Subjects -> FORESTS AND FORESTRY (Total: 130 journals)
    - FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)
    - LUMBER AND WOOD (1 journals)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY (129 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 12 of 12 Journals sorted by number of followers
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Canadian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Forest Policy and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Agroforestry Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advance in Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Appita Journal: Journal of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Forest Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Forestry Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Forest Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forests, Trees and Livelihoods     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Revue forestière française     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Forestry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Wood Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees, Forests and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Forester     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Forests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ghana Journal of Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wood and Fiber Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Forest Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forests     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bosque     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Forest Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forestry Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ecologia e Nutrição Florestal - ENFLO     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Small-scale Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Forestales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forestal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forest Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Selbyana     Open Access  
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts     Open Access  
Lesnoy Zhurnal     Open Access  
Parks Stewardship Forum     Open Access  
Silva Balcanica     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Textual : Análisis del Medio Rural Latinoamericano     Open Access  
Madera y Bosques     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Forestry : Journal of Institute of Forestry, Nepal     Open Access  
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu     Open Access  
Jurnal Sylva Lestari     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research     Open Access  
Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Forestry Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Forest Engineering     Open Access  
Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Artvin Coruh University Journal of Forestry Faculty     Open Access  
Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry     Open Access  
Revista Forestal Mesoamericana Kurú     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Wahana Forestra : Jurnal Kehutanan     Open Access  
Annals of Forest Research     Open Access  
Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea     Open Access  
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access  
Revista de Agricultura Neotropical     Open Access  
Banko Janakari     Open Access  
Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A - Forestry     Open Access  
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
La Calera     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Quebracho. Revista de Ciencias Forestales     Open Access  
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Agrociencia     Open Access  
Forestry Studies     Open Access  
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
New Forests
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.033
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-5095 - ISSN (Online) 0169-4286
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Morphological characteristics and germination of native species seeds for
           mineland rehabilitation in the Eastern Amazon

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      Abstract: Abstract The lack of knowledge about seeds of native species constitutes a major challenge to their use in environmental rehabilitation activities. In this study, we analysed the morphology and germination of native species seeds found in areas close to Fe and Mn mines in the Eastern Amazon. We also evaluated the effect of scarification on seeds showing natural low germination. Seeds of 39 native species varying in ecological succession, biological cycle, and growth habits were tested. The pre-germination treatments of the seeds consisted of abrasion (mechanical scarification), immersion in sulfuric acid (90%) (chemical scarification), and immersion in hot water (100 °C) (thermal scarification). The results showed that (i) seed size and mass varied greatly between species of the same growth habit, particularly in shrubs and trees, as well as within species, for nine species; (ii) an overall low germination percentage for non-scarified seeds; (iii) an increment of ~ threefold in germination percentage and 11-fold in germination speed after mechanical seed coat scarification; (iv) and 17 of the 18 legume species analyzed showed low germination percentages, which indicates some type of dormancy. The size of the seeds had a low relationship with germination, being more related to the ecological characteristics of the species. After mechanical scarification, the tree species showed the greatest increase in germination compared to the other groups. The mechanical scarification can contribute to improving the performance of native species in the revegetation of mining areas in the Amazon, however, complementary studies are needed to better understand these species and optimize their use.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Economic potential and management of tropical mixed-species plantations in
           Central America

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      Abstract: Abstract Tropical forest plantations play an important role in meeting global wood demand. While research has highlighted the ecological potential of mixed-species plantations, studies on the economic viability and management of such plantations are largely missing in the context of tropical plantation forestry. In this study, we estimated the economic potential and optimized the management of commercial mixed-species plantations of four tree species native to Central America (Dalbergia retusa, Dipteryx oleifera, Hieronyma alchorneoides, and Vochysia guatemalensis) and Teak (Tectona grandis). We combined the forest growth model 3-PGmix and detailed economic data for two plantation sites in Costa Rica to optimize the management of 11 different mixtures using a genetic optimization algorithm. We found that several of the modeled mixed-species stands can be highly profitable with net present values (NPV) up to 4821.2 USD/ha at an 8% discount rate, and internal rates of return up to 17% (under excellent site conditions). This indicates that the most profitable mixtures (e.g. of V. guatemalensis-D. oleifera or T. grandis-D. oleifera on excellent sites) could compete economically with conventional monoculture plantations such as Teak monocultures. Further, mixed stands can be managed based on the same simple even-aged management approaches currently applied in monoculture plantations if the specific management parameters are adapted. The optimized management parameters also lead to improved NPV of the modeled stands under alternative valuation assumptions but are site-specific. In the present study, we only considered financial benefits from timber production. However, establishing mixed-species plantations in the tropics could provide a wide range of ecosystem services including climate change mitigation and biodiversity protection.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
       
  • The influence of site conditions on Senecio sylvaticus seasonal abundance,
           soil moisture dynamics, and Douglas-fir seedling water stress

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      Abstract: Abstract Competition for soil water resources between newly planted Douglas-fir seedlings and aggressive early-seral plants, such as Senecio sylvaticus [L.] (Senecio), can create drought conditions that impact tree seedling physiology, growth, and likelihood of mortality. However, the specific impact of Senecio on soil moisture dynamics and inducement of water stress in newly planted tree seedlings across varying site conditions has not been quantified. This study quantified these interactions at three contrasting sites across the U.S. Pacific Northwest: the Coastal Range, the Cascade foothills, and the fringe of south-central valley of Western Oregon. We tested whether competition between Senecio and Douglas-fir seedlings for soil water resources in areas of high Senecio abundance caused increased water stress in the tree seedlings. Senecio demonstrated a high degree of plasticity across sites increasing its lifespan and shoot:root in response to increased soil water resources. Senecio also had more than twice the root area of influence as Douglas-fir. Overall, greater Senecio abundance was associated with greater soil moisture depletion and this soil moisture depletion was correlated with increased Douglas-fir water stress. The magnitude of this response varied across sites; the dry site had the greatest shifts in Senecio biomass partitioning, the highest observable water depletion, and the greatest amount of Douglas-fir water stress. The presented results can be useful for determining effective forest vegetation management regimes by considering the impact of Senecio presence on Douglas-fir seedling drought stress across different site conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Clumped or regular' the role of thinning pattern on pine growth and
           soil water content in dense Aleppo pine post-fire stands

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      Abstract: Abstract The development of silvicultural practices that seek to promote structural heterogeneity is increasingly demanded. This work investigates the effect of thinning spatial pattern on the response to pre-commercial thinning of dense Aleppo pine post-fire stands. On three replicated experimental sites in SE Spain, we applied the following treatments: 600 trees/ha, regular thinning pattern (600R), with residual trees evenly spaced; 600 trees/ha, aggregated thinning pattern (600A), with residual pines arranged in clumps of ∽25 trees with a local within-clump density of 2500 trees/ha; and control treatment, with no thinning applied (> 20,000 trees/ha). We assessed treatment effects on pine growth, size-growth relationships, soil water content, and understory vegetation over the first three years after thinning application. Both regular and aggregated thinning pattern similarly increased pine radial growth. In general, dbh growth rates in response to thinning were faster for smaller trees than for larger trees. The growth rate of pine height was higher for 600R and control than for 600A, indicating a positive effect on height of both low and very high pine densities. We found a near-term positive effect of aggregated pattern on water availability at the stand level, mostly resulting from enhanced soil water content in the canopy gaps. For both thinning patterns, the recovery of understory vegetation was dominated by resprouter species. This study highlights the potential of aggregated thinning patterns to enhance the complexity and heterogeneity of the pine stands without compromising pine growth, which could be of great use to managing pine forests in Mediterranean areas.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Differences in early seasonal growth efficiency and productivity of
           eucalyptus genotypes

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the changes in early growth efficiency (GE, growth/leaf area) may improve forest production through the selection of appropriate genotypes at early stages. We investigated different early growth responses of genotypes of Eucalyptus globulus (7), E. nitens (3), and E. nitens × E globulus (E. gloni) (7) in south-central Chile. To evaluate seasonal growth, plants of each genotype were established in a completely randomized block design in coarse sandy soil (i.e., low water holding capacity), with spring and summer irrigation. The current monthly increment (CMI) in wood volume (cm3 tree−1 month−1), and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m−2) were used to calculate GE at 4.1, 7.5, 10.4, 13.4, and 15.4 months of age, corresponding to five growing seasons (first summer, fall, winter, spring, and second summer). The interaction between genotype and season had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on LAI and GE, but not on CMI. In general, CMI values declined in winter, but increased greatly in the second summer. LAI values were stable during the first three seasons, increased in spring, and peaked in the second summer. During all seasons, a significant (p < 0.001) relationship between growth and LAI was observed, with differences in model coefficients among taxa. The highest GEs were observed mainly for E. globulus, which grew with small changes in the LAI. In general, our findings showed that eucalyptus genotypes with higher annual GEs presented higher seasonal GEs, except for some E. globulus genotypes. Changes in seasonal GEs among genotypes suggest that the same environment drives a significant response in the early growth stage as a consequence of climate influences on carbon allocation among different eucalyptus genotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Short-term effects of phosphorus fertilization on Amazonian tree species
           in a mixed plantation

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      Abstract: Abstract The low availability of phosphorus (P) in tropical soils may hinder the initial establishment of forest species planted in disturbed areas. However, the effects of P fertilization as a strategy to improve the survival, growth and photosynthesis-related traits of Amazonian tree species in P-limited soils remain unclear. Here, we investigate how contrasting levels of P fertilization affect the establishment of native Amazonian tree species with different successional statuses. We measured the survival, growth (height and root collar diameter) and leaf traits (e.g., chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, leaf nutrients and gas exchange) of ten species (five pioneers and five nonpioneers) subjected to contrasting P supplies (−P = 0 kg P2O5 ha−1 and +P = 160 kg P2O5 ha−1) in the field over 24 months. Phosphorus fertilization improved the availability of P in the soil. Pioneers species were more responsive to fertilization. Erythrina fusca showed high mortality under −P, while Cedrela fissilis, Cordia alliodora and Guazuma ulmifolia (pioneers) exhibited the highest increases in growth rates after fertilization. Fertilization improved the P content in the leaves in the noonpioneers group, while both ecological groups had the highest K content in the leaves under no P fertilization. Carbon capture (stomatal conductance) increased only in pioneers species. Conversely, positive effects on carbon assimilation at the leaf level were not observed. P fertilization reduced the P use efficiency of nonpioneers species. Fertilization is an important management practice to relieve the effects of stress induced by soil phosphorus starvation on the establishment of Amazonian trees and is modulated by successional status and species identity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Adaptability and stability of novel eucalypt species and provenances
           across environments in Brazil at two assessment

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      Abstract: Abstract The potential effects of climate change plus the expansion of eucalypt plantations to less favorable sites, beyond those where they are currently planted, requires exploring novel eucalypt germplasm to identify taxa less vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stress. To improve plant adaptation to new environments, the first step is breeding programs and/or forming base populations of new and different species. But, to achieve this, what species should be chosen from the almost 1000 existing eucalypt species' To tackle this question, this work evaluated various eucalypt species from different provenances at two assessment in five environments to verify (1) the need for environmental stratification; (2) the best species and provenances per environment, and (3) environmental stability, adaptability, and changes between assessment. The mortality and diameter at breast height of 27 eucalypt taxa originating from wild populations and seed orchards were evaluated. To evaluate the data, we took a factor analytic mixed modelling approach to define mega-environments (groups of similar sites) and characterize the interactions of these with the selected taxa. The analyses allowed both quantitative and graphical identification of optimal combinations of species and sites. Promising taxa identified include Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata, C. henryi, Eucalyptus longirostrata, E. major and E. urophylla. We place the results of this process in the context of ongoing domestication and breeding of new taxa for challenging sites in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Differential tolerance of four tree species to glyphosate and mesotrione
           used in agrosilvopastoral systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Agrosilvopastoral systems present high potential as a sustainable agriculture technique, despite the current limiting points in the systems management that must be overcome. A major bottleneck in the implementation of these systems is the damage caused, to forest species, by the application of herbicides for weed control in the crop component. The present study evaluated the selectivity of herbicides in seedlings of two tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, Dipteryx alata (Vog.) and Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul, and two eucalyptus clones, E. urograndis and E. urocam. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, with two commonly-used herbicides (glyphosate and mesotrione), in five different doses. The sensitivity of tree species to the herbicides was evaluated through physiological, morphological and visual phyto intoxication characteristics. For glyphosate, the tree species exhibited strong phytotoxicity symptoms from the second day after application, being the symptoms more prominent in the two eucalyptus clones and less in D. alata, which presented higher tolerance to this herbicide. For mesotrione, the four tree species studied showed mild toxicity symptoms, with very little or absent significant impacts in growth and biomass accumulation. The herbicide mesotrione was shown to be selective for the four tree species studied and can be recommended to agroforestry systems in which these species are present. These results based on phytotoxicity grades are reinforced by the biometric and physiological parameters measured.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Old-field planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth
           response to various herbaceous weed control herbicides and application
           timings after 11 years

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      Abstract: Abstract Chemical herbaceous weed control (HWC) is frequently used to improve the early survival and growth of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). Reports on long-term survival and growth response of longleaf pine to commonly used HWC herbicides and spring first year application timings are limited. The objectives of this study were (1) evaluate survival and growth of longleaf pine in response to three common herbicides, (2) evaluate three HWC application timings, and (3) determine if defect and disease prevalence are increased by faster growth rates following banded, overtop HWC treatments. Three study areas were installed as randomized complete block designs in Treutlen and Laurens County, Georgia, USA. Imazapyr [Arsenal® Applicators Concentrate (AC)] (A4 treatment) was applied during late March, mid-April, and mid-May of the first growing season, and a premixed blend of hexazinone and sulfometuron methyl (Oustar®) (10OS treatment) was applied on the same dates. The last treatment was a split application of sulfometuron methyl (Oust XP®) and imazapyr (2OA4 treatment). Survival post-establishment was greatest in the control treatment (no HWC) when the March application timing was included in the analysis, but with March timings removed, the 10OS treatment had the greatest survival after 11 years (April and May applications). March application timing resulted in significantly lower survival than April or May applications with 10OS and A4 treatments. Diameter and height were greatest in the 10OS and 2OA4 treatment, while the 10OS and control treatment had the greatest average green weight and basal area ha−1 at age 11-years-old. When herbaceous weeds present competition issues in newly established longleaf pine stands, the 10OS treatment applied in April or May on similar Coastal Plain sites may offer satisfactory long-term longleaf pine growth.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • The effect of temperature during cone and seed development on primary
           dormancy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds

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      Abstract: Abstract Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds have variable levels of primary dormancy which reflect within-species adaptation to local environments. The objective of this study was to use a thermal time approach to determine whether primary dormancy levels in seeds were correlated with mean ambient temperature during temperature-sensitive phases of the reproductive cycle. Seedlots were obtained from a single open-pollinated clonal seed orchard in five crop years and germinated over a wide temperature range (7–35 °C) to calculate base temperature for germination with and without pre-chills (4 and 8 weeks). Primary dormancy levels varied amongst seedlots collected in different crop years (CY). Unchilled seeds were the most dormant for CY2007 (Tb = 10.9 °C) and least dormant for CY2012 (Tb = 5.6 °C). Base temperatures for germination were correlated with mean ambient temperature during different phases of the reproductive cycle. There was a strong positive correlation between base temperature for germination of unchilled seeds and mean temperature during pollination and early pollen tube growth. This suggests that maternal environmental effects during this phase could potentially select for dormant or non-dormant seeds, which has implications for tree breeding and seedling production in forest nurseries.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Variation in the chemical quality of woody supplements for nursery growing
           media affects growth of tree seedlings

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      Abstract: Abstract Tree seedlings are produced in tree nurseries. However, nursery-grown seedlings often exhibit poor performance after outplanting due to the lack of adaptation to harsh natural conditions. These nursery-grown seedlings do not necessarily possess well-developed ectomycorrhizal symbionts, which help to obtain nutrients and increase resilience in exchange for seedling photoassimilated carbon. To improve the quality of the seedlings in natural conditions, we sowed spruce seeds on growing media with the addition of wood chips, i.e. stemwood chips or polyphenol- and resin acid-rich knotwood chips. Wood chips were chosen because they are common forest side-streams, and their compounds have shown a potential to improve mycorrhization and seedling fitness. Wood chips initially decreased the growth of seedlings. However, this effect levelled off with time and depended on the quality of the wood. Wood chips had no effect on mycorrhization. Further testing of the wood material showed that wood chips seemed to decrease seedling growth via nitrogen (N) immobilisation rather than a direct toxic effect. The phenomenon of N immobilisation on wood chips could be explored further to develop a slow-release N source, aptly reflecting N availability in natural conditions. Slow-release N source based on wood chips could be beneficial both to increase survival in natural conditions and for environment protection.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Biomass allocation and nutrient use efficiency in response to water
           stress: insight from experimental manipulation of balsam fir, concolor fir
           and white pine transplants

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      Abstract: Abstract Plants under water stress alter their normal morphological and physiological processes. However, biomass allocation and nutrient use efficiency remain largely unknown under the interactive effect of irrigation and fertilization for many economically important conifer species. In this study, we compared biomass allocation and resources use efficiency of two-year-old (plug+1) containerized balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L) Mill.] ‘Cooks’ and concolor fir [Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. Ex Hildebr.] ‘Cibola’, and one-year-old bare-root white pine [Pinus strobus L.] transplants grown under variable watering and fertilization conditions. In a controlled greenhouse setting, transplants were submitted to three irrigation levels and two fertilization rates in a factorial experimental design. Fir species, mainly concolor fir, had a greater capacity to utilize water resulting in decreased stem water potential than white pine, leading to increased aboveground growth and shoot-to-root (S/R) ratio. White pine transplants had a higher assimilatory nutrient efficiency, nutrient use efficiency (NUE), root weight ratio, and a lower nitrogen availability index than the two fir species, suggesting a better ability to tolerate water stress. The high rates of fertilization increased nutrient concentration more than growth, suggesting luxury consumption. These results indicate that white pine responds to drought stress by closing their stomata and decreasing their S/R ratio to limit physiological activities, while the two fir species exhibit increased water uptake via expanded fine root networks, increasing the NUE and S/R ratio. However, there was no clear trend for the irrigation and fertilization interaction for NUE for three species, making it difficult to generalize responses.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Different harvest systems of Eucalyptus clone plantations affect above and
           belowground biomass production and nutritional sustainability

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      Abstract: Abstract Forest residue, such as stump and coarse roots, can contribute to an increase in the raw material supply from fast-growing Eucalyptus plantations for industrial uses, such as power generation, process wood and biotechnology. However, the impact real on the nutritional sustainability of forest sites because to utilization of belowground biomass is not known. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of utilization of above and belowground biomass components on the nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus clonal plantation. To do so, we used Eucalyptus urophylla clones (AEC 0144); E. urophylla × E. grandis (AEC 0224), and E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis (VM01) aged 6.8, 6.6, and 6.3 years of age, respectively. Trees were felled, up-rooted, and separated into leaves, branches, bark, stem wood, stumps, crown root, and coarse roots. Biomass production, stock, and export of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were analyzed. Moreover, the number of rotations required to export all soil nutrients, and nutrient use efficiency in different harvest systems were determined. The complete tree and full tree harvest systems exported the highest N, P, K, Ca, and Mg amounts, and showed the lowest nutrient use efficiency. This shows the importance of maintaining waste, such as leaves, branches, and bark, on the site. In harvest system debarked stem wood with belowground biomass, intermediate values were obtained in terms of export, use efficiency and number of rotations required to export N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, when compared to other harvest systems. These results showed that the belowground biomass use, taking into consideration Eucalyptus clone selection, and harvest systems can be an alternative source of biomass, without reducing the forest site sustainability and future productivity.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Tree breeding, a necessary complement to genetic engineering

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      Abstract: Abstract The fields of tree breeding and genetic engineering can be perceived as being antagonistic towards each other—genetic engineers suggesting that tree breeding is too slow and expensive and tree breeders suggesting that genetic engineering is not practical and too expensive. We argue here that both fields have much to offer forestry and the success of each is intimately tied to the other. The major purposes of genetic engineering in forestry are described as well as the importance of evaluating tree engineering initiatives in the context of tree improvement and silviculture and integrating genetic engineering with tree breeding from start to finish. A generalized approach is developed that meets these requirements and demonstrates the interrelationships between the activities and phases of each program. In addition, a case study of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is provided to underscore the value of integrating genetic engineering and tree breeding programs to achieve a long-term conservation goal.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
       
  • Root deformation affects the allometric relationships of young plants of
           Genipa americana under contrasting light conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract We conducted a study aiming to evaluate the effects of light intensity and root deformation on the prediction capacity of Genipa americana seedling biomass, using allometric models. Seedlings with and without root deformation were placed under high and low light intensity (21.6 and 0.66 mol m−2 day−1, respectively). Stem diameter (D), height (H), and leaves, stems, root, and total dry mass were measured. Analysis of covariance was used to test whether the relationship between seedling biomass and D2 or D2H varied for each treatment combination. Low light influenced the allometric relationship between biomass and D2 in stems. Root deformation with low light influenced the relationship between biomass and D2 in the root. Light and root deformation influenced the relationship between biomass and D2H in all seedling vegetative structures. As a result, “full” allometric models, which varied with treatment combinations, were equally accurate and precise at predicting biomass than “reduced” models, which did not vary with treatment for leaves and total dry mass using D2. However, “full” and “reduced” allometric models using D2H had the opposite effect as “full” models were more accurate and precise at predicting leaves and total biomass than “reduced” models. Our results showed that some allometric relationships of young G. americana plants were directly affected by root deformation and low light intensity, while some were conservative i.e. unaffected by light and root deformation treatments. The best allometric equations were obtained with models that used stem diameter as the predictor variable.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
       
  • Ex situ conservation of birch trees by cryopreservation of dormant buds
           adapted to subzero temperatures by extracellular freezing

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      Abstract: Abstract The cryopreservation of organs, tissues and cells is a useful tool for long-term, ex situ conservation of forest tree species. Since Betula platyphylla, B. ermanii and B. maximowicziana are economically and ecologically important forestry trees in boreal areas of Japan, meaningful conservation efforts require the development of cryopreservation methods for the winter buds of Japanese birch genetic resources. This study investigated the cryopreservation of winter buds of Japanese birch by slow freezing. Regrowth rates of shoot primordia isolated from winter buds that were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (− 196 °C) after slow freezing from − 2 to − 40 °C at a rate of 0.2 °C/min were comparable with regrowth rates of shoot primordia that were not subjected to slow freezing and cryopreservation. Isolated shoot primordia of B. platyphylla showed regrowth rates of approximately 80%, and the regrowth rates of isolated shoot primordia of B. ermanii and B. maximowicziana were approximately 30%. Prevention of fungal contamination was technically difficult when preparing tissue cultures from B. ermanii and B. maximowicziana buds under sterile conditions. Assessments of freezing adaptation by differential thermal analysis showed that birch buds responded to subzero temperatures by extracellular freezing, which is a common mechanism for winter freezing adaptation in many plant tissues, but is different from deep supercooling associated with extraorgan freezing observed in the winter buds of many tree species. Since birch buds could tolerate immersion in liquid nitrogen by extracellular freezing, slow freezing of winter buds is considered to be a feasible method for preparing birch buds for cryopreservation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Tachigali vulgaris energy forests: understanding spacing, age, and stem
           type effects on tree growth patterns and wood density

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      Abstract: Abstract Reforestation with species of the Eucalyptus genus provides the main biomass source for energy purposes in Brazil. However, the country’s northern region lacks such crops to meet the demand of the second-largest national steel pole. The species is a promising source of biomass, as it is native to the region and grows at high rates. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of planting spacing (4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0, 10.5, and 12 m2 per plant), tree age (87 and 102 months) and stem forking on dendrometric variables and wood basic density of T. vulgaris trees from a trial plantation located in Eastern Amazonia. The commercial volume, basic density, form factor, and dry wood mass of trees were determined. The forked trees had a higher volume (0.2492 m3) and dry wood mass (112.88 kg) than non-forked trees (average volume of 0.1573 m3 and 73.66 kg of dry wood mass). At 87 months, wood basic density was found higher in wide spacings (9 and 12 m2 plant− 1). At 87 months, the non-forked and forked trees presented basic densities of 0.505 and 0.474 g cm− 3, respectively. The forked trees at 102 months spaced by 9 m2 had a basic density > 0.500 g cm− 3, a desirable parameter for charcoal production. Thus, this study confirmed the relevance of planting spacing, age, and stem type on the basic density of T. vulgaris, supporting future studies to define the best silvicultural practices and decision-making on the species by forest companies located in Amazonia.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Phylogeographic origin authentication of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K Koch
           seedlings through the application of spectroscopy techniques in different
           infrared ranges and chemometric methods

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      Abstract: Abstract The origin of seed and seedlings is an important factor for the success of restoration programs; an inadequate origin can have negative impacts on genetic and adaptive processes. A technique that allows authenticating the origin is infrared spectroscopy, a fast, accurate and low-cost tool. In Patagonia one species that required restoration programs, consequently, propagules traceability is Araucaria araucana. Phylogeographic studies showed significant differences between Chilean Andean and Coastal populations. The goal of this study was to discriminate the phylogeographic origin of A. araucana seedlings using spectroscopic and chemometric methods. Seedlings of both phylogeographic origins were cultivated in common garden and spectral information in four spectral ranges was recorded. Principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were applied. All the spectral ranges analyzed were able to discriminate phylogeographic origin, whose predictive models achieved a classification accuracy of 88–91%. The best models were SIMCA VIS–NIR and SIMCA FTIR. Wavelengths responsible for discrimination were associated with photosynthetic pigments, proteins and plant fibers. Andean seedlings have a higher content of Chlb, xanthophylls and plant fibers and the most important bands for the Coastal provenance are related to Chla and protein contents. It is shown that differences reported at the genetic level between both origins are expressed at the chemical level. In conclusion, infrared spectra obtained from Araucaria araucana, treated with chemometric methods, allow capturing the phylogeographic signal that separates Coastal and Andean origins. In the future, the resulting models could be used in restoration programs for this species.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11056-022-09933-x
       
  • Understanding the effects of topoedaphic characteristics on site quality
           in a Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. plantation in Amazonas

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      Abstract: Abstract This work aimed to assess if nonlinear models accurately predict the wood productive capacity of B. excelsa plantations in Amazonia and identify topoedaphic characteristics more linked to growth variations in these plantations. Nonlinear models were tested to classify the productive capacity of B. excelsa stands of different ages (14 to 21 years), by algebraic difference method. We used a database of 75 temporary plots and complete stem analyses of 30 trees. Soil sampling was performed at depths of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm, for chemical analyses ( \({\text{pH}}_{{{\text{H}}_{{2}} {\text{O}}}}\) , pHKCl, C, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Na+) and physical (soil density, penetration resistance, granulometry). Topographic information was obtained by GPS and digital elevation image. Site classes were spatialized in the study area by method ordinary point kriging. Relationships between topoedaphic variables and site index were evaluated by correlation matrix to identify major characteristics limiting site productivity, and regression models were generated by stepwise backward method to evaluate whether topoedaphic characteristics explain growth variation in B. excelsa stands. The Chapman-Richards model presented good statistical performance, good distribution of residues, and resulted in consistent polymorphic curves. Polymorphism evaluation indicated differentiated growth patterns of specie among sites. Soil texture (sand content) and topography (elevation) were the main drivers of site productivity, followed by some soil chemical variables (K+, Mn2+ and pHKCl). These results can support planning of activities related to installation and management of B. excelsa stands in the Amazon, besides identifying potential areas of expansion of plantations of this species.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11056-022-09930-0
       
  • Arboretums, common gardens and forest tree resilience

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      Abstract: Abstract Climate change triggered forest die-back is a huge concern worldwide. Arboretums and common gardens comparing geographic origins within species can provide a large body of valuable information and material usable to increase forest resilience. Common gardens have been foundational in demonstrating the existence of genetic diversity, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. They have also been instrumental for forest management and policy, e.g., for guiding seed transfer rules and their marketing. While the current generation of common gardens has seen a renewed interest for developing process-based niche models or genome-trait-environment association studies, they are too limited in the number of species, provenances and habitats they sample in the context of climate change and novel bioeconomy focus. A new generation of common gardens is now needed.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11056-022-09908-y
       
 
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