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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1002)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 778)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 702)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 569)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 410)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
Advances in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 251)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 117)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 89)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 50)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Aerospace Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Xibei Gongye Daxue Xuebao / Journal of Northwestern Polytechnical University     Open Access  
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access  

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Gravitational and Space Research
Number of Followers: 1  

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ISSN (Online) 2332-7774
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  • Validation of Assays for Reactive Oxygen Species and Glutathione in during
           Microgravity Simulation

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTThe effects of spaceflight on yeast have high concordance with agents that induce a very low intracellular redox state and induce a massive efflux of glutathione. These results raise important issues. Can the reduced redox state during spaceflight be reproduced and modulated in ground-based simulations' Will this allow definition of unique drug pathways as a low redox potential state mirrors the electrophilic properties of mitochondria where many drugs are metabolized' Unfortunately, assays for redox status and its major cellular determinant—glutathione—are diverse and often cell-type-specific. Currently, an accepted redox probe set for yeast studies is not available. This paper validates fluorescent probes for glutathione and reactive oxygen status in yeast to support mechanistic studies of microgravity and drug metabolism. The plethora of fluorescent reagents for reactive oxygen species and glutathione makes head-to-head comparisons of all the alternatives impractical. These reagents measure the physiological milieu of reactive oxygen species and diverse thiols, rather than specific individual molecules. We report that in yeast, monochlorobimane (mBCL) and 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DC-FDA) are suitable for fluorometric and flow cytometry studies of glutathione and reactive oxygen species, respectively. Both dyes have low background fluorescence, predictable loading, good retention, and are not acutely toxic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both dyes show concordance with other fluorescent and biochemical assays of reactive oxygen species.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Microarray Identifies Transcription Factors Potentially Involved in
           Gravitropic Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTGravity is a fundamental stimulus that affects plant growth and development. The gravity persistent signal (GPS) treatment uses a cold treatment to isolate the events of signal transduction. Plants are reoriented horizontally in the dark at 4°C for 1 hour and then returned to vertical at room temperature. A gene expression microarray was designed to identify genes that are regulated during the GPS treatment. Arabidopsis thaliana var. Columbia was grown to maturity with inflorescence stems of 8-10 cm. Total mRNA was collected from inflorescence stems at 2, 4, 10, and 30 min after reorientation in the cold. cDNA was synthesized from the mRNA and then probed against an Arabidopsis gene expression array with 4 replicates per time point. Analyses presented here focus on transcription factors because of their regulatory functions in response pathways. Five transcription factors (AtAIB, WRKY18, WRKY26, WRKY33, and BT2) were selected for further study based on their expression at 4 min. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction ((PCR) RT-qPCR) was performed to confirm expression seen in the microarray data. Seeds of Arabidopsis lines containing T-DNA insertions in the genes were obtained, plants bred to homozygosity, and the mutants analyzed for GPS phenotype. Mutant analysis shows significant differences in curvature of inflorescence stems between mutants and wild type.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mapping by VESGEN of Wing Vein Phenotype in for Quantifying Adaptations to
           Space Environments

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTVascular patterning is a key, genetically responsive phylogenetic classifier of tissues in major organisms flown in space, such as the wings of Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly), mouse retina, and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the highly stereotyped Drosophila wing generated by overexpressing the H-C2 construct of Notch antagonist Hairless (Johannes and Preiss, 2002) were mapped and quantified by NASA’s VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software. By several confirming vascular parameters, the eight stereotyped wing veins remained quite constant in wild type compared to Class 5 H-C2, the most perturbed category of the H-C2 overexpression phenotypes. However, ectopic veins increased in number from 1 in the wild type, to 18 in Class 5 H-C2. We therefore demonstrate the feasibility of using VESGEN to quantify microscopic images of altered wing venation in Drosophila melanogaster. We further determined that several of the signal transduction pathways affecting wing vein patterning were altered by spaceflight, according to gene expression differences observed in our transcriptomic data from a previous shuttle flight experiment. Future studies will help characterize the extent to which these gene expression changes can cause even subtle developmental changes using model organisms, such as Drosophila. Therefore, we propose that the sensitive analyses provided by VESGEN software will not only serve as a useful tool to map the genetics of wing vein patterning for terrestrial applications, but also for future phenotypic studies with Drosophila for spaceflight missions.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • New Insights in Plant Biology Gained from Research in Space

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTRecent spaceflight experiments have provided many new insights into the role of gravity in plant growth and development. Scientists have been taking seeds and plants into space for decades in an effort to understand how the stressful environment of space affects them. The resultant data have yielded significant advances in the development of advanced life-support systems for long-duration spaceflight and a better understanding of the fundamental role of gravity in directing the growth and development of plants. Experiments have improved as new spaceflight hardware and technology paved the way for progressively more insightful and rigorous plant research in space. The International Space Station (ISS) has provided an opportunity for scientists to both monitor and control their experiments in real-time. Experiments on the ISS have provided valuable insights into endogenous growth responses, light responses, and transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur in the microgravity environment. In recent years most studies of plants in space have used Arabidopsis thaliana, but the single-celled, Ceratopteris richardii spore is also a valuable model system that has been used to understand plant gravity response. Experiments using these fern spores have revealed a dynamic and gravity-responsive trans-cell Ca2+ current that directs polarization of these spores and a possible role of extracellular nucleotides in establishing or contributing to this current. As technology continues to improve, spaceflight experiments will provide many new insights into the role and effects of gravity on plant growth and development.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Compact Heat Rejection System Utilizing Integral Variable Heat Pipe
           Radiator for Space Application

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTIn order to meet heat rejection requirements for future NASA exploration, scientific, and discovery missions, a study is being conducted for the feasibility of integral variable conductance planar heat pipe (VCPHP) technology. This represents a novel, low technology readiness level (TRL) heat rejection technology that, when developed, could operate efficiently and reliably across a wide range of thermal environments. The concept consists of a planar heat pipe whose evaporator acquires the excess thermal energy from the thermal control system and rejects it at its condenser whose outer surface acts as a radiating surface. The heat pipe is made from thermally conductive polymers in order to minimize its mass. It has a non-condensable gas that changes the active radiator surface depending on the heat load. A mathematical model of steady-state variable conductance heat pipe is developed. Two planar heat pipes are designed, fabricated, and tested to validate the theoretical model. The feasibility of the proposed VCPHP working in a space environment is discussed, based on the model.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Salivary Gland Protein Expression after Bion-M1 and Space Shuttle STS-135

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTSecretory proteins produced by salivary glands are stored in granules and released into saliva. Rodent salivary glands are a reliable experimental model because they are morphologically and functionally similar to those of humans. To determine if the effects of microgravity on secretory proteins are increased on extended flights, their expression in mouse parotid glands, morphological, immunocytochemical, and biochemical/molecular methods were employed. Acinar cells of STS-135 (13 day) and Bion-M1 (30 day) flight animals showed an increase of autophagy and apoptosis, while duct cells contained vacuoles with endocytosed proteins. In STS-135, decreases were seen in the regulatory subunit of type II protein kinase A (RII) by Western blotting, and demilune cell and parotid protein (DCPP) and α-amylase (p<0.01) by immunogold labeling, while proline-rich proteins (PRPs, p<0.001) and parotid secretory protein (PSP, p<0.05) were increased. These results suggest microgravity effects on secretion are function-dependent. Microarray analyses showed significant changes in the expression of a number of genes, including components of the cyclic-3’,5’,-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) signaling pathway. Compared to habitat ground controls, mice from both flights exhibited altered expression of cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylate cyclase isoforms, and several A-kinase anchoring proteins. Bion-M1 flight mice showed increases in gene expression for lysozyme and amylase, a decrease in PRPs, and RII expression was unchanged from control values. Secretory protein expression is altered by travel in space, representing a reversible adjustment to microgravity conditions. Ultimately, the goal is to develop a test kit using saliva — an easily obtained body fluid — to assess the physiologic effects of travel in space.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparative Toxicity of Lunar, Martian Dust Simulants, and Urban Dust in
           Human Skin Fibroblast Cells

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTThe National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has plans to further their manned space exploration to Mars and possibly beyond. The potential toxicity of lunar and Martian dusts to astronauts is a big concern. Primary routes of exposure for astronauts are dermal contact, ocular contact, and inhalation. In this study, we focused on dermal contact exposure using human skin cells to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two fractions of lunar dust simulant (JSC-1A-vf, JSC-1A-f) and a Mars dust simulant (Mars-1A), and compared them to urban dust (urban particulate matter), as urban dust toxicity is better understood and thus, provides a good comparison. Our data show the three simulants and urban dust are cytotoxic to human skin cells. The JSC-1A-vf lunar dust simulant is more cytotoxic than the JSC-1A-f and urban dust. Urban dust cytotoxicity is similar to Mars dust simulant after 120 h exposure. All three dust simulants and urban dust show similar low genotoxicity effects. Our data suggest extraterrestrial dust can damage skin cells and may have the potential to be harmful to humans.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Prolonged Head-Down Posture of Bats Induces Remodeling of the Aorta

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTInversion is the regular position for bats at rest, but continuous inversion was expected to reverse the gravity vector exposure from feet-ward to head-ward and present hemodynamic challenges that induce remodeling of the aorta. There is paucity of information regarding the cardiovascular structural adaptations in bats engaged in regulating cranial or caudal blood redistribution in prolonged inversion. The aim of this study was to determine aortic adaptations in bats during prolonged inversion. Forty (40) bats were captured at Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria and randomly allocated into a normal control group and three test groups (n=10/group). The inversion period was not extended in control group A, but was maintained 8 days in B, 15 days in C, and 22 days in D. At the end of each inversion period, the bats were euthanized using intramuscular injection, and tissues were processed for Haematoxylin and Eosin, Orcein, and Van Gieson staining. Histological changes in the tunica media and adventitia were quantified, and the results were analyzed statistically. The ascending aorta exhibited thickening of the media and adventitia, whereas the abdominal aorta showed thinning of these regions. The changes increased in magnitude with longer periods of inversion. The histological stains indicated alterations in smooth muscle cells, collagen, and elastin content, consistent with predicted elevated pressure in the ascending and decreased pressure in the abdominal aortae. The vascular adaptation in bats may provide insights into suspected cardiovascular changes in astronauts during long-term spaceflight.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effects of the Spaceflight Environment on the Vaginal Mucin Layer of
           the Mouse

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTIt has been well documented that spaceflight has adverse effects on many tissues and systems throughout the body. Although this phenomenon is well documented, relatively little research has been done in the area of the female reproductive system. If spaceflight has harmful effects on the female reproductive system, the migration of the human species into space would be greatly compromised. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on the thickness of the apical mucin layer in the vaginae of mice, as changes in this layer could have detrimental effects on sperm survival and, therefore, a profound impact on the animal’s ability to reproduce. This study examined the thickness of the vaginal mucin lining from female mice that were exposed to 13 days of spaceflight and their concomitant controls. The tissues were stained using a technique commonly used to localize and analyze mucin varieties. The tissue was qualitatively analyzed for the type of mucin produced (i.e., acidic, neutral, acidic/neutral mixture). Further, the tissue was quantitatively analyzed for the amount of mucins produced by measuring the thickness of the mucin layer. The results of this study indicate that spaceflight causes a thickening of the mucin lining of the vaginal canal. The results further indicate being housed in an Animal Enclosure Module also caused a thickening of the vaginal mucin layer — presumably due to internal cage environmental factors — but this effect was not as pronounced as that seen in the spaceflight mice.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Over-Expression of in Plum () Results in Phenotypes Compatible with
           Spaceflight: A Potential New Candidate Crop for Bioregenerative Life
           Support Systems

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTTree fruits (e.g., apples, plums, cherries) are appealing constituents of a crew menu for long-duration exploration missions (i.e., Mars), both in terms of their nutritive and menu diversity contributions. Although appealing, tree fruit species have long been precluded as candidate crops for use in plant-based bioregenerative life support system designs based on their large crown architecture, prolonged juvenile phase, and phenological constraints. Recent advances by researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have led to the development of plum (Prunus domestica) trees ectopically over-expressing the Flowering Locus T-1 (FT1) gene from Populus trichocarpa (poplar). The transformed plants exhibit atypical phenotypes that seemingly eliminate the aforementioned obstacles to spaceflight. Here we demonstrate the FT1 expression system (FasTrack) and the resultant dwarf growth habits, early flowering, and continuous fruit production. The potential contribution of P. domestica as a countermeasure to microgravity-induced bone loss is also discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hydrogen- and Methane-Loaded Shielding Materials for Mitigation of
           Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTOne of the challenges of human spaceflight in deep space is the harsh radiation environment. The current best practices for mitigating radiation are via design and multifunctional materials. There have been many studies over the years showing low-Z materials as the best radiation mitigators for spaceflight. In addition, there have recently been several studies investigating hydrogen-loading of materials for fuel cells. If it is possible to load a material with additional low-Z materials — such as hydrogen — it may be possible to increase the radiation mitigating potential of these materials. Thus, our work is focused on metal hydrides (MHs), metal organic frameworks (MOFs), and nanoporous carbon composites (CNTs) that can be loaded with hydrogen or methane for radiation mitigation. Our previous simulation work focused on hydrogen-loading only, and investigated the capability of these materials during a particularly hard solar particle event (SPE) in October 1989. In these simulations, we found 50% of the investigated carbon composites outperformed high-density polyethylene (HDPE) — the current standard for passive radiation shielding. We also found 10% of the investigated MOFs outperformed HDPE. Therefore, we wanted to continue our simulation study of these materials to determine whether they may also show improvement over HDPE in a galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment. Furthermore, there are concerns with using hydrogen as a loading material — a result of its flammability and instability in thermal extremes. Thus, we are also considering methane-loading of the MOFs and CNTs. The details of this work will be discussed in the paper. Overall, the results showed several MOFs, CNTs, and MHs that performed very well when compared with our typical spacecraft material of aluminum and our standard shielding material of HDPE. This study also showed there is little difference in the dose between hydrogen-loaded and methane-loaded materials of the same base chemistry.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell
           Counts in the Ferret Model

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTExposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one’s immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS).
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Housing in the Animal Enclosure Module Spaceflight Hardware Increases
           Trabecular Bone Mass in Ground-Control Mice

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTDuring spaceflight, mice are housed in specially designed cages called the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM). Utilization of this flight hardware may affect the skeletal properties of housed animals, independent of microgravity considerations. To address this issue, we studied the effect of 13 days of AEM housing versus standard vivarium enclosure on female C57BL/6J mice (n=12/group). The effects of AEM housing were most pronounced in the trabecular compartment. AEM mice had 44% and 144% greater trabecular bone volume fraction and connectivity density, respectively, versus vivarium. A similar response was seen at the proximal humerus. We noted a decrease in proximal tibia osteoclast surface (-65%) and eroded surface (-73%) for AEM versus vivarium, while tibia trabecular mineralizing surface (MS/BS) was nearly three-fold greater. Surprisingly, there was also decreased osteoblast surface, as well as lower osteoid volume, surface, and thickness at this site. The effects of AEM housing on femur cortical bone were modest: there was greater periosteal MS/BS, with no effect at the endocortical surface, and lower femur stiffness. Taken together, we have demonstrated significant effects of AEM housing on ground control mice, particularly in the trabecular bone compartment. These findings suggest that an early increase in bone formation, perhaps due to altered behavior and loading in this unique housing environment, was followed by decreased bone formation and resorption as the animals adapted to their new environment. Characterization of spaceflight animal housing is critical to elucidating the true effects of microgravity on skeletal parameters and for the proper selection of ground-based controls.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Development in Altered Gravity Influences Height in

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTWe investigated the effects of altered gravity on the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum after and during life-long exposure to one of three altered gravity (g) environments: (1) substrate inverted, parallel to and facing the surface of the Earth; (2) hyper-g; (3) reduced-g. To this end, we measured the height of the final stage of the life cycle, the mature spore-bearing sorocarp. Typically, the sorocarp stands erect and perpendicular to the substrate. In the case of each altered g environment, the control cultures were produced and treated identically to the experimental cultures except for the conditions of their exposure to altered g. Inverted cultures developing and growing in the same direction as the gravity vector had a mean height of 1.84 mm. Their counterpart control cultures had a mean height of 1.64 mm being therefore statistically significantly shorter. Cultures chronically exposed to a hyper (10) g environment produced sorocarps with a mean height of 1.13 mm. These were statistically significantly shorter than their 1 g controls whose mean height was 2.06 mm. Clinorotated (simulated reduced g) sorocarp heights (mean equal to 2.12 mm) were statistically significantly taller compared to their 1 g controls (mean equal to 1.79 mm). The significance level for all the statistical analyses is p < 0.05. Therefore, measurements of the mature stage after life-long exposure to simulated altered gravity show that the final height of the sorocarp is ultimately determined, at least partially, by the gravity environment in which development occurs.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mammalian Reproduction and Development on the International Space Station
           (ISS): Proceedings of the Rodent Mark III Habitat Workshop

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTThe Mark III Rodent Habitat Workshop was held at NASA Ames Research Center on March 21-22, 2013 to prepare top-level science requirements for developing a habitat to support studies of mammalian reproduction and development on the International Space Station (ISS). This timely workshop assembled a diverse team with expertise in reproductive and developmental biology, behavior, space biosciences, habitat development, physiology, mouse genetics, veterinary medicine, rodent husbandry, flight hardware development (rodent), and spaceflight operations. Participants received overview presentations from each discipline, discussed concerns, potential risks, and risk mitigations corresponding to distinctive reproductive and developmental phases, and reviewed specific examples of research within the major space bioscience disciplines requiring a Mark III habitat1 to achieve their objectives. In this review, we present the workshop materials and products, and summarize major recommendations for defining the requirements envelope for the NASA Rodent Habitat (RH) Mark III. Development of this habitat will permit the first long duration studies of mammalian reproduction and development in space, within and across generations.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • A Computational Study of the Mechanics of Gravity-induced Torque on Cells

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTIn this paper we use Nace’s previous work in order to model the effects of gravity in cells and similar objects. In the presence of the gravitational field of a primary body, the gravity vector can result in numerous effects, some of which are tension, shear, and finally torque. To model the torque effect we use a complete expression for the gravitational acceleration, as this is given on the surface of a planetary body as well as in orbit around it. In particular, on the surface of the Earth the acceleration is corrected for the effect of oblateness and rotation. In the gravitational acceleration the effect of oblateness can be modeled with the inclusion of a term that contains the J2 harmonic coefficient, as well as a term that depends on the square of angular velocity of the Earth. In orbit the acceleration of gravity at the point of the spacecraft is a function of the orbital elements and includes, only in our case, the J2 harmonic since no Coriolis force is felt by the spacecraft. We derive analytical expressions and calculate the resulting torque effects for various geocentric latitudes, as well as circular and elliptical orbits of various eccentricities and inclinations. We find that elliptical polar orbits result in higher torques, and that higher eccentricities result in higher the torque effects. To any measurable extent, our results do not drastically impact any existing biophysical conclusions.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Preliminary Species and Media Selection for the Veggie Space Hardware

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTPlants will be an important component of off-Earth life support systems for food production and atmosphere recycling. “Veggie” is a small vegetable production unit designed for space flight, with a passive water delivery system. Plants can be grown in Veggie using small bags with a wicking surface containing media and fertilizer, i.e., pillows. Pillows planted with seeds can be placed on the wicking surface of the Veggie reservoir and water will wick throughout the media. Multiple small salad and herb species were grown in Veggie analog conditions using both commercial peat-based media and arcillite. Biometric measurements and microbial loads were assessed. Some species grew better in a particular media, but no general trends were apparent. Lettuce plants grew best in the blends of the peat-based and arcillite media. Microbial counts were lower on plants grown in arcillite. Four media types (peat-based mix, arcillite, and blends of the two) were tested in the rooting pillows; tests included Chinese cabbage, Swiss chard, lettuce, snow pea, and radish. Most species grew best in blends of the commercial mix and arcillite. Edible biomass production varied from 3.5-8 grams dry mass/m2/day with lettuce having the lowest biomass and Chinese cabbage highest. Radish plants showed an increasing percentage of partitioning to edible roots with increasing arcillite in the media. Pillows appear to offer a simple, effective strategy for containing rooting media and avoiding free water while growing plants in the Veggie hardware.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effects of Spaceflight on Mucin Production in the Mouse Uterus

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTThe effects of microgravity on biological tissues are relatively unexplored, especially in regard to the mammalian female reproductive system. To begin to address this issue, the uterine tissue of female mice flown on NASA shuttle mission STS-118 was studied. Three sets of female mice, each consisting of 12 animals, were utilized in this study: flight animals, ground control animals, and baseline animals. The flight animals were housed in the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module-2 (CBMT-2), which was a part of the payload of the shuttle’s mid-deck locker. Ground control animals were housed in ground-based AEMs, which were kept in a room specifically designed to mimic the environmental conditions of the flight units with regard to temperature, humidity, and light/dark cycles on a 48 hour delay. Baseline animals were housed in standard rodent cages at ambient temperature and humidity and a 12/12 light/dark cycle. The uterine tissue was stained using an Alcian Blue Periodic Acid Schiff staining procedure and the apical mucin layer thickness was subsequently analyzed. Analysis of the mucin layer in the uterus revealed that the thickness of the mucin layer in the flight tissue was significantly thicker that the mucin layers of the ground control and baseline tissue.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Spaceflight Effects and Molecular Responses in the Mouse Eye: Preliminary
           Observations After Shuttle Mission STS-133

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTSpaceflight exploration presents environmental stressors including microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift and radiation exposure. Ocular changes leading to visual impairment in astronauts are of occupational health relevance. The effect of this complex environment on ocular morphology and function is poorly understood. Female 10-12 week-old BALB/cJ mice were assigned to a flight (FLT) group flown on shuttle mission STS-133, Animal Enclosure Module ground control group (AEM), or vivarium-housed (VIV) ground controls. Eyes were collected at 1, 5, and 7 days after landing and were fixed for histological sectioning. The contralateral eye was used for gene expression profiling by RT-qPCR. Sections were visualized by hematoxylin/eosin stain and processed for 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), caspase-3, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and β-amyloid double-staining. 8-OHdG and caspase-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the retina in FLT samples at return from flight (R+1) compared to ground controls, and decreased at day 7 (R+7). β-amyloid was seen in the nerve fibers at the post-laminar region of the optic nerve in the flight samples (R+7). Expression of oxidative and cellular stress response genes was upregulated in the retina of FLT samples upon landing, followed by lower levels by R+7. These results suggest that reversible molecular damage occurs in the retina of mice exposed to spaceflight and that protective cellular pathways are induced in the retina and optic nerve in response to these changes.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of Underwater Arm-Cranking Exercise on Cardiac Autonomic Nervous

    • Abstract: ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to clarify the beneficial effect of an underwater environment on heart rate (HR) and cardiac autonomic nervous activity (HF) during arm-cranking exercise. Ten healthy young men participated in this study. The arm-cranking exercise (40% peakV̇O2) was performed for 10 minutes under two conditions: in water and in air. After the exercise, a recovery phase for 30 seconds followed. Changes in HR, V̇O2, and HF did not differ between the conditions. The time constant of the heart rate decay for the first 30 seconds after exercise in the water was less than in air. The results suggest that cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity influences earlier recovery of HR after exercise in water. The results of our study suggest underwater exercise may be applied to wider areas of health management for individuals returning from space travel or sedentary patients in simulated microgravity environments.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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