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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 121 journals)
Showing 1 - 30 of 30 Journals sorted by number of followers
AIAA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1188)
SpaceNews     Free   (Followers: 826)
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 772)
Journal of Propulsion and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 609)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 493)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 458)
Aviation Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 436)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 428)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314)
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 278)
Journal of Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Gyroscopy and Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Space Science International     Open Access   (Followers: 198)
Space Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Space Safety Magazine     Free   (Followers: 51)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
CEAS Aeronautical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Russian Aeronautics (Iz VUZ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Artificial Satellites     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Aerospace Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annual of Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Aerospace Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Space Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aviation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Space Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Fatigue of Aircraft Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Satellite Communications Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aeronautical Journal, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Airline and Airport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Elsevier Astrodynamics Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Air Force Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
COSPAR Colloquia Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Space Technology Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aviation in Focus - Journal of Aeronautical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Aeronautical Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Astronautical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Population Space and Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Air Medical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Space Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Aviation Technology, Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the American Helicopter Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
RocketSTEM     Free   (Followers: 6)
New Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Turbo and Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aviation Advances & Maintenance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cosmic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Aviation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Civil Aviation High Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Space and Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio : Journal of Aerospace Science, Technologies & Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Astrodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spatial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aerospace technic and technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
npj Microgravity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Problemy Mechatroniki. Uzbrojenie, lotnictwo, inżynieria bezpieczeństwa / Problems of Mechatronics. Armament, Aviation, Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microgravity Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
MAD - Magazine of Aviation Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Journal on Miniaturization for Air and Space Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Вісник Національного Авіаційного Університету     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Poder Aéreo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Aerospace Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technical Soaring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Spatial Information Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mekanika : Jurnal Teknik Mesin i     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists i     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-987X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Radio Astronomical Tools for the Study of Solar Energetic Particles
           II.Time-Extended Acceleration at Subrelativistic and Relativistic Energies
           

    • Authors: Karl-Ludwig Klein
      Abstract: Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are commonly separated in two categories: numerous “impulsive” events of relatively short duration, and a few “gradual” events, where SEP-intensities may stay enhanced over several days at energies up to several tens of MeV. In some gradual events the SEP spectrum extends to relativistic energies (>1 GeV), over shorter durations. The two categories are strongly related to an idea developed in the 1960s based on radio observations: Type III bursts, which were addressed in a companion chapter, outline impulsive acceleration of electrons to subrelativistic energies, while the large and the relativistic SEP events were ascribed to a second acceleration process. At radio wavelengths, typical counterparts were bursts emitted by electrons accelerated at coronal shock waves (type II bursts) and by electron populations in large-scale closed coronal structures (type IV bursts). Both burst types are related to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Type II bursts from metric to kilometric wavelengths tend to accompany large SEP events, which is widely considered as a confirmation that CME-driven shocks accelerate the SEPs. But type II bursts, especially those related to SEP events, are most often accompanied by type IV bursts, where the electrons are rather accelerated in the wake of the CME. Individual event studies suggest that although the CME shock is the most plausible accelerator of SEPs up to some yet unknown limiting energy, the relativistic SEP events show time structure that rather points to coronal acceleration related to type IV bursts. This chapter addresses the question what type II bursts tell us about coronal shock waves and how type II and type IV radio bursts are related with relativistic proton signatures as seen by particle detectors on the Earth and by their gamma-ray emission in the solar atmosphere, focusing on two relativistic SEP events, on 2005 Jan 20 and 2017 Sep 10. The importance of radio emissions as a complement to the upcoming SEP observations from close to the Sun is underlined.
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • Machine Learning Applications to Kronian Magnetospheric Reconnection
           Classification

    • Authors: Tadhg M. Garton, Caitriona M. Jackman, Andrew W. Smith, Kiley L. Yeakel, Shane A. Maloney, Jon Vandegriff
      Abstract: The products of magnetic reconnection in Saturn’s magnetotail are identified in magnetometer observations primarily through characteristic deviations in the north–south component of the magnetic field. These magnetic deflections are caused by traveling plasma structures created during reconnection rapidly passing over the observing spacecraft. Identification of these signatures have long been performed by eye, and more recently through semi-automated methods, however these methods are often limited through a required human verification step. Here, we present a fully automated, supervised learning, feed forward neural network model to identify evidence of reconnection in the Kronian magnetosphere with the three magnetic field components observed by the Cassini spacecraft in Kronocentric radial–theta–phi coordinates as input. This model is constructed from a catalog of reconnection events which covers three years of observations with a total of 2093 classified events, categorized into plasmoids, traveling compression regions and dipolarizations. This neural network model is capable of rapidly identifying reconnection events in large time-span Cassini datasets, tested against the full year 2010 with a high level of accuracy (87%), true skill score (0.76), and Heidke skill score (0.73). From this model, a full cataloging and examination of magnetic reconnection events in the Kronian magnetosphere across Cassini's near Saturn lifetime is now possible.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Light Elements in the Universe

    • Authors: Sofia Randich, Laura Magrini
      Abstract: Due to their production sites, as well as to how they are processed and destroyed in stars, the light elements are excellent tools to investigate a number of crucial issues in modern astrophysics: from stellar structure and non-standard processes at work in stellar interiors to age dating of stars; from pre-main sequence evolution to the star formation histories of young clusters and associations and to multiple populations in globular clusters; from Big Bang nucleosynthesis to the formation and chemical enrichment history of the Milky Way Galaxy and its populations, just to cite some relevant examples. In this paper, we focus on lithium, beryllium, and boron (LiBeB) and on carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (CNO). LiBeB are rare elements, with negligible abundances with respect to hydrogen; on the contrary, CNO are among the most abundant elements in the Universe, after H and He. Pioneering observations of light-element surface abundances in stars started almost 70 years ago and huge progress has been achieved since then. Indeed, for different reasons, precise measurements of LiBeB and CNO are difficult, even in our Sun; however, the advent of state-of-the-art ground- and space-based instrumentation has allowed the determination of high-quality abundances in stars of different type, belonging to different Galactic populations, from metal-poor halo stars to young stars in the solar vicinity and from massive stars to cool dwarfs and giants. Noticeably, the recent large spectroscopic surveys performed with multifiber spectrographs have yielded detailed and homogeneous information on the abundances of Li and CNO for statistically significant samples of stars; this has allowed us to obtain new results and insights and, at the same time, raise new questions and challenges. A complete understanding of the light-element patterns and evolution in the Universe has not been still achieved. Perspectives for further progress will open up soon thanks to the new generation instrumentation that is under development and will come online in the coming years.
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Pathways to Detection of Strongly-Bound Inorganic Species: The Vibrational
           and Rotational Spectral Data of AlH2OH, HMgOH, AlH2NH2, and HMgNH2

    • Authors: Alexandria G. Watrous, Megan C. Davis, Ryan C. Fortenberry
      Abstract: Small, inorganic hydrides are likely hiding in plain sight, waiting to be detected toward various astronomical objects. AlH2OH can form in the gas phase via a downhill pathway, and the present, high-level quantum chemical study shows that this molecule exhibits bright infrared features for anharmonic fundamentals in regions above and below that associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. AlH2OH along with HMgOH, HMgNH2, and AlH2NH2 are also polar with AlH2OH having a 1.22 D dipole moment. AlH2OH and likely HMgOH have nearly unhindered motion of the hydroxyl group but are still strongly bonded. This could assist in gas phase synthesis, where aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide minerals likely begin their formation stages with AlH2OH and HMgOH. This work provides the spectral data necessary to classify these molecules such that observations as to the buildup of nanoclusters from small molecules can possibly be confirmed.
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Study of Key Reactions Shaping the Post-Main Sequence Evolution of
           Massive Stars in Underground Facilities

    • Authors: F. Ferraro, G. F. Ciani, A. Boeltzig, F. Cavanna, S. Zavatarelli
      Abstract: The chemical evolution of the Universe and several phases of stellar life are regulated by minute nuclear reactions. The key point for each of these reactions is the value of cross-sections at the energies at which they take place in stellar environments. Direct cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and by cosmic background; nevertheless, they have become possible by combining the best experimental techniques with the cosmic silence of an underground laboratory. In the nineties, the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) collaboration opened the era of underground nuclear astrophysics, installing first a homemade 50 kV and, later on, a second 400 kV accelerator under the Gran Sasso mountain in Italy: in 25 years of experimental activity, important reactions responsible for hydrogen burning could have been studied down to the relevant energies thanks to the high current proton and helium beams provided by the machines. The interest in the next and warmer stages of star evolution (i.e., post-main sequence and helium and carbon burning) drove a new project based on an ion accelerator in the MV range called LUNA-MV, able to deliver proton, helium, and carbon beams. The present contribution is aimed to discuss the state of the art for some selected key processes of post-main sequence stellar phases: 12C(α,γ)16O and 12C+12C are fundamental for helium and carbon burning phases, and 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg are relevant to the synthesis of heavy elements in AGB stars. The perspectives opened by an underground MV facility will be highlighted.
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • The NASA High-Resolution Speckle Interferometric Imaging Program:
           Validation and Characterization of Exoplanets and Their Stellar Hosts

    • Authors: Steve B. Howell, Nicholas J. Scott, Rachel A. Matson, Mark E. Everett, Elise Furlan, Crystal L. Gnilka, David R. Ciardi, Kathryn V. Lester
      Abstract: Starting in 2008, NASA has provided the exoplanet community an observational program aimed at obtaining the highest resolution imaging available as part of its mission to validate and characterize exoplanets, as well as their stellar environments, in search of life in the Universe. Our current program uses speckle interferometry in the optical (320–1,000 nm) with new instruments on the 3.5-m WIYN and both 8-m Gemini telescopes. Starting with Kepler and K2 follow-up, we now support TESS and other space- and ground-based exoplanet related discovery and characterization projects. The importance of high-resolution imaging for exoplanet research comes via identification of nearby stellar companions that can dilute the transit signal and confound derived exoplanet and stellar parameters. Our observations therefore provide crucial information allowing accurate planet and stellar properties to be determined. Our community program obtains high-resolution imagery, reduces the data, and provides all final data products, without any exclusive use period, to the community via the Exoplanet Follow-Up Observation Program (ExoFOP) website maintained by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. This paper describes the need for high-resolution imaging and gives details of the speckle imaging program, highlighting some of the major scientific discoveries made along the way.
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Exploring the Properties of the Electron Strahl at 1 AU as an Indicator of
           the Quality of the Magnetic Connection Between the Earth and the Sun

    • Authors: Joseph E. Borovsky
      Abstract: In this report some properties of the electron strahl at 1 AU are examined to assess the strahl at 272 eV as an indicator of the quality of the magnetic connection of the near-Earth solar wind to the Sun. The absence of a strahl has been taken to represent either a lack of magnetic connection to the corona or the strahl not surviving to 1 AU owing to scattering. Solar-energetic-electron (SEE) events can be used as indicators of good magnetic connection: examination of 216 impulsive SEE events finds that they are all characterized by strong strahls. The strahl intensity at 1 AU is statistically examined for various types of solar-wind plasma: it is found that the strahl is characteristically weak in sector-reversal-region plasma. In sector-reversal-region plasma and other slow wind, temporal changes in the strahl intensity at 1 AU are examined with 64 s resolution measurements and the statistical relationships of strahl changes to simultaneous plasma-property changes are established. The strahl-intensity changes are co-located with current sheets (directional discontinuities) with strong changes in the magnetic-field direction. The strahl-intensity changes at 1 AU are positively correlated with changes in the proton specific entropy, the proton temperature, and the magnetic-field strength; the strahl-intensity changes are anti-correlated with changes in the proton number density, the angle of the magnetic field with respect to the Parker-spiral direction, and the alpha-to-proton number-density ratio. Reductions in the strahl intensity are not consistent with expectations for a simple model of whistler-turbulence scattering. Reductions in the strahl intensity are mildly consistent with expectations for Coulomb scattering, however the strongest-observed plasma-change correlations are unrelated to Coulomb scattering and whistler scattering. The implications of the strahl-intensity-change analysis are that the change in the magnetic-field direction at a strahl change represents a change in the magnetic connection to the corona, resulting in a different strahl intensity and different plasma properties. An outstanding question is: Does an absence of an electron strahl represent a magnetic disconnection from the Sun or a poor strahl source in some region of the corona'
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Astrobiology of Mars, Europa, Titan and Enceladus - Most Likely
           Places for Alien Life

    • Authors: Isik Kanik, Jean-Pierre Paul de Vera
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Relevance of Nuclear Reactions for Standard Solar Models Construction

    • Authors: Francesco L. Villante, Aldo Serenelli
      Abstract: The fundamental processes by which nuclear energy is generated in the Sun have been known for many years. However, continuous progress in areas such as neutrino experiments, stellar spectroscopy and helioseismic data and techniques requires ever more accurate and precise determination of nuclear reaction cross sections, a fundamental physical input for solar models. In this work, we review the current status of (standard) solar models and present a complete discussion on the relevance of nuclear reactions for detailed predictions of solar properties. In addition, we also provide an analytical model that helps understanding the relation between nuclear cross sections, neutrino fluxes and the possibility they offer for determining physical characteristics of the solar interior. The latter is of particular relevance in the context of the conundrum posed by the solar composition, the solar abundance problem, and in the light of the first ever direct detection of solar CN neutrinos recently obtained by the Borexino collaboration. Finally, we present a short list of wishes about the precision with which nuclear reaction rates should be determined to allow for further progress in our understanding of the Sun.
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effects of Latitude-Dependent Gravity Wave Source Variations on the Middle
           and Upper Atmosphere

    • Authors: Erdal Yiğit, Alexander S. Medvedev, Manfred Ern
      Abstract: Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) are generated in the lower atmosphere by various weather phenomena. They propagate upward, carry energy and momentum to higher altitudes, and appreciably influence the general circulation upon depositing them in the middle and upper atmosphere. We use a three-dimensional first-principle general circulation model (GCM) with implemented nonlinear whole atmosphere GW parameterization to study the global climatology of wave activity and produced effects at altitudes up to the upper thermosphere. The numerical experiments were guided by the GW momentum fluxes and temperature variances as measured in 2010 by the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument onboard NASA’s TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics) satellite. This includes the latitudinal dependence and magnitude of GW activity in the lower stratosphere for the boreal summer season. The modeling results were compared to the SABER temperature and total absolute momentum flux and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Simulations suggest that, in order to reproduce the observed circulation and wave activity in the middle atmosphere, GW fluxes that are smaller than observed fluxes have to be used at the source level in the lower atmosphere. This is because observations contain a broader spectrum of GWs, while parameterizations capture only a portion relevant to the middle and upper atmosphere dynamics. Accounting for the latitudinal variations of the source appreciably improves simulations.
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T00:00:00Z
       
  • Primordial Fluctuations From Quantum Gravity

    • Authors: Francesco Gozzini, Francesca Vidotto
      Abstract: We study the fluctuations and the correlations between spatial regions generated in the primordial quantum gravitational era of the universe. We point out that these can be computed using the Lorentzian dynamics defined by the Loop Quantum Gravity amplitudes. We evaluate these amplitudes numerically in the deep quantum regime. Surprisingly, we find large fluctuations and strong correlations, although not maximal. This suggests the possibility that early quantum gravity effects might be sufficient to account for structure formation and solve the cosmological horizon problem.
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Black Hole Science With the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

    • Authors: Alberto Sesana
      Abstract: The author reviews the scientific potential of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a space-borne gravitational wave (GW) observatory to be launched in the early 30s. Thanks to its sensitivity in the milli-Hz frequency range, LISA will reveal a variety of GW sources across the Universe, from our Solar neighborhood potentially all the way back to the Big Bang, promising to be a game changer in our understanding of astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. This review dives in the LISA Universe, with a specific focus on black hole science, including the formation and evolution of massive black holes in galaxy centers, the dynamics of dense nuclei and formation of extreme mass ratio inspirals, and the astrophysics of stellar-origin black hole binaries.
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Is Our Understanding of Solar-Wind/Magnetosphere Coupling
           Satisfactory'

    • Authors: Joseph E. Borovsky
      Abstract: An assessment of our physics-based understanding of solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling finds that the understanding is not complete. Solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling is foundational to magnetospheric physics and it is a key to comprehending and predicting space weather. We are modestly successful at correlating solar-wind variables with geomagnetic indices, but we lack the full knowledge to describe in detail how the shocked solar-wind plasma transports mass, momentum, and energy into the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and how the shocked solar wind drives geomagnetic activity and magnetospheric evolution. The controlling solar-wind factors that govern the driving of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are not accurately known. Without this knowledge accurate predictions of the magnetospheric behavior cannot be made and no magnetosphere-ionosphere model will work correctly if it is driven incorrectly. Further, without a fundamental understanding, the prediction of the system reaction to some as-yet-unseen extreme solar-wind conditions will not be possible. In this perspective article several gaps in our knowledge are cataloged. The deficiencies in our physical understanding of solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling constitute a major unsolved problem for space physics (and for astrophysics), a problem that demands enhanced, coordinated research.
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • RR Lyrae Stars as Seen by the Kepler Space Telescope

    • Authors: Emese Plachy, Róbert Szabó
      Abstract: The unprecedented photometric precision along with the quasi-continuous sampling provided by the Kepler space telescope revealed new and unpredicted phenomena that reformed and invigorated RR Lyrae star research. The discovery of period doubling and the wealth of low-amplitude modes enlightened the complexity of the pulsation behavior and guided us toward nonlinear and nonradial studies. Searching and providing theoretical explanation for these newly found phenomena became a central question, as well as understanding their connection to the oldest enigma of RR Lyrae stars, the Blazhko effect. We attempt to summarize the highest impact RR Lyrae results based on or inspired by the data of the Kepler space telescope both from the nominal and from the K2 missions. Besides the three most intriguing topics, the period doubling, the low-amplitude modes, and the Blazhko effect, we also discuss the challenges of Kepler photometry that played a crucial role in the results. The secrets of these amazing variables, uncovered by Kepler, keep the theoretical, ground-based, and space-based research inspired in the post-Kepler era, since light variation of RR Lyrae stars is still not completely understood.
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Low Mass Stars or Intermediate Mass Stars' The Stellar Origin of
           Presolar Oxide Grains Revealed by Their Isotopic Composition

    • Authors: S. Palmerini, S. Cristallo, M. Busso, M. La Cognata, M. L. Sergi, D. Vescovi
      Abstract: Among presolar grains, oxide ones are made of oxygen, aluminum, and a small fraction of magnesium, produced by the 26Al decay. The largest part of presolar oxide grains belong to the so-called group 1 and 2, which have been suggested to form in Red Giant Branch (RGB) and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, respectively. However, standard stellar nucleosynthesis models cannot account for the 17O/16O, 18O/16O, and 26Al/27Al values recorded in those grains. Hence, for more than 20 years, the occurrence of mixing phenomena coupled with stellar nucleosynthesis have been suggested to account for this peculiar isotopic mix. Nowadays, models of massive AGB stars experiencing Hot Bottom Burning or low mass AGB stars where Cool Bottom Process, or another kind of extra-mixing, is at play, nicely fit the oxygen isotopic mix of group 2 oxide grains. The largest values of the 26Al/27Al ratio seem somewhat more difficult to account for.
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Radio Astronomical Tools for the Study of Solar Energetic Particles I.
           Correlations and Diagnostics of Impulsive Acceleration and Particle
           Propagation

    • Authors: Karl-Ludwig Klein
      Abstract: Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are sporadically ejected from the Sun during flares and coronal mass ejections. They are of major astrophysical interest, because the proximity of the Sun allows for detailed multi-messenger studies. They affect space weather due to interactions with electronics, with the Earth’s atmosphere, and with humans if they leave the protective shield of the magnetosphere of the Earth. Since early studies in the 1950s, starting with particle detectors on the ground, SEP events have been related to radio bursts. Two subjects are addressed in this chapter: attempts to establish quantitative correlations between SEPs and microwave bursts produced by gyro synchrotron radiation of mildly relativistic electrons, and the information derived from type III radio bursts on impulsive processes of particle acceleration and the coronal and interplanetary propagation. Type III radio bursts produced by electron beams on open magnetic field lines have a wide range of applications, including the identification of acceleration regions, the identification of confined particle acceleration with coronal signatures, but no SEPs, and the paths that the electrons, and energetic charged particles in general, take to travel from the low corona to the Heliosphere in case they escape. Simple scenarios of coronal particle acceleration are confirmed in relatively simple and short events. But the comparison with particle transport models shows that longer and delayed acceleration episodes exist especially in large SEP events. They will be discussed in a companion chapter.
      PubDate: 2021-02-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Investigating the Origin of the First Ionization Potential Effect With a
           Shell Turbulence Model

    • Authors: Victor Réville, Alexis P. Rouillard, Marco Velli, Andrea Verdini, Éric Buchlin, Michael Lavarra, Nicolas Poirier
      Abstract: The enrichment of coronal loops and the slow solar wind with elements that have low First Ionization Potential, known as the FIP effect, has often been interpreted as the tracer of a common origin. A current explanation for this FIP fractionation rests on the influence of ponderomotive forces and turbulent mixing acting at the top of the chromosphere. The implied wave transport and turbulence mechanisms are also key to wave-driven coronal heating and solar wind acceleration models. This work makes use of a shell turbulence model run on open and closed magnetic field lines of the solar corona to investigate with a unified approach the influence of magnetic topology, turbulence amplitude and dissipation on the FIP fractionation. We try in particular to assess whether there is a clear distinction between the FIP effect on closed and open field regions.
      PubDate: 2021-02-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Statistical Analysis of Magnetic Field Fluctuations in Coronal Mass
           Ejection-Driven Sheath Regions

    • Authors: E. K. J. Kilpua, S. W. Good, M. Ala-Lahti, A. Osmane, D. Fontaine, L. Hadid, M. Janvier, E. Yordanova
      Abstract: We report a statistical analysis of magnetic field fluctuations in 79 coronal mass ejection- (CME-) driven sheath regions that were observed in the near-Earth solar wind. Wind high-resolution magnetic field data were used to investigate 2 h regions adjacent to the shock and ejecta leading edge (Near-Shock and Near-LE regions, respectively), and the results were compared with a 2 h region upstream of the shock. The inertial-range spectral indices in the sheaths are found to be mostly steeper than the Kolmogorov −5/3 index and steeper than in the solar wind ahead. We did not find indications of an f−1 spectrum, implying that magnetic fluctuation properties in CME sheaths differ significantly from planetary magnetosheaths and that CME-driven shocks do not reset the solar wind turbulence, as appears to happen downstream of planetary bow shocks. However, our study suggests that new compressible fluctuations are generated in the sheath for a wide variety of shock/upstream conditions. Fluctuation properties particularly differed between the Near-Shock region and the solar wind ahead. A strong positive correlation in the mean magnetic compressibility was found between the upstream and downstream regions, but the compressibility values in the sheaths were similar to those in the slow solar wind (
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics With the Light Elements Li, Be and B: A
           Review

    • Authors: G.G. Rapisarda, L. Lamia, A. Caciolli, Chengbo Li, S. Degl’Innocenti, R. Depalo, S. Palmerini, R.G. Pizzone, S. Romano, C. Spitaleri, E. Tognelli, Qungang Wen
      Abstract: Light elements offer a unique opportunity for studying several astrophysical scenarios from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis to stellar physics. Understanding the stellar abundances of light elements is key to obtaining information on internal stellar structures and mixing phenomena in different evolutionary phases, such as the pre-main-sequence, main-sequence or red-giant branch. In such a case, light elements, i.e., lithium, beryllium and boron, are usually burnt at temperatures of the order of 2–5 × 106 K. Consequently, the astrophysical S(E)-factor and the reaction rate of the nuclear reactions responsible for the burning of such elements must be measured and evaluated at ultra-low energies (between 0 and 10 keV). The Trojan Horse Method (THM) is an experimental technique that allows us to perform this kind of measurements avoiding uncertainties due to the extrapolation and electron screening effects on direct data. A long Trojan Horse Method research program has been devoted to the measurement of light element burning cross sections at astrophysical energies. In addition, dedicated direct measurements have been performed using both in-beam spectroscopy and the activation technique. In this review we will report the details of these experimental measurements and the results in terms of S(E)-factor, reaction rate and electron screening potential. A comparison between astrophysical reaction rates evaluated here and the literature will also be given.
      PubDate: 2021-02-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Plasma and Magnetic Field Turbulence in the Earth’s Magnetosheath at
           Ion Scales

    • Authors: Liudmila Rakhmanova, Maria Riazantseva, Georgy Zastenker
      Abstract: Crossing the Earth’s bow shock is known to crucially affect solar wind plasma including changes in turbulent cascade. The present review summarizes results of more than 15 years of experimental exploration into magnetosheath turbulence. Great contributions to understanding turbulence development inside the magnetosheath was made by means of recent multi-spacecraft missions. We introduce the main results provided by them together with first observations of the turbulent cascade based on direct plasma measurements by the Spektr-R spacecraft in the magnetosheath. Recent results on solar wind effects on turbulence in the magnetosheath are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-01-28T00:00:00Z
       
 
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