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Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-987X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • PRIME: a probabilistic neural network approach to solar wind propagation
           from L1

    • Authors: Connor O’Brien, Brian M. Walsh, Ying Zou, Samira Tasnim, Huaming Zhang, David Gary Sibeck
      Abstract: Introduction: For the last several decades, continuous monitoring of the solar wind has been carried out by spacecraft at the first Earth-Sun Lagrange point (L1). Due to computational expense or model limitations, those data often must be propagated to some point closer to the Earth in order to be usable by those studying the interaction between Earth’s magnetosphere and the solar wind. The current most widely used tool to propagate measurements from L1 (roughly 235 RE upstream) to Earth is the planar propagation method, which includes a number of known limitations. Motivated by these limitations, this study introduces a new algorithm called the Probabilistic Regressor for Input to the Magnetosphere Estimation (PRIME).Methods: PRIME is based on a novel probabilistic recurrent neural network architecture, and is capable of incorporating solar wind time history from L1 monitors to generate predictions of near-Earth solar wind as well as estimate uncertainties for those predictions.Results: A statistical validation shows PRIME’s predictions better match MMS magnetic field and plasma measurements just upstream of the bow shock than measurements from Wind propagated to MMS with a minimum variance analysis-based planar propagation technique. PRIME’s continuous rank probability score (CRPS) is 0.214σ on average across all parameters, compared to the minimum variance algorithm’s CRPS of 0.350σ. PRIME’s performance improvement over minimum variance is dramatic in plasma parameters, with an improvement in CRPS from 2.155 cm−3 to 0.850 cm−3 in number density and 16.15 km/s to 9.226 km/s in flow velocity VX GSE.Discussion: Case studies of particularly difficult to predict or extreme conditions are presented to illustrate the benefits and limitations of PRIME. PRIME’s uncertainties are shown to provide reasonably reliable predictions of the probability of particular solar wind conditions occurring.Conclusion: PRIME offers a simple solution to common limitations of solar wind propagation algorithms by generating accurate predictions of the solar wind at Earth with physically meaningful uncertainties attached.
      PubDate: 2023-09-19T00:00:00Z
  • Effect of fish density on biological production in aquaponics combining
           lettuce hydroponics and loach aquaculture for controlled ecological life
           support systems in space

    • Authors: Yoshiaki Kitaya, Takashige Kawamoto, Ryosuke Endo, Toshio Shibuya
      Abstract: There is a need to develop production technology that effectively uses limited water and other resources to create a stable food supply in space. Aquaponics, which combine hydroponics and aquaculture, is expected to be an efficient system for producing crops and animal proteins. This system sustains the reuse of water and balances nutrient elements between both cultures using dissolved elements in fish excrement for plant growth. To evaluate the effect of fish density on biological production and nitrogen usage efficiency in aquaponics combining lettuce hydroponics and loach aquaculture, we investigated the growth performance of lettuce plants and loach fish. We focused on the balance of nutrient elements, especially nitrogen flow in the system. As a result, we found that lettuce grew in aquaponics with a half-strength standard solution with an optimal combination of the number of plants and fish as well as hydroponics with a standard solution. Increasing the density of loach fish and lettuce plants can increase the total biological production of fish and plants. However, it will be important to control both fish and plant densities to increase nitrogen recovery in aquaponics with a high fish density.
      PubDate: 2023-09-18T00:00:00Z
  • Ionosphere-thermosphere coupling via global-scale waves: new insights from
           two-years of concurrent in situ and remotely-sensed satellite observations

    • Authors: Federico Gasperini, Brian J. Harding, Geoffrey Crowley, Thomas J. Immel
      Abstract: Growing evidence indicates that a selected group of global-scale waves from the lower atmosphere constitute a significant source of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT, 100–600 km) variability. Due to the geometry of the magnetic field lines, this IT coupling occurs mainly at low latitudes (
      PubDate: 2023-09-18T00:00:00Z
  • SITCoM: SiRGraF Integrated Tool for Coronal dynaMics

    • Authors: Purvi Udhwani, Arpit Kumar Shrivastav, Ritesh Patel
      Abstract: SiRGraF Integrated Tool for Coronal dynaMics (SITCoM) is based on the Simple Radial Gradient Filter used to filter the radial gradient in the white-light coronagraph images and bring out dynamic structures. SITCoM has been developed in Python and integrated with SunPy and can be installed by users with the command pip install sitcom. This enables the user to pass the white-light coronagraph data to the tool and generate radially filtered output with an option to save in various formats as required. We implemented the functionality of tracking the transients such as coronal mass ejections, outflows, and plasma blobs, using height–time plots and deriving their kinematics. In addition, SITCoM also supports oscillation and wave studies such as for streamer waves. This is performed by creating a distance–time plot at a user-defined location (artificial slice) and fitting a sinusoidal function to derive the properties of waves, such as time period, amplitude, and damping time (if any). We provide the option to manually or automatically select the data points to be used for fitting. SITCoM is a tool to analyze some properties of coronal dynamics quickly. We present an overview of the SITCoM with the applications for deriving coronal dynamics’ kinematics and oscillation properties. We discuss the limitations of this tool along with prospects for future improvement.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T00:00:00Z
  • Simulating asteroid impacts and meteor events by high-power lasers: from
           the laboratory to spaceborne missions

    • Authors: Martin Ferus, Antonín Knížek, Giuseppe Cassone, Paul B. Rimmer, Hitesh Changela, Elias Chatzitheodoridis, Inna Uwarova, Ján Žabka, Petr Kabáth, Franz Saija, Homa Saeidfirozeh, Libor Lenža, Miroslav Krůs, Lukáš Petera, Lukáš Nejdl, Petr Kubelík, Anna Křivková, David Černý, Martin Divoký, Michael Pisařík, Tomáš Kohout, Lakshika Palamakumbure, Barbora Drtinová, Klára Hlouchová, Nikola Schmidt, Zita Martins, Jorge Yáñez, Svatopoluk Civiš, Pavel Pořízka, Tomáš Mocek, Jona Petri, Sabine Klinkner
      Abstract: Meteor plasmas and impact events are complex, dynamic natural phenomena. Simulating these processes in the laboratory is, however, a challenge. The technique of laser induced dielectric breakdown was first used for this purpose almost 50 years ago. Since then, laser-based experiments have helped to simulate high energy processes in the Tunguska and Chicxulub impact events, heavy bombardment on the early Earth, prebiotic chemical evolution, space weathering of celestial bodies and meteor plasma. This review summarizes the current level of knowledge and outlines possible paths of future development.
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T00:00:00Z
  • Spatial and temporal correlations of thermospheric zonal winds from GOCE
           satellite observations

    • Authors: Ivana Molina, Ludger Scherliess
      Abstract: Winds in the thermosphere play an important role in the transport of momentum and energy in the upper atmosphere and affect the composition, dynamics and morphology of the ionospheric plasma. Although the general morphology of the winds is well understood, we are only starting to understand its variability. During the last decade it has become inherently clear that in addition to solar forcing of the thermosphere, the lower atmosphere also is an important driver of thermospheric variability. Therefore, an understanding of thermospheric variability and its spatial and temporal correlations is critical for an improved understanding of the coupled ionosphere-thermosphere system and the coupling to the lower atmosphere. The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Explorer (GOCE) provided zonal winds near dawn and dusk at an altitude of around 260 km from November 2009 to October 2013. We have used GOCE zonal wind observations from low- to mid-latitudes obtained during geomagnetically quiet times to investigate spatial and temporal correlations in the zonal winds near dawn and dusk. Latitudinal correlations were calculated for the GOCE zonal winds for December solstice separately for each year from 2009 to 2012 and their year-to-year variation was established. Correlations between hemispheric conjugate points were found at mid latitudes during the latter years. Latitudinal correlations for December solstice 2009 and June solstice 2010 were compared and the correlation length was found to be consistently larger in the winter hemisphere during dawn and in the summer hemisphere during dusk. Zonal wind longitudinal/temporal correlations were also determined for December 2009 and 2011 and for June 2010 and found to be periodic in longitude/time. The temporal evolution of the temporal/longitudinal correlations were found to gradually decrease over the course of several days. The maxima in the correlation coefficients were always located in the winter hemisphere during dawn and in the summer hemisphere during dusk. During dawn, the largest contributors to the temporal/longitudinal correlations were found to be nonmigrating tides, whereas during dusk, additional waves appear to play important roles.
      PubDate: 2023-09-14T00:00:00Z
  • Maia variables and other anomalies among pulsating stars

    • Authors: L. A. Balona
      Abstract: High-precision photometry from TESS has revealed over 500 stars, located between the δ Scuti and β Cephei instability strips, which pulsate with high frequencies. Models do not predict high pulsation frequencies in these stars. These anomalous variables may be identified with the historical “Maia” variables. From the projected rotational velocities, it is shown that the rotation rates of Maia variables are no different from main sequence or SPB stars in the same effective temperature range. Some Maia stars pulsate at frequencies typical of roAp stars. It is shown that Maia stars should be considered an extension of δ Scuti variables to effective temperatures as high as 18,000 K, rather than as a separate class. The TESS data show a continuous sequence of low-frequency pulsating stars linking the γ Doradus and SPB variables, which is not predicted by the models. There are, in fact, no well-defined instability strips at all among upper main sequence stars, which means that arbitrary choices of effective temperature and frequency ranges need to be made in order to assign a particular variability class. It seems that a mixture of driving mechanisms is present in which convection may play a very important role.
      PubDate: 2023-09-14T00:00:00Z
  • Will we find Martian lightning via Schumann resonances'

    • Authors: T. M. Esman, J. R. Espley, J. R. Gruesbeck, A. Verbiscer, J. Giacalone, A. J. Halford
      Abstract: Schumann resonances are electromagnetic resonances generally associated with lightning. If they exist on Mars, Schumann resonances are expected to resonate within the ionospheric cavity at a fundamental frequency of 7–14 Hz. We conducted a search for 5–16 Hz signals below 400 km in magnetic field data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) missions. Fast Fourier transforms and wavelet analysis were used to find these signals and investigate their characteristics further. We discuss our null results and the required steps forward to continue and improve this search. Future studies will require higher sensitivity instruments and would benefit from additional missions that reach into the lower ionosphere of Mars.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13T00:00:00Z
  • How Tycho Brahe’s recordings in 1572 support SN 1572 as a type I(a)

    • Authors: Tobias C. Hinse, Bertil F. Dorch, Lars V. T. Occhionero, Jakob P. Holck
      Abstract: The 450th anniversary of the discovery of the SN 1572 supernova event was celebrated in 2022. A closer look at the historical development of the field of supernova astronomy reveals the scientific importance of Tycho Brahe’s 1572 observations of this “new star.” In their quest to learn more about the new type of stellar explosion and subsequent evolution, the initial protagonists in this field (Baader and Zwicky among others) gradually turned their attention to the final remnant state of these supernova events. Since the remnant object thought to be associated with the extragalactic supernova event was found to be very dim, the focus quickly shifted toward nearby galactic events. It is at this point where Tycho Brahe’s observations played an important and often overlooked role in the context of the development of stellar evolution as a scientific field. Tycho Brahe’s meticulous and detailed recordings of the change in brightness of the new star not only allowed modern astronomers to classify SN 1572 as a supernova event but also helped them pinpoint the exact astrometric location of SN 1572. These findings helped to empirically link extragalactic supernova events to nearby past supernova remnants in the Milky Way. This enabled subsequent observations allowing further characterization. Transforming the historical recordings to a standardized photometric system also allowed the classification of SN 1572 as a type I supernova event.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Exploring the impact of imaging cadence on inferring CME kinematics

    • Authors: Nitin Vashishtha, Satabdwa Majumdar, Ritesh Patel, Vaibhav Pant, Dipankar Banerjee
      Abstract: The kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are crucial for understanding their initiation mechanism and predicting their impact on Earth and other planets. With most of the acceleration and deceleration occurring below 4 R⊙, capturing this phase is vital to better understand their initiation mechanism. Furthermore, the kinematics of CMEs in the inner corona (
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Solitary wave characteristics on the fine structure of the mesospheric
           sporadic sodium layer

    • Authors: Shican Qiu, Mengxi Shi, Hamad Yousof, Willie Soon, Mingjiao Jia, Xianghui Xue, Tao Li, Peng Ju, Xiankang Dou
      Abstract: The so-called sporadic sodium layers (SSLs or NaS) are proposed to be strongly related to wave fluctuations. The solitary wave is a particular solution of the partial differential equation whose energy travels as a localized wave packet. A soliton, on the other hand, is a special type of solitary wave that exhibits a particle-like behavior with a strong stable form. For the first time, the solitary wave theory has been used in this research to study the fine structure of SSL/NaS. We performed soliton fitting processes on the observed data from the Andes Lidar Observatory and found out that 24/27 NaS events had exhibited similar features/characteristics to a soliton. Time series of the net anomaly of the NaS revealed the same variation process to the solution of a generalized five-order KdV equation. Our results, therefore, suggested that the NaS phenomenon would be a pertinent tracer for non-linear wave studies in the atmosphere.
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T00:00:00Z
  • Evaluating the performance of empirical models of total electron density
           and whistler-mode wave amplitude in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere

    • Authors: Qianli Ma, Xiangning Chu, Donglai Ma, Sheng Huang, Wen Li, Jacob Bortnik, Xiao-Chen Shen
      Abstract: Empirical models have been previously developed using the large dataset of satellite observations to obtain the global distributions of total electron density and whistler-mode wave power, which are important in modeling radiation belt dynamics. In this paper, we apply the empirical models to construct the total electron density and the wave amplitudes of chorus and hiss, and compare them with the observations along Van Allen Probes orbits to evaluate the model performance. The empirical models are constructed using the Hp30 and SME (or SML) indices. The total electron density model provides an overall high correlation coefficient with observations, while large deviations are found in the dynamic regions near the plasmapause or in the plumes. The chorus wave model generally agrees with observations when the plasma trough region is correctly modeled and for modest wave amplitudes of 10–100 pT. The model overestimates the wave amplitude when the chorus is not observed or weak, and underestimates the wave amplitude when a large-amplitude chorus is observed. Similarly, the hiss wave model has good performance inside the plasmasphere when modest wave amplitudes are observed. However, when the modeled plasmapause location does not agree with the observation, the model misidentifies the chorus and hiss waves compared to observations, and large modeling errors occur. In addition, strong (>200 pT) hiss waves are observed in the plumes, which are difficult to capture using the empirical model due to their transient nature and relatively poor sampling statistics. We also evaluate four metrics for different empirical models parameterized by different indices. Among the tested models, the empirical model considering a plasmapause and controlled by Hp* (the maximum Hp30 during the previous 24 h) and SME* (the maximum SME during the previous 3 h) or Hp* and SML has the best performance with low errors and high correlation coefficients. Our study indicates that the empirical models are applicable for predicting density and whistler-mode waves with modest power, but large errors could occur, especially near the highly-dynamic plasmapause or in the plumes.
      PubDate: 2023-09-11T00:00:00Z
  • Nuclear data for space exploration

    • Authors: Michael S. Smith, Ramona L. Vogt, Kenneth A. LaBel
      Abstract: Understanding the harmful effects of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) on space exploration requires a substantial amount of nuclear data. Specifically, the interaction of energetic GCR charged particles with spacecraft materials generates secondary radiations that, through energy deposition, can harm astronauts and electronic systems. By identifying the gaps in our knowledge of the relevant nuclear data—such as interaction cross sections—and identifying ways to fill those gaps—with measurements, compilations, evaluations, dissemination, reaction modeling, sensitivity studies, and uncertainty quantification—the safety and viability of space exploration can be improved. This work surveys the state of the art in this interdisciplinary field and identifies promising collaborative research topics that have significant potential to advance our understanding of the effects of the space radiation environment on space exploration.
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T00:00:00Z
  • The reaction rate of radiative n8Li capture in the range from 0.01 to 10

    • Authors: S. B. Dubovichenko, B. M. Yeleusheva, N. A. Burkova, A. S. Tkachenko
      Abstract: Within the modified potential cluster model (MPCM) with forbidden states, the total cross sections are calculated for capture in the ground and first excited states of the 9Li nucleus in the n8Li channel in the energy range from 10−5 eV to 5 MeV based on Е1 and M1 transitions. The experimentally proved resonance at Ec.m. = 0.232 MeV in the 4P5/2 wave and ab initio-predicted 4P3/2 resonance at 1.32 MeV [Phys. Rev. C 103, 035801 (2021)] are considered. The strong impact of the asymptotic constant and channel spectroscopic factors on the total capture cross sections are responsible for the variation in the absolute values within factor two. As a consequence, the thermal cross sections are σtherm= 24–46.8 mb. The evaluation of σtherm based on the extrapolation of ab initio cross sections yields ∼85 mb. The reaction rate is calculated in the temperature range from 0.01 to 10 T9. The reported reaction rates are compared at the benchmark point 1 T9. The comparison of two datasets [Phys. Rev. C 103, 035801 (2021) and Phys. Rev. C 105, 064608 (2022)] on reaction rates recently calculated in microscopic models in extended temperature intervals shows the essential quantitative and qualitative differences. The comparative joint analysis of the reaction rates of radiative neutron capture on the lithium isotopes 6,7,8Li is suggested for the choice of an optimal interval for the asymptotic constants.
      PubDate: 2023-09-01T00:00:00Z
  • Review and outlook of solar energetic particle measurements on
           multispacecraft missions

    • Authors: Donald V. Reames
      Abstract: The earliest evidence of spatial distributions of solar energetic particles (SEPs) compared events from many different source longitudes on the Sun, but the early Pioneers provided the first evidence of the large areas of equal SEP intensities across the magnetically confined “reservoirs” late in the events. More detailed measurements of the importance of self-generated waves and trapping structures around the shock waves that accelerate SEPs were obtained from the Helios mission plus IMP 8, especially during the year when the two Voyager spacecraft also happened by. The extent of the dozen widest SEP events in a solar cycle, which effectively wrap around the Sun, was revealed by the widely separated STEREO spacecraft with three-point intensities fit to Gaussians. Element abundances of the broadest SEP events favor average coronal element abundances with little evidence of heavy-element-enhanced “impulsive suprathermal” ions that often dominate the seed population of the shocks, even in extremely energetic local events. However, it is hard to define a distribution with two or three points. Advancing the physics of SEPs may require a return to the closer spacing of the Helios era with coverage mapped by a half-dozen spacecraft to help disentangle the distribution of the SEPs from the underlying structure of the magnetic field and the accelerating shock.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T00:00:00Z
  • Prospect for measurements of (γ, n) reaction cross-sections of
           p-nuclei at ELI-NP

    • Authors: P.-A. Söderström, A. Kuşoğlu, D. Testov
      Abstract: The gamma beam system under construction at the ELI-NP facility in Romania is projected to give the nuclear physics community access to an experimental system providing a high-intensity, narrow bandwidth photon beam at variable energy. With high-efficiency detector systems in place, the experimental programme will have a strong potential for in-depth studies of rare stable isotopes originating from the astrophysical p-process. In particular, the neutron detection systems are already implemented through a dedicated 3He long neutron counter array, called ELIGANT-TN, that is completed and in use. In this mini-review, we will give a summary of the current status of existing (γ, n) cross-section data, as well as the methods to obtain them, and highlight the future potential to expand and improve such data using the ELI-NP instrumentation and beam-lines.
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T00:00:00Z
  • Challenges and interpersonal dynamics during a two-person lunar analogue
           Arctic mission

    • Authors: Pedro Marques-Quinteiro, Andres Käosaar, Paola Barros Delben, Anders Kjærgaard, Gloria R. Leon
      Abstract: Introduction: This case study was designed as an analog for aspects of NASA’s planned Artemis missions to the lunar surface. The specific aims were to examine emerged mission challenges and dyadic affective and process dynamics over the course of a three-month lunar habitat analog Arctic mission.Methods: Participants were two men who also had key roles in designing the habitat. Pre- and post- expedition interviews were conducted and daily satellite phone messages to mission control over the three-month mission were assessed. An integrated mixed methods approach was used to analyze challenges, group affect, and group processes, with the goal of furthering the understanding of coping and psychosocial work experiences in challenging conditions.Results: The findings indicated that different challenges took distinct temporal trajectories across mission phases; based on the relational themes, several challenges were identified, primarily physical challenges related to the experience of coping in an ICE environment, and psychosocial challenges associated with the preparation and execution of mission tasks. Physical challenges, positive tone, and action processes were the themes most connected to each other. To deal with these challenges, the team adapted by more frequently engaging in action and transition processes. The specific training for the mission the participants engaged in, and prior knowledge about each other enabled team members to deal with mission exigencies while maintaining a positive outlook.Discussion: Fostering strong positive relationships was an important mechanism to build resilience and effective performance while under ongoing, extreme conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T00:00:00Z
  • A system science methodology develops a new composite highly predictable
           index of magnetospheric activity for the community: the whole-Earth index

    • Authors: Joseph E. Borovsky, Christian J. Lao
      Abstract: For community use, a new composite whole-Earth index E(1) and its matching composite solar wind driving function S(1) are derived. A system science methodology is used based on a time-dependent magnetospheric state vector and a solar wind state vector, with canonical correlation analysis (CCA) used to reduce the two state vectors to the two time-dependent scalars E(1)(t) and S(1)(t). The whole-Earth index E(1) is based on a diversity of measures via six diverse geomagnetic indices that will be readily available in the future: SML, SMU, Ap60, SYMH, ASYM, and PCC. The CCA-derived composite index has several advantages: 1) the new “canonical” geomagnetic index E(1) will provide a more powerful description of magnetospheric activity, a description of the collective behavior of the magnetosphere–ionosphere system. 2) The new index E(1) is much more accurately predictable from upstream solar wind measurements on Earth. 3) Indications are that the new canonical geomagnetic index E(1) will be accurately predictable even when as-yet-unseen extreme solar wind conditions occur. The composite solar wind driver S(1) can also be used as a universal driver function for individual geomagnetic indices or for magnetospheric particle populations. To familiarize the use of the new index E(1), its behavior is examined in different phases of the solar cycle, in different types of solar wind plasma, during high-speed stream-driven storms, during CME sheath-driven storms, and during superstorms. It is suggested that the definition of storms are the times when E(1)>1.
      PubDate: 2023-08-28T00:00:00Z
  • The importance of recruitment and retention in Heliophysics: it’s
           not just a pipeline problem

    • Authors: Alexa J. Halford, Christopher M. Bard, Angeline G. Burrell, Ryan M. McGranaghan, Lynn B. Wilson III, McArthur Jones, Chuanfei Dong, Liang Wang, Tuija I. Pulkkinen, Niescja Turner, Michael W. Liemohn, Jeff Klenzing
      Abstract: A major obstacle in cultivating a robust Heliophysics (and broader scientific) community is the lack of diversity throughout science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. For many years, this has been understood as a “leaky pipeline” analogy, in which predominately minority students initially interested in STEM gradually fall (or are pushed) out of the field on their way to a scientific research position. However, this ignores critical structural and policy issues which drive even later career Ph.D.s out of a career in Heliophysics. We identify here several systemic problems that inhibit many from participating fully in the Heliophysics community, including soft money pressure, lack of accessibility and equity, power imbalances, lack of accountability, friction in collaboration, and difficulties in forming mentorship bonds. We present several recommendations to empower research-supporting organizations to help create a culture of inclusion, openness, and innovative science.
      PubDate: 2023-08-25T00:00:00Z
  • Equatorial plasma bubbles features over the Brazilian sector according to
           the solar cycle and geomagnetic activity level

    • Authors: C. S. Carmo, L. Dai, C. M. Denardini, C. A. O. B. Figueiredo, C. M. Wrasse, L. C. A. Resende, D. Barros, J. Moro, S. S. Chen, G. A. S. Picanço, R. P. Silva, C. Wang, H. Li, Z. Liu
      Abstract: Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) can lead to signal degradation, affecting the measurement accuracy. Studying EPBs and their characteristics has gained increasing importance. The characteristics of EPBs were investigated using the rate of total electron content (TEC) index (ROTI) maps under different solar and magnetic activity conditions during two periods: July 2014–July 2015 (solar maximum activity with F10.7: 145.9 × 10−22 W⋅m−2⋅Hz−1) and July 2019–July 2020 (solar minimum activity with F10.7: 69.7 × 10−22 W⋅m−2⋅Hz−1). We also divided this analysis according to the magnetic activity levels based on Kp and Dst (disturbance storm time) indices, classified as follows: quiet+ (Kp ≤3 and Dst>−30 nT), quiet− (Kp ≤3 and Dst
      PubDate: 2023-08-24T00:00:00Z
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