Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Trees
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.726
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0931-1890 - ISSN (Online) 1432-2285
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Recovery of trembling aspen, tamarack, and white spruce seedlings from
           NaCl stress following winter dormancy: implications for increased foliar
           potassium, necrosis, and sodium management as stress resistance mechanisms
           

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      Abstract: Key message Different tree species exposed to NaCl stress exhibited similar responses including elevated foliar K, increased foliar necrosis, as well as the exclusion or accumulation of foliar Na. Revegetation of boreal forest lands disturbed by surface mining for bitumen can be challenging due to fluctuating levels of soil NaCl and harsh winter temperatures. These stressors may hinder the growth and survival of planted tree seedlings. Two experiments were carried out to examine the processes of recovery from NaCl stress and overwintering in trembling aspen, tamarack, and white spruce seedlings. In the recovery experiment, seedlings were treated with 0, 50, or 100 mM NaCl for 60 days and then allowed to recover for 60 days. Most of the examined physiological variables (total dry weight, chlorophyll concentration, photosynthesis, and transpiration) in all examined species returned to control levels after 30 days of recovery from the NaCl treatment. In the overwintering experiment, seedlings were subjected to 0 or 50 mM NaCl treatment throughout the first growing season, overwintered, and treated with 0, 50, or 100 mM NaCl for 8 weeks during the second growing season. All tested species exhibited foliar chlorosis and necrosis from NaCl treatment in the first year. Several similarities were observed between species in both experiments, including increased foliar K and necrosis in trembling aspen and tamarack. Trembling aspen exhibited remarkably low foliar Na, whereas tamarack and white spruce had high concentrations of foliar Na despite the recovery of physiological variables to control levels. Elevated foliar K, necrosis, and Na management may constitute important salt resistance mechanisms for the tree species tested.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Differentiating refilling and transpiration from night-time sap flux based
           on time series modelling

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      Abstract: Key message Although night-time transpiration occurs most of the time, stem refilling contributed more to the amount of night-time sap flux, which indicates that there was no water loss in Schima superba at night-time. It has been historically shown to be difficult to identify the night-time transpiration (En) and stem refilling (Rn) components from night-time sap flux (NFt). We applied an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model with exogenous variables (ARMAX) fitting En to distinguish NFt of Schima superba for avoiding autocorrelation. In total, 23 optimum models were chosen at the node moments of the night in the dry and wet seasons. Models performed seasonal variations in involving environmental factors and build time. Vapor pressure deficit (VPDt) alone or with wind speed (WSt) drove positively NFt in most of the time in both seasons. SMt dominated NFt only at the beginning of the night-time in the dry season. En occurred 1 h later and was lower in the wet than in the dry season (ca. 1.09 kg h−1 vs 1.82 kg h−1), and Rn is the opposite (ca. 2.36 kg h−1 vs 1.9 kg h−1). This may cause by greater water storage deficit in the trunk due to stronger day-time transpiration. We found that NFt was minor compared to day-time sap flux (DFt), and the mean ratio of night-time sap flow (Qn) to daily sap flow (Qw) was only 0.02. Our results showed that there were no seasonal differences on the contribution of NFt to the 24-h Ft, and no water loss at the daily scale in Schima superba in both seasons (Rn > En). This study first quantifies En and Rn, and reveals seasonal variations in tree night-time water use and provides a basis for better understanding of En function.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Age-related tree-ring sensitivity at the dry forest-steppe boundary in
           northwestern Patagonia

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      Abstract: Key message The association between growth and climate in the forests of Austrocedrus chilensis placed at the forest-steppe ecotone was found to be age dependent, with ring widths from the oldest trees providing a better expression of climate variability. Over the course of their lives, trees may undergo changes in sensitivity to climate during their ontogenetic development, i.e., from seedling to maturity. Identifying these age-dependent responses is relevant to minimize under or over estimations of the climatic signal in dendroclimatic reconstructions. It also provides important clues in predicting the reactions of different age-class trees to ongoing climate changes. In this context, the main goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of radial growth of Austrocedrus chilensis (Ciprés de la Cordillera) to climate variability as a function of tree age. Wood cores from 90 trees growing in the forest-steppe ecotone of northwestern Patagonia in Argentina, were sampled. By analyzing their growth rings, trees were classified in two age classes: young (< 93 years) and mature (≥ 93 years). Pearson’s and moving correlations revealed that spring-early-summer total precipitation positively correlated with growth regardless of age, particularly during the previous growing season. Mean temperature and standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI-1 month), however, showed a stronger association with the growth of mature trees than with young trees, especially in relation to the previous growing season. The moving correlation analysis showed, moreover, that the associations between climatic variables and radial growth of A. chilensis varied between age classes during the last century. The obtained results could help to improve our understanding of the ecology of A. chilensis and provide a better interpretation of how Patagonian forests could be influenced by climate change processes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Effects of climate on the tree ring density and weight of Betula ermanii
           in a cool temperate forest in central Japan

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      Abstract: Key Message The tree ring weight of Betula ermanii was primarily controlled by the ring width, but not by its ring density. The climate responses of them were clarified by dendrochronological analysis. Global warming scenarios have made the understanding of carbon sequestration changes in the stems of forest trees important. However, there is a lack of understanding about climate change’s effects on the wood density of hardwood, which is a crucial indicator of wood biomass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of climatic factors on the ring density and ring weight of B. ermanii, a dominant tree species in cool temperate regions and subalpine regions of Japan. We calculated the annual ring weight growth by multiplying the ring width and density. We developed the residual chronologies of the ring density and weight and performed a correlation analysis between the chronologies and the climate data. We deduced that the ring density was independent of the ring width for individual cores. The ring weight chronology showed a positive correlation with the ring width but not with ring density. The ring density decreased due to higher temperature, long sunshine duration, and less precipitation from mid-July to early October in the previous year. Conversely, those from mid-June to mid-August increased the ring density in the current year. The previous year’s high nighttime temperature in autumn and dry conditions during the current year’s summer decreased the ring weight, similar to the climate responses of ring width. Therefore, we concluded that ring weight was not controlled by ring density, but majorly regulated by ring width. Conclusively, this study’s results can evaluate the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration potential of the stem of B. ermanii.
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Dry and hot years drive growth decline of Pinus halepensis at its southern
           range limit in the Moroccan High Atlas Mountains

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      Abstract: Key message Pinus halepensis trees at the southern limit of the species distribution show less growth, low relative resilience, and more missing rings in response to increased temperatures and droughts. Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme droughts in the northern hemisphere, leading to forest decline and tree mortality. Species are more vulnerable to climate fluctuations at the rear-edge limits of their distribution ranges. Pinus halepensis Mill. is a Mediterranean conifer with its southern distribution limit in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The purpose of this study was to analyse the climate response of P. halepensis tree rings from the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco, and to determine its resilience to extreme drought events. Climate data for the study site revealed that temperature has significantly increased in recent decades, but precipitation remained unchanged, resulting in increased aridity. The ring-width time series revealed several missing rings since 1999, possibly linked to the increased aridity. Tree-ring width responded negatively to spring and summer maximum temperature and positively to previous winter and spring precipitation. Moving correlation analysis revealed an increased negative relation with maximum temperature in April, June, and July, supporting the adverse effect of global warming on P. halepensis growth. Resilience analysis revealed that trees were able to recover from extreme droughts, but its detrimental effect remained in the following years. Pinus halepensis trees at the southern limit of their distribution are already suppressing growth in extreme drought years. If the frequency of extreme droughts increases, as predicted by climate change models, the recovery capacity of these trees will be compromised, resulting in habitat loss and in the potential contraction of the species southern range.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Receptiveness of soil bacterial diversity in relation to soil nutrient
           transformation and canopy growth in Chinese fir monoculture influenced by
           varying stand density

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      Abstract: Key message Varying stand density was the principal factor altering bacterial diversity compared to soil properties. Soil bacteria with a higher alpha diversity were present in low stand density. Absract Different land-use patterns and silvicultural practices contribute to the shifting composition and assemblage of soil bacterial communities. Positive plant and soil responses to nutrient acquisition, promotion of sustainable growth, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and disease suppression depend on favorable interactions between plant roots and microbes. This study investigated the community assemblage of soil bacteria and its interaction with soil quality indicators and canopy growth parameters (e.g., mean tilt angle of the leaf (MTA), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy openness index (DIFN)) in low, intermediate and high density stands of Chinese fir plantation at two soil depths (0–20 and 20–40 cm). The results showed that the soils of the low-density stand had higher α-bacterial diversity than the soils of medium and high-density forests. Among all variables, Acidobacteria was the most dominant phylum with 24.72%, followed by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi with 20.41%, 15.89%, 11.67%, respectively. Among different canopy parameters, low-density associated bacterial diversity was positively correlated with the canopy openness index. Among soil properties, potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus were considerably influential factors to bacterial communities. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that soil physiochemical properties accounted for 31.86% of the total migration of the soil bacterial communities. Although soil attributes were the significant contributing factors affecting bacterial communities, varying stand density was the main factor altering bacterial diversity. By revealing changes in soil bacterial relative abundance and richness patterns at different levels of stand density, this study would provide comprehensive proof of the complexity of belowground ecology. It will also serve as a foundation for developing sustainable management strategies in silty oxisol soil types and plantation crops.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Bases for genetic conservation of Freziera atlantica, an endangered wood
           species and endemic to the Atlantic Forest hotspot

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      Abstract: Key Message Freziera atlantica is an endangered species. It was found that intrapopulation genetic diversity is high, possibly maintained by the seed bank, but human disturbances threaten the population. In the Anthropocene, one of the major concerns worldwide is related to landscape disturbances, causing changes in the planet’s climate and declining genetic diversity of plant populations. Establishing concrete plans for genetic conservation of species is a great challenge, with knowledge of their genetic variations as a key element. In this study, we evaluated the diversity and genetic structure of an isolated population of the endangered species F. atlantica, focused on the purpose of contributing to the conservation of tree plants and the future mediation identification of tree matrixes for seed collection. Total genomic DNA from 44 adult individuals was extracted and purified. Thus, diversity, similarity and population genetic structure were measured from ISSR genotyping. Polymorphisms between the analyzed individuals were identified in the electrophoretic analysis by the presence or absence of bands. The results indicate low polymorphism among the F. atlantica individuals (46.6%) studied, possibly as a response to population isolation and aggregate distribution at the site. However, genetic diversity can be considered high and is possibly maintained by a self-incompatibility mechanism as a response to dioecy. Our results are a first approach for the structuring and genetic diversity in the neotropical Freziera genus and the first steps to acquire knowledge of biological aspects and proposition of in situ and ex situ conservation strategies for F. atlantica.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Trimming influences tree light interception and space exploration:
           contrasted responses of two cultivars of Fraxinus pennsylvanica at various
           scales of their architecture

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      Abstract: Key message Complementarities and/or synergies among different scales of tree architecture enable to achieve different functions simultaneously and/or optimize one function. After trimming, tree reaction occurred in all the scales. Trees are modular organisms within which each scale has attributes enabling them to optimize different functions. Among these functions, space exploration and light interception are strong determinants of tree productivity and survival. By modifying the crown shape, including foliage dispersion in the 3D space and carbon allocation, tree trimming (i.e. the removal of the higher part of the crown) may largely influence how trees fulfill the space exploration and light interception functions. In this study, we used field measurements of tree annual shoots combined with tree reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning data to analyze how different scales of the tree architecture complement each other to fulfill different functions simultaneously or combine to fulfill one single function more efficiently. We used morphological and functional variables measured at the annual shoot, axis, and tree scales to compare the architectural and functional strategies of two Fraxinus pennsylvanica cultivars and observe how trimming modifies these strategies. Results show that the two cultivars exhibit different strategies. One cultivar tended to optimize the space exploration function at both the annual shoot and axis scales and to optimize the light interception by displaying a large leaf area at the tree scale. The other cultivar tended to optimize light interception efficiency at both axis and tree levels. In both cultivars, trimming improved light interception efficiency and increased investments into space exploration. Nevertheless, after trimming, the two cultivars maintained their main architectural and functional strategy.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Legacy effect of extreme wetness events on subsequent tree growth
           

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      Abstract: Key message Extreme wetness changed the pattern of tree water uptake and improved tree water status at the beginning of the growing season in the subsequent year. Improved understanding of tree and ecosystem responses to precipitation changes is paramount for their conservation and management. However, not much is known about the influence of extremely high rainfall periods on forest ecosystems. In this study, tree stem growth, water use uptake, leaf water potential, and leaf water use efficiency of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations were assessed to investigate the legacy effects of extreme wetness events on subsequent tree growth in a semi-arid region of North China. The soil water content in 20–40 cm and 40–80 cm soil layers was higher than that in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm layers after an extreme wetness event in 2018, and the high soil water content lasted until July 2019. This consequently increased the ratio of tree water uptake from middle and deep soil layers, and improved tree water status at the beginning of the growing season, which can be explained by strong stem growth increase observed in 2019. These findings reveal regional forest dynamics under increased precipitation pattern variability, and play a vital role in providing adaptive forest management strategies in semi-arid regions of North China.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Temporal expression of defense-related genes in Ganoderma-infected oil
           palm roots

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      Abstract: Key message Salicylic acid-mediated early defense response in asymptomatic oil palm roots infected by Ganoderma boninense . Jasmonic acid-mediated defense response in oil palm with root lesions caused by Ganoderma boninense . The oil palm defense responses could not eradicate basal stem rot but may delay deterioration of infected oil palms. Basal stem rot is an oil palm disease which causes substantial loss to the oil palm industry in Southeast Asia. Temporal gene expression analysis of oil palms infected with Ganoderma boninense is important to identify the defense pathways at biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of fungal infection. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression of oil palm genes related to respiratory burst oxidation, phytohormone biosynthesis, salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense pathways in oil palm roots infected by G. boninense at different time points. The findings of this study confirmed that salicylic acid mediated the early defense response from infected oil palm during the biotrophic phase of fungal infection, while the JA-mediated defense response was triggered when the root lesions occurred in the infected oil palm root tissues during the necrotrophic phase of Ganoderma infection. The oil palm defense responses may play a role in delaying the progression of basal stem rot but is insufficiently effective to eradicate Ganoderma infection. Temporal gene expression may help in finding methods to ameliorate the impact of basal stem rot by prolonging the productive lifespan of diseased trees and to reduce the economic loss due to this disease.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Industrial scale-up of tissue-cultured Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex
           Gagnep

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      Abstract: Key message An in vitro-to-ex vitro shoot tip-derived protocol was developed to mass propagate (40,000 plants/year) Dracaena cambodiana . Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagnep (Agavaceae) has considerable ornamental and medicinal value, but due to over-exploitation of its natural stands, it has become endangered. In this study, we developed an in vitro-to-ex vitro protocol that allows for the mass propagation (micropropagation) of this plant. A regeneration protocol was developed for this plant from the culture of shoot tips. Callus and then adventitious shoots were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA while 2.0 mg/L TDZ and 1.0 mg/L BA in MS medium induced resembling somatic embryo-like structures, each which was able to develop a radicle, a hypocotyl and shoot. BA induced hyperhydricity when used at 4.0 mg/L. When cultured on ½MS medium with 0.5 mg/L of either NAA or IBA, 100% of shoots formed roots within one month. Almost 100% of plantlets transferred to a substrate of coconut husk and peat (1:1, v/v) survived. This study also reports the first large-scale production of D. cambodiana plantlets in plastic bags (40,000 plants/year), with the potential for more than 1 million plants/year, allowing for market demand to be met and plants to be produced in sufficient volumes for eco-restoration projects.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Effects of climate and protection status on growth and fruit yield of
           Strychnos spinosa Lam., a tropical wild fruit tree in West Africa

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      Abstract: Key Message Strychnos spinosa growth was less responsive than its fruit production, to tree size, protection status and climate; its fruit production increased with tree size, and more so on protected sites. Abiotic and biotic mechanisms (e.g. climate, human perturbations) are presumed to shape tree growth and reproductive performances. Using the wild fruit tree Strychnos spinosa Lam., as a case study in Benin, we tested whether (and how) tree growth and fruit production were influenced by protection status (non-protected vs. protected sites), climatic zones (Sudanian vs. Sudano-Guinean zones) and size classes (tree diameter < 15 cm; 15–20 cm and > 20 cm). We also tested which climatic variables were important in predicting tree growth/fruit production. Tree growth was only influenced by size class, with higher growth rate in smaller than bigger size classes. Unlike tree growth, fruit production varied significantly with climate and protection status (higher fruit production in Sudano-Guinean than in sudanian zone, and on protected sites than non-protected sites). Fruit production also increased with tree size, and more so on protected sites than non-protected sites. The effect of protection status on fruit production also varied with climatic zones, with protected trees having more fruits than non-protected trees in Sudano-Guinean zone, while both protected and non-protected trees showed similar fruit production in the Sudanian zone. There was a trade-off mechanism between fruit production and growth, which was more pronounced on protected sites. Our study showed that both climate and protection status were considerably important for fruit production, in significant positive (resp. negative) effects of temperature and relative humidity, via mediation by tree size in protected (resp. non-protected) sites. These underlying drivers should be taken into account when predicting scenario for fruit yield under future climate.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Strategies of urban trees for mitigating salt stress: a case study of
           eight plant species

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      Abstract: Key message Some species synthesize larger amounts of polyprenols, which probably increase the plant’s ability to mitigate salt stress. Salt stress does not cause macronutrient deficiency in the leaves of urban trees. Ionic imbalance in the leaves caused by soil salinity worsens the health status of sensitive species. Street trees are exposed to relatively high stress levels, and the average lifespan of street trees is shortened compared to those of trees living under controlled natural conditions. Soil salinity adversely affects trees at all stages of growth and development. This study attempts to determine how the urban environment, with particular emphasis on salt stress, affects tree species with different levels of salinity sensitivity. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies of eight tree species for mitigating salt stress based on the determination of the chemical composition of the macroelements in the leaves, the ionic imbalance, and the ability of the trees to synthesize and accumulate polyprenols in the leaves. The obtained results suggest that individual species implemented different strategies in response to salt stress. The low sensitivity species: Q. rubra, R. pseudoacacia, G. triacanthos and A. campestre. blocked the uptake of Cl and Na to the leaves. The medium-sensitivity species: P. x hispanica blocked the uptake of Cl and Na and G. biloba maintained very high contents of Cl and Na in its leaves without leaf damage and synthesized large amounts of polyprenols. G. triacanthos and A. campestre synthesized large amounts of polyprenols. The high-sensitivity species (T. x euchlora and A. platanoides) exhibited very high contents of Cl and Na in their leaves, which were significantly damaged and had a pronounced ionic imbalance. These effects were not compensated for by the increased synthesis of polyprenols. In conclusion, the accumulation of polyprenols in leaf tissue may be one of the strategies that increase the resistance of plants to salt stress. Plants have many other methods of mitigating salt stress.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Genetic diversity and population structure of Pinus halepensis Mill. in
           Jordan revealed by simple sequence repeats

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      Abstract: Key message Pinus halepensis populations in Jordan maintained a moderate level of genetic diversity with considerable intra-population than inter-population differentiation due to long-distance zygotic and gametic gene flows among populations. The genetic diversity and structure of 156 germplasm samples collected from four natural and five planted Pinus halepensis Mill. populations in Jordan were investigated using simple sequence repeat markers. These fragmented stands represent the easternmost edge of the species natural range of distribution in the Mediterranean basin. Our study revealed relatively high expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s diversity index (He = 0.574, I = 1.124). Genetic diversity parameters, Na, Ne, He, and I slightly increased in planted populations compared to natural populations. The AMOVA and population genetic differentiation index (Fst) analysis revealed higher level of intra-population differentiation than inter-population differentiation. The UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic structure analysis revealed two sub-groups, which were not consistent with the geographic distribution pattern. Furthermore, the population genetic distance was not correlated with geographic distance (rxy = − 0.507; p = 0.197; R2 = 0.2568; y = 60.323x + 8.7366). It can be concluded that Jordan’s Aleppo pine populations maintained a moderate level of genetic diversity with marked intra-population than inter-population differentiation. The low genetic differentiation among natural populations can be attributed to an effective gene flow among populations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Seasonal changes in nitrate assimilation of boreal woody species:
           importance of the leaf-expansion period

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      Abstract: Key message Nitrate served as an important nitrogen source for dominant deciduous tree species, especially during their leaf expansion period, even in boreal forests, where nitrate availability was assumed to be low. Temporal changes in leaf nitrate assimilation with leaf growth were intensively investigated in boreal tree species to demonstrate the contribution of nitrate as a N source and to determine temporal changes in the contribution of nitrate during leaf ontogeny. Leaf area, mass, nitrate reductase activity (NRA), N concentration, and δ15N were repeatedly measured in developing leaves of naturally grown Alnus crispa, Betula neoalaskana, and Populus tremuloides during their leaf expansion period. Alnus crispa and B. neoalaskana showed distinct peaks in NRA during leaf expansion, whereas P. tremuloides did not. The highest peak in NRA occurred for A. crispa, whereas it had low NRA during the summer. Peak NRA in B. neoalaskana was lower than that of A. crispa (p < 0.01, ANOVA), although it showed higher NRA during summer (p < 0.01, ANOVA). All species showed clear decrease in N concentration through the leaf expansion period, but total N content per leaf increased. Only the N-fixing species A. crispa showed a rapid change in δ15N during the leaf expansion, and the decline indicated the changes in N source during the leaf development. The results indicate leaves of target species assimilated nitrate during the leaf expansion period, consuming immense energy, although leaves were considered a carbon sink during the early leaf expansion period. We suggest the early onset of leaf growth due to climate warming could influence plant nutrition via asynchrony between supply and demand for energy during spring.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Intra-annual isotope variations in tree rings reveal growth rhythms within
           the least rainy season of an ever-wet tropical forest

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      Abstract: Key message Isotope variation (δ 18 O) in wood suggests new insights on growth rhythms in trees growing in tropical forest with extremely high precipitation, without seasonal droughts or flooding. It is well known that growth-limiting factors such as seasonal droughts can induce periodicities in woody tissue formation of tropical trees. In regions without seasonal droughts or flooding but sufficient water for photosynthesis (ever-wet tropical forests), rhythmic growth has been previously reported; however, triggering factors remain little explored. Our objective was to establish tree-ring frequency and probable growing season by analysis of the intra-annual variability of isotopic ratios in cellulose (δ18Ocellulose and δ13Ccellulose) and relationships with environmental variables in two tree species (Humiriastrum procerum and Virola dixonii) growing in an ever-wet tropical forest (Choco region of Colombia, precipitation 7200 mm year−1, mean annual temperature 25.9 °C), located close to the Pacific Ocean at ca 3° 57′ 12.54″ N–76° 59′ 27.96″ W. Here, we report annual rhythmic growth evidenced by radiocarbon analysis, leaf phenology, dendrometer records, and stable-isotope variation in cellulose. All evidence points to the probable growing season occurring during the least rainy months for both species. While intra-annual δ18Ocellulose values follow a rhythmic variation, δ13Ccellulose variations show a less clear pattern, probably due to deciduity and remobilization of non-structural carbon stored in previous growing stages. Furthermore, δ18Ocellulose covary with relative humidity, vapor pressure deficit, short-wave solar radiation, and temperature during the least rainy months. In contrast, δ13Ccellulose values were not significantly correlated with environmental variables. Our results show that stable-isotope variations in tree rings, even under ever-wet conditions, are valuable for understanding drivers of tropical tree growth in such conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Age-related pattern in bark formation of Betula ermanii growing in
           volcanic environments from southern Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (Northeast
           Asia)

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      Abstract: Key message Stressful volcanic environments induce adaptive changes in bark thickness, phloem structure, and particularly sieve-tube structure to optimise long-distance carbon transport. The response of woody plants to stressful environments is important for estimating and forecasting their adaptive capacity under a climate change. A severe stress factor for woody plants is the activity of magmatic and mud volcanoes, with physiological drought as its major consequence. Understanding the structural changes in the bark and phloem, the functioning of lateral meristems with tree age in a high-stress environment is, however, limited, affecting interpretation of the data. Age-related patterns in bark formation of Betula ermanii (stone birch) growing in different environmental conditions characterized by various stressful regimes with volcanic influence in Northeast Asia (Sakhalin and Iturup Islands) were analyzed. Here, we examine how trees can maintain efficient phloem long-distance transport as they grow taller by analyzing conducting phloem and sieve-tube element anatomy. The first typical site is located in the southern part of Sakhalin Island, near Krasnaya Mountain. Other sites are situated in stressful environments, such as groups of gryphons on the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsky mud volcano, Sakhalin Island; solfatara field and hot springs on the Baransky (Sashiusudake) magmatic volcano, Iturup Island. The bark structure of Betula ermanii was described in ontogeny from the first year shoots to a mature trunk 60–73 years in age from typical to stressful sites. Based on statistical analysis, age-related feature trends plotted for a wide list of the bark characters from each sites under our study. The following bark traits were analyzed: bark thickness, area of protophloem fibers and sclereids, secondary (nonconducting and conducting) phloem width, sieve-tube element diameters and length, number of total rays and uniseriate rays per mm. Significant differences among typical and volcanic sites exist for bark and phloem traits involved in vertical and horizontal water transport and photosynthates exchange in the stem with tree age. The annual growth increments of bark thickness and secondary phloem width are 2–3 times less in individuals from volcanic sites. The change of secondary phloem parameters with tree age is non-linear in all the sites—the rate of such change is higher in younger trees. The geometric parameters of sieve-tube elements—length, radial and tangential diameters, also change non-linearly with age. Most of the age-related change in sieve-tube elements volume is due to widening, and tangential growth of sieve-tube elements is usually faster than radial growth. The length of the sieve-tube elements in the phloem transport pathway is higher by 1.5–2 times in individuals from volcanic sites in comparison to individuals from typical site, in case of similar tree heights. Our results showed that bark thickness can act as a plant functional trait on its own, representing the structural response of woody plants to environmental conditions. We suppose this to be due to the multifunctionality of the bark across tree ages. As Betula ermanii grows into a tall tree, sieve-tube elements get enlarged and elongated from the tree top towards the root. The sieve-tube elements elongation and expansion in volcanic sites are adaptive and likely caused by physiological drought under high-salinity conditions. Thus, our study showed that structural changes in sieve-tube elements serve to optimize flows via the phloem pathway over long distances in tall adult trees.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Accumulation versus storage of total non-structural carbohydrates in woody
           plants

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      Abstract: Key message A contribution to understand the eco-physiological significance of the total non-structural carbohydrate reserves through making a distinction between accumulated and stored pools along with their respective roles played in woody plants. Plant assimilates are partitioned to growth, defense, maintenance and reserves. Reserves of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) are accumulated when the demand for carbon (C) is lower than C supply. Accumulated TNC are stored if not used for growth and metabolism during the growing period. The assessment of the physiological significance of TNC reserves in trees should distinguish between accumulated and stored pools. Accumulated fraction of TNC is characterized by a rapid turnover rate that buffers temporary negative C balance of trees in an annual cycle, whereas stored fraction is characterized by a slow turnover rate that could buffer demand for TNC throughout all tree life during stressful conditions. The increased need for TNC during acute adverse environmental conditions associated with the slow turnover of stored TNC reserves induces the remobilization of the fraction of TNC initially destined for growth and defense which could be a cause of tree mortality. The observed C “sequestration” could be due to the slow turnover dynamic of stored TNC that could be in turn, an adaptive strategy to survive adverse conditions at long term, especially in areas characterized by poor nutrient availability, repeated disturbance and prolonged drought periods. The storage-growth tradeoff is discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Unraveling the survival potential of a desert halophyte Salvadora oleoides
           Decne. across heterogenic environments

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      Abstract: Key message Overexploitation of Salvadora oleoides for medicine and animal fodder along with significant habitat loss in its natural ranges is causing a continuous decline in natural populations. Although, the IUCN Red List categorizes it as data deficit, there are some reports indicating that its natural populations are vulnerable in many regions of the world indicating the need of quick action to prevent further decline. The current study is an effort to link morphological, physiological and anatomical features with heterogenic environments of its natural distributional ranges in dry regions and how these structural modifications can be exploited for its sustainable conservation and re-vegetation to maintain forest cover of desertified systems. Salvadora oleoides Decne. is a xerophytic perennial plant species of Salvadoraceae family, widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Fifteen populations of this species were collected from five diverse habitats of Punjab province, i.e., roadside, river or canal banks, deserts or semi-deserts, saline land, and mountainous range to investigate their key features associated with ecological success of this species across environmental heterogeneity. Growth and biomass production, parenchyma cell size, oil glands, stomatal density on adaxial side of leaves, ionic contents, organic osmolytes (proline and glycine betaine), and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and POD) were the maximum in populations from saline areas (LAS and RUM). Desert populations exhibited specific modifications in growth attributes such as increased shoot length, leaf area and number of leaves per branch, widened metaxylem vessels, increased proportion of phloem and storage parenchyma, and high abaxial stomatal density were observed. Xeromorphy was high in populations colonizing along roadsides as evidenced by an intensive sclerification, increased epidermal thickness, formation of distinct collenchyma layer, and dense hairiness on the surface of stems. The canal or river bank populations possessed very large stem radii, vascular bundles, metaxylem vessels and storage parenchyma cells in stems. The population from the mountainous range exhibited thick leaves, greater mesophyll proportion, large vascular bundles and stomatal density on adaxial side. In conclusion, all these features reflect the tolerance capacity of S. oleoides against environmental adversities such as salinity, drought, and temperature fluctuation of the arid region. The plasticity of physio-anatomical attributes of this species with respect to adaptability to different environments can be helpful in performance of this species in arid regions under climate change in its native region as well as in desolated areas for carbon sequestration and maintenance of ecosystem services.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Intra-annual tree-ring isotope variations: do they occur when environment
           remains constant'

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      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
 
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