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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
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Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1065-1136 - ISSN (Online) 2329-258X
Published by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Gender Diversity In Aviation: What Is It Like To Be In The Female

    • Authors: Mallory K. Casebolt Ed.D.
      Abstract: This qualitative phenomenological study sought to explain what it is like to be a gender minority in the aviation industry to bring awareness of the personal experiences lived by women in aviation to identify if the experiences of gender minorities in aviation contribute to the lower number of women in aviation. This research sought to bridge the existing gap in the literature related to women in aviation by seeking the personal perceptions and experiences of 10 women in aviation to understand what it’s like to be a gender minority (female) in aviation, to help improve the gender imbalance in the aviation industry. Participants from the study included 10 female aviation professionals from various careers: Air Ambulance Pilot, First Officer for International Cargo Carrier, US Commercial Airline Captain, Chief Executive Officer for major airport, licensed A&P mechanic at major US commercial carrier, FAA Certified Air Traffic Controller, College Professor of Aviation, Military Pilot, Corporate Pilot, and Flight Attendant. Findings from in-depth interviews helped illustrate participants experiences regarding what it is like to be a minority in the aviation industry. In the personal interviews, common themes emerged about support and barriers these women faced during their careers in aviation, as well as during their school, training, and careers. The common themes that emerged from the overall findings were participants always feeling outnumbered, lack of career advancement and opportunities regardless of qualifications, the challenges associated with motherhood/lifestyle with a career in aviation, and the existence of gender barriers and bias in aviation. Participants gave personal comments summarizing personality traits women must possess to be successful in the aviation industry, a self-explanation of what it is like to be a gender minority in the aviation industry, and their suggestions on how to better diversify the aviation industry. The findings of this study are important for the aviation industry as its aging workforce retires, the demand for air travel increases, and as the emphasis on diversity and the role of minorities rise. These findings seek to bring awareness to issues faced by minority females in aviation that can used by all stakeholders to help achieve gender parity in the aviation industry in the future.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 10:36:39 PST
  • Using Unmanned Aircraft Systems to Investigate the Detectability of
           Burmese Pythons in South Florida

    • Authors: Joseph Cerreta Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: Burmese pythons are an invasive, non-native species of snake to southern Florida and attempts at eradicating the snakes had yielded mixed results. The current rate of detection had been reported as 0.05%. The purpose of this research project was to determine if a UAS equipped with a near-infrared (NIR) camera could be used to detect pythons at a higher rate when compared to a RGB camera. The approach involved collecting 55 images from RGB and NIR cameras, over carcass pythons at flying heights of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 meters. A likelihood ratio consisting of a true positive rate over false positive rate was calculated from 101 participant survey responses. Participants were able to detect pythons from an NIR camera with greater likelihood (M = 6.05, SD = 1.94) than a RGB camera (M = 4.74, SD = 1.32), t(10) = 1.77, p = .048. The data suggests that survey participants could correctly detect pythons in images containing the pythons at a 1.3x greater rate with the NIR sensor than with the RGB sensor. Also, a true positive rate (TPR) showed the observation rate of correctly detecting a python when one was present in the image. The NIR camera images had higher TPR rates compared to RGB images. The largest difference between camera types was observed at the 15 meters flying height over an outstretched python; there was a 35% increase in participant detection accuracy using the NIR camera compared to the RGB camera. These results suggest that a UAS equipped with an NIR camera flying between 3 and 15 meters in a nadir-oriented position of 90 degrees can be used to detect pythons. Using a UAS equipped with an NIR camera over levees searching for exposed pythons may help biologists responsible for managing these invasive species determine if a python is present.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 10:36:25 PST
  • Evaluating System Usability, Workload Suitability, and User Experience of
           Game-Based Virtual Reality in Spaceflight Education and Training

    • Authors: Lana Laskey ; M.S. et al.
      Abstract: Game-based instruction and immersive virtual reality are enhanced pedagogical methods beneficial in training environments involving complex disciplines, ranging from medical applications to construction engineering technology. This study investigated the use of game-based virtual reality (GBVR) when applied to the complex field of spaceflight education and training. As modern society places increasing demand on space-based amenities, the need for proficient satellite operators will also increase, requiring more accessible and advanced training options. Satellite ground control training scenarios, immersed in the GBVR environment, were developed and deployed to university student participants. Multiple validated scales were employed to measure the GBVR system regarding three main attributes: system usability, workload suitability, and user experience. Results revealed that the GBVR system usability scores ranked above average on the System Usability Scale (SUS). Secondly, the workload suitability ranked within the accepted mean value range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index (TLX). And lastly, the user experience scores were similar to popular video game scores on the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS-18). Even with a small sample size (n = 10), the findings indicate that GBVR is a feasible tool when applied to a complex discipline such as spaceflight education and training.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 10:36:16 PST
  • Validation of an Operationalized Model of Iso-Ahola’s Theory of Tourism
           Motivation: A Case in Point-to-Point Suborbital Space Travel

    • Authors: Brian T. Musselman Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to validate Snepenger, King, Marshall, and Uysal’s (2006) model of Iso-Ahola’s (1982) theory of tourism motivation for use in point-to-point suborbital space tourism research. No previous research was discovered, which assessed point-to-point suborbital space flight within the theoretical foundation of the theory of tourism motivation. Snepenger et al.’s (2006) model was assessed as published, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) failed to produce data fitting the four dimensions. The researchers modified the item descriptions based on research. Using a second sample, the modified model was assessed. EFA produced four factors with adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis produced good model fit with adequate construct validity. The study validated the operationalized model of the theory of tourism motivation in United States participants providing a valid and reliable scale for use in future suborbital space travel research.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 10:36:06 PST
  • “You’ll Never Really Be One of Us”: Women’s Underrepresentation in
           the Aviation Workforce

    • Authors: Rebecca K. Lutte Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: Women are underrepresented in many aviation occupations despite outreach and recruitment efforts from multiple organizations. Attracting women into aviation is a necessity not only to address workforce demand but also to achieve the benefits of a more diverse workforce to include enhanced profitability, safety, and innovation. To address the gender gap, the research presented here attempts to inform recruitment/retention strategies by identifying both the positive and negative factors that influence a woman’s decision to pursue a career in aviation and the decision to persist. Additionally, factors such as participation in youth outreach programs, role of mentors, influencers who support or interfere with the pursuit of aviation as a career for women, and development of a better understanding of barriers to the career field are all explored. The results reveal a profile for recruiting, and identification of factors that deter women from the field, which include cost of entry, negative workplace culture, and maintaining work life balance. The information gained will allow for tailoring strategies for the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women to the identified factors that influence career decisions in order to close the existing gender gaps in aviation.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 11:19:19 PDT
  • An Analysis of the Effect of Self-Efficacy of Female Students in
           Collegiate Flight Programs

    • Authors: Stefanie Horton M.S. et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of self-efficacy of male and female students in collegiate flight programs to identify if a relationship exists between self-efficacy responses and gender representation in aviation. Self-efficacy, an element of social cognitive career theory’s (SCCT) behavioral factors, deals with an individual’s belief in his/her capacity to address a certain set of circumstances. No studies have been found addressing self-efficacy of students enrolled in collegiate aviation programs, specifically addressing differences between male and female students. The population for this study consisted of students enrolled in four-year collegiate aviation programs, as found through the University Aviation Association (UAA) membership rosters. The General Self Efficacy Scale (GSES) was distributed to students enrolled in collegiate aviation programs enrolled in various aviation majors. Results from this study compared 145 collegiate aviation students’ self-efficacy responses and personal comments and presented a multi-factor examination of possible influences of gender on self-efficacy for collegiate aviation students. Independent t-test results revealed male and female students had similar self-efficacy responses and associated level, but revealed a perceptual difference of gender disparity in the personal comments and responses. Additionally, an independent t-test demonstrated collegiate aviation students have statistically significant higher self-efficacy than the generalized American adult population at 95% confidence level.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 11:19:08 PDT
  • SMS for Part 135 Commuter and On-Demand Operations - The
           Practitioner’s Perspective

    • Authors: Michael Ott MSAAM; FRAeS, ATP et al.
      Abstract: On May 15th, 2017, N452DA, a Learjet 35A operated by Trans-Pacific Air Charter, LLC, departed from Philadelphia to Teterboro, New Jersey (TEB) on a positioning flight under 14 Code of Federal Regulations § 91 (Part 91) in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC). While circling to land Runway 01 at TEB after executing the Instrument Landing System (ILS) Runway 06 approach, N452DA stalled and crashed one-half mile south of the approach end of runway 01. The flight records indicated that the crew committed numerous errors before the accident, including deviations from air traffic control (ATC) clearances, company standard operating procedures (SOP), and stabilized approach criteria without initiating a go-around, all of which contributed directly to the fatal outcome. While the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigation issued several recommendations to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and one recommendation for a change to the company’s SOP, this study used a group of practitioners’ perspectives, a Fishbone Ishikawa Analysis, and Fault Tree Analysis to reveal upstream contributing factors and made SMS implementation recommendations for an improved safety culture, which would likely have prevented the accident.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 11:18:58 PDT
  • School Choice Factors Influencing U.S. Domestic and International Student
           Pilots’ Selections of Vocational Flight Schools

    • Authors: Jingmin Jin Ph.D.
      Abstract: As international civil aviation activities resume from the COVID-19 pandemic, along with fleet growth and high retirement rates for senior pilots, there is a concern about the industry’s capability in supplying sufficient numbers of competent professional pilots. In order to advance the industry’s recruitment, it is necessary to determine effective approaches that may attract prospective student pilots to flight schools. This study investigated how school choice factors influenced U.S. domestic student pilots’ selections of vocational, non-collegiate flight schools in comparison to international student pilots. The study data were adopted from a 2019 survey research, which included 157 domestic and 44 international participants. The participants were invited to rate how much influence various choice factors, including marketing approaches, relevant people, and institutional factors, had on their school choice decision-making. Key findings regarding marketing approaches revealed that word of mouth and media-based marketing approaches were significantly more influential for international student pilots. Whereas domestic student pilots seemed to prefer personal communication-based marketing approaches. With respect to the influence of relevant people, this study found that certain school members (i.e., flight instructors, current trainees, executive committee, and sales personnel) had a significantly higher influence on international student pilots’ school choice decisions than for domestic student pilots. In regard to institutional factors, it was found that both groups included the following factors as the key influencers: training quality, availability of flying opportunities, training costs, safety record of the programs, the overall reputation, length of time to complete program, reputation of flight instructors, scheduling flexibility, and training capacity. Moreover, international student pilots endorsed that institutional factors pertaining to school campus life had significantly more influence on their school selections than their domestic counterparts. Implications and recommendations were proposed. This study helps fill a gap in the current literature on vocational flight school choices.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 11:18:51 PDT
  • Investigation of Pilots' Visual Entropy and Eye Fixations for
           Simulated Flights Consisted of Multiple Take-Offs and Landings

    • Authors: Salem M. Naeeri Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: Eye movement characteristics might provide insights on pilots' mental fatigue during prolonged flight. The visual entropy, eye fixation numbers, and eye fixation durations of ten novice pilots and ten expert pilots were analyzed for a four-hour simulated flight task consisting of four consecutive flight legs. Each flight leg lasted approximately one hour and contained five flight phases: takeoff, climb, cruise, descend, and landing. The pilots maneuvered the simulated B-52 aircraft following instrument flight rules (IFR) in a moderate-fidelity Microsoft Flight Simulator environment. Our results indicate that experts’ eye movement characteristics were significantly different from those of novices. In detail, novices' eye movements were more random, produced longer eye fixation durations, and had fewer eye fixation numbers on the areas of interest (AOIs) than the experts. In addition, the repetitive task (i.e., four consecutive flights) significantly impacted the eye movement characteristics for both experts and novices. Visual entropy and eye fixation duration increased, while eye fixation numbers decreased for both groups as the repetition index increased. Finally, the flight phases also affected eye movement characteristics. The results show that both experts' and novices' visual entropies were relatively higher during climb, cruise, and descend phases, whereas those were relatively lower during the takeoff and landing phases. The present results provide a foundation for us to better understand the similarities and dissimilarities of eye movement characteristics between the experts and novices for a prolonged flight. Lastly, potential scaffolding training methods and pilot anomaly alerting systems, derived from such eye movements, are introduced.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 11:18:42 PDT
  • A Panel Study of Outsourced Maintenance Impact on Major U.S. Passenger
           Airlines' Profitability (1995-2019)

    • Authors: Linfeng Jin Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: This study investigates eight viable United States major passenger airlines' outsourced maintenance impact on profitability between 1995 and 2019 by using panel data analysis. The results demonstrate that the percentage of airline outsourced maintenance and inhouse maintenance labor pay have no statistically significant impact on profitability. The researchers call for the further research with a larger sample, and more time periods to explore airlines' outsourced maintenance impact on profitability.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 11:18:31 PDT
  • An Analysis of Air Traffic Controllers’ Job Satisfaction

    • Authors: Sohel M. Imroz et al.
      Abstract: The air traffic controllers' job is one of the most hectic in today’s world, predominantly due to its safety-critical operations and altering expectations. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide a holistic directory of determinants and synthesized reinforcements for air traffic controllers' job satisfaction. Researchers in the past have put the spotlight on individual air traffic controller’s technical job satisfaction factors, such as impacts from remote tower operation, airplane trajectory changes, and dynamic air traffic situations. However, none described the connection among those factors and how adjusting those factors can enhance the cognitive components related to their job satisfaction. This paper's in-depth analysis identified factors contributing to air traffic controllers' job satisfaction based on past literature. It is intended to increase understanding and improve knowledge for future researchers and practitioners. The five predominant factors identified for air traffic controllers’ job satisfaction are ambiguity of job functions, overwhelming workload, complex task performance and uncertain work demand, job fatigue, and work-family conflict. Some effective methods to increase air traffic controllers’ job satisfaction are regular break between shifts, technological advancement to facilitate jobs, and sound insulations.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 12:06:33 PST
  • Plain Language or Anything But'

    • Authors: Jennifer F. Drayton et al.
      Abstract: This paper focuses on what language needs to be used in emergencies by air traffic controllers based on an investigation of plain language definitions and descriptions in International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) publications and in the beliefs of nine air traffic controllers in the United Arab Emirates. The aim of the study is pedagogical, in that it is important to establish what language trainee air traffic controllers need to use during emergencies, but there is little in the way of course books or materials that can inform course development. Findings suggest there are contradictions in the ICAO documentation, and differences in beliefs held by air traffic controllers largely mirror these documents. The paper presents a model of the contradictions found in interview and document data and explores the likelihood of differing assumptions leading to variation in language output. The implications for training, testing and ICAO policy are presented, as well as possibilities for future research.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 12:06:23 PST
  • Applying Lessons from Safety-II Proof of Concept in Line Operational
           Safety Audit to Aviation Maintenance

    • Authors: David R. Zubowski
      Abstract: Maintenance safety culture is a topic that continues to arise. There is much information in many different literature sources that discusses measuring, analyzing, and scrutinizing data to determine if a safety culture exists in an organization and how to improve it. Currently, aviation maintenance personnel are surveyed for their opinions on how safe their culture is. However, this may not be an adequate reflection of the safety culture or help maintenance personnel conduct their jobs. Typically, they are operating in an environment that has a central determination of what safety culture is. Other programs in other fields have attempted a decentralization of control to guide employees to adapt to variation in the environment and safely achieve their job requirements. A proof of concept is being tried in the commercial airline industry with university support. The results could be expanded beyond the flight deck and into aviation maintenance with further research into how Safety-II has been successfully applied to other industries.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 12:06:16 PST
  • Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Simulations for Civilian, Ab Initio Pilot

    • Authors: Michelle P. Hight et al.
      Abstract: Aviation training in the immersive Virtual Reality (VR) world has the power to overcome physical constraints, presenting cues and stimuli that would not be available in flight, nor in a two-dimensional (2D) environment. This gives VR powerful potential as a simulation tool for learning complex skills and maneuvers in the cockpit. This study evaluated the effectiveness of VR simulations as compared to traditional 2D desktop simulations in teaching maneuvers and skills to ab initio (inexperienced) civilian pilot trainees. This quasi-experimental project involved 17 freshman pilot students in an experimental college course at a private university campus in the fall semester of 2020. The participants were split into two sections: Section 1 completed CBT activities and simulations in 2D only, while Section 2 completed CBT activities in 2D and simulations in VR. Academic performance data was collected in the Canvas Learning Management System, broken down by understanding of a maneuver learned in a given lesson module. Descriptive statistics collected included quizzes, discussion board activity, and simulation completion scores. Paired samples t-tests compared perceived benefits of using the various course materials. Researchers also administered post-semester surveys to gather both qualitative and quantitative data, in which participants shared their perceptions of the course, preference for learning material type, and general feedback. Results indicated that students in both groups found the sims/tutorials and VR to be enjoyable and gratifying; the majority of students indicated that simulations were preferred over other learning materials. Early results indicate that although the students perceived that the simulations were beneficial, there were no significant differences in the final course scores or learning rates between those who utilized 2D sims as opposed to VR sims. The most important finding is that for ab initio pilots, VR simulations do not hinder learning mastery, as compared with traditional 2D desktop simulations.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Mar 2022 12:06:02 PST
  • Design Science Research – Alternative Pathway for Aviation
           Training-Related Studies

    • Authors: Guilherme A. da Silveira et al.
      Abstract: Relevance is a permanent requirement of academic research, which means it is worth discussing methods and paradigms that provide the most useful outcomes to the most relevant problems, while maintaining rigor and criteria at a high level. The class of problems associated with aviation [pilot] training-related studies demands pragmatic solutions that are not always conspicuous from traditional qualitative or quantitative methods akin to the natural sciences. Hence, an interface between the natural and the artificial is required. The purpose of this theoretical essay is to review design science research (DSR) methodology, considering its applicability to aviation [pilot] training problems, thus, providing insight that will eventually help education practitioners in the field of aviation instructional design. To this end, DSR is analyzed in four distinct dimensions – concept, processes, outcomes, and evaluation – with reference to the seminal papers in information systems (IS) literature. DSR presents itself and is further discussed as a method that possesses the characteristics to build relevant solutions to prominent aviation training problems. DSR is supported by a systematic process that is rigorous and flexible at the same time. Its potential outputs/outcomes suit different classes of problems and are receptive to a significant number of different evaluation methods, all of which works to satisfy design science knowledge criteria demanded by academia.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 11:08:59 PST
  • Interactive Modules for Flight Training: A Review

    • Authors: Stephanie G. Fussell Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: The use of animation and video, combined with auditory and text components, to teach complex subjects can be beneficial to deepen understanding. A review of the literature was conducted to better understand how interactive learning modules can give flight students tools to enhance the learning process outside of traditional instruction. Instructional theories and educational environments were considered through the lens of designing course content for flight students. Several research questions were asked to guide the course of the research, all focused on how students learn a complex subject matter using interactive material. Guidelines and principles are discussed to ensure the interactive modules are designed to increase germane cognitive load and decrease extraneous cognitive load to benefit the learning processes of the flight students. This report concludes that interactive modules would allow flight students to own their academic experience while positively impacting declarative and procedural knowledge acquisition.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 11:08:52 PST
  • Emergency Preparedness and Response Education in Aviation Management
           Programs in the United States

    • Authors: Heather L. Servaty-Seib et al.
      Abstract: Aviation disasters are decreasing in number but remain impactful and require competent management. Aviation Management program department heads (N = 26) in the United States were surveyed regarding the extent of curricular inclusion of emergency preparedness and response in aviation management programs. The findings indicated that few aviation management programs offer elective or required courses solely focused on emergency preparedness and response (EPR) whereas just over one third of programs offer an elective or required course within which EPR is a planned topic. Department heads recognized the importance of additional coverage because a) students need the practical information and b) such education would enhance their marketability. They perceived obstacles regarding funding, faculty interest and expertise, and already overloaded curricula. However, the strongest quantitative predictors of curricular inclusion and integration within programs were department heads’ personal experiences in teaching on the topic of emergency preparedness and response and their attitude that such training “should” be included in curricula.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 11:08:43 PST
  • What Factors Predict a Consumer's Willingness to Purchase a
           Subscription-Based Airline Program'

    • Authors: Sean R. Crouse
      Abstract: Introduction: Many services offer subscription-based sales models. The aviation industry has not widely attempted to market a subscription-based service through their airline for ticketing purposes. This study developed a regression equation to determine predictive factors for the type of individual who would purchase a subscription-based airline ticket.Method: A two-stage approach was used where the participants (N = 521) answered demographic information, flight habits, and the same scenario with a perceived value scale and willingness to purchase scale.Results: Stage 1 found perceived value, employment status, and early boarding preference all to be significant factors, accounting for 77.6% of the variance. Stage 2 validated the regression equation through a t­-test, correlation, and cross-validated R2.Conclusion: The suggested regression equation showed a strong model fit and predicted the scores from Stage 2 with a mean difference of -.034. These factors will aid the aviation industry’s marketing departments in developing a subscription-based ticket using findings from this study.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Dec 2021 11:08:35 PST
  • Can Backward-Chained, Ab-Initio Pilot Training Decrease Time to First

    • Authors: Samuel M. Vance Ph.D. et al.
      Abstract: Flight simulation has made progressively significant inroads into pilot training at all levels of a pilot’s career – typically starting with training for the Instrument rating in light aircraft and concluding with Type Certification in transport category jetliners. This research was designed to explore if significant training inroads could also be offered to ab-initio pilots, those with no prior flight experience. An experimental group of four pilot trainees, without prior flight experience, were exposed to flight in a backwards-chained simulation starting from 4’ AGL (Above Ground Level). Graduated, exponential increments of both altitude and distance from landing were successively added to the simulation experienced by the pilots all the way through a standard FAA General Aviation traffic pattern to return the student pilot to the start of take-off. Once the pilot trainees had completed the backward-chained simulation, they flew the traffic pattern conventionally, in a forward chain prior to being placed in an identical aircraft (Cessna-172/G1000) for an actual flight with an appropriately-rated Certified Flight Instructor (CFI). After receiving a demonstration of a complete circuit in the traffic pattern by the CFI, all four pilot trainees were able to complete three, unassisted circuits in the traffic pattern. Backwards-chained initial flight instruction appears to have significant operational potential in accelerating (reducing) the time required for first solo of new pilots. It also warrants further investigation by other pilot training research institutions.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 May 2021 13:37:08 PDT
  • Implementing Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning into Advanced
           Qualification Programs

    • Authors: Jennifer R. Herr
      Abstract: Since its start, the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) has encouraged new and innovative strategies for training airline crewmembers. The foundation of AQP is to train crew the way they fly and to find new and innovative ways to increase safety through training. By using data collected through the AQP process, training methods can be refined and improved. New technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning can make data analysis and training more effective and efficient. This paper will explore these concepts and how AI and machine learning could be implemented in the AQP process to make training more effective and make pilots, crewmembers, and passengers safer.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 May 2021 13:37:00 PDT
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