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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
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International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.174
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2374-6793
Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Air passenger demand forecast through the use of Artificial Neural Network
           algorithms

    • Authors: Juan Gerardo Muros Anguita et al.
      Abstract: Airport planning depends to a large extent on the levels of activity that are anticipated. To plan the facilities and infrastructures of an airport system and to be able to satisfy future needs, it is essential to predict the level and distribution of demand. This document presents a short- and medium-term forecast of the demand for air passengers carried out through a specific case study (Colombia), in which the impact of the pandemic period due to COVID-19 on air traffic was taken into account. To make the forecast, an algorithm that implements techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) (Machine Learning (ML)) was developed. In particular, for the analysis of the available time series, techniques of encoder-decoder networks of the type ConvLSTM2D have been applied. These architectures are a hybrid between Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), very useful for the extraction of invariant patterns in their spatial position, and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), appropriate for the extraction of patterns within their temporal context (time series). The most relevant result of the present research is that the recovery in demand (volume and trend) to the levels reported before the pandemic is forecast for the period between the end of 2022 and the beginning of 2024 (depending on the type of traffic and scenario considered). Finally, the application of the forecasting model based on Machine Learning/Deep Learning (DL) presents, as a metric performance, a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) value from 3% to 9% (depending on the scenario), which enables predictions of relative precision and introduces a new alternative technical approach to develop reliable air traffic forecasts, at least in the short and medium term.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Nov 2022 19:07:53 PDT
       
  • Aviation Risk Management

    • Authors: Tracey M. Richardson et al.
      Abstract: Risk management plans form a central part of all projects. However, projects in industries such as aviation and aerospace face serious risks due to the inherent hazards that may endanger the lives of those who utilize the products and services resulting from such projects. This study examined the practices of 56 project managers in the field of aviation to understand the unique approach to risk management undertaken by project managers. The results of the study offers approaches to managing risk in project characterized by extreme hazard.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Nov 2022 19:07:44 PDT
       
  • Accuracy of Commercially-Available Speech Recognition Systems in
           Identifying PIREP Terminology

    • Authors: Deborah Carstens; Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: Pilot Reports (PIREPs) are an important source of information that aids, other pilots, air traffic control, and operational aviation meteorologists in terms of forecasting and updating weather advisories such as SIGMETs. Pilots rely upon PIREPs so they can avoid hazardous weather and fly their aircraft in the safest manner possible. However, many PIREPs are not successfully submitted or transmitted to the many end users which impedes their ability to be used to keep the NAS safe. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made several recommendations for increasing the effectiveness and distribution of PIREPs, including receiving PIREPs from pilots directly and automatically (NTSB, 2017). We recruited eighty-four native-speaking participants to read a short, average, and long PIREP scripts in order to test the performance of various speech recognition systems (SRSs). The spoken PIREPs were transcribed by SRSs and compared to the original PIREP scripts. The words that were deleted, substituted, and inserted were identified and used to calculate the word error rate (WER) and word information loss (WIL). The WERs and WILs were separately analyzed with a repeated-measures marginal model to compare the accuracy between each of the SRSs. Also, the interaction between each SRS and gender was analyzed. The results demonstrated that Google, LilySpeech, and Transcribe had the same and superior performance when transcribing the average-length PIREPs than Braina and Dragon. All SRSs had equal performance at transcribing the short-length PIREPs. Dragon, Google, LilySpeech, and Transcribe had the same performance and superior when transcribing the long-length PIREPs than Braina. Additionally, we found that the short, average, and long-length transcriptions for all 5 commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) SRSs provided readable information for flight service stations (FSS) to enter valuable weather information into the PIREP system.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Oct 2022 18:58:14 PDT
       
  • Air passenger demand forecast through the use of Artificial Neural Network
           algorithms

    • Authors: Juan Gerardo Muros Anguita et al.
      Abstract: Airport planning depends to a large extent on the levels of activity that are anticipated. In order to plan facilities and infrastructures of an airport system and to be able to satisfy future needs, it is essential to predict the level and distribution of demand. This document presents a short- and medium-term forecast of the demand for air passengers carried out through a specific case study (Colombia), in which the impact of the pandemic period due to COVID-19 on air traffic was taken into account. To make the forecast, an algorithm that implements techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Machine Learning (ML) was developed. In particular, for the analysis of the available time series, techniques of encoder-decoder networks of the type ConvLSTM2D have been applied. These architectures are a hybrid between Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), very useful for the extraction of invariant patterns in their spatial position, and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), appropriate for the extraction of patterns within their temporal context (time series). The most relevant result of the present research is that the recovery in demand (volume and trend) to the levels reported before the pandemic is forecast for the period between the end of 2022 and the beginning of 2024 (depending on the type of traffic and scenario considered). Finally, the application of the forecasting model based on ML/Deep Learning (DL) presents, as a metric performance, a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) values from 3% to 9% (depending on the scenario), which enables predictions of relative precision and introduces a new alternative technical approach to develop reliable air traffic forecasts, at least in the short and medium term.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Oct 2022 07:19:18 PDT
       
  • The Persistence of Safety Silence: How Flight Deck Microcultures Influence
           the Efficacy of Crew Resource Management

    • Authors: Kimberly Perkins et al.
      Abstract: The majority of First Officers and Captains feel that Captains establish the tone of the flight deck microculture. However, the majority of these pilots also report that as First Officers, they have hesitated to share safety-pertinent data and/or experience being silenced after sharing safety data due to a psychologically unsafe flight deck. Utilizing direct feedback from industry pilots, we explore ways that Captains can create a more inclusive microculture that elicits safety voice. The safety system designed to enhance crew collaboration, Crew Resource Management, fails to adequately establish tools for designing a psychologically safe flight deck. We conclude that Crew Resource Management training must be re-designed with a human-centered data approach to increase the efficacy of the systems.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Oct 2022 12:32:36 PDT
       
  • Space Harpoon Projectile Analysis for Space Debris Capture

    • Authors: Miraj D. Lathia et al.
      Abstract: Space debris will become a more prevalent issue in this decade as technological advancements and greater dependencies on communications require more satellites in orbit, with some companies already hosting mega-constellations. Mitigating the debris using a space-tether is the most viable method to construct a space debris capture regime with current technology levels. Harpoon heads for the tethers are key design interests as these will penetrate through the satellites and/or debris. The focus of this paper is the analysis of an aluminium 6082, flat and conical head design, used to perforate aluminium 1050A plates using a gas gun laboratory. The aim is to conduct experiments to achieve a low Minimum Ballistic Velocity (MBV) where this velocity is the minimum velocity needed to perforate a material. Maximum perforation intertwined with minimal fragmentation is the desired balance sought from the designs. A high-speed camera records times taken for the events before and after perforation which deduces the MBV. 10 bar, 12.5 bar, and 15 bar of pressure were used, as well as 3mm, 1.5mm and 1mm Aluminium plate thickness, to provide diverse results for analysis. The MBV was calculated at 49.54m/s for 3mm thickness, with the conical head. The plates were cooled using dry ice to mimic space-like environments where tensile and yield strength increased with the cooler climates, resulting in higher MBVs. After impact, perforation profiles are analysed using a DSLR camera, resulting in ‘punches’ of material with the flat head and ‘petaling’ for the conical head. Conical perforation allows for material to be retained within the plate whilst flat head designs possess the potential for further space debris creation. The results retain reliability through validation checks with an oscilloscope and taking tolerances throughout the experiment. The results feed as a foundation to venture into future work with further ergonomic and bespoke designs.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2022 09:38:50 PDT
       
  • Organizational Networks, and Management of Disruptions in the Airline
           Ground Operation Process During Seasonal Crises

    • Authors: Gökhan Tanrıverdi et al.
      Abstract: This study focuses on informal relationships between airlines and suppliers in managing disruptions in the airline ground operation process during peak times in the summer seasons. In this context, the study investigates the change between actors’ formal and informal networks after they face disruptions in the airline ground operation process and their informal exchanges in this process. Antalya Airport was chosen as the research area since it is a leader airport for especially non-scheduled flights during the summer seasons in Turkey. The study was carried out as network research and the network data were collected through face-to-face meetings with actors (17 airlines and 13 suppliers) directly involved in the airline ground operation process. The study reveals that although there are formal contracts between the actors, managers are able to prefer their informal relationships based on close friendships rather than formal networks for the immediate solution of problems in crisis times. In addition, the severity of the disruptions affects the level of the contacted position and there is a direct proportion between them. Moreover, although some actors do not have formal contracts with each other, they can informally and mutually exchange, and they do not bill these exchanges' costs in these crisis periods.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Sep 2022 14:12:43 PDT
       
  • A Content Analysis of Three Works of Aviation Literature

    • Authors: Paul A. Craig
      Abstract: Using the qualitative research method of Content Analysis, a comprehensive exploration was conducted into three acclaimed works of aviation literature: Wind, Sand and Stars, by Antoine de Saint-Exupery; West with the Night, by Beryl Markham; and Fate is the Hunter, by Ernest K. Gann. Using the precise elements of the methodology, codes were identified, categories were combined and emerging themes were discovered. These discoveries led to a greater understanding of the works and their contribution to the knowledge base of aviation.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Aug 2022 12:33:11 PDT
       
  • Comparison of Schedules, Stress, Sleep Problems, Fatigue, Mental Health
           and Well-being of Low Cost and Network Carrier Pilots

    • Authors: Marion Venus
      Abstract: ObjectiveThis research investigates and compares working-conditions, duty rosters, stress, sleep problems, fatigue levels, mental health, and well-being of pilots working for network (NWCs), and low-cost carriers (LCCs). This study extends previous research by investigating working conditions, pilots’ actual rosters, fatigue and mental health of two groups of pilots flying for LCC or NWC.MethodA comprehensive cross-sectional online survey was completed by N=338 pilots (185 NWC, 153 LCC pilots). All pilots reported their roster data of the last 2 months during peak flight season, psychosocial and work-related stress (e.g., high job insecurity, less total flight-experience, lower income, more time pressure, more early starts), sleep difficulties, levels of fatigue, well-being, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and common mental disorders (CMD).ResultsLCC pilots reported significantly more work-related stressors like lower income, younger age, less total flight experience, more demanding rosters (more sectors, more early starts, more duty and flight hours), significantly more sleep difficulties, and very high levels of fatigue. Moreover, LCC pilots’ well-being was significantly more impaired: 24.2% of the LCC vs. 14.8% of NWC pilots reported positive depression screening results, and 7.1% of LCC and NWC pilots reported significant symptoms of anxiety.ConclusionsThis study confirms that different airline business models and management strategies result in more stressful working conditions for LCC pilots, whose health is more impaired by high fatigue and mental health issues. Although LCC pilots did not report significantly higher duty and flight hours, the work-related stressors like more bogus self-employment, high job, and income insecurity, more time pressure, were associated with even higher levels of fatigue, significantly more sleep problems, and more impaired mental health and well-being. In line with previous research, LCC pilots reported more safety issues and more fatigue-related incidents compared with NWC pilots.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Aug 2022 16:43:00 PDT
       
  • Anthropometry Considerations in the Design and Evaluation of Flight Deck
           Displays and Controls: Literature Review

    • Authors: Robert Joslin
      Abstract: The regulatory requirements and guidance for showing compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration anthropometric considerations in aircraft design are widely dispersed in an array of source documents. Consequently, they are difficult for aircraft manufacturers/applicants to identify, interpret, and address thereby extending the time to certify new/modified aircraft and aircraft systems. This literature review is intended to provide a compendium of the anthropometry considerations in the design certification of displays and controls in aircraft flight decks. This document is not a compliance document and the references herein are frequently updated, hence should be verified by the reader.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Aug 2022 16:42:55 PDT
       
  • Evaluation of Onboard Detect-and-Avoid System for sUAS BVLOS Operations

    • Authors: Jon M. Loffi et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 14:33:10 PDT
       
  • Aviation Organization Strategy Development in National Airspspace
           Modernization

    • Authors: Allan Will et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how small sub-directorates within larger organizations develop strategy to accomplish expansive legacy infrastructure re-engineering. There is significant, historical academic inquiry on Technological Transitions (TT)s with respect to infrastructure modernization; the conversion of the National Airspace System from ground-based to space-based navigation is an example of a TT. There are also studies on how to re-engineer legacy software systems to continue supporting organizational needs. This study is intended to explore a case of re-engineering the expansive legacy ground-based navigation system in the United States by efficiently reducing the size of the network and expanding then verifying signal coverage on over 4.5 million square miles. It is not a pure TT, nor a pure software re-engineering, but rather a large-scale re-engineering of a pre-existing hardware and software infrastructure. It constitutes a nationwide effort to re-design and expand the legacy ground-based navigation system developed over 70 years. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) advised the public in 2011 that it intended to re-engineer and reduce the Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) network from 896 stations down to 593 stations - to be defined as the Minimum Operational Network (MON). This reduction was based on the premise that two-thirds of the legacy VORs would be retained but their coverage expanded to cover twice the airspace within the US than the previous network. The FAA Flight Program Operations (FPO) is a small sub-directorate within the larger organization that is now responsible to validate signal coverage on several million square miles of additional airspace. Understanding how the FPO develops strategy and leverages technology to support this endeavor can provide a repeatable template for future, expansive, legacy infrastructure re-engineering efforts. This study discovered that the FPO developed and iteratively evolved strategy to accomplish the VOR MON using tribal knowledge, subject matter expertise and accepted business re-engineering practices. The template can be applied to other legacy infrastructure re-engineering efforts to support forthcoming TTs.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Jun 2022 12:58:34 PDT
       
  • MANAGING IMPRESSIONS IN THE WORKPLACE: A RESEARCH ON AIRPORT PROFESSIONALS

    • Authors: Yeşim Kurt
      Abstract: The main topic of this study is impression management. The study aims to reveal the awareness of airport professionals about managing impressions and the impression management tactics they use in business life. The qualitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected from a total of 25 participants who were selected by the purposeful sampling method and who took on different duties at the airports. According to the results of the research, the awareness of the participants about impression management is high and these tactics are often preferred deliberately. Exemplification is the assertive tactic most used by the participants. Apart from this, ingratiation and self-promotion are among the frequently preferred assertive tactics by the participants. Apologies tactic, which is one of the defensive tactics, is also frequently preferred by the participants. Participants consider these tactics to be respected, loved, and trusted in the workplace and as a process of creating the desired image. Thanks to this image, participants aim to benefit from salary increases, promotions, and career advancements and avoid sanctions that they may face in adverse situations.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jun 2022 14:23:52 PDT
       
  • The Necessity of Global Standardization Guidelines for Space Travel

    • Authors: Joshua Larson et al.
      Abstract: This study explored the interest in global standardization guidelines for space travel. Due to the lack of accepted minimum international standards and commercialized space travel guidelines, there is a need to explore the feasibility of developing of an agency or clearinghouse for the standardization of certifications, requirements, and ethical standards for space travel between global governments and private entities. This study employed a two-round Delphi design to investigate the need to establish and prioritize such guidelines. The findings yielded from this study provide guidance on how an agency or clearinghouse is needed and could potentially aid in developing such guidelines. The study included the prioritization of issues relevant to the establishment of guidelines to regulate human space travel. Twenty-nine global experts from 10 different nations participated in this research study. The results of this study include quantitative and qualitative data, which were collected in the two rounds of the Delphi study. As a result of this study's findings, industry decision-makers may become more knowledgeable of issues concerning consensus on safety concerns regarding human spaceflight.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 May 2022 08:18:40 PDT
       
  • Conceptual Design of Fuel Dumping System in Aircraft

    • Authors: Naveen M. Kumar Mr. et al.
      Abstract: Airlines release the unburned jet fuel into the atmosphere to reduce the weight of aircraft before landing. Sometimes, aircraft reach a weight more than takeoff weight while departing from the airport. Therefore, the pilot follows the ATC comment to dump fuel into the atmosphere to reduce the aircraft's weight to avoid accidents. Due to fuel dumping, an airline faces fuel consumption, loss, and several diseases affect environmental pollutants, and living things. The total fuel consumption of commercial airlines worldwide in 2021 is 57 billion gallons. If jet fuel routinely hit the ground, it would pollute water and land and damage crops and biodiversity. With this, we have worked on the project to rescue fuel dumping into the atmosphere and save living things from various diseases.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 May 2022 08:24:08 PDT
       
  • 3D Printing Technology in Aerospace Industry – A Review

    • Authors: Mohammad Suhel Karkun et al.
      Abstract: In the modern era, several new technologies are being developed for the most convenient and easy usage of materials. Due to its effortless and quick usage properties, 3D printing technology has a vast application range nowadays in different fields. The application of 3D printing technology in the aerospace industry has been developed in the past few decades, but now it has been enhanced to a new level. 3D printing technology now has several applications in the aeronautical and space sectors. Soon, 3D printing technology will be used for building habitations on other planets and for the printing of spacecraft and satellite parts directly in space. Currently, several components of aircraft and spacecraft are manufactured using 3D printers. 3D printing technology can be used to print components using all the filament materials. The main advantage of 3D printing technology is the low-cost creation of components ranging from simple to complex designs. Because of its ability to print any small-to-large complex designs, this technology is currently primarily used in the research sector. The review article aims to give an overview of 3D printing technologies and their current and futuristic uses in the aerospace industry. The types of 3D printers and their extruder nozzles are discussed in detail. The advantages and limitations of 3D printing technology as well as their application are presented. Filament materials and components along with their properties are discussed, especially those developed for aerospace industry applications. This review article mainly shows 3D printing technology as one of the core technologies for the aerospace industry.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 16:44:02 PDT
       
  • How to Construct a Safety Management System (SMS) That Promotes Safety
           Culture in Your Organization

    • Authors: Tara Samuels
      Abstract: Organizations spend considerable resources building robust Safety Management Systems, yet may struggle to develop a strong Safety Culture. The effect can ripple throughout the organization, particularly affecting employee safety, as well as product quality, productivity, engagement, and retention. This paper introduces the four basic components and most critical cultural preconditions of a successful SMS. It then provides recommendations aligned with each of the four basic components to guide management toward creating the kind of work environment that empowers and engages employees at all levels of the organization. Building a strong Safety Culture is simply good business, and the research conducted here culminates in a checklist for safety managers and executives who are committed to creating an environment that promotes a resilient Safety Culture within their organization.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 15:05:17 PDT
       
  • Modelling Air Quality in an Aircraft Passenger Cabin using Health Care
           Standards

    • Authors: Bert Silich
      Abstract: The interest in aerosol contamination of aircraft passenger cabins has increased since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Mathematical models have been developed to help describe how an aerosol behaves in a closed space. The number of infectious particles inhaled is of scientific interest because it can be related to the risk of getting ill from a pathogen. The data required to calculate these results is often difficult to obtain in real world settings. In fact, particle inhalation details are not obtained in the day-to-day routine of a health care environment and are they not required to maintain safety. Hospital isolation rooms provide safe air quality without measuring the aerosol contaminant concentration of the source or a person’s volume flow rate of breathing. Using the concept of the aerosol concentration ratio and applying hospital isolation room standards, a method to set safe aircraft passenger cabin air quality standards is discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 15:05:10 PDT
       
  • UAS for Public Safety: Active Threat Recognition

    • Authors: Joseph Cerreta et al.
      Abstract: The Center for Homeland Defense and Security identified an increase of active threat events, such as mass shootings, annually since 1999. Literature suggests that 90% of shootings were over before law enforcement arrived at the scene and the first responder response was limited to “surround and contain” until Special Weapons and Tactics Teams (SWAT) arrived on the scene. Using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to detect which individual was the threat and type of weapon used can provide useful information to increase the speed of the response for first-on-scene rather than waiting for SWAT if the type of weapon was known. A UAS equipped with a full spectrum sensor compared traditional red-green-blue (RGB) images to near-infrared (NIR) images in a simulated active threat scenario. A true positive rate (TPR) metric was used to measure the percentage of correctly-detected weapons consisting of either a knife, pistol, rifle, shotgun, or shovel at slant range distances of 25-, 50-, 75-, and 100-feet respectively. A convenience sample of 102 survey participants, recruited from constituents of the Airborne Public Safety Association (APSA) and DRONERESPONDERS was conducted to observe 48 randomly-presented images to determine which type of weapon was detected. The results suggest that survey participants could correctly detect weapons at a 12% greater rate with the NIR sensor than the RGB sensor; however, the pistol had the largest difference in TPR between NIR and RGB sensors. The pistol had an increased probability of detection by 33% when using the NIR sensor compared to an RGB sensor. Additionally, differences were also observed between slant range distances. The closest distance of 25 feet showed a 42% increase in participants’ ability to correctly determine the weapon type compared to the 100-foot slant range distance. Therefore, using a NIR sensor-equipped UAS at flying a maximum slant range distance of 50 feet may help a first-responder determine the type of weapon before SWAT arrives on the scene.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 15:04:56 PDT
       
  • Establishing Commercial Aviation Safety Privilege: Court Precedent versus
           Statute

    • Authors: Jason Powell
      Abstract: This concept paper evaluates the pros and cons of establishing commercial aviation safety privilege beyond the almost uniquely United States Department of Defense (DoD) legal protection built upon court precedence (stare decisis) as a statutory concept that can apply across all aviation investigations. The protection offered under Title 49 CFR 1114 only applies to the information provided that is not part of the safety investigation and allows full release of interviews that pertain to the investigation, which is further applied in the National Transportation Safety Board Aviation Investigation Manual (2002). The Supreme Court of the United States recognized different privileged communication under the common-law principle, which also provides a fundamental guideline to building a statutory argument for safety privilege (Federal Rules of Evidence 501, 2022). By adding statutory guidance, the concept can expand, potentially increasing the ability of aviation safety investigators to gain honest aircrew testimony and increase safety. Guidance can make way for international agreements and participation in the aviation safety process. However, there are consequences to expanding a common law to one with statutory authority, which may be sufficient to argue against the benefits of a statute for aviation safety privilege.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 14:47:47 PDT
       
 
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