A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 120 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 495)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 458)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 428)
Aerospace Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1194)
Air Force Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264)
Annual of Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Aviation Advances & Maintenance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 437)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
COSPAR Colloquia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Elsevier Astrodynamics Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Gravitational and Space Research     Open Access  
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 280)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 387)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Turbo and Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 615)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 773)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access  
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 6)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 51)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 202)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 826)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Technical Soaring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.354
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 264  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0002-2667 - ISSN (Online) 2059-9366
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • CFD simulation of engine nacelle cooling on pusher configuration aircraft
    • Authors: Aleksander Olejnik, Adam Dziubiński, Łukasz Kiszkowiak
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to simulate with in-depth reconstruction of existing geometry a process of cooling of the aircraft engine in pusher configuration, which is more problematic than usually used, tractor configuration. Moreover, a complex thermal and fluid flow analysis is necessary to verify that an adequate cooling is ensured and that temperatures in the engine nacelle are maintained within the operating limits. Methodology used in this research is based on computational fluid dynamics tools to model adequately the internal and the external flow, to find the state of cooling system and research the results of baffles modification inside the engine cover. Additionally, two types of the cover with different sizes of inlets and outlets are tested. The results showed the influence of baffles modifications and changes in inlets and outlet sizes on the mass flow rate and temperature distributions inside the engine nacelle. The best configuration of air inlets and outlets was determined. The method used in the research is the safest method in testing of such cases, provided the proper approach in modeling is taken. The collaboration of internal and external flow is crucial and should not be replaced with assumed flow rate through inlet and outlet area. The obtained results will help in future studies on cooling systems of engines in pusher configuration. The work presents original results obtained by the authors during a complex fluid flow and heat transmission analysis and is a part of the design project of the OSA patrol aircraft.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2020-0290
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evolved auxiliary controller with applications to aerospace
    • Authors: Tim Chen, N. Kapronand, C.Y. Hsieh, J. Cy Chen
      Abstract: To guarantee the asymptotic stability of discrete-time nonlinear systems, this paper aims to propose an evolved bat algorithm fuzzy neural network (NN) controller algorithm. In evolved fuzzy NN modeling, the NN model and linear differential inclusion representation are established for the arbitrary nonlinear dynamics. The control problems of the Fisher equation and a temperature cooling fin for high-speed aerospace vehicles will be described and demonstrated. The signal auxiliary controlled system is represented for the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation (PDE) systems and the criterion of stability is derived via the Lyapunov function in terms of linear matrix inequalities. This representation is constructed by sector nonlinearity, which converts the nonlinear model to a multiple rule base for the linear model and a new sufficient condition to guarantee the asymptotic stability. This study also injects high frequency as an auxiliary and the control performance to stabilize the nonlinear high-speed aerospace vehicle system.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2019-0233
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Responsibly regulating the civilian unmanned aerial vehicle deployment in
           India and Japan
    • Authors: Anjan Chamuah, Rajbeer Singh
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to describe the evolving regulatory structures of the civilian unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in India and Japan, not yet fully developed to regulate the deployment of the UAV. India and Japan are at the forefront to overhaul the respective regulatory framework to address issues of accountability, responsibility and risks associated with the deployment of UAV technologies. In-depth interviews are conducted both in Japan and India to gather primary data based on the snowball sampling method. The paper addresses questions such as what is the current scenario of civilian UAV deployment in India and Japan. What are the regulation structures for Civil UAV deployment and operation and how they differ in India and Japan' What are the key regulatory challenges for Civil UAV deployment in India' How regulation structure enables or inhibits the users and operators of Civil UAVs in India' What are mutual learnings concerning UAV regulations' Findings reveal that the Indian regulations address issues of responsibility by imparting values of privacy, safety, autonomy and security; Japanese regulation prefers values of trust, responsibility, safety and ownership with more freedom to experiment. The study on civilian UAV regulatory framework is a new and innovative work embedded by the dimensions of responsibility and accountability from a responsible innovation perspective. The work is a new contribution to innovation literature looked at from regulatory structures. Field visits to both Japan and India enrich the study to a new elevation.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2019-0172
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Experimental and numerical prediction of lean blowout limits for micro gas
           turbine combustor
    • Authors: Kirubakaran V., David Bhatt
      Abstract: The lean blowout (LBO) limit of the combustor is one of the important performance parameters for any gas turbine combustor design. This study aims to predict the LBO limits of an in-house designed swirl stabilized 3kW can-type micro gas turbine combustor. The experimental prediction of LBO limits was performed on 3kW swirl stabilized combustor fueled with methane for the combustor inlet velocity ranging from 1.70 m/s to 6.80 m/s. The numerical prediction of LBO limits of combustor was performed on two-dimensional axisymmetric model. The blowout limits of combustor were predicted through calculated average exit gas temperature (AEGT) method and compared with experimental predictions. The results show that the predicted LBO equivalence ratio decreases gradually with an increase in combustor inlet velocity. This LBO limits predictions will use to fix the operating boundary conditions of 3kW can-type micro gas turbine combustor. This methodology will be used in design stage as well as in the testing stage of the combustor. This is a first effort to predict the LBO limits on micro gas turbine combustor through AEGT method. The maximum uncertainty in LBO limit prediction with AEGT is 6 % in comparison with experimental results.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-04-2020-0066
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Actuator model for spacecraft attitude control simulation
    • Authors: Chengxi Zhang, Jin Wu, Ran Sun, Mingjiang Wang, Dechao Ran
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the general actuator modeling in spacecraft attitude control systems. The proposed module in this paper provides various non-ideal factors such as the second-order dynamic time response, time-delay, bias torques, dead-zones and saturation. The actuator module can make the simulation as close to the practical situation as possible. This paper presents a practical integrated module for the simulation of attitude control algorithms. Based on theoretical modeling, we give simulation modules and numerical examples. The proposed model can be directly used in spacecraft control simulation. Instead of considering only a few of them, it makes the simulation more convincing. Though it may not be perfect, it is better than totally ignoring the actuator dynamics. The authors provide an integrated actuator model for spacecraft attitude control simulation, considering as many nonlinear factors as possible once time.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-10-2020-0226
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Numerical investigations on the hydrogen jet pressure variations in a
           strut based scramjet combustor
    • Authors: Jeyakumar Suppandipillai, Jayaraman Kandasamy, R. Sivakumar, Mehmet Karaca, Karthik K.
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the influences of hydrogen jet pressure on flow features of a strut-based injector in a scramjet combustor under-reacting cases are numerically investigated in this study. The numerical analysis is carried out using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with the Shear Stress Transport k-ω turbulence model in contention to comprehend the flow physics during scramjet combustion. The three major parameters such as the shock wave pattern, wall pressures and static temperature across the combustor are validated with the reported experiments. The results comply with the range, indicating the adopted simulation method can be extended for other investigations as well. The supersonic flow characteristics are determined based on the flow properties, combustion efficiency and total pressure loss. The results revealed that the augmentation of hydrogen jet pressure via variation in flame features increases the static pressure in the vicinity of the strut and destabilize the normal shock wave position. Indeed, the pressure of the mainstream flow drives the shock wave toward the upstream direction. The study perceived that once the hydrogen jet pressure is reached 4 bar, the incoming flow attains a subsonic state due to the movement of normal shock wave ahead of the strut. It is noticed that the increase in hydrogen jet pressure in the supersonic flow field improves the jet penetration rate in the lateral direction of the flow and also increases the total pressure loss as compared with the baseline injection pressure condition. The outcome of this research provides the influence of fuel injection pressure variations in the supersonic combustion phenomenon of hypersonic vehicles. This paper substantiates the effect of increasing hydrogen jet pressure in the reacting supersonic airstream on the performance of a scramjet combustor.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0162
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Aircraft control with the use of model reference adaptive control
    • Authors: Grzegorz Henryk Kopecki
      Abstract: Indirect (fly-by-wire) control systems for general aviation aircraft and unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) control systems enable the decoupling of control surfaces. This method of aircraft control is different from classical approach. The purpose of the article is to show the aircraft can be controlled even if the control control surfaces are blocked. The concept discussed here relies on model reference adaptive control. The approach presented requires modifications of aircraft linearized model. In this paper, an example of roll angle control is shown. During simulations the system worked properly with control surfaces partially blocked, if the blockage appeared close to neutral position. Exemplary simulations are shown in the text. The solution presented was implemented on a UAV autopilot. Hardware in the loop simulations were performed, which shows the potential of practical usage. Aircraft control, as discussed in this paper, gives the possibility of aircraft control and stable flight before a fault is detected, which increases the safety level.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2020-0248
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Results of simulation and scaled flight tests performed on a rocket-plane
           at high angles of attack
    • Authors: Agnieszka Kwiek, Cezary Galinski, Krzysztof Bogdański, Jaroslaw Hajduk, Andrzej Tarnowski
      Abstract: According to the study of the space flight market, there is a demand for space suborbital flights including commercial tourist flights. However, one of the challenges is to design a mission and a vehicle that could offer flights with relatively low G-loads. The project of the rocket-plane in a strake-wing configuration was undertaken to check if such a design could meet the FAA recommendation for this kind of flight. The project concept assumes that the rocket plane is released from a slowly flying carrier plane, then climbs above 100 kilometers above sea level and returns in a glide flight using a vortex lift generated by the strake-wing configuration. Such a mission has to include a flight transition during the release and return phases which might not be comfortable for passengers. Verification if FAA recommendation is fulfilled during these transition maneuvers was the purpose of this study. The project was focused on the numerical investigation of a possibility to perform transition maneuvers mentioned above in a passenger-friendly way. The numerical simulations of a full-scale rocket-plane were performed using the simulation and dynamic stability analyzer (SDSA) software package. The influence of an elevator deflection change on flight parameters was investigated in two cases: a transition from the steep descent at high angles of attack to the level glide just after rocket-plane release from the carrier and an analogous transition after re-entry to the atmosphere. In particular, G-loads and G-rates were analyzed. As a result, it was found that the values of these parameters satisfied the specific requirements during the separation and transition from a steep descent to gliding. They would be acceptable for an average passenger. To verify the modeling approach, a flight test campaign was performed. During the experiment, a rocket-plane scaled model was released from the RC model helicopter. The rocket-plane model was geometrically similar only. Froude scales were not applied because they would cause excessive technical complications. Therefore, a separate simulation of the experiment with the application of the scaled model was performed in the SDSA software package. Results of this simulation appeared to be comparable to flight test results so it can be concluded that results for the full-scale rocket-plane simulation are also realistic. It was proven that the rocket-plane in a strake-wing configuration could meet the FAA recommendation concerning G-loads and G rates during suborbital flight. Moreover, it was proven that the SDSA software package could be applied successfully to simulate flight characteristics of airplanes flying at angles of attack not only lower than stall angles but also greater than stall angles. The application of rocket-planes in a strake-wing configuration could make suborbital tourist flights more popular, thus facilitating the development of manned space flights and contributing to their cost reduction. That is why it was so important to prove that they could meet the FAA recommendation for this kind of service. The original design of the rocket plane was analyzed. It is equipped with an optimized strake wing and is controlled with oblique, all moving, wingtip plates. Its post-stall flight characteristics were simulated with the application of the SDSA software package which was previously validated only for angles of attack smaller than stall angle. Therefore, experimental validation was necessary. However, because of excessive technical problems caused by the application of Froude scales it was not possible to perform a conventional test with a dynamically scaled model. Therefore, the geometrically scaled model was built and flight tested. Then a separate simulation of the experiment with the application of this model was performed. Results of this separate simulation were compared with the results of the flight test. This comparison allowed to draw the conclusion on the applicability of the SDSA software for post-stall analyzes and, indirectly, on the applicability of the proposed rocket-plane for tourist suborbital flights. This approach to the experimental verification of numerical simulations is quite unique. Finally, a quite original method of the model launching during flight test experiment was applied.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2020-0276
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Part 1: robust adaptive control of quadrotor with disturbance observer
    • Authors: Nigar Ahmed, Abid Raza, Rameez Khan
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to design a nonlinear disturbance observer-based control (DOBC) method obtained by patching a control method developed using a robust adaptive technique and a DO. For designing a DOBC, initially a class of nonlinear system is considered with an external disturbance. First, a DO is designed to estimate the external disturbances. This estimate is combined with the controller to reject the disturbances and obtain the desired control objective. For designing a controller, the robust sliding mode control theory is used. Furthermore, instead of using a constant switching gain, an adaptive gain tuning criterion is designed using Lyapunov candidate function. To investigate the stability and effectiveness of the developed DOBC, stability analysis and simulation study are presented. The major findings of this paper include the criteria of designing the robust adaptive control parameters and investigating the disturbance rejection when robust adaptive control based DOBC is developed. In practice, the flight of quadrotor is affected by different kind of external disturbances, thus leading to the change in dynamics. Hence, it is necessary to design DOBCs based on robust adaptive controllers such that the quadrotor model adapts to the change in dynamics, as well as nullify the effect of disturbances. Designing DOBCs based on robust control method is a common practice; however, the robust adaptive control method is rarely developed. This paper contributes in the domain of DOBC based on robust adaptive control methods such that the behavior of controller varies with the change in dynamics occurring due to external disturbances.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-29
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2020-0151
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Sensitivity factors of aircraft mass for the conceptual design
    • Authors: Anatolii Kretov
      Abstract: The purpose of this work is to further develop the methodology for calculating the aircraft take-off mass and its main functional components for the conceptual analysis and synthesis of new projects. The method is based on the assessment of changes in the take-off gross mass (TOGM) of the already developed project or already existing a basic version of the aircraft when making local mass changes for its modification or for the numerical researches to create a more advanced project. The method is based on the “sensitivity factors of mass” (SFM) of aircraft, which represents the ratio of TOGM to initial (local) mass changes of its main functional components. The method of analytical refined calculation of SFM for the initial mass change and the main aerodynamic characteristics is given. In comparison with the long-known method based on weight (mass) growth factors, which were considered constant, this method takes into account the dependence from the value of the initial local mass change and its functional purpose. This method allows the designer to calculate more strictly the final changes in the TOGM on the initial stages of conceptual design when finding new project solutions. Numerical calculations are given on the example of passenger aircraft. The dependence of SFM and TOGM and its functional masses on the value of the initial change of the structure mass are shown. This method is used in the educational process at the college of Aerospace Engineering in the Aircraft Design department. The considered method based on SFM is simple and convenient and more accurate for conducting project research on many project parameters when analyzing and synthesizing a new project.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-22
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2020-0256
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The use of FEA and semi-empirical equations for weight estimation of a
           passenger aircraft

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Mariusz Kowalski, Zdobyslaw Jan Goraj, Bartłomiej Goliszek
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the result of calculations that were performed to estimate the structural weight of the passenger aircraft using novel technological solution. Mass penalty resulting from the installation of the fuselage boundary layer ingestion device was needed in the CENTRELINE project to be able to estimate the real benefits of the applied technology. This paper focusses on the finite element analysis (FEA) of the fuselage and wing primary load-carrying structures. Masses obtained in these analyses were used as an input for the total structural mass calculation based on semi-empirical equations. Combining FEA with semi-empirical equations makes it possible to estimate the mass of structures at an early technology readiness level and gives the possibility of obtaining more accurate results than those obtained using only empirical formulas. The applied methodology allows estimating the mass in case of using unusual structural solutions, which are not covered by formulas available in the literature. Accurate structural mass estimation is possible at an earlier design stage of the project based on the presented methodology, which allows for easier and less costly changes in designed aircrafts. The presented methodology is an original method of mass estimation based on a two-track approach. The analytical formulas available in the literature have worked well for aeroplanes of conventional design, but thanks to the connection with FEA presented in this paper, it is possible to estimate the structure mass of aeroplanes using unconventional technological solutions.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-22
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2020-0287
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Rotating flow thorough parallel plates with the various inclined magnetic
           field under the influence of hall current
    • Authors: Chandrasekar Pichaimuthu, Ganesh Swaminathan
      Abstract: The Purpose of this study to examine the magneto hydrodynamics (MHD) using the analytical and numerical tool. In recent years, MHD growing tremendously due to the presence of multidisciplinary application in solving the tedious problems in the viscous flow. The flows between the parallel plates under the steady inclined magneto hydrodynamic force were studied under the presence of different hall current and pressure gradient. The system was designed with the Darcian porous medium subjected to the incompressible flow. To analyse the flow reactions through stationary parallel plates, the governing equations were used using the integral transformation. The velocity of the flows depends on the Hall parameter. As the intensity of the magnetic field increases the velocity of the flow is affected significantly. On the other hand, the radiation parameters also affect the flow of any medium through the porous medium. Implementation of the Laplace and Fourier transform increases the reliability of the obtained results and further decreases the uncertainty during the measurement of the velocity of the flow without any restraints. From the evident results, it is clear that the proposed MHD model can be applied to several operations of the fluid dynamic models. Further, the application of this technique will decrease the uncertainty in the results compared to the conventional computational models and other finite element and difference approaches.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-22
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2020-0311
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Prediction of burning performance and emissions indexes of a turboprop
           motor with artificial neural network
    • Authors: Kiyas Kayaalp, Sedat Metlek
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to estimate different air–fuel ratio motor shaft speed and fuel flow rates under the performance parameters depending on the indices of combustion efficiency and exhaust emission of the engine, a turboprop multilayer feed forward artificial neural network model. For this purpose, emissions data obtained experimentally from a T56-A-15 turboprop engine under various loads were used. The designed multilayer feed forward neural network models consist of two hidden layers. 75% of the experimental data used was allocated as training, 25% as test data and cross-referenced by the k-fold four value. Fuel flow, rotate per minute and air–fuel ratio data were used for the training of emission index input values on the designed models and EICO, EICO2, EINO2 and EIUHC data were used on the output. In the system trained for combustion efficiency, EICO and EIUHC data were used at the input and fuel combustion efficiency data at the output. Mean square error, normalized mean square error, absolute mean error functions were used to evaluate the error obtained from the system as a result of the test. As a result of modeling the system, absolute mean error values were 0.1473 for CO, 0.0442 for CO2, 0.0369 for UHC, 0.0028 for NO2, success for all exhaust emission data was 0.0266 and 7.6165e-10 for combustion efficiency, respectively. This study has been added to the literature T56-A-15 turboprop engine for the current machine learning methods to multilayer feed forward neural network methods, exhaust emission and combustion efficiency index value calculation.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0177
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Comparative fatigue properties estimation of composite structural nodes
    • Authors: Miroslaw Rodzewicz
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of the author’s method of fatigue properties assessment of polymer composite structures, especially structures having nodes of concentrated force introduction (NCFI) using fatigue test data of coupons of similar composites and the ratio of their structural stress rate factors. Basing on fatigue properties of pure composite shells coupons subjected to cyclic loads, and basing on the static strength difference between pure composite shells and shells having the structure affected by NCFI – (considered here as not only a manner of load introduction but also a kind of structural discontinuity), a method of relative fatigue properties reduction (RFPR) was developed. In the RFPR evaluation process, the author used the results of experiments on a special type of an NCFI named “a labyrinth non-adhesive node of concentrated force introduction” (LNA-NCFI) applied in certain composite gliders for fitting glider wings with the fuselage and also referred to design directives relating to primary structure of composite gliders, which are presented in the form of lightness factors linking stress with a structural mass. The result of RFPR method application matched well with the results of fatigue tests of the LNA-NCFI type of a NCFI. The RFPR method may significantly facilitate the estimation of fatigue life of a structure with a structural discontinuity or an NCFI. The RFPR method may significantly facilitate the estimation of fatigue life of a structure with a structural discontinuity or an NCFI. The paper presents a proposal of a novel simplified method for fatigue life estimation of composite structures having a kind of structural discontinuity or an NCFI.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2020-0252
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Weight minimization of fiber laminated composite beam for aircraft wing
           construction using exhaustive enumeration algorithm and numerical modeling
           
    • Authors: Rohit R. Ghadge, Prakash S.
      Abstract: This paper aims to focus on calculating the number of layers of composite laminates required to take the applied load made up of graphite/epoxy (AS4/3501-6) which can be used in many industrial applications. Optimization for minimization of weight by variation in the mechanical properties is possible by using different combinations of fiber angle, number of plies and their stacking sequence. Lots of research studies have been put forth by aerospace industry experts to improve the performance of aircraft wings with weight constraints. The orthotropic nature of the laminated composites and their ability to characterize as per various performance requirements of aerospace industry make them the most suitable material. This leads to necessity of implementing most appropriate optimization technique for selecting appropriate parameter sets and material configurations. In this work, exhaustive enumeration algorithm has been applied for weight minimization of fiber laminated composite beam subjected to two different loading conditions by computing overall possible stacking sequences and material properties using classical laminate theory. This combinatorial type optimization technique enumerates all possible solutions with an assurance of getting global optimum solution. Stacking sequences are filtered through Tsai-Wu failure criteria. Finally, through the outcome of this optimization framework, eight different combinations of stacking sequences and 24-ply symmetric layup have been obtained. Furthermore, this 24-ply layup weighing 0.468 kg has been validated using finite element solver for given boundary conditions. Interlaminar stresses at top and bottom of the optimized ply layup were validated with Autodesk’s Helius composites solver.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2020-0305
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Unmanned aircraft automatic flight control algorithm in an Immelmann
           manoeuvre
    • Authors: Tomasz Rogalski, Paweł Rzucidło, Stanisław Noga, Jacek Prusik
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the idea of automatic flight control algorithms capable of performing an Immelmann turn manoeuvre automatically. This is a case of a manoeuvre far removed from so-called standard flight. The character of this manoeuvre and the range of changes in the aircraft flight parameters restrict the application of standard control algorithms. Furthermore, the possibility of acquiring full and detailed information about the aircraft’s flight parameters is limited in such cases. This paper seeks to analyse an alternative solution that can be applied in some specific cases. This paper uses theoretical discussion and breakdowns to create the basics for development of structures of control algorithms. A simplified analytical approach was applied to tune regulators and the results of the research were verified in a series of software-in-the loop computer simulations. The structure of the control system enabling aerobatic flight (with the Immelmann turn as the selected example) was identified and the method for tuning the regulators is also presented. It could serve as a foundation for autopilots working in non-conventional flight states and aircraft automatic recovery systems. This paper presents the author’s original approach to aircraft automatic control when high control precision is not the priority and not all flight parameters can be precisely measured.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2020-0269
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Vibration analysis of an aviation engine turbine shaft shield
    • Authors: Stanisław Noga, Kaja Maciejowska, Tomasz Rogalski
      Abstract: This paper aims to deal with the problem of vibration in an aircraft engine turbine shaft shield. The physical model of the system under study is inspired by the PZL-10W aviation jet engine shaft shield and is a structure of the profile circular arc. The main goal of the presented research is to develop a modal model of the discussed object. Another task is to determine the impact of the shaft shield damage on the change of dynamic parameters (the values of the natural frequencies and changing of the shape of the corresponding natural forms) of the discussed object. Finally, the task is connected with the calculation of the excitation speeds of the discussed shaft shield’s respective natural frequencies. To realize the main goal finite element method simulation and experimental investigation were conducted. The quality of the achieved models is determined based on the relative error of natural frequencies and the similarity to normal modes established on the basis of the modal assurance criterion (MAC) indicator. The Campbell diagram was used to calculate the excitation speeds of the discussed shaft shield’s respective natural frequencies. The obtained results indicate the changes in the dynamic properties of the shaft shield as a result of its cracking. On the basis of the adopted measurement (MAC indicator), the level of similarity was established between the numerical simulation results and the measurement results for the undamaged shield. Verification of the different mode shapes using the CrossMAC tool is an effective method, which allows comparing of the shape of the natural form and may be helpful in the process of adjusting modal models to the results of experimental tests. It is important to note that as a result of using commercial software (ANSYS program) and a commercial measuring system (Bruel and Kjaer), the presented analysis can be attractive for design engineers dealing with the dynamics of aviation systems. The paper presents the authors’ original approach to the dynamic analysis of the aviation engine turbine shaft shield, which can be useful for engineers dealing with the issue of vibration in shaft shield systems.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2020-0274
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Research on influencing factors of fuel tank flammability exposure time
           for transport aircraft
    • Authors: Zhang Ruihua, Weihua Liu, Wenyi Liu
      Abstract: The assessment of fuel tank flammability exposure time for transport aircraft is one of the indispensable links in the airworthiness certification process. According to published literature, many factors can affect the flammability exposure time, while systematic analysis and calculations addressing these factors are in shortage. Based on the requirements for airworthiness certification of domestic large aircraft, the fuel tank flammability exposure time of transport aircraft is calculated with the Monte Carlo evaluation model specified by Federal Aviation Administration. Meanwhile, the influence of each input parameter on the flammability exposure time is obtained by taking user input parameters in the model as independent variables and freezing other factors at the same time. The significance degree of the influence of each factor is discussed by the orthogonal test method. Subsequently, the interaction between the input parameters is studied by response surface method, and a multiple linear regression method is used to establish the functional relationship between the flammability exposure time and the influence parameters. Research studies show that among the many factors that affect the flammability exposure time, the cruising Mach number, the equilibrium temperature difference and the maximum range are more significant and much attention should be paid to in the airworthiness certification; although there are interactions among various factors, they have different influence on the flammability exposure time, among which the interactions between maximum range and equilibrium temperature difference are the most significant compared with others; established by applying multiple linear regression equation and based on the test data of response surface method, the functional relationship between flammability exposure time and influence parameters is of sufficient reliability and can be used for preliminary prediction of fuel tank flammability exposure time for transport aircraft. The research achievements of this paper can provide much useful reference for the certification of domestic large aircraft.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-10-2020-0233
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Experimental and numerical simulation of the piston engine fueled with
           alternative fuel blends: CFD approach
    • Authors: Pradeep Uttam Gaikwad, Senthil Gnanamani, Nithya Subramani
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to find the pressure and the knocking phenomena. To get the pressure values, the butterworth bandpass filter was used and the potential of knocking was found by using peak-to-peak pressure values and also the species concentration. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation was the method used to minimize the knocking occurrence in the engine. Moreover, the effect of premixed methanol and start of engine (SOI) on knocking were also determined. This paper deals with the compression ignition engine to investigate the unfavorable knocking behavior. The tests were carried out with the 3D model of engine fueled with waste cooking oil blended with TiO2. A number of tests were taken to find the pressure variation and the species concentration at eight different locations in the computational model. In doing the tests, the positive intended outcome was achieved. From results, it is clear that the SOI and premixed methanol mitigated the knocking process. The species concentration and pressure in the form of filtered signal were proved to be the ideal methods for evaluating the knocking event in the engine.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2020-0291
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Environmental impact of pollutants from commercial aircrafts at Hasan
           Polatkan airport
    • Authors: Vehbi Emrah Atasoy, Ahmet Esat Suzer, Selcuk Ekici
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the environmental impact of various pollutant emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) from aircraft exhaust gases during the landing and take-off (LTO) cycles at Eskisehir Hasan Polatkan Airport, Turkey, between 2017 and 2018. The methodology approach used to calculate the emissions from aircrafts is based on the ICAO databank and the actual data records taken from Presidency of The Republic of Turkey Directorate of Communications (DoC). The maximum amount of total fuel burnt during the two years is 80.898 and 70.168 tons in 2017 and 2018, respectively, while the average fuel burnt per year from 2017 to 2018 is approximately 369.773 tons. The highest CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions are found to be 248.3 kg in 2017, 261.380 tons, 1.708 tons and 22.15 kg, during the 2018 year, respectively. Average CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions amount per year are observed to be 1.392 tons, 135 kg, 6.909 tons and 1,143 tons, respectively. Considering the average of total emission amount as an environmental factor, as expected, CO2 emissions contributed the most to the total emissions while HC emissions contributed the least to the total emissions from the airport. The study presents the approach in determining the amounts of emissions released into the interannual atmosphere and it explicitly provides researchers and policymakers how to follow emissions from commercial aircraft activities at different airports. The value of the study lies in the transparent computation of the amounts of pollutants by providing the data directly from the first hand-DoC.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0160
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Comparative study by DTM for unsteady viscous flow between the jet engines
           combustion unit subjected to inclined magnetic field
    • Authors: V.W.J. Anand, S. Ganesh, Seripah Awang Kechil
      Abstract: The purpose of this study to analyze the unsteady magneto hydrodynamic incompressible viscous fluid flow along the porous parallel plates in which constant periodic suction/injection takes place at lower and upper plate, respectively. By the proper choice of stream function, they obtained exact solution analytically. Velocity components are obtained from exact solution. Emissions of the pollutants from the aviation sectors are doubled compared to 2000. There are many recent developments that are actively developed to combat the emission by increasing the performance of the Jet engines. The role of the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical approaches are crucial in terms of research and development. Velocity profiles like axial and radial have been drawn for various values of M, D, α and θ. The exact solutions have been solved by differential transformation method. The closed form analytical solutions are obtained for the stream function, axial and radial velocities and flow velocity. The effects of Darcy parameter, magnetic parameter, Suction Reynolds number and frequency parameter on lower and upper plates are discussed through graphs.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0202
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Constructive schemes to spacecraft attitude control with low communication
           frequency using sampled-data and encryption approaches
    • Authors: Chengxi Zhang, Jin Wu, Yulong Huang, Yu Jiang, Ming-zhe Dai, Mingjiang Wang
      Abstract: Recent spacecraft attitude control systems tend to use wireless communication for cost-saving and distributed mission purposes while encountering limited communication resources and data exposure issues. This paper aims to study the attitude control problem with low communication frequency under the sampled-data. The authors propose constructive control system structures based on quantization and event-triggered methods for intra-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft systems, and they also provide potential solutions to shield the control system's data security. The proposed control architectures can effectively save communication resources for both intra-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft systems. The proposed control architectures no longer require sensors with trigger-ing mechanism and can achieve distributed control schemes. This paper also provides proposals of employing the public key encryption to secure the data in control-loop, which is transmitted by the event-triggered control mechanism. Spacecraft attempts to use wireless communication, yet the attitude control system does not follow up promptly to accommodate these variations. Compared with existing approaches, the proposed control structures can save communication resources of control-loop in multi-sections effectively, and systematically, by rationally configuring the location of quantization and event-triggered mechanisms. This paper presents several new control schemes and a necessary condition for the employment of encryption algorithms for control systems based on event-based communication.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0157
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Free vibration and buckling analysis of FGM plates using inverse
           trigonometric shear deformation theory
    • Authors: Supen Kumar Sah, Anup Ghosh
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to carry out free vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plate. Equilibrium and stability equations of FGM rectangular plate under different boundary conditions are derived using finite element method-based inverse trigonometric shear deformation theory (ITSDT). Eight-noded rectangular plate element with seven degrees of freedom at each node is used for the present analysis. The power-law distribution method has been considered for the continuously graded variation in composition of the ceramic and metal phases across the thickness of a functionally graded plate. The finite element formulation incorporated with ITSDT and provisions of the constitutive model of FGM plate has been implemented in a numerical code to obtain the natural frequency and critical buckling load under uniaxial and biaxial compressive load. The influence of material gradation, volume fraction index, span to thickness ratio and boundary constraints over free vibration and buckling response has been studied. Development and validation of finite element methodology using ITSDT to predict the structural response of the FGM plates under different loading, geometric and boundary conditions.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2020-0001
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • High-order derivative fusion estimation of rotorcraft angular rate
    • Authors: Changwu Liu, Haowen Wang, Chen Jiang
      Abstract: The paper aims at developing a novel algorithm to estimate high-order derivatives of rotorcraft angular rates to break the contradiction between bandwidth and filtering performance because high-order derivatives of angular rates are crucial to rotorcraft control. Traditional causal estimation algorithms such as digital differential filtering or various tracking differentiators cannot balance phase-lead angle loss and high-frequency attenuation performance of the estimated differentials under the circumstance of strong vibration from the rotor system and the rather low update rate of angular rates. The algorithm, capable of estimating angular rate derivatives to maximal second order, fuses multiple attitude signal sources through a first-proposed randomized angular motion maneuvering model independent of platform dynamics with observations generated by cascaded tracking differentiators. The maneuvering flight test on 5-kg-level helicopter and the ferry flight test on 230-kg-level helicopter prove such algorithm is feasible to generate higher signal to noise ratio derivative estimation of angular rates than traditional differentiators in regular flight states with enough bandwidth for flight control. The decrease of update rate of input attitude signals will weaken the bandwidth performance of the algorithm and higher sampling rate setting is recommended. Rotorcraft flight control researchers and engineers would benefit from the estimation method when implementing flight control laws requiring angular rate derivatives. A purely kinematic randomized angular motion model for flight vehicle is first established, combining rigid-body Euler kinematics. Such fusion algorithm with observations generated by cascaded tracking differentiators to estimate angular rate derivatives is first proposed, realized and flight tested.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0203
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Determining the effect of air transportation on air pollution in the most
           polluted city in Turkey
    • Authors: Selçuk Gürçam, Emrah Konuralp, Selcuk Ekici
      Abstract: This study was carried out in Igdir, where Turkey’s urban air pollution is at the highest level, and the population is among the smallest. Thus, the study aims to determine the effect of air transportation on air pollution in the most polluted city in Turkey. The approach includes six stages: choosing the airport, accessing the flight information for the airport, classifying the aircraft that operated at the airport, determining the aircraft engines, calculating the emission amounts, calculating the landing and takeoff-based emissions. Rather than devoting the resources disproportionally to the aviation sector within the scope of economic globalization, as a policy recommendation, to realize its production potential, Igdir, which has a great agricultural production capacity, considering its microclimate, fertile soil and arable land, should be urgently integrated into neighboring markets and the national market via railways. It is inferred from the research that Turkey has to consider implementing the emissions tax policy, while the Turkish aviation sector is to realize new regulations for aircraft-engine matching to take public health and the impacts of the airports on their surroundings into consideration more seriously. This study is an original one, as it puts the increasing pollution caused by the aircraft into a historical and political-economic perspective. Also, it is an example of an interdisciplinary work that combines environmental science and political science.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0176
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Learning from incidents in aircraft maintenance and continuing
           airworthiness: regulation, practice and gaps
    • Authors: James Clare, Kyriakos I. Kourousis
      Abstract: The ability to learn from previous events in support of preventing future similar events is a valuable attribute of aviation safety systems. A primary constituent of this mechanism is the reporting of incidents and its importance in support of developing learning material. Many regulatory requirements clearly define a structure for the use of learning material through organisational and procedural continuation training programmes. This paper aims to review aviation regulation and practice, highlighting the importance of learning as a key tenet of safety performance. Applicable International Civil Aviation Organisation requirements and the European Union (EU) regulation in aircraft maintenance and continuing airworthiness management have been critically reviewed through content analysis. This review has identified gaps in the European implementing rules that could be addressed in the future to support a more effective approach to the delivery of lessons in the aircraft maintenance and continuing airworthiness management sector. These include light-touch of learning and guidance requirements, lack of methodologies for the augmentation of safety culture assessment, absence of competence requirements for human factors trainers and lack of guidance on standardised root-cause analyses. This paper offers aviation safety practitioners working within the European Aviation Safety Agency regulatory regime an insight into important matters affecting the ability to learn from incidents. This paper evaluates critically and independently the regulation and practice that can affect the ability of EU regulated aircraft maintenance and continuing airworthiness management organisations to learn from incidents. The outputs from this research present a fresh and independent view of organisational practices that, if left unchecked, are capable of impeding the incident learning process.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2020-0114
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Multi-objective optimization model for airport gate assignment problem
    • Authors: Ramazan Kursat Cecen
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide feasible and fast solutions for the multi-objective airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) considering both passenger-oriented and airline-oriented objectives, which is the total walking distance from gate to baggage carousels (TWD) and the total aircraft fuel consumption during taxi operations (TFC). In addition, obtaining feasible and near-optimal solutions in a short time reduces the gate planning time to be spent by air traffic controllers. The mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach is implemented to solve the multi-objective AGAP. The weighted sum approach technique was applied in the model to obtain non-dominated solutions. Because of the complexity of the problem, the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was used for the proposed model. The results were compared with baseline results, which were obtained from the algorithm using the fastest gate assignment and baggage carousel combinations without any conflict taking place at the gate assignments. The proposed model noticeably decreased both the TWD and TFC. The improvement of the TWD and TFC changed from 22.8% to 46.9% and from 4.7% to 7.1%, respectively, according to the priorities of the objectives. Additionally, the average number of non-dominated solutions was calculated as 6.94, which presents many feasible solutions for air traffic controllers to manage ground traffic while taking the airline and passenger objectives into consideration. The proposed MILP model includes the objectives of different stakeholders: air traffic controllers, passengers and airlines. In addition, the proposed model can provide feasible gate and baggage carousel assignments together in a short time. Therefore, the model creates a flexibility for air traffic controllers to re-arrange assignments if any unexpected situations take place. The proposed MILP model combines the TWD and TFC together for the AGAP problem using the SA. Moreover, the proposed model integrates passenger-oriented and airline-oriented objectives together and reveals the relationships between the objectives in only a short time.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0217
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Aerodynamic and static stability investigation into aircraft coupled
           system to suborbital space flights
    • Authors: Marcin Figat, Agnieszka Kwiek
      Abstract: The aim of the research is to conduct a study into a configuration of an aircraft system with a focus on aerodynamics. In addition, trim condition and static stability constraints were included. The main application of this system is suborbital space flights. The presented concept of a modular airplane system (MAS) consists of two vehicles: a Rocket Plane and a Carrier. Both are designed in tailless configurations but coupled formed a classic tail aircraft configuration, where the Rocket Plane works as the empennage. The most important challenge is to define the mutual position of those two tailless vehicles under the assumption that each vehicle will be operating alone in different flight conditions while joined in one object create a conventional aircraft. Each vehicle configuration (separated and coupled) must fulfil static stability and trim requirements. Aircrafts’ aerodynamic characteristics were obtained using the MGAERO software which is a commercial computing fluid dynamics tool created by AMI Aero. This software uses the Euler flow model. Results from this software were used in the static stability and trim condition analysis. The main outcome of this investigation is a mutual position of the Rocket Plane and the Carrier that fulfils project requirements. Also, the final configuration of both separated vehicles (Rocket Plane and Carrier) and the complete MAS were defined. In addition, it was observed that in the case of classic aircraft configuration which is created by connecting two tailless vehicles increasing horizontal tail arm reduces static stability. This is related to a significantly higher mass ratio of the horizontal tail (the Rocket Plane) with respect to the whole system. Moving backward, the Rocket Plane has a notable effect on a position of a centre of gravity of the whole system static stability. Moreover, the impact of the mutual vehicles’ position (horizontal tail arm) and inclination angle on the coupled vehicle lift to drag ratio was analysed. In terms of aerodynamic computation, MGAERO software using an inviscid flow model, therefore, both a friction drag and breakdown of vortex are not considered. But the presented research is for the computation stage of the design, and the MGAERO software guarantees satisfactory accuracy with respect to the relatively low time of computations. The second limitation is that the presented results are for the conceptual stage of the design and dynamic stability constraints were not taken into account. The ultimate goal of the coupled aircraft project is to conduct flying tests and the presented result is one of the milestones to achieve this goal. A design process for a conventional aircraft configuration is well known however, there are not many examples of vehicles that consist of two coupled aircrafts where both vehicles have similar mass. The unique part of this paper includes results of the investigation of the mutual position of the vehicles that can fly alone, as well as in coupled form. The impact of the position of the centre of gravity on trim conditions and static stability of the coupled configuration was investigated.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2020-0085
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Modeling of fuel flow-rate of commercial aircraft for the descent flight
           using particle swarm optimization
    • Authors: Ridvan Oruc, Tolga Baklacioglu
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to create a new fuel flow rate model for the descent phase of the flight using particle swarm optimization (PSO). A new fuel flow rate model was developed for the descent phase of the B737-800 aircraft, which is frequently used in commercial air transport using PSO method. For the analysis, the actual flight data records (FDRs) data containing the fuel flow rate, speed, altitude, engine speed, time and many more data were used. In this regard, an empirical formula has been created that gives real fuel flow rate values as a function of altitude and true airspeed. In addition, in the fuel flow rate predictions made for the descent phase of the specified aircraft, a different model has been created that can be used without any optimization process when FDR data are not available for a specific aircraft take-off weight condition. The error analysis applied to the models showed that both models predict real fuel flow rate values with high precision. Because of the high accuracy of the PSO model, it is thought to be useful in air traffic management, decision support systems, models used for trajectory prediction, aircraft performance models, strategies used to reduce fuel consumption and emissions because of fuel consumption. This study is the first fuel flow rate model for descent flight using PSO algorithm. The use of real FDR data in the analysis shows the originality of this study.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0213
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Bird strike virtual testing for preliminary airframe design
    • Authors: Petros V. Perdikoulis, Ioannis K. Giannopoulos, Efstathios E. Theotokoglou
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to use numerical methods early in the airframe design process and access the structural performance of wing leading edge devices made of different materials and design details, under bird strike events. Explicit finite element analysis was used to numerically model bird strike events. Structural performance charts related to materials and general design details were drawn to explore the design space dictated by the current applicable airworthiness requirements. This paper makes use of the current capability in the numerical tools available for structural simulations and exposes the existing limitations in the terms of material modelling, material properties and fracture simulation using continuum damage mechanics. Such results will always be in the need of fine-tuning with experimental testing, yet the tools can shed some light very early in the design process in a relative inexpensive manner, especially for design details down selection like materials to use, structural thicknesses and even design arrangements. Bird strike simulations have been successfully used on aircraft design, mainly at the manufactured articles design validation, testing and certification. This paper presents a hypothetical early design case study of leading edge devices for appropriate material and skin thickness down selection.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0212
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A probabilistic-based analysis for wind distribution determination of a
           runway
    • Authors: Ahmet Esat Suzer, Aziz Kaba
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to describe precisely the wind speed regime and characteristics of a runway of an International Airport, the north-western part of Turkey. Three different probability distributions, namely, Inverse Gaussian (IG), widely used two-parameter Weibull and Rayleigh distributions in the literature, are used to represent wind regime and characteristics of the runway. The parameters of each distribution are estimated by the pattern search (PS)-based heuristic algorithm. The results are compared with the other three methods-based numerical computation, including maximum-likelihood method, moment method (MoM) and power density method, respectively. To evaluate the fitting performance of the proposed method, several statistical goodness tests including the mostly used root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-squared (X2) are conducted. In the light of the statistical goodness tests, the results of the IG-based PS attain better performance than the classical Weibull and Rayleigh functions. Both the RMSE and X2 values achieved by the IG-based PS method lower than that of Weibull and Rayleigh distributions. It exhibits a better fitting performance with 0.0074 for RMSE and 0.58 × 10−4 for X2 for probability density function (PDF) in 2012 and with RMSE of 0.0084 and X2 of 0.74 × 10−4 for PDF in 2013. As regard the cumulative density function of the measured wind data, the best results are found to be Weibull-based PS with RMSE of 0.0175 and X2 of 3.25 × 10−4 in 2012. However, Weibull-based MoM shows more excellent ability in 2013, with RMSE of 0.0166 and X2 of 2.94 × 10−4. Consequently, it is considered that the results of this study confirm that IG-based PS with the lowest error value can a good choice to model more accurately and characterize the wind speed profile of the airport. This paper presents a realistic point of view regarding the wind regime and characteristics of an airport. This study may cast the light on researchers, policymakers, policy analysts and airport designers intending to investigate the wind profile of a runway at the airport in the world and also provide a significant pathway on how to determine the wind distribution of the runway. Instead of the well-known Weibull distribution for the representing of wind distribution in the literature, in this paper, IG distribution is used. Furthermore, the suitability of IG to represent the wind distribution is validated when compared with two-parameter Weibull and Rayleigh distributions. Besides, the performance and efficiency of PS have been evaluated by comparing it with other methods.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0207
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Unfalsified control design using a generalized cost function for a
           quadrotor
    • Authors: Azam Hokmabadi, Mahdi Khodabandeh
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to design a controller for a quadrotor only by using input–output data without a need for the system model. Tracking control for the quadrotor is considered by using unfalsified control, which is one of the most recent strategies of robust adaptive control. The main assumption in unfalsified control design is that there is no access to the system model. Also, ideal path tracking and controlling the quadrotor are been paid attention to in the presence of external disturbances and uncertainties. First, unfalsified control method is introduced which is a data-driven and model-free approach in the field of adaptive control. Next, model of the quadrotor and unfalsified control design for the quadrotor are presented. Second, design of a control bank consisting of four proportional integral derivative controllers and a sliding mode controller is carried out. A particular innovation on an unfalsified control algorithm in this paper is use of a generalized cost function in the hysteresis switching algorithm to find the best controller. Finally, the performance and robustness of the designed controllers are investigated by simulation studies in various operating conditions including reference trajectory changes, facing to wind disturbance, uncertainty of the system and changes in payload, which show acceptable performances.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2020-0019
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Flow separation control using a bio-inspired nose for NACA 4 and 6 series
           airfoils
    • Authors: Mohamed Arif Raj Mohamed, Rajesh Yadav, Ugur Guven
      Abstract: This paper aims to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using a passive flow control method by introducing a bio-inspired nose near the leading edge of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4 and 6 series airfoil. In addition, to find the optimised leading edge nose design for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils for flow separation control. Different bio-inspired noses that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils. Bio-inspired nose with different nose length, nose depth and nose circle diameter have been analysed on airfoils with different thicknesses, camber and camber locations to understand the aerodynamic flow properties such as vortex formation, flow separation, aerodynamic efficiency and moment. The porpoise nose design that has a leading edge with depth = 2.25% of chord, length = 0.75% of chord and nose diameter = 2% of chord, delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency. Average increments of 5.5% to 6° in the lift values and decrements in parasitic drag (without affecting the pitching moment) for all the NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils were observed irrespective of airfoil geometry such as different thicknesses, camber and camber location. The two-dimensional computational analysis is done for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils at low subsonic speed. This design improves aerodynamic performance and increases the structural strength of the aircraft wing compared to other conventional high lift devices and flow control devices. This universal leading edge flow control device can be adapted to aircraft wings incorporated with any NACA 4 and 6 series airfoil. The results would be of significant interest in the fields of aircraft design and wind turbine design, lowering the cost of energy and air travel for social benefits. Different bio-inspired nose designs that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils and universal optimum nose design (porpoise airfoil) is found for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2019-0170
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Hydrogen as the futuristic fuel for the aviation and aerospace industry
           – review
    • Authors: P. Gunasekar, S. Manigandan, Praveen Kumar T.R.
      Abstract: The rise in demand and high utilization of fuel causes severe environmental threat for the nations on the globe. Rapid burning potential of hydrogen produces enormous amount of thrust, and it is mainly owing to wide flame range and less onset of ignition. The significant contribution of hydrogen as fuel has been explored by several researchers around the globe recently to use in aviation sector owing to its eco-friendly nature. Hydrogen is a safe and clean fuel, and it can be generated from several sources. The effects of addition on hydrogen on gas turbine on combustion characteristics and emission concentration level on atmosphere have been reviewed in this paper. Incorporation of hydrogen is effective reducing nitrous oxide emission, high calorific value and flame less combustion. Addition of hydrogen to higher proportions enhances the combustion performance, minimizing the setbacks of conventional fuel and meets the specified standards on emission. From the literature review, the comparative study on hydrogen with other fuel is explained. This paper concludes that addition of hydrogen in fuel enhances the performance of combustion on gas turbine engine along with significant reduction in emission levels.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-30
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2020-0145
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Emissions prediction of an aero-piston gasoline engine during surveillance
           flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle
    • Authors: Ali Dinc, Murat Otkur
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to perform the preliminary design, flight performance and exhaust emissions calculations of a piston engine powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during a flight cycle which consists of multiple flight altitudes and airspeeds. A genuine computer model in Matlab/Simulink was developed to predict the size and weight of UAV and piston engine (using Avgas 100LL fuel) performance together with exhaust emissions in an iterative process. The amount of emitted exhaust gases including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides were calculated in a typical UAV mission profile as a whole and also divided into mission flight segments. Emissions were calculated based on fuel flow and engine speed inputs based on ground test data for emission indices. Test data for emission indices was very limited. As UAV utilization has been increasing around the world, this study presents important and noticeable results on the emissions that need to be considered for environmental purposes. In literature, emission prediction studies for UAVs are very rare. In fact, UAVs typically have quite different flight speeds and altitudes than regular manned aircraft and emissions change with speed and altitude. Additionally, unlike manned aircraft, UAVs can fly more than 24 h with different operation characteristics. The originality of this study presents the emission predictions of a piston engine UAV which flies with a significantly different mission profile than a manned aircraft.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-23
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0196
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Turbojet direct-thrust control scheme for full-envelope fuel consumption
           minimization
    • Authors: Francisco Villarreal-Valderrama, Carlos Santana Delgado, Patricia Del Carmen Zambrano-Robledo, Luis Amezquita-Brooks
      Abstract: Reducing fuel consumption of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during transient operation is a cornerstone to achieve environment-friendly operations. The purpose of this paper is to develop a control scheme that improves the fuel economy of a turbojet in its full operating envelope. A novel direct-thrust linear quadratic integral (LQI) approach, comprised by an optimal observer/controller satisfying specified performance parameters, is presented. The thrust estimator, based in a Wiener model, is validated with the experimental data of a micro-turbojet. Model uncertainty is characterized by analyzing variations between the identified model and measured data. The resulting uncertainty range is used to verify closed-loop stability with the circle criterion. The proposed controller provides stable responses with the specified performance in the whole operating range, even with after considering plant nonlinearities. Finally, the direct-thrust LQI is compared with a standard thrust controller to assess fuel economy and performance. The direct-thrust LQI approach reduced the fuel consumption by 2.1090% in the most realistic scenario. The controllers were also evaluated using the environmental effect parameter (EEP) and transient-thrust-specific fuel consumption (T-TSFC). These novel metrics are proposed to evaluate the environmental impact during transient-thrust operations. The direct-thrust LQI approach has a more efficient fuel consumption according to these metrics. The results also show that isolating the thrust dynamics within the feedback loop has an important impact in fuel economy. Controllers were also evaluated using the EEP and T-TSFC. These novel metrics are proposed to evaluate the environmental impact during transient-thrust operations. The direct-thrust LQI approach has a more efficient fuel consumption according to these metrics. The results also show that isolating the thrust dynamics within the feedback loop has an important impact in fuel economy. This study shows the design of an effective direct-thrust control approach that minimizes fuel consumption, ensures stable responses for the full operation range, allows isolating the thrust dynamics when designing the controller and is compatible with classical robustness and performance metrics. Finally, the study shows that a simple controller can reduce the fuel consumption of the turbojet during transient operation in scenarios that approximate realistic operating conditions.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-15
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0190
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Evaluation of the potential of commercial use of microalgae in the world
           and in Ukraine
    • Authors: Lesia Pavliukh, Sergii Shamanskyi, Sergii Boichenko, Artur Jaworski
      Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate of the microalgae potential for commercial application, in particular to conduct experimental study of biogenic compounds removal from sewage waters by microalgae, and to calculate economical benefits from biofertizers and biofuel production. Experimental study in the concentration change of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the cultivation of Chlorella Vulgaris microalgae in various types of sewage water was carried out. The efficiency wastewater treatment by microalgae was confirmed. The economic benefit from the biomass utilization as biofuel production was calculated. Implementation of wastewater treatment technology with biomass recycling for biofuel and biofertilizers production will minimize the impact on the environment. As a results of experimental studies, the ability of microalgae to reduce biogenic elements in wastewater was confirmed. Microalgae can be used both for wastewater treatment to biogenic elements removal, such as phosphorous and nitrogen compounds, and biofuel, biofertilizers production. Prospects of the commercial use of microalgae are obvious. They are specially adapted to an environment dominated by viscous forces.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0181
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Influence of high oxygenated biofuels on micro-gas turbine engine for
           reduced emission
    • Authors: Booma Devi, Venkatesh S., Rakesh Vimal, Praveenkumar T.R.
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effect of additives in Jet-A fuel blends, especially on performance, combustion and emission characteristics. Jet-A fuel was formed by using Kay’s and Gruenberg–Nissan mixing rules by adding additive glycerol with TiO2. While measuring the combustion performance, the amount of oxygen content present in fuel and atomization are the key factors to consider. As such, the Jet-A fuel was created by adding additives at different proportion. A small gas turbine engine was used for conducting tests. All tests were carried out at different load conditions for all the fuel blends such as neat Jet-A fuel, G10T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%), G20T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%) and G30T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%). From tests, the G20T and G10T produced better results than other blends. The thermal efficiency of the blends of G20T and G10T are 22% and 14% higher than neat Jet-A fuel. Further, the improved static thrust with less fuel consumption was noticed in G20T fuel blend. The G20T blends showed better performance because of the increased oxygenated compounds in the fuel blends. Moreover, the emission rate of environmentally harmful gases such as NOx, CO and HC was lower than the neat Jet-A fuel. From the results, it is clear that the rate of exergy destruction is more in the combustion chamber than the other components of fuel.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-11
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2020-0150
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Optimization of combustion and performance parameters by intake-charge
           conditions in a small-scale air-cooled hydrogen fuelled SI engine suitable
           for use in piston-prop aircraft
    • Authors: Habib Gürbüz
      Abstract: Spark ignition (SI) engines are used in a wide area in the transportation industry, from road vehicles to piston-prop aircraft. On the other hand, the decrease in reserves of fossil fuels used in SI engines and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of alternative fuels inevitable. In this paper, optimization of in-cylinder combustion and engine performance parameters by intake-charge conditions [i.e. intake-air temperature, injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)] in a hydrogen (H2)-fueled small SI engine is performed. Experimental studies were performed at a 1,600 rpm engine speed of a single-cylinder, air-cooled engine having a stroke volume of 476.5 cm3, maximum output power of 13 HP and torque of 25 Nm. The hydrogen-fueled SI engine was operated by a lean air-fuel mixture (ϕ = 0.6) under wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions. The findings of the paper show that improvements can be achieved in in-cylinder combustion, indicated engine performance, exhaust NOx emissions with optimum intake-air temperature, the start of H2 injection and the ERG rate. It has been determined that a 32°C intake-air temperature, 395°C (bTDC) start of H2 injection, and 5%–10% EGR rates are the most suitable values for the examined hydrogen fueled SI engine. Hydrogen is a usable alternative fuel for SI engines used in a wide area from road vehicles to piston-prop aircraft engines. However, a number of problems remain that limit hydrogen fueled SI engines to some extent, such as backfire, a decrease of engine power, and high NOx emissions. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the effects of intake-charge conditions on in-cylinder combustion, engine performance, and NOx emissions parameters in a hydrogen fuelled SI engine.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-30
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2020-0193
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Lowest emission sustainable aviation biofuels as the potential replacement
           for the Jet-A fuels
    • Authors: Anderson A., Karthikeyan A., Ramesh Kumar C., Ramachandran S., Praveenkumar T.R.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to predict the performance and emission characteristics of micro gas turbine engines powered by alternate fuels. The micro gas turbine engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics are analyzed for the jet fuel with different additives. The experimental investigation was carried out with Jet A-1 fuel on the gas turbine engines at different load conditions. The primary blends of the Jet A-1 fuels are from canola and solid waste pyrolysis oil. Then the ultrasonication of highly concentrated multiwall carbon nanotubes is carried with the primary blends of canola (Jet-A fuel 70%, canola 20% and 10% ethanol) and P20E (Jet-A 70% fuel, 20% PO and 10% ethanol). The consumption of the fuel is appreciable with the blends at a very high static thrust. The 39% reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption associated with a 32% enhance in static thrust with P20E blend among different fuel blends. Moreover, due to the increase in ethanol concentration in the blends PO20E and C20E lead to a 22% rise in thermal efficiency and a 9% increase in higher oxygen content is observed. The gas turbine engine emits very low emission of gases such as CO, CO2 and NOx by using the fuel blends, which typically reduces the fossil fuel usage limits with reduced pollutants. The emission of the gas turbine engines is further optimized with the addition of hydrogen in Jet-A fuel. That is leading to high specific fuel exergy and owing to the lower carbon content in the hydrogen fuel when compared with that of the fossil fuels used in gas turbine engines. Therefore, the usage of hydrogen with nanofluids was so promising based on the results obtained for replacing fossil fuels.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-23
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2020-0135
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Energy and exergy prices of the jet kerosene fuel with carbon emission
           equivalents for the air transport sector in Turkey
    • Authors: Ibrahim Yildiz, Hakan Caliskan
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy and exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene (Jet A-1) fuel considering 12 months data for the air transport sector in Turkey. In the selection of the energy resources, one of the most important factors besides the need is the price of the energy resources. To use and save the energy resources efficiently, the prices should be evaluated in terms of exergy too. In this context, the exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene fuel have been examined. According to analysis results, after January 2020, a steady decline in energy prices has been obtained until April 2020. In this regard, directly proportional changes have been obtained in exergy prices. The minimum exergy price of the fuel is calculated as 74.36 US cents/kWh for April 2020, while the maximum exergy price of the fuel is calculated as 150.02 US cents/kWh for September 2019. The minimum exergy price based carbon emission equivalents for the jet kerosene fuel is determined as 1,099.98 US cents/kg for April 2020, while the maximum exergy price based carbon emission equivalents for the jet kerosene fuel is found to be 2,219.29 US cents/kg for September 2019. The new contribution has been made to the open literature by examining the energy and exergy prices of the jet kerosene fuel. In addition, the carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene fuel have been determined not only energy but also exergy methods.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-20
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0191
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Study of low load performance on a two-stroke direct injection spark
           ignition aero-piston engine fuelled with diesel
    • Authors: Rui Liu, Haocheng Ji, Minxiang Wei
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate power performance, economy and hydrocarbons (HC)/carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of diesel fuel on a two-stoke direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine. Experimental study was carried out on a two-stroke SI diesel-fuelled engine with air-assisted direct injection, whose power performance and HC/CO emissions characteristics under low-load conditions were analysed according to the effects of ignition energy, ignition advance angle (IAA), injection timing angle and excess-air-ratio. The results indicate that, for the throttle position of 10%, a large IAA with adequate ignition energy effectively increases the power and decrease the HC emission. The optimal injection timing angle for power and fuel consumption is 60° crank angle (CA) before top dead centre (BTDC). Lean mixture improves the power performance with the HC/CO emissions greatly reduced. At the throttle position of 20%, the optimal IAA is 30°CA BTDC. The adequate ignition energy slightly improves the power output and greatly decreases HC/CO emissions. Advancing the injection timing improves the power and fuel consumption but should not exceed the exhaust port closing timing in case of scavenging losses. Burning stoichiometric mixture achieves maximum power, whereas burning lean mixture obviously reduces the fuel consumption and the HC/CO emissions. Gasoline has a low flash point, a high-saturated vapour pressure and relatively high volatility, and it is a potential hazard near a naked flame at room temperature, which can create significant security risks for its storage, transport and use. The authors adopt a low volatility diesel fuel for all vehicles and equipment to minimise the number of different devices using various fuels and improve the potential military application safety. Under low-load conditions, the two stroke port-injected SI engine performance of burning heavy fuels including diesel or kerosene was shown to be worse than those of gasoline. The authors have tried to use the DI method to improve the performance of the diesel-fuelled engine in starting and low-load conditions.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-09-25
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0158
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Modeling joint parameters to make sense of helicopter induced emissions
           effects: greener rotorcraft
    • Authors: Selcuk Ekici
      Abstract: This study aims to ascertain the greenest helicopters by modeling joint parameters to make sense of induced emissions effects of helicopters allocated to various categories. Emission indexes of helicopters construct the pillars of the methodology under use. Three different parameters are derived from emission indices: the index showing grams of pollutants that an engine produces per kWh; the index comparing of pollutant mass depending on the energy content of the fuel; and the index expressing the presence of the unreacted hydrocarbon (unburned) released into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion reaction. Various helicopters have been designated as sensitive and insensitive to the environment under various conditions and in different categories. Details are in the conclusions section. This study includes methods that can be used to select environmentally sensitive helicopters of various categories according to specific pollutants and their combustion efficiency. The originality of the work lies in the determination of the most sensitive and insensitive to the environment by using true flight data of helicopters operating in various categories during different flight phases. In addition, this paper with an approach to identifying green helicopters has the capability to support studies on regulations for helicopters in some countries by policymakers.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-09-25
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2020-0164
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Investigation on performance and combustion of compression ignition
           aviation piston engine burning biodiesel and diesel
    • Authors: Rui Liu, Wanzhong Zhao, Zhenyu Wang, Xiaqing Liu
      Abstract: This study aims to contrastively investigate the effects of biodiesel and diesel on the power, economy and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition aviation piston engine for unmanned aerial vehicles. Biodiesel used as alternative fuel will not be mixed with diesel during experimental study. Pure diesel fuel is used for the comparative test. Same fuel injection strategies, including pilot and main injection, are guaranteed for two fuels in same test points. The engine-rated power of biodiesel is lower than diesel, which results in higher specific fuel combustion (SFC) and effective thermal efficiency (ETE). Biodiesel has the faster burning rate, shorter combustion duration. The crank angle of 50% mass fraction burned (CA50) is earlier than diesel. The ignition delay angle of biodiesel and diesel in the pilot injection stage is almost the same at high engine speed. As the speed and load decrease, the ignition delay angle of biodiesel in the pilot injection stage is smaller than diesel. At 100% high load conditions, the fuel-burning fraction of biodiesel in the pilot injection is the same as diesel. The peak heat release rate (HRR) of biodiesel is slightly lower than diesel. At 20% part load conditions, the fuel-burning fraction of biodiesel in the pilot injection stage is lower than diesel. Because of the combustion participation of unburned pilot injected fuel, the peak HRR of biodiesel in the main injection is equal to or even higher than diesel. The application feasibility of alternative fuel and its effects on aviation engine power, economy and combustion characteristics will be evaluated according to the “drop-in“ requirements and on the low-cost premise without changing the aviation engine structure and parameters.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2020-0111
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Lead emissions from the use of leaded avgas in Turkey
    • Authors: Onder Altuntas
      Abstract: This study aims to present the impact of using leaded avgas in piston-prop aircraft, in Turkey. Increasing air traffic directly increases the total amount of consumed aviation fuels (kerosene or avgas). The number of aircraft and traffic that will increase soon will further increase fuel consumption. For this reason, aircraft power generation methods (long term) must be changed or the fuel must be improved (short term). The avgas used in piston-prop aircraft is known to contain lead and as a result, the production or consumption of avgas has adverse effects on human health, the ecosystem quality and resources. The overall human health impact, ecosystem quality impact and resource impact in Turkey were determined to be 2.83 disability-adjusted life years, 1.21 × 10−04 species.yr and $138, respectively. According to the results, although the normalized total effect of Turkey was calculated as 208.18 nkg, 43.89% of the total was observed in the Marmara region. The originality is the use of real-time values for all calculations. For the purpose of showing the most impacted or damaged regions in Turkey via a life cycle analysis, a new definition, the normalized total effect in nkg, is defined in this study.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2020-08-06
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2020-0108
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
    •  
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.230.154.160
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-