Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Small-scale Forestry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.491
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1873-7854 - ISSN (Online) 1873-7617
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • A Special Issue on Ensuring the Sustainability of Small Forest Landowners
           in the Global World

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      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • Understanding the Impacts of Forest Management in Sal (Shorea robusta)
           Dominant Forest Stands in the Western Lowlands of Nepal

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      Abstract: Abstract Sal (Shorea robusta) is an economically and ecologically important tree species found in Nepal. Since 2003, Nepal's government has been managing the Sal forest under the Scientific Forest Management (SciFM) scheme. Due to newly implemented approaches, the information regarding the Sal forest condition under regeneration felling and thinning is low. This study aimed to understand the regeneration status after regeneration felling and compare crop stands between thinned and unthinned plots. We selected three years of harvested, thinned, and unthinned blocks in the Tilaurakot collaborative forest. Vegetation sampling was carried out in 63 concentric circular plots. The results show that the number of seedlings and saplings in the harvested blocks was 14,000 and 3368 per hectare, respectively. The growing stock and basal area per hectare in the thinned blocks were lower than in the unthinned blocks. The numbers of trees and poles per hectare were lower in the thinned block than in the unthinned block. Sal's importance valve index (IVI) was higher than other species in all three block types. The study suggests that the regeneration condition was better after the canopy's opening, and thinning promotes the growth of trees and undergrowth vegetation.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
       
  • From Within and Without: Gender, Agency and Sustainable Management of
           Non-Timber Forest Products in Two Indian States

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      Abstract: Abstract Non-timber forest products (NTFP) from trees are often collected using unsustainable practices, which contributes to the species’ decline and affects the livelihoods and wellbeing of the most forest-dependent groups, such as women, ethnic minorities and the landless. Here we assess opportunities to improve the sustainability of NTFP collection practices across two landscapes in India, using an agency perspective where male and female NTFP collectors themselves identified and evaluated practices and potential interventions for species of their choice. We developed a framework for identifying community-based solutions for NTFP management and carried out participatory exercises in gender-segregated groups in ten rural communities across two states. Unsustainable collection practices such as cutting branches to collect fruits were somewhat more common among women than men, and more common in the more degraded landscape with weaker forest management institutions. Participants described ecological and economic impacts of collection practices in detail, including impacts on future yields, regeneration and product prices. Proposed solutions to improve NTFP management in the less degraded landscape were focused on incentivising sustainable use and working through village institutions, external actors, or both in collaboration. In the more degraded landscape, participants emphasised sanctions and did not frequently propose the existing village institutions to take action. Women proposed collaboration with external actors less often than men. The results indicate that agency perspectives are useful in stimulating discussion about locally relevant NTFP management options, but that social and gender norms and poor relationships with forestry authorities constrain the agency of vulnerable groups in identifying opportunities for change.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
       
  • If A Tree Falls in A Forest, Why Do People Care' An Analysis of
           Private Family Forest Owners’ Reasons for Owning Forest in the United
           States National Woodland Owner Survey

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      Abstract: Abstract At its heart, forest management is grounded in valuation, with questions regarding what, how, and how much individuals value the forest being fundamental for efficient management. In this paper, we try to understand why private family forest owners value their forestland, and how owner and forest characteristics vary depending on the type of value. We estimate the demographic and socio-economic factors behind a suite of stated reasons for owning forest, from traditional market-value reasons to less-traditional, non-market reasons, among others. For our analysis, we use the United States Forest Service’s National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS), a nationwide survey of private forest and woodland ownerships of at least one acre. We are able to identify different groupings of reasons for owning that share similar associated explanatory variables. While our results are generally in agreement with the literature, we find some notable discrepancies, such as a consistent negative association with education level and timber harvest as a reason for owning. This highlights a potential difference between stated and actual preferences. We believe that our results are useful when designing and disseminating information for policy, such as for promoting endangered species conservation or targeting individuals for enrollment in conservation easement, green certification, or cost-share programs.
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
       
  • The Effect of Managers’ Personal Characteristics on the Performance of
           Community Forest Enterprises

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      Abstract: Abstract This study examines the role of managers’ personal characteristics, namely, proactiveness, perceptions about work discretion, and social networking ability on the social, environmental, and financial performance of community forest enterprises (CFEs). Data obtained through a mail survey of CFEs located in the province of British Columbia, Canada, shows that CFEs’ social performance is associated with their managers’ perceptions about work discretion and managers’ social networking abilities. The environmental performance is associated with managers’ perceptions about work discretion. However, the financial performance is not associated with any of these personal characteristics. These findings have three critical implications. First, CFEs which seek to improve social performance must emphasize—at the time of hiring and through training programs—social networking abilities of managers. Second, those CFEs which seek to improve environmental performance should emphasize sense of self-empowerment among managers in making organizational decisions. That is, the more CFE managers think that they have discretion over organizational decisions, the more they can deliver on the environmental front. Third, CFEs seeking to improve financial performance should look beyond personal characteristics and hire specialized finance professionals.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
       
  • Competition in a Mixed-Species Planting with Four Contrasting Tree Species

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      Abstract: Abstract Mixed-species systems are well-suited to smallholder and community forestry, but reliable evidence regarding and procedures to assess species performance in such systems is scarce. This field trial uses a pair of clinal plots with varying spacing and species composition to gain insights into competition between four species proposed for landscape rehabilitation in the Philippines. We examine the efficiency of this compact clinal trial in revealing growth traits of four species (Paraserianthes falcataria, Pterocarpus indicus, Shorea palosapis, Swietenia macrophylla) in mixed plantings. The use of a size-distance competition index allowed an assessment of the competitive and collaborative influences between four tree species. Within the expected general trend for diameter increment to decline with increasing competition, there were indications that Shorea palosapis is a benign competitor that may stimulate the growth of neighbouring individuals. Paraserianthes falcataria is a strong competitor that is also strongly impacted by competition, especially through antagonistic intraspecific competition. Paraserianthes falcataria appears well suited as a solitary tree in a field or village, whereas Shorea palosapis seems ideal for plantations, in both monoculture and mixed plantings. The clinal spacing and mixture trial, when examined using a size-distance competition index based on diameter increment, revealed useful insights into species performance. Pterocarpus indicus exhibits strong intraspecific, but low inter-specific competition, so appears well-suited for polyculture plantings. Of the four species trialled, Swietenia macrophylla appears to be best-suited as a monoculture species as it exhibits the lowest intraspecific competition.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
       
  • Studies of Family Forest Owners in the USA: A Systematic Review of
           Literature from 2000 through 2019

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      Abstract: Abstract In the USA, there are an estimated 9.6 million families, individuals, trusts, estates, and family partnerships, collectively referred to as family forest owners, who control 110 million ha of forestland or 39% of the country’s forests. Between 2000 and 2019, 640 peer-reviewed articles were published that focused on family forest owners in the USA. These articles were published across 95 sources with the Journal of Forestry, Forest Policy and Economics, Small-scale Forestry, and Journal of Extension being the most common. Most articles focused on geographic or participatory subsets of family forest owners with many doing cross-subset comparisons, such as between program participants and non-participants. Quantitative methods, and in particular surveys, were the most common data collection techniques, but qualitative, simulation, and synthesis approaches were also applied. Theoretical frameworks were scant across most studies with behavioral change models being the most common frameworks among those studies that did explicitly include one. Forest management and policies and programs were the most common topics, but the relative frequency of topics changed over time with topics such as forest management decreasing and legacy increasing. Much has been learned about family forest owners, but there is still much that is unknown. Harmonization across studies could help to increase comparisons and allow for drawing of broader conclusions. Continuing to borrow ideas from other fields and stronger incorporation of theoretical frameworks could also help further this scientific field, but it is also important that attention is paid to the implications of the research to ensure it has the greatest possible impact on the threats and challenges facing family forests.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
  • Timber Provision on Soft Soils in Forests Providing Protection Against
           Natural Hazards: A Productivity and Cost Analysis Using the Koller 507 in
           the Horizontal Yarding Direction in Switzerland

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      Abstract: Abstract Forest soils can be sensitive to traffic for various reasons, such as a high water table and the absence of sturdy ground, both of which can lead to fragile ground conditions under wet weather conditions. Extracting timber from such stands is a challenge, and cable-based systems might be the best option. While damage to the remaining stand and to the soil during extraction is not always avoidable, the use of cable-based systems completely eliminates ground-based traffic in the case of fully suspended loads and at least reduces soil compaction, soil surface damage and erosion. From a technical viewpoint, cable-based systems can be applied in most forest types and at almost any time if they are equipped properly and with an appropriate configuration (e.g. with all-terrain cable yarders). However, only a few previous studies have been focused on the productivity and related costs that can be expected when cable-based systems are used in flat and environmentally sensitive areas. Therefore, we evaluated a forest operation using a Koller tower yarder with the aim to develop a productivity model that makes it possible to predict the productivity of comparable yarding operations beforehand and estimate related costs. In June 2021, we collected data from 473 cubic metres over bark (m3ob) during 104.25 h of commercial operation. We analysed the resulting 276 work cycles using ordinary least squares regression models. We categorised the work steps into felling (28.3%), yarding (68.0%) and piling (3.7%). The average yarding cycle time was 10.77 ± 5.40 min and resulted in an average yarding productivity of 9.95 m3ob PMH15−1. The variable payload, which was suboptimal in the analysed case, was the predictor with the greatest impact on productivity. Production costs were 86.65 CHF m3ob−1 at roadside, corresponding to 80.59 € m3ob−1.
      PubDate: 2022-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09526-8
       
  • Forest Owners’ Perspectives Concerning Non-Timber Forest Products,
           Everyman’s Rights, and Organic Certification of Forests in Eastern
           Finland

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      Abstract: Abstract Global trends towards the bioeconomy and multidimensional ecosystem-based approaches are transforming our understanding of forests and expanding access to forest management. The demand for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is increasing due to the current trends in lifestyle and consumption. Forest owners play a key role in the supply of NTFPs. However, many forest owners are not committed to production or aware of the opportunities for production of their forests. Understanding better the family forest owners’ behaviour and decision making regarding NTFPs is needed to strengthen the role of NTFPs in the Finnish bioeconomy. In this study, forest owners’ perspectives concerning NTFPs, Everyman’s Rights, and organic certification of forests were identified. The survey data were collected by emailing the questionnaire to North Karelian forest owners and analysed by creating forest owner typologies based on their forest ownership motives and perspectives concerning NTFPs. Regarding forest ownership motives, four owner groups of relatively equal size were identified and named as recreationist, conservationists, timber producers, and resigning owners leaving the forest property to the next generation. Regarding their use of NTFPs and interest in producing NTFPs four groups of owners were identified: owners who 1) harvested NTFPs for household use or 2) sale, 3) would allow the harvesting of NTFPs not covered by everyman’s right, and 4) need more information on the joint production of timber and NTFPs not covered by Everyman’s Rights. Most owners were household users. The results can be utilised to promote NTFP production and advocate for the more effective organic certification of forests for different forest owner groups.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09528-6
       
  • Timber Production Potential of Trees on Farmlands

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      Abstract: Abstract In the efforts to protect the natural forests, the policies and regulations in India have discouraged the usage of wood or timber, especially in the construction sector. Despite all, wood usage in India is high, and the country is a net importer of wood. A glance at the wood production scenario revealed that Trees Outside Forests (TOFs) is a major source (93%) of wood in India. The Central Public Works Department, Government of India has reverted to encourage wood usage in construction by revoking the ban on wood usage in its works. This will have reverberations in the demand–supply of timber of India, and the timber resources are also skewed geographically. In this context, this paper analyzes the timber production potential of trees on farmlands, i.e. agroforestry, with existing datasets. It seems that the actual potential of timber production was 216.26 million cu.m. in 2013, which is far less than the actual wood used in construction, furniture, and agricultural implements (420.18 million cu.m). Even the projected estimates also indicate that there is a need to encourage timber-based agroforestry. Till date, fast-growing tree species were promoted in farmlands, and there is a need to shift towards longer-rotation tree species in agroforestry. Thus, it will be beneficial in the long run on both ecologically and economically. This paper details the bottlenecks involved in timber production through agroforestry and recommends the policy level changes required to facilitate the adoption of agroforestry among farmers.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09527-7
       
  • Only a Noise' The Role of Non-governmental Organizations in the Policy
           Processes of a New Social Forestry Model in Indonesia

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      Abstract: Abstract Social forestry has been widely promoted as a policy strategy to improve the livelihoods of rural communities by granting them rights or permits to manage forests. How it is mainstreamed and how the related policy options are exercised and implemented have become vibrant areas of scientific inquiries. This study analyzes the formal policy formulation processes of a new social forestry scheme in Indonesia called Izin Pemanfaatan Hutan Perhutanan Sosial (IPHPS) (Permits for Social Forestry Concession). Granted to local farmers, IPHPS is a long-term utilization permit for forestland that is currently managed by the state-owned Perhutani enterprise. It is unique in Indonesia, as no permit-based social forestry has been implemented in forests under another right (overlapping permits). This research analyzes why and how IPHPS was formulated and explains why the permit-based social forestry was preferred to land distribution. Through interviews with diverse policy actors combined with literature, policy document, and regulation reviews, the degree to which nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were involved in the policymaking is specifically assessed. Two major findings are obtained. First, although NGOs sustained a decade-long policy advocacy and played a substantial part in promoting forest tenure reforms, their direct involvement in designing the IPHPS model was limited. Former NGO activists who worked within government circles did not push substantive policy outputs, whereas others were prevented from coming to negotiation tables. Second, the new social forestry model was instead shaped by the strong interest of maintaining forest control by the state enterprise held by few individuals within and with connections to government institutions. The policy outcome itself, i.e., IPHPS social forestry, appears to represent a compromise between two extremes, i.e., the status quo of joint forest management and land distribution to local communities.
      PubDate: 2022-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09525-9
       
  • Performance of Forwarding Operations in Biomass Recovery from Apple
           Orchards

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent decades, the use of forwarders in agroforestry systems has been increasing. In agroforestry systems, the possibility to use these machines in various operational contexts allows the reduction of hourly costs and favors its use also in small enterprises. In Europe, agroforestry or farm forestry represents an important resource that offers alternative and more sustainable land uses in agricultural or forestry areas. By covering large areas, fruit orchards represent an important source of income, but they require annual pruning which leaves abundant residues on the ground. And when fruit production declines, the trees are dismantled to make room for new ones. This study evaluated the performance of biomass recovery from dismantled apple orchards using a HSM 208 F forwarder. Time studies were implemented to estimate the productivity and fuel consumption of forwarding operations. Data was collected by means of a GPS unit, a video camera and an electric fuel pump, and 30 work cycles divided into elemental tasks were monitored. Models for time consumption and productivity as a function of extraction distance were developed by means of least-square simple regression, at different scales needed to characterize the forwarding operations. The average forwarding distance was of ca. 830 m and the net and gross forwarding production rates were of 21.79 and 15.35 loose m3 h − 1 (volume of woodchips produced), respectively. The study provides reference data for forwarding operations and demonstrates the successful use of forestry machines in the agricultural sector.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09500-4
       
  • Assessing Economic and Shared Social Values of Forest Conservation to
           Improve Water Availability: A Case Study of the Protected Forest Reserve
           of El Quinini, Colombia

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      Abstract: Abstract Most of the rural population of developing countries depends on forest ecosystems; consequently, there is a myriad of trade-offs that jeopardize the ability of the forest to produce goods and services. To maintain the current forest cover and offer opportunities to improve rural livelihoods, more attention has been paid to the development of strategies to assess the plurality of values associated with ecosystem services. Stated preference methods have served to asses non-market values of ecosystem goods and services; nevertheless, they have been criticized for their inability to reflect social values and the limited stakeholder´s participation in the selection of attributes for valuation. The aim of this study was to asses shared social values associated with water provision to further integrate them as attributes for contingent valuation. The study was conducted in a small community in central Colombia. Shared social values, the values held in common by forest owners, were assessed through application of problem tree and participatory mapping techniques; and the willingness to pay method was used for economic valuation. Results showed that forest owners expressed their shared social values as three projects to aimed at enhancing the health of the forest in the reserve: environmental education, forest restoration, and agroforestry. The contingent valuation indicated that despite the very low income of forest owners (US$251.32 per month), there was a high support (74%) to pay an extra US$ 1.84 per month in the water bill to implement the projects. Our study presented a systematic procedure that combines methodologies to assess the multiple ways in which forest ecosystems are important to people. Ecosystem services have collective significance that can be assessed in small local communities to enable participation in policy making.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09505-z
       
  • Management and Woody Species Diversity in Boundary Agroforestry of Banja
           District, Northwestern Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Abstract Although boundaries are considered important semi-natural environments and refugia for biodiversity in areas dominated by intensive agriculture, the ways local communities manage species diversity has received little attention. Hence, this study has characterized major boundary types and the associated woody species diversity and socioeconomic role of boundary agroforestry in northwestern Ethiopia. One hundred and twenty households were randomly selected for household surveys and vegetation inventories were carried out in 80 purposively selected boundary agroforestry sites. Variation in Simpson, Shannon–Wiener and Evenness indices among boundary types was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Four different boundary types were identified, based on place and purpose of establishment. Altogether, 58 woody species representing 33 families were recorded. The mean number of woody species was 22, while the mean Simpson, Shannon–Wiener and Evenness indices for woody species were 0.61, 2.33, and 0.67, respectively. Survey results showed that woody species diversity was significantly higher in homestead boundaries. Lower diversity was calculated for in-farm boundaries. Similarity in composition of woody species among boundary types ranged between 0.33 and 0.38. Eucalyptus globulus ranked first in terms of the Importance Value Index, while Justicia schimperiana was the most woody woody species. Private production of seedlings was the main source of planting material for establishment of boundaries. Tending, pruning, pollarding, coppicing, and firming were the most important management practices. Seventeen use types were recorded, each represented by 6–56 species. Boundary agroforestry constitutes 9.40% of the annual income for the local community. Generally, the study showed that boundaries accommodated high species diversity and are important for household livelihood improvement, beautification of landscapes and biodiversity conservation in arable landscapes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09503-1
       
  • Economic Contributions of Forestry Service Providers in Mississippi, USA

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      Abstract: Abstract We used three comprehensive datasets to assess economic activities at as granular a level as possible for Support Activities for Forestry industry in Mississippi in 2019. The labor market company Emsi® provided the most current employment estimates by 6-digit North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes along with a geographic listing of businesses by NAICS codes that contained employment, earnings, and sales data. Esri® further categorized the 6-digit codes into 8-digits, thus providing a more detailed view of this sub-sector’s businesses. However, since business listings do not comprehensively tabulate all businesses of each classification within a region, we developed a weighting method to estimate output, jobs, and earnings for the following industries using Emsi® data- Foresters Consulting, Government – Forestry Services, and Forest Restoration. A statewide input–output model, along with sub-regional models, were estimated using the IMPLAN® software to identify economic contributions to the state and regional economies. Total annual sales across Mississippi were $84.5 million; sales were greatest in the Central subregion, with the South, North close behind. Consulting Foresters was the largest industry by sales, jobs, and earnings. Total economic contributions were 1,140 jobs and $59.79 million in value added on total sales of $121.99 million. South Mississippi received the greatest regional contributions from Foresters Consulting, while Central Mississippi received the greatest benefits from Government – Forestry Services and Forest Restoration.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09508-w
       
  • Evaluating the “Village Forests” in Indonesia: Property Rights and
           Sustainability Perspectives

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      Abstract: Abstract The “Village Forest” is a right given to a village government to manage certain area of forest around the village. This study discusses the difference between forest utilization license and forest management rights according to Indonesia’s statutory laws and goes on to examine their workings and implication for “Village forest” management. The study includes: a content analysis of the 28 forest resources-related statutory laws; household surveys of de jure property right in three villages; spatial analysis of changing land cover between 2000 and 2015 using satellite images and official data. This study finds some contradictions in framing forest definitions; ambiguity in the delineation of forest area; under-regulation of substantial allocations of forests to private companies; and under-utilised potential for recognising community-based agroforests. We trace the problems of “Village Forest” management in three villages in Berau, East Kalimantan where there are varying gaps between de jure provisions and de facto rights in managing forests. In these villages, community perceptions of customary entitlements interact with their understandings and experiences of the official classifications in a context where the state has granted substantial concessions to private companies for logging, and has at times recognised a “Village Forest”. This study concludes that promoting a local rule in favour of communities would increase the consistency between de jure and de facto bundles of rights and has potential to contribute to sustainable forest management, particularly “Village Forests”.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09506-y
       
  • The Contribution of Forest Extraction to Income Diversification and
           Poverty Alleviation for Indonesian Smallholder Cattle Breeders

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      Abstract: Abstract Smallholder farmers in developing countries often lack resources. They rely mostly on extensive production approaches, such as cattle keeping and resort more to extracting forest resources at no charge. Our objective is to assess the relationship between the diversification of income sources, poverty and livelihood capital for smallholder farm households which combine cattle farming with forest extraction. We collected 600 surveys from Indonesian farmers specialized along the cattle rearing supply chain (464 breeders, 66 feeders and 70 mixed breeder-feeders). We found no correlation between poverty and income diversification. Cattle breeders have been found to rely most on forest resources. Distance to cropland and forest correlated positively, whereas their education level correlated negatively with income diversification. Feeders who were owning other livestock, were a member of a forest user group and owned some modest capital like a motorbike showed increased income diversification. Crops are the most important source of income for farmers, whereas cattle keeping and forest extraction play a role in income diversification. Increasing ecological pressure caused by forest extraction due to expanding cattle production could be best avoided by extending those parts of the cattle sector that use forest resources in a sustainable manner, for instance, through silvopastural systems or agroforestry so that incomes of poor farmers get more diversified and, therefore stabilized.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09504-0
       
  • Optimizing Aggregation of Small Forest Stands for Thinning Operations: A
           Case Study in Nasushiobara, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan

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      Abstract: Abstract Aggregation of small forest stands into larger management units has been one of the main challenges to improve the management scheme in Japan where the majority of forest owners are small-scale owners. Doing so can improve the efficiency of thinning operations by expanding forest operation sites and by building more efficient road networks over the aggregated management units through the coordination and consolidation of the management practices of small-scale forest owners and resulting in reduced operating costs. We develop a spatially explicit 0–1optimization model that searches for optimal aggregation patterns considering spatial locations of nearby forest roads. In order to take into account the connectivity of forest roads among aggregated management units for logging and hauling, we assume aggregated units located away from a nearby road must be treated only after the aggregated units that act as the pathway to the road are harvested. We solve the 0–1 integer programming problem sequentially in each period of time. We demonstrate our approach using a part of a forest in Nasushiobara, Tochigi prefecture, Japan. Our study forest consists of 1346 forest management units covering an area of 876 ha. We consider various management scenarios and search for the optimal solution to each scenario. Each management scenario has a different set of constraints (e.g., volume flow constraint, the maximum allowable area for aggregation per period, etc.) to be satisfied. Our simulation results show that our proposed approach is able to provide useful information to help forest managers to develop an aggregation plan based on analytical framework that allows us to consider forest growth within and among aggregated units as well as the potential road network connectivity for the entire landscape.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09502-2
       
  • How financially viable is smallholder forestry' A case study with a
           high-value tropical forestry species

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper evaluates the financial performance and risk of high-value tropical forestry under the challenges faced by smallholders, using Vanuatu sandalwood as a case study. We developed a financial model to predict returns from smallholder-based sandalwood plantations. The model was used to investigate the following issues typically faced by smallholders: (i) what is the financial impact of smallholders harvesting trees at young ages because of fear of theft or cyclone damage' (ii) how does the opportunity cost of labour impact on the financial returns of sandalwood' and (iii) what are the current opportunities for smallholders to finance the establishment of sandalwood plantations and how might these be improved' Data were collected from expert interviews and relevant literature. We found that smallholder sandalwood can be a profitable investment, but tree security issues and environmental risks are leading to early harvest and an associated 64% reduction in potential returns. To improve the profitability and attractiveness of sandalwood plantations to smallholders, the following key issues must be addressed: (i) risks associated with tree theft need to be dramatically reduced; (ii) earlier returns from planting systems must be planned for smallholders with more immediate needs; and (iii) greater access to financial services is needed, including loans with competitive borrowing rates, particularly to increase the scale of planting for individual smallholders that might be constrained by labour. Theft mitigation can include fencing, patrolling, microchip tagging, all of which add significant maintenance cost. Formalised social and governance structures within and between villages, may be more cost-effective in improving tree security. Incorporating agricultural crops into systems helps produce earlier financial returns, and more rapid payback. Accessible loans can allow for upscaling of smallholder systems that are limited to household labour for plantation management, harvesting, and processing the logs.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09511-1
       
  • Untangling the Regulatory Environment: Why do Wood Processing Businesses
           in Indonesia Fail to be Competitive in the Global Market'

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      Abstract: Abstract Smallholder tree planting has long been practiced by rural people throughout the tropics. However, the competitiveness of Indonesian wood products has decreased in the global market. Indonesia’s wooden furniture for instance, was assessed to have declined in competitiveness during 2006 to 2015. In addition, the World Economic Forum in its latest annual Global Competitiveness Index report (2019) lowered Indonesia’s position from 45th position to 50th in the product market. Although the small- and medium-scale wood processing businesses have begun to focus on commercial forest management goals, the way in which the competitiveness of their timber products is affected by forestry regulations remains a debate with significant policy implications. New regulations have been designed and implemented to solve various problems associated with smallholder-managed forests, such as specific administration of smallholder forest products, regulation of access to forests for people living near forests, and attempts to bridge the gap in forest management expertise between forestry companies and rural communities. However, rather than producing positive results for those concerned, new regulations appear to have become an additional constraint. This study aimed to map how regulations have influenced small-scale tree planting and wood processing industries in Indonesia, both directly and indirectly. It also examines the extent to which these regulations can be reformed to become an efficient and effective legal instrument in governing small-scale tree planting and wood processing industries. In addition, this study explored two less examined issues, namely: (1) Have the regulations become too complex and constraining' and (2) How does Indonesia create an ‘enabling’ regulatory environment' The study found that excessive regulation of commercial timber production reduces the interest by smallholders in tree growing. In addition, complicated regulations tend to increase the transaction costs incurred by those involved in commercial timber production.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11842-022-09514-y
       
 
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