Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
La Calera     Open Access  
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Forestry Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.373
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9368 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9376
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Soil Properties Mediated by Topography Influence Carbon Stocks in a Teak
           Plantation in the Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

    • Abstract: Recent estimates indicate that over 291 million hectares of the Earth’s land area are occupied by forest plantations, representing 7% of the world’s forest area and 2% of the world’s land area. In Ghana, a substantial amount of degraded land found in hilly areas has been used to establish teak plantations for commercial wood and carbon benefits. Information on the potential influence of topography and soil properties on tree growth and carbon stocks in these plantations is however limited. The study was carried out to assess the influence of elevation on tree growth parameters and carbon stocks in a 7-year-old teak stand and also determined the differences in soil properties along the elevation gradient and its influence on biomass and carbon stocks. Although stand density was statistically similar for the three elevations, tree, diameter, and basal area significantly differed among the three elevations. They were higher at the valley than the mid-slope and the summit. The aboveground biomass and belowground biomass were also significantly higher at the valley compared to the mid-slope and summit. Measured SOC and CEC values between the three elevations showed no significant difference while a positive significant correlation between soil depth and biomass along the altitudinal gradient was observed. Overall, the mean percentage of nitrogen in the soil, pH, potassium, sodium levels, hydrogen, and aluminum varied significantly among the three elevations. Our study suggests that in mountainous areas teak stands in valleys are likely to produce higher biomass and carbon stocks than those in higher elevations; therefore, for better accuracy in biomass and carbon stocks estimations, site elevation should be taken into consideration during carbon stock assessments.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 04:50:01 +000
       
  • Social and Institutional Status of Area Exclosure in North Wollo and
           Waghemira Zones, Northeastern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Forest restoration with area exclosure has the hopeful restoration strategy for nature conservation and social development goals as a countermeasure against deforestation and forest degradation. However, the status of these restoration interventions is not well known with scientific evaluation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the social and institutional status of forest restoration with area exclosures. To do this, three districts in three agroecologies were selected purposively based on exclosure availability, and in each district, three exclosures were selected. The questionnaire survey was administered to households near the selected exclosures for both user and nonuser groups selected with simple random sampling. Required data were collected and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics and then compared against the best practices of Ostrom’s design principles (ODPs). The result revealed that the local community has good trust and participation in highland (63%) and mid-altitude (70%) areas, but low trust and participation in lowland areas (85%). In the highland and mid-altitude areas, local communities have the right to use exclosure for multiple uses. In lowland areas, the use right is very restricted for local communities. Exclosure institutions and governance showed medium compliance in the highland, very good compliance in mid-altitude, and very poor compliance in the lowland with the ODP. This was triangulated when 79% of the respondents in highland and 82% in mid-altitude argued that area exclosure is successful and 82% of respondents argued that area exclosure is failed in the lowland. For successful and sustainable forest restoration practice with area exclosure, the approach should start at the bottom and the activity should require the full participation of the local community in all stages.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2022 07:20:01 +000
       
  • Effects of Environmental Factors on Carbon Stocks of Dry Evergreen
           Afromontane Forests of the Choke Mountain Ecosystem, Northwestern Ethiopia
           

    • Abstract: The purpose of this research was to quantify and compare carbon stocks in two selected dry evergreen montane forests of the Choke Mountain ecosystem that are under different management regimes. The study also attempted to assess the carbon stock along environmental gradients. The average carbon stock throughout the whole plots investigated in Anshirava forest (protected) was 180.18 t·ha−1 (53%) in AGB, 111.43 t·ha−1 (33%) in soil, 36.43 t·ha−1 (11%) in BGB, 6.09 t·ha−1 (2%) in USB, 2.69 t·ha−1 (1%) in litter, and 1.36 t·ha−1 (less than 1%) in DW. In Ziba forest (high human intervention), the average carbon stock was 106.71 t·ha−1 (44%) in AGB, 100.07 t·ha−1 (42%) in soil, 21.34 t·ha−1 (9%) in BGB, 5.41 t·ha−1 (2%) in USB, 4.82 t·ha−1 (2%) in litter, and 2.00 t·ha−1 (1%) in DW. The AGB had the greatest carbon share in both forests, followed by soil. In Anshirava and Ziba forests, the mean total carbon stocks (TCS) were 338.18 t·ha−1 and 240.36 t·ha−1, with CO2 equivalents of 1241.14 t·ha−1 and 882.12 t·ha−1, respectively. The study indicated a significant variation between the two forests. Anshirava forest has larger total carbon stocks than Ziba forest. For lower, medium, and higher altitudes, the total carbon stock variation along an altitudinal gradient was 289.67 t·ha−1, 347.93 t·ha−1, and 414.89 t·ha−1 in Anshirava forest and 270.99 t·ha−1, 204.24 t·ha−1, and 224.82 t·ha−1 in Ziba forest, respectively. As a result, a greater amount of carbon was stored at higher altitudes in Anshirava and at lower altitudes in Ziba, with no significant difference in both forests. The total carbon stock variation along slope gradient was 392.60 t·ha−1, 344.59 t·ha−1, and 295.49 t·ha−1 in Anshirava forest and 258.74 t·ha−1, 222.46 t·ha−1, and 171.46 t·ha−1 in Ziba forest for flat, intermediate, and steep slopes, respectively. This resulted in higher carbon being stored in flat slopes in both forests. Also, only at the Ziba site, a significant difference was found along the slope gradient. In each forest, eight distinct aspect facings were observed, with the western (W) aspect containing the highest value of total carbon stock in both forests. Lower values, on the other hand, were recorded in the south (S) and flat (F) aspects of Anshirava and Ziba forests, respectively. The slope aspects of both forests varied significantly. As a result, the research reveals that environmental factors have a significant impact on carbon stock value of Choke Mountain forest ecosystem, but the impact is not consistent among carbon pools.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 16:05:01 +000
       
  • Development of Vegetative Propagation Strategies for Balanites aegyptiaca
           in the Sahel, Niger

    • Abstract: Forests have always been a source of wood, food, and medicine for the rural populations of the Sahel. Anthropogenic and animal pressures often lead to low tree recruitment rates and seedling survival. Under certain conditions, multipurpose species such as Balanites aegyptiaca have shown dramatic decreases in population numbers. The objective of the present study is to determine the natural colonisation behaviour of B. aegyptiaca and to develop vegetative propagation strategies. Surveys were carried out in the agroforest parklands of the Regional Centre for Agricultural Research of Maradi Research Station. An inventory was carried out in 1,500 m2 plots to determine the species’ regeneration methods. We then tested seed germination success, and suckering induction, air-layering, and stem cuttings were carried out to determine the techniques best suited for the propagation of B. aegyptiaca. It emerged from this study that in nature, B. aegyptiaca is propagated naturally by dispersion of seeds (81.2%), as well as by rejection of the strain (13.5%) and by suckering (5.2%). The germination test showed that heavy seeds (38.4%) germinated best because they have a higher nutrient reserve. With a success rate of 11.1%, distal suckers react better than proximal suckers (5.5%) because they quickly acquire relative independence from the mother plant. As for air-layering, stems with large diameters react better (53.3%) than those with small diameters (46.6%) because they have thicker bark and store a large amount of elaborate sap responsible for rhizogenesis. In the stem segment cutting test, cuttings of small diameter react better at 30.8% than those of large diameter (12.6%) because they have a higher number of meristematic tissues. The stem segment cuttings seem to be the best adaptable alternative to the natural propagation of B. aegyptiaca because it combines ease of use, low cost, and a significant success rate.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 12:35:01 +000
       
  • Population Structure, Regeneration Status, and Threats to Dobera glabra
           (Forssk.) Poir. in Chifra District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Dobera glabra is a much branched multipurpose evergreen shrub or tree, which is distributed in Acacia savanna, Acacia open woodland with grassy clearings, and Acacia nubica scrub. This study investigates the population structure, regeneration status, cultural importance, and major threats to D. glabra and provides input for policy and decision-makers to develop conservation strategies that improve the population of the species. A sample plot of 30 20 meters and 10 10 meters were systematically laid along transect lines for the mature D. glabra population and seedling and saplings of the species, respectively. The historical distribution and principal threats to D. glabra were collected through semistructured interviews and focused group discussion with the purposively selected informants. Moreover, direct field observation of threats such as cutting and debarking was recorded. The density of D. glabra was found to be 18.33 stem ha−1. The mean DBH was 43.55 cm (SE 1.58), showing a bell-shaped pattern implying the mid-DBH class is the dominant class. The mean height and crown diameter was 5.5 m (SE 0.19) and 8.60 m (SE 0.31), respectively. Furthermore, the regeneration status of the D. glabra was found to be extremely poor. The major threats to the species were identified as drought, lightning, grazing, cutting, and windfall. The population structure of the species revealed a bell-shaped pattern. The extremely poor natural regeneration status of the species shows the need to implement a reactive conservation approach.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 07:35:03 +000
       
  • Morphological and Anatomical Characterization of Ecotype Needles of Cedrus
           atlantica in Morocco

    • Abstract: Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) G. Manetti ex Carrière) is an endemic species in the mountains of North Africa that is attracting international interest in its use in the reforestation of degraded ecosystems. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the morphoanatomical characteristics of needles of four cedar populations localized in the Middle and High Atlas Mountains. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), descriptive power, scatter-plot of the discrimination function, scatter-plot of discrimination, and dendrogram of the closest Euclidean distances were made on traits. The results of the linear model of ANOVA nested as population and tree within population suggest the differences statistically significant for the traits measured at a different level. Among these traits, the length of the needle, the width of a vascular bundle including endodermis, and thickness of the wall of hypodermis cell revealed the highest discriminating characters among populations of C. atlantica from the Middle and High Atlas and between the populations of the Middle Atlas. The agglomeration of populations over short Euclidean distances also showed a higher level of differentiation between two ecotypes of C. atlantica not very geographically distant in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The ecotype belonging to Aït Oufella and Aït Ayach confers this species a place of choice in the projects of revalorization of the Mediterranean populations, especially in semiarid areas.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Feb 2022 11:35:01 +000
       
  • Cinnamic Acid in Frankincense Sap as a Criterion for Determining the Best
           Mother Plant for Vegetative Propagation of Styrax benzoin (Sumatra
           Benzoin) in Sumatra, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Cinnamic acid, contained in frankincense sap produced by Styrax benzoin (Sumatra benzoin tree), is an important compound that is used for various purposes, such as preservatives, fragrances, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. The production of frankincense sap as a forest product can be increased through the inclusion of S. benzoin seeds, which are propagated from the best mother plants. This study aims to use the content of cinnamic acid contained in the sap of S. benzoin as a criterion for determining the best mother plant for propagation of seeds. The research was conducted using healthy plants, taking sap samples, identifying and confirmation of cinnamic acid levels, and determining the best mother tree based on the content of cinnamic acid. The results of this study have identified six individual S. benzoin trees of very good quality based on their phenotypic advantages and the quantity of sap production. Isolation and identification of cinnamic acid from frankincense samples showed that the composition of cinnamic acid was high (12 to 21%). Three good quality S. benzoin trees, with high cinnamic acid composition, were SBN-7 (21%), SBN-3 (18%), and SBN-10 (17%). The SBN-7 tree was then chosen as the best S. benzoin, producing 2.70 kg year−1 sap, containing cc. 21% cinnamic acid. A selected mother plant will be used as a source of plant material for vegetative propagation to produce good quality seeds similar to the properties of the parent plant forforest conservation and to increase the production of nontimber forest raw materials for medicine and other purposes. The finding of this study is the first to use the composition of cinnamic acid as a criterion for determining the best mother plant. The composition of cinnamic acid in the sap is an important parameter in determining the superiority of S. benzoin plants.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 14:35:03 +000
       
  • Sustainability of Mahogany Production in Plantations: Does Resource
           Availability Influence Susceptibility of Young Mahogany Plantation Stands
           to Hypsipyla robusta Infestation'

    • Abstract: Hypsipyla robusta Moore (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), like many other moth species, shows selectivity when choosing host plants for its eggs. Four Meliaceae species (Khaya grandifoliola, K. ivorensis, Swietenia macrophyla, and Entandrophragma cylindricum) were established in a moist semideciduous forest in Ghana to study this selectivity at 12 and 21 months after planting. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a -value of 0.05 was used to test the significance of differences in infestation by H. robusta between the species. H. robusta attacks were recorded by month 12 after planting in the field, and only Khaya spp. was attacked, with attacks evident on 15.5% of K grandifoliola and 6.6% K. ivorensis. Saplings in blocks closer to an older H. robusta infested K. grandifoliola stand had more infestation compared to saplings further away. The mean percentage of K. grandifoliola attacked was 38.9%, 38.9%, 13.3%, and 7.4% in 4 different plots located increasingly further away from the older infested plantation. A similar trend was found in K. ivorensis with 28.4%, 7.1%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in the plots located increasingly further away from the infested stand. These results indicate a higher number of shoot borer attacks at the edge of the plantation and in proximity to other infested plantations. After 21 months, the fastest-growing species and the fastest-growing individuals within the species were the most infested. K. grandifoliola recorded the fastest growth and most attacks followed by K. ivorensis and S. macrophylla. E. cylindricum recorded the least growth and no H. robusta infestation. After 21 months, the mean percentages of trees attacked were 59.1%, 23.7%, 5.6%, and 0.0% for K. grandifoliola, K. ivorensis, S. macrophylla, and E. cylindricum, respectively. Within species, the fastest-growing saplings experienced the most attacks. A positive correlation was observed between the plant size and H. robusta attacks (R2 = 0.76). Attacks resulted in the death of the apical shoot and the proliferation of multiple shoots in only the Khaya spp., with K. ivorensis recording a lower number of shoots than K. grandifoliola. These proliferated shoots were also attacked, and a positive correlation was observed between the number of proliferated shoots and H. robusta attacks (R2 = 0.84). These findings will assist plantation developers, forest managers, and investors in mahogany plantations to devise integrated pest management strategies to reduce the impact of Hypsipyla attacks on their plantations.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 14:50:02 +000
       
  • Potential of Wood Harvesting Residues and Residual Stand Damage due to
           Timber Harvesting: A Case Study at PT Austral Byna in Central Kalimantan,
           Indonesia

    • Abstract: The practice of timber harvesting in natural forests which has been conducted up to now still leaves wood harvesting residue and residual stand damage. Most condition of wood harvesting residue is still good and can be utilized. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of wood harvesting residue and residual stand damage on timber harvesting in natural forests. The data on wood utilization, wood harvesting residue, and residual damage were collected from three sample plots. The sample plots were arranged in a systematic and purposive manner, and the data were processed with tabulation and average analysis. Research results showed that the average volume of wood being utilized was 9.212 m3 tree−1. The average volume of wood harvesting residues was 2.310 m3 tree−1, and the total average volume of wood harvesting residues which were good, defected, and broken was 2.121 m3 (80.952%), with an average volume for good wood harvesting residue condition of 1.038 m3 (34.808%). Proportions of wood harvesting residues were 2.154 m3 (94.444%) consisting of buttress as large as 0.102 m3 (5.159%), stumps as large as 0.375 m3 tree−1 (23.597%), butt as large as 0.855 m3 (35.930%), and end part as large as 0.821 m3 (29.758%). The average number of trees with a diameter of 20 cm which were damaged due to felling and skidding was 5 trees ha−1 (5.40%) and 6 trees ha−1 (6.58%), respectively.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 09:35:01 +000
       
  • The Social and Economic Significance of Natural Gum and Resin in the
           Woodlands of South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The social, economic, and ecological role of woodlands forests in dry and lowland areas are more imperative than anywhere else. Most of the dry lands of Ethiopia host woodlands that produce various commercial gum-resin products. The objective of this study was to investigate the social and economic importance of commercial gum-resin products focusing on their roles in the local livelihoods. Four kebeles, namely, Luka and Enchete from Bena-Tsemay district, and Erbore and Asele from Hamer district of South Omo Zone, were purposively selected for the collection of socioeconomic data. Semistructured questionnaire and checklists were used for households and key informant interviews and focus group discussions, respectively. In addition, market assessments and field observation were conducted to collect the primary data and supplemented with secondary data. A total of 80 households were randomly selected for one-to-one interviews from the total number of 425 households in the selected kebeles. A total of 10 key informant interviews with elders, forestry experts, local merchants, and enterprise members involved in gum-resins marketing and 4 focus group discussions with 12 members including men, women, and youth were conducted. Simple descriptive statistical tools were used for the data analysis. The results of the study showed that the mean annual income earned from the sale of gum-resins was 5670 and 4571 ETB per household at Bena-Tsemay and Hamer study sites, respectively. About 84% of the respondents indicated that gum-resin collection was the simplest and fastest means to earn income for school children and women. Gum and resin collection was the third most important livelihood option in the study area following animal husbandry and crop and honey production. The majority (84%) of respondents recognized the income made from gum-resin products as a safety net during recurring famine eras. Moreover, respondents recognized the benefit of gum arabic as food during famine time, as chewing gum, and as nutritious fodder. It was also used as folk medicine for both human and livestock diseases. Communities used this resource as a constituent to treat eye and skin infections, bleeding, wounds, ulcers, stomachache, gastrointestinal infections, etc. In addition, 88.33% of shrubs/trees were used as source of cash income for local communities and 11.67% as fodder for animal husbandry. Despite this significance, various constraints hindered the utilization of the resource in the study area, and these included lack of appropriate tapping techniques, market access, market information, cooperatives, infrastructure facilities, and appropriate institutions as well as poor local communities’ awareness of land management. The present investigation has provided valuable information for overcoming the major constraints by devising strategies to maximize gum-resin production and commercialization in the study area.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jan 2022 07:35:11 +000
       
  • Spatiotemporal Patterns of Burned Areas Based on the Geographic
           Information System for Fire Risk Monitoring

    • Abstract: Forest and land fires occur every year in Indonesia. Efforts to handle forest and land fires have not been optimal because fires occur in too many places with unclear patterns and densities. The study analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of burned areas and fire density in fire-prone areas in Indonesia. Data of burned areas were taken from http://sipongi.menlhk.go.id/. The website collected its data from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) images. Data were analyzed using the hot spot analysis to determine the spatiotemporal patterns of the burned areas and the kernel density analysis to examine the density of land fires. Findings showed that the spatiotemporal pattern from 2016 to 2019 formed a hot spot value in the peatland area with a confidence level of 90–99%, meaning that land fires were clustered in that area. In addition, the highest density of land fires also occurred in the peatland areas. Clustered burned areas with high fire density were found in areas with low–medium vegetation density—they were the peatland areas. The peatland areas must become the priority to prevent and handle forest and land fires to reduce fire risks.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Dec 2021 07:20:00 +000
       
  • Extent and Rate of Deforestation and Forest Degradation (1986–2016) in
           West Bugwe Central Forest Reserve, Uganda

    • Abstract: Understanding the extent of land cover change and the forces behind land cover changes is essential in designing appropriate restoration strategies. Land cover changes at local scales or the factors that lead to cover change have not been documented for much of Uganda. We undertook this study in West Bugwe Central Forest Reserve (WBCFR) to fill this gap. We used remote sensing to determine land cover changes for a 30-year period, 1986–2016, and an interview survey to investigate the drivers of these changes. Our results show that the forest in this reserve has declined extensively by over 82% from 1,682 ha to 311 ha corresponding to an average change of −1.18% per year. The wetland has also been extensively degraded. Both the forest and wetland have transitioned into shrub land. The key drivers that have been highlighted by the survey are poverty (86%), population growth (56%), and associated harvesting of woody products (86%) for subsistence and income generation. We conclude that the forest in WBCFR has been extensively and rapidly deforested and degraded by humans.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Nov 2021 08:35:01 +000
       
  • Population Structure and Regeneration Status of Woody Species in Kenech
           Forest, Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Understanding the structural pattern and regeneration status of tree species is an important measure taken to assess the vegetation dynamics and their destruction factors species as well as management history and ecology of the forest. This study was conducted with the objective to assess the species diversity, structure, and regeneration status of woody species in Kenech natural forest, Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling method was employed as a sampling design for the collection of vegetation data. Accordingly, 40 plots of 20 m × 20 m were laid at every 100 m along four parallel transect lines following altitudinal gradient. Any woody species of trees and shrubs with the diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥2.5 cm was measured at 1.5 m from the ground. In each sample plots, all woody species seedling, sapling, and mature woody species were counted and recorded. A total of 80 plant species categorized into 67 genera and 28 families were recorded and identified, for description and analysis of vegetation structure. Structural analysis of the Kenech natural forest revealed a density of 840 stems/ha and a total basal area of 56.8 m2/ha. About 80.36% of the individuals are found in the first two classes (2.5–10 and 10–20 cm). The general pattern of DBH class distribution of woody species in the study area revealed an inverted J shape indicating the presence of a high density of trees in the lower DBH class than in the higher. The most dominant tree species relatively with the highest importance values recorded in the area were Pouteria adolfi-friedericii, Podocarpus falcatus, Celtis africana, Mimusops kummel, Pyschotria orophila, and Olea capensis subsp. macrocarpa. Forty-two species (64.61%) were represented by both seedling and sapling class, whereas 9 species (13.84%) were not regenerating.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Oct 2021 07:20:02 +000
       
  • Critical Review on Wild-Edible Fruit Species in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Wild edible fruit species are commonly consumed and utilized in different parts of Ethiopia for staple food, filling seasonal food shortages, emergency food during a famine, and household income generation. There is a pressing need for domestication and improvement of some wild edible fruits for increased production, diversifying income for small-scale farmers, and conservation of the diminishing wild edible fruit resources. A total of 37 widely utilized and marketed wild edible fruit species falling into 23 families were recognized as of used in different parts of the country. Of which, 26 species are identified as available in local markets in different parts of the country. Ziziphus spina-christi, Syzygium guineense, Balanites aegyptiaca, and other nine species were identified as a priority wild edible fruit species from available information based on utilization extent, preference ranking by farmers, product marketability, and conservation needs for the species. There exists a lack of scientifically planned genetic variation evaluation, superior variety selection, genetic improvement, and seedling production initiatives for indigenous wild edible fruit species in Ethiopia. All of the 37 widely utilized and marketed wild fruit species have not developed to their full potential in terms of quality, production scale, and market in the country. Identifying and selecting priority species, strengthening botanical information, germplasm collection and improvement, production and processing technologies, increasing the supply of improved planting materials, and promoting on-farm cultivation of wild edible fruit-based agroforestry systems were identified as key future strategies for domestication and wider cultivation of wild edible fruit species.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Sep 2021 17:05:01 +000
       
  • Restoration of Citropsis articulata, a Species at Risk from Medicinal
           Overharvesting in a Ugandan Rainforest Reserve

    • Abstract: Citropsis articulata, the African cherry orange, is considered to be threatened in Ugandan forests as a result of its purported aphrodisiac properties. This study, part of an ongoing effort to address restoration needs of Mabira Central Forest Reserve in Uganda, demonstrates the feasibility of restoring depleted C. articulata populations using seedlings transplanted from nursery-grown seeds. Phenology of 20 Mabira forest plants was monitored with the aim of collecting seeds. One hundred and fifty-six ripe fruits were collected, and 233 of the extracted seeds were planted in pots in a nursery during January–March 2019. During November-December 2019, seedlings were planted near the sites from which fruits were collected. Seed germination success rate was 89%, and fifteen months after transplanting, in situ survival was 100%. These results suggest that depleted C. articulata populations may be restored in situ using nursery-grown seeds.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Sep 2021 05:20:01 +000
       
  • Effect of Different Types of Mulching on Soil Properties and Tree Growth
           of Magnolia champaca Planted at the Montane Rainforest in Cameron
           Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

    • Abstract: Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (TMCF) is among the most vulnerable habitats to fragmentation, deforestation, and global climate change. A successful restoration program requires a comprehensive understanding of variables influencing seedling efficiency. This study was conducted on Sg. Terla Forest Reserve Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. In this study, we used a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and measured the Magnolia champaca height, root collar diameter, diameter at breast height, plant survival, root diameter, main root length, lateral root length, root coiling, root direction, and chlorophyll content. The soil samples were taken to study the effect of different mulching materials on soil characteristics. We also measured soil compaction, soil texture, soil colour, soil moisture content, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total sulphur, available phosphorus, and exchanged potassium. This study indicates that mulching had no significant effect on plant height, diameter breast height, root collar diameter, and chlorophyll content between treatments. Although mulching had a significant effect on root diameter, main root length, and root distributions among treatments while for lateral root length and root:shoot ratio did not show a significant effect among treatments. However, oil palm mulching treatment had a greater effect on plant height, root collar diameter, and diameter at breast height growth, among treatments. Mulching significantly affected soil pH, soil moisture content, total sulphur, and potassium exchange. In contrast, mulching did not significantly affect soil organic carbon, total soil nitrogen, and soil available phosphorus between treatments.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Sep 2021 11:20:01 +000
       
  • Molecular Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) Associated with
           Carissa edulis, an Endangered Plant Species along Lake Victoria Basin of
           Kenya

    • Abstract: Carissa edulis is a tropical plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae. The species is widely used in the preparation of various herbal medicines. Earlier works in Kenya show that an aqueous extract from the roots of C. edulis has remarkable anti-herpes simplex virus. Due to its medicinal value, the species has been overexploited in its natural range and requires conservation interventions. Studies show that the species has beneficial relationships with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that can enhance restoration of its population; however, no study has been undertaken to document the diversity of these AMF species. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of AMF associated with the roots of C. edulis within Lake Victoria basin ecosystem of Kenya. A cross-sectional, laboratory-based prospective study was carried out from roots of C. edulis collected from six sites within the ecosystem. Root samples were collected from 6 points (replicates) per site. AMF was assessed through morphological characterization and sequencing of small subunit of ribosomal DNA. Morphological identification identified four genera of AMF (Gigaspora, Acaulospora, Scutellospora, and Glomus) with no significant difference among the sites. Molecular analysis also revealed presence of four genera, but only two (Glomus and Acaulospora) were common for both the analyses with Glomus as the most predominant genera. In all the sites, there were large numbers of spores both in soil and in the roots confirming the association between C. edulis and AMF.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Aug 2021 06:35:00 +000
       
  • Economic Valuation for Cultural and Passive Ecosystem Services Using a
           Stated Preference (Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)) Case of the Elgeyo
           Watershed Ecosystem, Kenya

    • Abstract: Valuation of ecosystem services (ESs) can be typical as use values and passive use values. However, the prevailing conventional markets provide economic instruments such as price tags to ecosystem use values, but rarely on passive use values. This is limited since it does not provide comprehensive ecological values that will adequately support rational decision-making processes regarding ecological conservation. The study adopted the contingency valuation method (CVM) where three hundred and eighty households of communities living within the Elgeyo watershed were sampled. The findings recorded 97% of the population was willing to pay for the ESs quoted. Individual maximum WTP ranged between 1 USD and 57.1 USD (cultural), 1 USD and 95.2 USD (bequest), and 1 USD and 76.2 USD (biodiversity conservation). The overall mean maximum WTP was 7.4 ± 0.34 USD, 9.1 ± 0.49 USD, and 11.1 ± 0.68 USD for the cultural, bequest, and biodiversity, respectively. The multivariate regression (maximum WTP as a function of administrative location, education, income, sex, age, and livestock number) exhibited a significant difference regardless of multivariate criteria used, where Wilks’ lambda has F (75,203) = 4.03, . The findings provide an economic value for nonuse values that can be incorporated in total economic valuation (TEV) studies locally as well as provide an impetus on payment of ecosystem services (PES) in Kenya.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Aug 2021 11:05:01 +000
       
  • Improved Salt Tolerance of Lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala) through the
           Application of Indigenous Mycorrhiza

    • Abstract: Salt stress is one of the serious abiotic stressors which limit the growth and development of important crops in agricultural lands. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been implemented as a strategy to mitigate the adverse effects due to an impact of salt stress through the structural and physiological adjustment. This study aimed to determine a relationship between salinity levels (0, 150, 300, and 450 mM NaCl) and AMF treatments (Glomus manihotis, Glomus etunicatum, and G. manihotis + G. etunicatum) to the salt tolerance of Leucaena leucocephala seedlings in a greenhouse. Salinity reduced the plant height, biomass, and root colonization by AMF. However, the inoculation of AMF, especially the consortium, ameliorated the negative effects by stabilizing the growth performance and supporting the photosynthetic outputs through optimum nutrient and mineral absorptions. These results were indicative through a significant interaction between salinity levels and the types of AMF treatment in all parameters except in the total leaf protein and proline contents from the two-way ANOVA results. Root colonization was highly correlated with the plant height, biomass, and total carbohydrate content with a maximum contribution conferred by the AMF consortium, based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient test and PCA analysis. Our study then showed the positive impact of AMF toward salt tolerance by L. leucocephala with potential application and cultivation in salt-stressed ecosystems.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Jul 2021 16:20:03 +000
       
  • Forest Systems Services Provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest
           Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Abstract: This study, therefore, which is focused on forest systems services provisioning in Africa, case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria, provides policy makers, decision makers, ecologists, environmentalists, the academia, and other stakeholders with a document geared towards promoting national development through sustainable forest products utilization practices. In this study, a total of 200 key respondents participated in it, out of which 194 copies were returned and distributed among the seven main communities in the study area, namely, Ibusogbora, Oloowa, Daley north and south, Onipe, Mamu, Olubi, and Onipanu, respectively. The respondents stated that moringa 164 (84.5%), mint leaf (166 (85.6%), bitter kola 143 (73.7%), and shea tree accounts for 176 (90.7%), and the wood species utilized by producers in the study area include Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena glauca, Gliricidia sepium, Tectona grandis, and Gmelina arborea, among others. The study recommends that there is need for African governments to restore public awareness campaign in the area of timber planting initiatives and sustainable forest resource management and increase allocation to fund forestry research in the African continent.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jul 2021 06:20:01 +000
       
  • Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) Day-Roost Loss in the
           Central Appalachian Mountains following Prescribed Burning

    • Abstract: Before the arrival of white-nose syndrome in North America, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) was a common cavity-roosting bat species in central Appalachian hardwood forests. Two successive prescribed burns on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, in 2008 and 2009, were shown to positively affect maternity colony day-roost availability and condition in the near-term. However, whether immediate benefits were temporary and if burned forests actually experienced an accelerated loss of trees and snags possibly suitable for bats more than background loss in unburned forests became an important question following the species’ threatened designation. In 2016, we revisited 81 of 113 northern long-eared bat maternity colony day-roosts initially discovered in 2007–2009 with the objective of ascertaining if these trees and snags were still standing and thus potentially “available” for bat use. Initial tree or snag stage condition class and original year of discovery were contributory factors determining availability by 2016, whereas exposure to prescribed fire and tree/snag species decay resistance were not. Because forest managers may consider using habitat enhancement to improve northern long-eared bat survival, reproduction, and juvenile recruitment and must also protect documented day-roosts during forestry operations, we conclude that initial positive benefits from prescribed burning did not come at the expense of subsequent day-roost loss greater than background rates in these forests at least for the duration we examined.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 08:35:01 +000
       
  • Woody Species Diversity and Structure of Protected Woodlands Adjacent to
           Free Grazing Land Woodland at Dugda Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The study was conducted in protected woodland and free graze woodland located in Dugda Woreda, Oromia state, Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to explore the floristic composition, structure, and regeneration of woody species. In the park, the vegetation ecology has not been studied up to date, which is necessary for conservation. The systematic sampling technique was used to collect vegetation and human disturbance (presence and absence) data from August to December 2017. The vegetation data were collected from 30 plots from each woodland with a size of 900 m2 (30 m × 300 m) for tree/shrub, while subplots of size 400 m2 (20 m × 20 m) for sapling, respectively, were established in the main plots. Individual tree and shrub diameters at breast height (DBH) ≥2.5 cm and height ≥ 2 m were measured using a tape meter and clinometer, respectively. Diameter at breast height (DBH), frequency, density, basal area, and importance value index (IVI) were used for vegetation structure description, while the densities of mature trees, sapling, and seedling were used for regeneration. A total of 446 individual stems from free grazed woodland and 641 individual stems from protected woodland with a DBH of ≥2.5 cm were encountered from 30 studied sample plots that are protected and free grazed woodlands. Of these, from the total woody species, 68.42% were trees and 31.57% shrubs found in protected woodland; 76.92% were trees and 23.07% shrubs found in free grazed woodland. The total basal area of the woody plant was 3.1 ± 1 m2/ha in free grazed woodland and 4.2 ± 2 m2/ha in protected woodland, calculated for 19 woody species. Fabaceae, Balanitaceae, Capparidaceae, Verbenaceae, and Boraginaceae families were the most abundant families in both woodlands. However, there is a good initiation for the conservation of the park; still, the vegetation of the park was threatened by human-induced fire following intensive farming, gold mining, and overgrazing.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 11:20:02 +000
       
  • cpDNA-Gene-Sequence-Based Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and
           Gene Flow Analysis of Ethiopian Lowland Bamboo (Bambusinea: Oxytenanthera
           abyssinica (A. Rich.) Munro)

    • Abstract: Background. As a member of Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, Ethiopian lowland bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) is one of the most important nontimber forest resources or a potential alternative to wood and wood products. Ethiopia contributes 86% of the total area of bamboo on the continent, Africa, and 7% of the world. O. abyssinica in Ethiopia accounts for 85% of the total national coverage of bamboo. Several studies have been performed on the genetic diversity and population structure analysis of various bamboo species throughout the world but almost nothing in Ethiopia and O. abyssinica. Methods. Young fresh leaves of O. abyssinica from thirteen natural lowland bamboo growing areas across the country were collected. DNA was isolated using a modified CTAB DNA isolation method. Three cpDNA gene sequences (matK, ndhF3, and rps16) were used for the study. PCR products were analyzed, purified, and pair-end sequenced to calculate AC/GC content, average number of nucleotide differences (k), nucleotide diversity (π) and population mutation rates per 100 sites (), InDel (Insertion-Deletion), DNA divergence, gene flow, and genetic differentiation. Results. Metekel Zone was found to have extremely higher k, π, and . Higher frequency of genetic differentiation was found between Metekel Zone vs. the distant populations. Higher frequency of gene flow was found between Assosa Zone vs. Oromia populations. Kurmuk haplotype from gaps or missing data considered and Bambasi haplotype from not considered has descendants around them. Conclusion. Using sequences of cpDNA genes, populations of O. abyssinica collected in Ethiopia show clear diversity based on their geographic location. Metekel Zone was found to have the most diverse population, Assosa Zone has been found to be the source of evolution of O. abyssinica, and Gambella population shows a difference from other O. abyssinica populations.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jun 2021 10:20:03 +000
       
  • Early Root Development of Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Seedlings from Seed
           and Stem Cutting Propagation Methods at Nursery Stage

    • Abstract: Macropropagation using cutting for larger multiplying seedlings is cheaper and efficient instead of clonal seeds for uniform plant material seedling production. However, information on root growth of Eucalyptus pellita at early development from seed and stem cutting of E. pellita seedlings is still lacking. With such information, it is useful for forest plantation company management in enhancing the understanding of strategies to optimize yield production with the appropriate agronomic or silvicultural approach in the field of planting. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the root development of two different types of propagation seedlings of E. pellita and to study the effect of various nitrogen concentration levels on two different types of propagation of E. pellita seedlings. The study was conducted using E. pellita seedlings from two different types of propagation, namely, seed and stem cuttings, along with three different nitrogen concentrations (0, 50, and 200 kg N ha−1). Shoot biomass, root intensity (RI), total root intensity (TRI), root biomass, root length density (RLD), and specific root length (SRL) were recorded. Dried shoot biomass, RLD, and SRL of E. pellita seedlings using stem cutting were significantly higher () compared to seed, whereas there were no significant differences () for root biomass, TRI, and RI between the propagation types of E. pellita seedlings. In conclusion, E. pellita seedlings from stem cutting were greater in terms of root distribution compared to propagation by seeds at the nursery stage, and 50 kg N ha−1 was the optimal nitrogen concentration level from the considered levels to be applied to the E. pellita seedlings.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jun 2021 08:50:01 +000
       
  • Woody Species Composition, Vegetation Structure, and Regeneration Status
           of Majang Forest Biosphere Reserves in Southwestern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the species composition, structures, and regeneration of woody plant species and the impacts of site factors on the natural regeneration of tree species in four study sites of MFBR. The vegetation data were collected systematically in 140 plots with the size of 400 m2 for trees; 25 m2 for seedlings, saplings, shrubs, and lianas; and 1 m2 for herbs. Individual tree and shrub DBH ≥ 5 cm were measured and counted. The diameter at breast height (DBH), frequency, basal area, importance value index (IVI), and density were used for vegetation structure description and regeneration. A total of 158 plant species belonging to 115 genera, 56 families, and 80 species (51%) trees, 26 (16%) shrubs, 19 (12%) herbs, and 33 (21%) lianas were identified and recorded. The most dominant families were Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Moraceae, each represented by 13 species (7.4%), 12 species (6.8%), and 10 species (5.7%), respectively. The tree densities varied from 1232 to 1478 stem ha−1, sapling density 176.8 to 708.7 stem ha−1, and seedling density 534.7 to 1657.5 stem ha−1, with an average basal area of 63.6 m2 in the study sites. Dracaena afromontana was the most frequent woody species in the MFBR occurring in 90% followed by Celtis zenkeri (65%) and Pouteria altissima (62.5%). The regeneration status of all the woody plant species was categorised as “not regenerate” (9.6%), “poor” (30.7%), “fair” (59.5%), and “good” (10.8%) in all sites. The correlation result between natural regeneration and site factors revealed both positive and negative relationships. However, the main threat to the biosphere reserve is illegal logging for different purposes. Therefore, awareness creation on sustainable forest management, utilisation, conservation of priority species, and livelihood diversification to the local community and encouraging community and private woodlot plantation in the transitional zone of biosphere reserves are recommended.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Jun 2021 09:20:02 +000
       
  • Carbon Stock and Soil Characteristics under Expansive Shrubs in the Dry
           Afromontane Forest in Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Increased presence of expansive plant species could bring about various ecological influences on biomass carbon, soil organic carbon, and the physical and chemical properties of the soils. However, their impacts on these ecological parameters could differ due to a wide range of life forms, plant communities of the invaded ecosystems, and abiotic conditions. This work was conducted to examine the impacts of Cadia purpurea and Tarchonanthus camphoratus cover on carbon stock in vegetation and soil and soil physicochemical properties in Desa’a forest, northern Ethiopia. Vegetation and soil data were collected from a total of 150 sampling plots (size 20 m × 20 m) from uninvaded and invaded vegetation conditions. The soil samples were collected from topsoil (0–15 and 15–30 cm) of the uninvaded and invaded vegetation conditions. The statistical difference in carbon stock and soil characteristics of both invaded and uninvaded vegetation conditions were tested using an independent t-test using an R-software. The mean above- and below-ground biomass carbon stocks of the uninvaded vegetation condition (17.62 Mg·C/ha and 4.14 Mg·C/ha, respectively) were found to be significantly higher than those of the invaded vegetation condition (4.73 Mg·C/ha and 1.11 Mg·C/ha, respectively). The mean soil organic carbons (SOC) were significantly higher in the uninvaded (122.83 Mg·C/ha) than in the invaded (90.13 Mg·C/ha) vegetation condition. The total carbon stock estimates were significantly higher in the uninvaded vegetation condition (144.59 Mg·C/ha) than in the invaded vegetation condition (95.97 Mg·C/ha). Furthermore, the result revealed that most of the soil characteristics were significantly lower under the expansive shrubs invaded vegetation conditions except for significantly high sand content . Silt, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, copper, and zinc did not significantly change with the cover of the expansive shrubs. Our results suggest that increased presence of the expansive species decreased carbon trapping and affected most of the soil nutrients within the forest. Hence, to enhance the carbon storage potential and to maintain the soil nutrient status of the forest, proper conservation, monitoring, and management of the existing PNV and controlling a further expansion of the expansive shrubs are required. Further studies will be required on the factors responsible for the difference in carbon stocks and soil nutrients in each vegetation condition in addition to the impacts of the expansive shrubs expansion.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 May 2021 05:05:00 +000
       
  • Outplanting Performance of the Bornean Tropical Indigenous Species Shorea
           macrophylla (de Vriese) P. S. Ashton in relation to Seedling Age

    • Abstract: Planting high-quality seedlings with desirable growth attributes are associated with successful survival and growth performance following outplanting. Considering that most tree species from the Dipterocarpaceae family are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, proper conservation of such species is necessary. Very little is known with no clear consensus regarding whether increasing the seedling production period enhances outplanting survival and growth potential of tropical dipterocarp species planted under enrichment planting in Malaysia. In this study, one potential Bornean tropical indigenous species, Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese) P.S. Ashton, was produced in the Universiti Malaysia Sarawak nursery and outplanted at Sampadi Forest Reserve, Sarawak. Different nursery production periods (3, 6, 9, and 24 months) were tested for the species at the time of planting as well as for the subsequent growth performance after 12, 24, and 42 months of outplanting. The findings revealed that older (9- and 24-month-old) S. macrophylla seedlings were morphologically larger from younger (3- and 6-month-old) seedlings. Nonetheless, the overall pooled mean survival rates declined from 61.7 to 44.6% after 12, 24, and 42 months of outplanting. For the 42-month period, the survival rate for the 9-month-old seedlings was significantly higher than that for the 3-, 6-, and 24-month-old seedlings. Notwithstanding, the relative growth rate of the stem diameter was higher for the 3- and 9-month-old seedlings than for the 6- and 24-month-old seedlings after 42 months of outplanting. Thus, maintaining plant material from the seedlings produced at 3, 6, and 9 months of age would be beneficial for the initiation of transplantation in restoration programmes in Sarawak. The 24-month-old seedlings will also be useful, especially during irregular flowering and unpredictable fruiting intervals. A further experimental study on other environmental factors that could influence the outplanting performance of the seedlings in the tropical forest restoration area of Sarawak, Malaysia, is necessary.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 May 2021 10:50:00 +000
       
  • Tree Diversity and Damage by Cypress Aphid, Cinara cupressi, on Juniperus
           procera in Gulele Botanical Garden and Entoto

    • Abstract: Juniperus procera is an important tree species in Ethiopia. Increasing demand for fuelwood and construction material has also created markets for J. procera products. The impact of cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi, on J. procera is becoming catastrophic in the country. However, the level of cypress aphid damage on J. procera has never been studied in Entoto Mountain forest and Gullele Botanical Garden (GBG) in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the cypress aphid densities and extent of damage caused by the cypress aphid on solely and mixed planted J. procera in Entoto Mountain forest and GBG in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by evaluating aphid adult and nymph densities and damage to J. procera trees. Eight plots of 50 m50 m planted with pure J. procera and mixed J. procerawere selected at each site. Five 5 m5 m subplots were formed. To assess aphid density hthree tree twigs per whorl were sampled from each tree in the subplots randomly. The collected samples were examined in the laboratory for the presence of nymph and adult cypress aphid. Tree damage was assessed by visually observing the percentage of infestation in the tree crown and was scored on a 1–5 scale. The results showed significant differences in aphid densities between the sites. The highest aphid count was observed at Entoto Mountain. Besides, the solely planted J. procera trees had higher cypress aphid numbers than the mixed plantation. The mean percentage of aphid-infested trees in Entoto and GBG was 53.6 and 46.4, respectively. Tree mortality was extremely low in both sites and planting systems. The level of aphid damage was also significantly different between the planting systems, where mixed plantations had a lower aphid infestation level. Tree damage was directly correlated with the density of aphids collected. In conclusion, cypress aphid was apparent in both sites, and most of the trees were infested by this pest. However, the extent of damage varied with the planting system. Therefore, it is recommended to consider a mixed plantation of trees as one of cypress aphid management tools in J. procera.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Apr 2021 06:35:02 +000
       
  • Assessment of Cinnamomum tamala (Tejpat) Plantation in Community Forests:
           A Case Study from Tanahun District

    • Abstract: Cinnamomum tamala is the major NTFPS cultivated commercially in major parts of Nepal. A research was conducted on the plantation of C. tamala in three research sites, Malayang community forest (CF), Saldada CF, and Banaskhadi CF, of Tanahun district for calculating the survival rate, mortality rate, and overall plant growth performance. Simple stratified random sampling methods were used; height and mean breast diameter (DBH) were measured, and a prestructured questionnaire was used for collecting the data and information from the research sites; also, secondary data from AFO, Tanahun, were used for the analysis of data. The first-year survival rate was the highest (62%) at Saldada CF and lowest at Banaskhadi CF (35%); however, the second-year survival rate was the highest at Saldada CF at 50%. Mean height : DBH (cm) of the plant was the highest at Saldada CF (126 cm) and lowest at Banaskhadi (25 cm). The Pearson correlation analysis at α = 0.05 was conducted to test the association between mean height and DBH (cm) of C. tamala which was r = 0.93, df = 12, ,r = 0.30, df = 11, , and r = 0.88, df = 11, , respectively, of Saldada CF, Banaskhadi CF, and Malayang CF. The mean height and mean breast diameter (DBH) (cm) of C. tamala were highly correlated in Saldada CF with the highest second-year survival rate. As C. tamala grows well in acidic soil, pH of all the three research sites was basic, more than 7.5; however, Saldada CF had the highest growth rate than others because the organic matter content was the highest (3.4).
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Apr 2021 08:50:01 +000
       
  • Exploring Local People’s Perception of Ecosystem Services in Djoumouna
           Periurban Forest, Brazzaville, Congo

    • Abstract: The perception of ecosystem goods and services by local residents is studied in Brazzaville, around the periurban forest of Djoumouna. This study, which documents the ecosystem services provided to communities by this ecosystem facing anthropogenic degradation, evaluates the understanding and consideration of these functions, according to socioprofessional categories. Socioeconomic and ethnobotanical surveys conducted among the group of informants are supported by direct field observations and literature review. The data collected within a 2 km radius around the forest were subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. The group of informants, including all socioprofessional strata, was organised into 4 age groups and involved 143 heads of household aged from 15 to over 45. The survey reveals 14 ecosystem services that fall into three categories. The provisioning services included food, wood energy, pharmacopoeia, and wood services. The regulatory functions cited are maintaining air quality, shade, erosion control, and windbreak. Recognized sociocultural services are the source of income, recreation, and ecotourism, source of inspiration, fishing, initiation sanctuary, and hunting. According to gender, men are more dependent on the forest than women, and those aged 15–25 and over 45 are the most active. The socioprofessional scale shows an unequal exploitation of the forest. The informants, at least for the majority, integrate the notions of the value of ecosystem services, provided by the Djoumouna periurban forest, into their daily lives. Finally, the study highlights the social and ecological value of periurban and urban forests in the daily lives of people and urban resilience.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:05:01 +000
       
 
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