were collected, where Tequila Volcano had the greatest diversity of herbivorous insects and oak species. Also, the highest rates of herbivory were in the sites with more oak diversity, as well positive relationships between chemical defense and herbivore community. Our findings indicate that at a local scale, oak diversity is the main factor determining insect herbivore diversity; the levels of herbivory and foliar chemical composition of Q. laurina. We highlight the importance of conservation zones with a high diversity of oaks, being key elements of the temperate forest that harbor high diversity of herbivore insects driving the plant–insect interactions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-17
       
  • Genome-wide identification of Fagus sylvatica aquaporins and their
           comparative spring and summer expression profiles

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      Abstract: Key message A total of 45 aquaporins was identified in Fagus sylvatica, 35 of which were differentially expressed in spring and summer in the leaves, phloem and xylem of 11-year-old trees. European beech (Fagus sylvatica) has been widely studied in terms of its water relations and local adaptation. However, to date, the underlying basis conferring adaptation to differences in water availability are unknown. Therefore, we examined the expression of aquaporins in trees of four different beech provenances representing the southern and northern range margins, as well as core populations, grown in a common garden. We sampled their xylem, phloem and leaf tissue, when leaves had fully expanded, and in late summer. A total of 45 aquaporin isoforms were identified in the beech genome, of which 35 were detected across all sampled tissues. In our phylogenetic analysis, beech aquaporins clustered into the five subfamilies found in other woody species. Members of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein subfamily generally displayed the highest levels of expression, followed by tonoplast intrinsic proteins. Isoforms of the remaining subfamilies, Noduline-26-like intrinsic proteins, small basic intrinsic proteins and uncharacterised intrinsic proteins, were expressed at very low to moderate levels. The expression of most isoforms was stable or declined from spring to summer. Leaves followed a different expression profile from that of vascular tissues, whereas both phloem and xylem were found to express the same FsMIPs. Tissue-specific aquaporin expression was very similar amongst the four beech provenances, indicating that there is no inherent difference in the capability of these provenances to regulate aquaporin activity. The general decrease in FsMIP expression toward the end of the growing period indicates that aquaporins are involved in tree water relations and growth.
      PubDate: 2022-12-12
       
  • Both climate sensitivity and growth trend of European beech decrease in
           the North German Lowlands, while Scots pine still thrives, despite growing
           sensitivity

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      Abstract: Key message Beech and pine respond differently to climate change. June precipitation is of particular influence for beech, and February/March temperature for pine. Climate warming exposes forests to increasing abiotic stress, demanding for difficult silvicultural decisions about the right choice of future timber species. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are major timber species in the North German Lowlands, which have suffered from recent hot droughts, thus raising concern about their suitability for future production forests in the region. We investigated the climate sensitivity of tree growth and long-term growth trends of ten paired beech and pine forests along a precipitation gradient in the North German Lowlands with the aim to compare the species’ climate sensitivity and to search for species-specific climatic thresholds. In the majority of beech stands, basal area increment (BAI) has lost its positive trend since the 1980s or growth declined since then, while the BAI of pine has continually increased. Long-term change in June precipitation is in the study region a more important determinant of beech growth trends than the amount of MAP, while pine growth is largely dependent on the warmth of February/March. Yet, pine growth is also sensitive to dry mid summers, with sensitivity increasing toward low MAP. Climate sensitivity of growth has significantly declined since the 1980s in beech, while the dominant drought signal of June persisted in pine. We conclude that recent climate change is affecting radial growth of beech and pine differently with both species revealing signs of vulnerability to hot droughts, suggesting for the drier part of the study region the preference of more drought-tolerant hardwood timber species over beech and pine.
      PubDate: 2022-12-08
       
  • Assessing argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) skeels) ex-situ collections as
           a complementary tool to in-situ conservation and crop introduction in the
           Mediterranean basin

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      Abstract: Key message The argan ex-situ collections help its crop breeding and conservation in the Mediterranean basin, specifically in the southern Iberian Peninsula, where climatic refuges and new cultivation areas could be established. A. spinosa (L.) Skeels, hereafter argan, is a tree species naturally distributed in Morocco and Algeria, introduced mainly for productive purposes in countries, such as Tunisia, Israel, and Spain. This promising species has a more extensive potential cultivation and use due to its economic prospects in human food and cosmetics. These reasons and its great aridity adaptation have raised the strategic value of argan and its ex-situ collections, compared to other more sensitive to climate change crops. From this perspective, this study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity of an ex-situ, 10-year-old collection on more than 600 specimens raised in southern Iberian Peninsula, and to promote its cultivation in the most suitable regions for its introduction throughout the Mediterranean basin. To this end, the genetic and morphological diversity of a subset of selected specimens was compared, and six MaxENT models were trained using 96 occurrence points in both wild and cultivated localities (ex-situ collections), together with six bioclimatic variables in a current timeframe and under two climate change scenarios (optimist and pessimist). Surprisingly, this Iberian collection’s genetic diversity was highly representative of the wild population’s diversity in their natural range. Given this representativeness, these cultivars could be a complementary conservation tool as well as a starting point for domestication, breeding, and cultivation programs in a wide environmental range in these territories. The natural distribution of argan will be considerably reduced and shift towards northern habitats by 2050 and 2080, where climatic refuges and new cultivation areas could be established.
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
       
  • A method for estimating tree ring density by coupling CT scanning and ring
           width measurements: application to the analysis of the ring width–ring
           density relationship in Picea abies trees

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      Abstract: Key Message The original method proposed provides useful data for the analysis of ring density variations in stems, highlighting the particular behaviour observed at the base of the tree. Tree growth in volume and wood density are the two factors that determine tree biomass. They are important for assessing wood quality and resource availability. Analysing and modelling the relationships between these two factors are important for improving silvicultural practices of softwoods like Norway spruce, for which a negative relationship is generally observed between ring width and ring density. We describe an original method for obtaining ring density data (RD) by coupling conventional ring width measurements (RW) and air-dry density measurements obtained with X-ray computer tomography at high-speed but with lower resolution than the RW data. The method was applied to 200 discs of Norway spruce trees sampled in a plantation to assess its relevance. The RW–RD relationship was analysed as a function of cambial age and disc height in the stem. Descriptive statistical models were developed and compared to models in the literature. These models made it possible to analyse the variations of RD as a function of height in the tree at a given cambial age or for a given calendar year and also to observe a shift in the juvenile wood–mature wood boundary between the bottom of the tree and the rest of the stem. The RD– RW relationship was observed in the juvenile wood at the base of the stem but not in the juvenile wood higher up. Furthermore, the juvenile wood formed at the base of the tree was denser than the juvenile wood formed higher up and the mature wood formed at the same height. In conclusion, the proposed method was found to be relevant, especially when wood discs are readily available, and the results obtained highlighted the importance of distinguishing juvenile wood formed at the base of the tree from that formed higher up.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
       
  • Sapwood density underlies xylem hydraulics and stored carbohydrates across
           

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      Abstract: Key message Sapwood density is coordinated with hydraulic capacity and non-structural carbohydrate reserves in xylem in the seasonally dry tropical forests. Sapwood density (WD) is one characteristic underlying the divergence in life history strategies among species in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) since WD is liked to xylem hydraulic properties through its correlations with vessel anatomy, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and leaf phenology. However, it remains unclear how differences in WD contribute to the divergence in water conduction and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves during the dry season, the physiologically most severe period for woody plants. We hypothesized that heavy-wooded species maintain water conduction, photosynthesis, and translocation of carbon which result in high NSC reserves in xylem during the dry season. Using 13 deciduous tree species from a SDTF located in Northeast Thailand, we investigated the variation in WD and bark morphology in relation to hydraulic properties and NSC concentrations in xylem during the late-dry season. Percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) varied as a quadric function of WD: high PLC was observed in light- and heavy-wooded species. The maximum conductivity was not related to WD. The PLC was negatively related to the concentrations of soluble sugars and NSC in the trunk xylem, and these relationships underlined the negative association between WD and NSCs. We also found that species with thick bark showed relatively low PLC, and that dense-barked species exhibited higher NSC concentrations in branch xylem, but their linkages were generally weaker than WD. These results demonstrate that species hydraulics and NSC reserves are coordinated in SDTFs during the dry season, and that WD underlies these divergences.
      PubDate: 2022-12-03
       
  • Evaluation of native plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Handroanthus
           impetiginosus micropropagation

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      Abstract: Key message Stenotrophomonas, Advenella, Sphingobacterium, Brevundimonas, and Bacillus strains isolated from the H. impetiginosus rhizosphere improve rooting percentages, biometric parameters, and biochemical features of in vitro pink lapacho plants. Handroanthus impetiginosus ‘pink lapacho’ (Bignoniaceae) is a woody plant native from South America with high ornamental and medicinal value. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are widely described to promote plant growth by improving nutrient acquisition and secreting phytohormones, among other mechanisms. Although in vitro culture is widely recommended for woody plant propagation, it usually presents difficulties in rooting and subsequent acclimatisation. This fact causes significant economic losses in commercial production. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize native rhizospheric bacteria from pink lapacho and evaluate their plant growth promotion abilities during in vitro rooting. Six bacterial strains identified as Stenotrophomonas L20, Advenella sp L21, Sphingobacterium sp. L22, Brevundimonas L23, and Bacillus L24 and L25 were isolated from the H. impetiginosus rhizosphere. Most of them were able to grow in nitrogen-free medium, solubilize phosphate and zinc compounds, and produce indolic compounds. Advenella sp. L21, Sphingobacterium sp. L22, and Bacillus sp. L25 significantly increased (over 32%) rooting percentages of non-induced plants. The combination of IBA induction and bacterization with Advenella sp. L21, Sphingobacterium sp. L22, Brevundimonas sp. L23, and Bacillus sp. L24 increased the number of rooted plants between 15 and 20% compared to the control shoots. In addition, Advenella sp. L21 and Bacillus sp. L25 caused the greatest increases in all root development parameters and fresh and dry shoot weights. Our results support that the use of microorganisms in micropropagation could prevent plant loss and reduce the high costs of production by minimising synthetic auxins requirements.
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
       
 
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