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  Subjects -> AERONAUTICS AND SPACE FLIGHT (Total: 124 journals)
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Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1541-9312
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Older Workers’ Perception of Exoskeletons and the Impacts on their
           Retirement Intentions

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      Authors: Yves Valentin, HeeSun Choi
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1-5, September 2022.
      Advancing worker assistive technology, such as exoskeletons, has been increasingly implemented in broad workplaces due to its potential to improve worker health and safety, as well as retain and increase productivity, especially among workers with limited physical capabilities and older workers. Exoskeletons available at physically demanding workplaces may enable older workers to have a positive outlook and motivation for their jobs, affecting their retirement attitudes. This study examined how industrial exoskeletons impact older workers’ retirement intentions. Results showed that older workers whose jobs involve physical demands are likely to have increased retirement age expectations and intentions to delay their retirements when knowing that exoskeletons are potentially available to assist them with their jobs. The findings suggest that worker assistive technology has the potential to improve older worker retention in the workforce and contribute to older adults’ health, safety, and well-being.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661346
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Structural Equation Model of Older Adults’ Driving Exposure and
           Avoidance Using Objective Driving Records

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      Authors: Dan Liang, Nathan Lau, Jon Antin
      Pages: 6 - 7
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 6-7, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661152
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Exploring the Use of Public Transportation Among Older Adults During
           COVID-19 Pandemic: A Pilot Study

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      Authors: Susan Summerville, Egbe-Etu Etu, Keertana Sureshbabu, Ankur Parmar, Gaojian Huang
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 8-12, September 2022.
      The COVID-19 pandemic affected many lives; however, adults 65 years and older experienced challenges such as limited mobility options, which may result in more age-related declines in perceptual, cognitive, and physical functioning. This pilot study aimed to explore how older adults living in the Bay Area, California, used and perceived public transportation during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey was conducted on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Sixteen respondents completed the survey, and the results showed that older adults who used public transportation more frequently were more concerned about contracting Coronavirus and that those with fewer transit barriers used mobile technology more often for transportation services. These findings may help transit agencies develop effective strategies to improve transportation services and increase policymakers’ awareness of older adults’ need for accessible public transportation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661340
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Dealing with Problematic Asymmetries in Caregiving Relationships: A Role
           for Social Robots'

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      Authors: Noah Zijie Qu, Kailyn Henderson, Jamy Li, Mark Chignell
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 13-17, September 2022.
      How can a third party (person or social robot) mitigate the negative aspects of the asymmetrical dyadic relationships associated with caregiving of the elderly' We start by examining the social-psychological structure of the relationship between givers and recipients of eldercare. We then identify problems that frequently occur and review interventions that have been used or proposed for dealing with those problems. Finally, we synthesize the results of our review in terms of recommendations for how and when social robots might be used as interventions in this context.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661292
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Initial Steps to Assemble a Home Monitoring Kit Prototype for
           Parkinson’s Disease: Applications of Design Heuristics and Formative
           Usability Testing with Young Participants

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      Authors: Noha Algahimi, Eileen Boswell, Bethany R. Lowndes
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 18-22, September 2022.
      Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) find it increasingly difficult to maintain consistency of clinic visits. Additionally, current methods of tracking symptoms between appointments are often incomplete or inaccurate due to variability of patient self-report. This research includes a needs assessment, application of design heuristics, and the completion of usability testing, to assemble a home monitoring kit prototype to track PD symptoms. Design needs for patients with PD include larger font size and simplicity to encourage and support user interactions during motor skill and eyesight decline. Five design heuristics were applied to the kit to guide necessary components and instructions for participants to log mobility and digital tapping test results through a mobile device. Usability testing with four young participants (not diagnosed with PD) revealed opportunities to improve instructions including the use of pictures. Future design iterations and usability testing will target participants with PD for interaction with all components.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661196
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Designing Feedback Visualizations for Anti-Hypertensive Medication
           Adherence for Older Adults

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      Authors: Qiong Nie, Daniel G. Morrow, Wendy A. Rogers
      Pages: 23 - 27
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 23-27, September 2022.
      Adhering to anti-hypertensive medications contributes to control of blood pressure and improved health outcomes. However, adherence rates among older adults are low. Patient monitoring of medication taking helps increase adherence and technology has great potential to support self-monitoring, in part by providing visual feedback about medication taking performance. However, little attention has been paid to designing feedback visualizations in medication-monitoring technology for older adults. In this research, we explored guidelines for designing understandable and effective adherence visualizations for older adults from existing theories and literature. With the guidelines in mind, we designed, refined, and evaluated visualizations that provided adherence feedback for a digital health system with 17 older participants, focusing on measures of comprehension, perceived effectiveness, and preferences. Based on theory and evidence, we identified design guidelines for feedback visualizations. These guidelines can support design of useful feedback visualizations that may improve medication adherence among older adults.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661076
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Attentional Considerations in Advanced Air Mobility Operations: Control,
           Manage, or Assist'

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      Authors: Tetsuya Sato, Michael S. Politowicz, Samia Islam, Eric T. Chancey, Yusuke Yamani
      Pages: 28 - 32
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 28-32, September 2022.
      The implementation of automation will enable Advanced Air Mobility (AAM), which could alter the human's responsibilities from those of an active controller to a passive monitor of vehicles. Mature AAM operations will likely rely on both experienced and novice operators to supervise multiple aircraft. As AAM constitutes a complex and increasingly autonomous system, the human operator's set of responsibilities will transition from those of a controller, to a manager, and eventually to an assistant to highly automated systems. The development of AAM will require system designers to characterize these three sets of human responsibilities. The present work proposes different human responsibilities across various roles (i.e., pilot in command, system operator, system assistant) in the context of AAM along with pertinent attention-related constructs that could contribute to each of the three identified roles of AAM operators including situation awareness, workload, complacency, and vigilance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661184
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Participant Characteristics in Human-in-the-Loop Studies with Multiple
           Unmanned Vehicles including Aircraft

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      Authors: Ellen J. Bass, Rachel Amey, Joseph Glavan, Tyler Read, Nisha Raghunath, Christopher Sanchez, Katie Silas, Tom Haritos, Julie A. Adams
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 33-37, September 2022.
      The characteristics that a supervisor of multiple autonomous and semi-autonomous systems should possess remain unclear. Determination of these qualities would support job performance as well as recruiting and training. To evaluate the human characteristics currently being considered by human-in-the-loop experiments, a review of the multiple remote vehicle supervision literature was conducted. The human characteristics addressed included: gender, domain relevant experience, working memory, supervisory relevant skills and abilities (e.g., visual skills, spatial ability, attentional control, vigilance), and traits related to multi-tasking (e.g., stress, resilience). The discussion identifies gaps in the current state of the art with respect to the consideration of human characteristics for multi-autonomous and semi-autonomous systems supervision where at least one vehicle is an aircraft.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661055
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Assessing Air Traffic Controllers’ Stress and Performance with Uav
           Integration in Future Air Traffic Management

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      Authors: Hui Wang, Andrew R. Dattel, Edward Mummert, Syaza Mohamad Haris
      Pages: 38 - 38
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 38-38, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661332
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Preliminary Validation of a Virtual UAM Vehicle and Simplified Cockpit
           Interface

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      Authors: Thomas Z. Strybel, Vernol Battiste, Panadda Marayong, Praveen Shankar, Jesus Viramontes, Hanson Nguyen, Justin Cheung
      Pages: 39 - 39
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 39-39, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661282
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Public Perception of UAM: Are we ready for the new mobility that we have
           dreamed of'

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      Authors: GeeBeum Park, HyunJae Park, HyunJoo Park, Nathan Chun, Sang-Hwan Kim, Kyungwon Lee
      Pages: 40 - 44
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 40-44, September 2022.
      Urban Air Mobility (UAM) has lately emerged as a time-saving mode of air transportation in congested urban areas. However, several challenges to the commercialization and adoption of UAM vehicles exist, such as licensing and restrictions, security, and construction infrastructure. Besides these, public perception is one of the significant aspects of easing psychological stress and representing users’ needs. A survey study was carried out to understand the public perception of UAM and to comprehend how the public perceives and expects UAM aircraft in terms of user requirement analysis as part of human-centered design. To achieve this, a total of 2,847 valid data sets were analyzed. A preliminary data analysis revealed the general level of awareness of UAM machines, expected costs and values for specific scenarios, perceived advantages of UAM vehicles, and overall opinion, along with distinctions based on demographic information such as age groups, residential areas, and income levels. Future research topics might include in-depth data analysis and subsequent user surveys to discover underlying requirements.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661187
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Development of a Task-Design Framework for Quantifying Crew Performance

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      Authors: Michael Zero, David Klaus, Katya Arquilla, Mark Shelhamer, Christine Fanchiang
      Pages: 45 - 49
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 45-49, September 2022.
      This investigation proposes a Task-Design Framework, which describes the relationship between human capabilities, the task design, and their performance. Validating such a framework, however, remains a challenge. With recent advances in wearable technologies, biometric sensors are now widely available, easy to use and fairly unobtrusive. These sensors provide an opportunity to measure and monitor a subset of astronaut health and performance indicators non-invasively. This work is aimed at systematically identifying a process that could be used to validate the task-design framework through a series of experimental task scenarios where task performance is tracked with measures such as speed and accuracy of task execution as well as changes to human capabilities using biometric sensing as an inference for task performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661359
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Measuring Adaptive Team Coordination in an Enroute Care Training Scenario

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      Authors: David A.P. Grimm, Jamie C. Gorman, Eric Robinson, Jennifer Winner
      Pages: 50 - 54
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 50-54, September 2022.
      Teams must adapt and coordinate in high-stress environments in response to challenging situations. Communication is vital to coordination and can provide insights into effective team adaptation. We analyzed communication speaker data, consisting of a physician, nurse, and respiratory therapist, from a critical care simulation. We analyzed speaker flow data and quantified continuous reorganization of team communication states using entropy, which measures variety, and determinism, which measures repeatability of patterns. Using Ashby’s law of requisite variety, we hypothesized that higher performance would be correlated with greater variety: higher entropy and lower determinism. We further hypothesized that relationships would be stronger during times containing perturbations than during times without perturbations. Results supported the first hypothesis, effectiveness was correlated with greater communication variety. The correlation was numerically larger for perturbation segments, but the difference from non-perturbation segments was not statistically significant. We discuss potential applications and implications for dynamic measures of team effectiveness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661074
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Using Speech Act Theory to Apply Automated Communications Analysis to
           Distributed Sensemaking

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      Authors: Chris Baber, Andrew Leggett, Simon Attfield, Emmeline Elliott
      Pages: 55 - 59
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 55-59, September 2022.
      In this paper, computational linguistics is applied to define and capture Speech Acts in distributed sensemaking in a military map-exercise. The exercise was performed by teams of three participants playing the role of Company Commanders (assisted by a team of confederates) using either text-only or a combination of voice and text communications, using either basic or elaborated reporting formats. Analysis of communications was performed in terms of network structure (i.e., who spoke with whom), topics (derived, using Latent Dirichlet Allocation, from all communications and from the speech of the Commanders), and speech acts reveals differences between conditions. It is proposed that the ‘topics’ uncovered through the analysis is analogous with the ‘frame’ in Data-Frame Model of sensemaking. In this way, it is possible to identify how frames are introduced, questioned and elaborated during communications in a team-based Command and Control exercise. Further, analyzing speech acts for different topics and under different conditions showed how different communication media or report formats can help or hinder team activity. It is proposed that such analysis could be viable for monitoring and supporting team communications, particularly during training exercises, but potentially as a route to providing automated decision and sensemaking support to teams.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661049
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Team Members Show Decreased Inter-brain Coupling When Resolving
           Uncertainty

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      Authors: Ronald Stevens, Trysha Galloway
      Pages: 60 - 64
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 60-64, September 2022.
      Team members regulate their activities and move together at the collective level of behavior while coordinating their actions toward shared goals. In parallel with team processes, team members need to resolve uncertainties arising from their changing task work and a shifting environment. We explored the neurodynamic tension between resolving individual uncertainty and participating in collaborative processes during high fidelity team training.Electroencephalography (EEG) was collected from five two-person medical flight teams and following pre-processing to remove non-brain signals, the inter-brain coherence (IBC) were estimated by wavelet coherence and compared with the neurodynamic information (NI) of each individual, a measure that maps closely with human uncertainty.Analysis of the second-by-second IBC and NI showed that the expressions of NI and IBC were not simultaneous and may be mutually exclusive, suggesting that the factors elevating and resolving NI levels are single person processes and that it may be difficult for team members to maintain IBC while reducing their uncertainties. Although preliminary, these studies provide a first step towards neurodynamically quantifying and modifying teamwork and task work processes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661081
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • MazeWorld: A Game-Based Environment developed to Assess Teaming Behaviors

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      Authors: Rick F. Francis, Jonathan Segal, Yvonne Farah, Joseph Rozell, Michael C. Dorneich, Stephen Gilbert
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 65-69, September 2022.
      A testbed has been developed to study multiple constructs of teamwork in a parameterized environment. MazeWorld is a testbed to learn and automate the collection of objective team metrics based on observable behaviors. Quantifying teamwork plays an important role in future agent cooperation. Challenges include differentiating individual skills from skills of the team to not only understand the team as an entity but each of the participating members. MazeWorld is a Unity-based cooperative game that involves three distinct roles working interdependently to achieve a goal. A series of trials were run in MazeWorld to test proposed observable measures of teaming constructs. Teams performed better as the trials progressed, and differences were found between teams. This effort serves as a proof of concept that MazeWorld can explore team behavior using automated team metrics to inform future work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661180
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluating Team Metrics in Cooperative Video Games

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      Authors: Yvonne A. Farah, Michael C. Dorneich, Stephen B. Gilbert
      Pages: 70 - 74
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 70-74, September 2022.
      This research aims to understand how cooperative game features lead to teamwork behaviors as a step in developing gamified testbeds where human-human and human-autonomy teaming can be evaluated. Multiplayer video games incorporate features that encourage cooperation and interdependency, making them potential task environments for evaluating team metrics. This study analyzed three cooperative video games through annotating play sessions by tracking cooperative features and teamwork behavioral markers. The results show how cooperative features lead to a high frequency of teamwork behaviors, including coordination, planning, backup behavior, and mutual monitoring. Additionally, game features such as complementary and shared obstacles and puzzles, community survival, and team spirit led to the highest frequencies of behavioral markers. This study can serve as an initial assessment to develop a list of requirements for the gamification of teaming testbeds that can support objective quantification of team measurement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661240
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Developing Systemic Contributors and Adaptations Diagramming (SCAD):
           systemic insights, multiple pragmatic implementations

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      Authors: Christine M. Jefferies, E. Asher Balkin, Luke Groom, Michael F. Rayo
      Pages: 75 - 79
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 75-79, September 2022.
      Traditional event exploration techniques in safety operations such as RCA and FMEA focus on developing explanations of specific events and in so doing, risk producing over-simplified highly linearized models of organizational behavior which are largely divorced from the realities of the work. Techniques such as FRAM, STAMP, and AcciMap, produce highly accurate models of system behavior but are often prohibitively resource intensive. These difficulties have made the types of inquiry which can inform Safety-II-style analysis difficult and expensive. In a review of four recent studies, we discuss implementation of the Systemic Contributors and Adaptations Diagramming (SCAD) framework, demonstrating its value in rapidly identifying useful cases, engaging a wider range of organizational roles, and arriving at useful insights more quickly and with reduced resource burden. Rather than focus on a specific event, SCAD explores the distribution of pressures across the system and the associated adaptive behaviors which employees undertake to address those pressures.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661334
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • On the Level of Measurement of Subjective Psychometric Ratings

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      Authors: Matthew L. Bolton, Elliot Biltekoff, Jiajun Wei, Laura Humphrey
      Pages: 80 - 84
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 80-84, September 2022.
      Subjective psychometric ratings are critical tools in human factors engineering. Despite widespread use, there is controversy about whether such ratings can be treated at cardinal levels of measurement. Answering this question is important given that a measure’s level determines what mathematical and statistical operations can be meaningfully applied to them. This paper synthesizes results from an effort (published over several papers) that developed a method for assessing the level of measurement of subjective ratings and used it to evaluate common trust, situation awareness, and workload metrics. This paper synthesizes these results to determine that subjective measures should rarely, if ever, be treated as ratio. It also found that, in a population analysis, some measures (like all the ones considered) can be treated as interval. In all other situations, and especially in analyses or modeling efforts for individuals or small sample sizes, ordinal is the safest default.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661215
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Flexible Task Analysis Framework: Feedforward and Feedback

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      Authors: Ruixuan Li, Katya Le Blanc
      Pages: 85 - 89
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 85-89, September 2022.
      Researchers and practitioners have different emphases and goals when conducting task or system analyses. This paper proposes a task analysis framework to augment other task analysis and human performance modeling approaches. The intent is not to replace but provide flexibility to use. The proposed framework includes critical processes (i.e., modules) that must be considered based on psychological theories, methodologies, and findings. It integrates the feedforward mechanism in motor and cognitive tasks in order to explain how users achieve multiple goals via a single task and prevent or mitigate undesired conflicts. It also includes a General Purposes module that combines some perspectives of user needs in user experience and functional purposes in work domain analysis to accommodate different domains’ characteristics. Ultimately, a task analysis pertaining to the work carried out by an electric grid transmission operator was conducted as an example of how this framework can be implemented.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661104
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Organizational Sensemaking Systems as a Determinant of Successful
           Organizational Change: A Grounded Theory Approach

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      Authors: James Michael Hughes, Robert A. Henning, Michelle M. Robertson
      Pages: 90 - 94
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 90-94, September 2022.
      Organizational Sensemaking has been in the literature for nearly three decades – however, classical theories of organizational sensemaking have studied it as an individual or team-level phenomenon rather than at an organizational level. As a result, the multi-level implications of organizational sensemaking and its relationship to organizational change have yet to receive significant empirical attention. A greater understanding of organizational sensemaking may yield insights on how the effectiveness of organizational change interventions can be improved. A grounded theory approach is being used to examine the introduction of a training program for corrections staff in support of participatory ergonomics to improve worker health and wellbeing. Early findings are being used to construct a theoretical framework to guide the design of organizational sensemaking systems (OSS). The potential for OSS to promote organizational situational awareness, shared mental models, and organizational readiness for change is discussed along with design implications and directions for future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661249
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Adaptations to Trust Incidents with Artificial Intelligence

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      Authors: Stephen L. Dorton, Samantha B. Harper, Kelly J. Neville
      Pages: 95 - 99
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 95-99, September 2022.
      Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming ubiquitous in national security work (intelligence, defense, etc.); however, introducing AI into work systems is fraught with challenges. Trust is gained and lost through experiences, and there are many factors that affect trust in AI. Similarly, users adapt their workflows based on trust in these systems. We used a naturalistic approach to understand how intelligence professionals adapted their work practices after gaining or losing trust in AI. We found a variety of adaptations, which were characterized as either being task-based or frequency-based; where users added or removed tasks from their workflow or where they changed the frequency in which they used the AI in their workflow, respectively. We provide specific examples and quotes from participants along with findings, and discuss potential methodological implications for studying and designing AI-driven work systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661146
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Human As Automation Failsafe: Concept, Implications, Guidelines and
           Innovations

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      Authors: Christopher Miller, Jay Shively, Summer Brandt, Helen Wauck, Vasanth Sarathy, Richard Freedman
      Pages: 100 - 104
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 100-104, September 2022.
      Humans are frequently left to “backstop” automated systems, and Human Factors specialists have argued against this for decades with, at best, partial success. What if we took a different tack… and designed to support it' The participants were involved in a recent effort to review and document cases across multiple domains where operators acted as a “failsafe” for automation, intervening in unanticipated situations to maximize success and minimize damage. We defined a “Human As Failsafe” (HAF) incident and then investigated conditions and practices making HAF success more or less likely. Analyzing these historical incidents, we suggested remediation approaches. The project also examined the legal concept of culpability (i.e., when intervention should have happened but didn’t) and proposed a state-machine-based analytic simulation to identify when HAF interventions are plausible. The panel objective will be to briefly present these concepts, but more generally to discuss designing for inevitable HAF events.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661014
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Investigating Cyber Attacker Team Cognition

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      Authors: Craig J. Johnson, Kimberly J. Ferguson-Walter, Robert S. Gutzwiller, Dakota D. Scott, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 105 - 109
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 105-109, September 2022.
      Cyber attackers commonly operate in teams, which may process information collectively and thus, may be best understood when the team is treated as the unit of analysis. Future research in Oppositional Human Factors (OHF) should consider the impact of team-influencing and team-level biases and the impact that defensive interventions have on team cognition in general. Existing measurement approaches using team interactions may be well suited for studying red teams, and how OHF interventions impact cyber attackers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661132
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Shift Happens: Human Factors Considerations for Handoffs in Cyber-Security
           Operations Centers

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      Authors: Crystal M. Fausett, Joseph R. Keebler
      Pages: 110 - 114
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 110-114, September 2022.
      Cybersecurity breaches have consequences not only at a technical level, but also at economic, legal, individual levels. Organizations depend heavily on the internet to conduct daily operations and activities. As cyber threats increase with frequency and severity, organizations and the cybersecurity experts they employ are facing an uphill battle. To our knowledge, very little research has been done to investigate the handoff processes that exist in Security Operations Centers (SOCs). Researchers and practitioners within the cybersecurity community would benefit from a better understanding of how handoff mechanisms influence SOC team processes and performance. To help attain this goal, this paper aims to explore handoff processes within other domains and illuminate what aspects of handoffs may be extended to SOCs and in what ways handoffs performed in SOCs may need special consideration.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661131
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • DURESS SCADA: A simulation platform to study user interface design for
           cybersecurity of industrial control systems

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      Authors: Hao Wang, Nathan Lau
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 115-119, September 2022.
      Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are widely adopted in critical infrastructures and prime targets of cyberattacks. Ecological Interface Design (EID) is postulated to be an invaluable framework for supporting operators to cope with cyber intrusions, particularly zero-day attacks because prior research has demonstrated effectiveness of ecological interfaces during unanticipated events. However, a suitable research platform is absent for studying user interface in cybersecurity of SCADA systems. This paper presents a SCADA system simulation being designed and implemented for the DURESS thermohydraulic process control simulation common in EID studies. Based on the open literature and industrial standards to ensure representativeness of industrial SCADA systems, the simulation includes two programable logical controllers, seven routers, and a server in a wired communication network. These components should be sufficient to study human response to common cyberattacks on SCADA systems and support future work in prototyping and evaluating user interfaces for SCADA cybersecurity.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661173
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Influence of different honeypot proportions on adversarial decisions in a
           deception game

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      Authors: Harsh Katakwar, Shashank Uttrani, Palvi Aggarwal, Varun Dutt
      Pages: 120 - 124
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 120-124, September 2022.
      Cyberattacks are proliferating, and deception via honeypots may provide efficient strategies for combating cyberattacks. Although prior research has examined deception and network factors using deception-based games, it is still unknown how the proportion of honeypots in a network influences the adversarial decision. This study evaluates the influence of different honeypot proportions on the adversary’s decisions using a deception game (DG). DG has two consecutive stages, probe and attack. In the probe stage, participants may probe a few webservers or not probe the network. In the attack stage, participants may attack any of the webservers or decide not to attack the webservers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three between-subject conditions containing different honeypot proportions: small, medium, and large. With an increase in the proportion of honeypots, the honeypot and no-attack actions increased dramatically. We show how our findings are applicable in deception-based cyber scenarios.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661120
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Identifying Perturbed Roadway Signs: Perception of AI Capabilities

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      Authors: Katherine Garcia, Yanru Xiao, Scott Mishler, Cong Wang, Bin Hu, Jing Chen
      Pages: 125 - 125
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 125-125, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661225
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Sociotechnical Systems View of Catalysts that Enable Underrepresented
           Minority Student Success

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      Authors: Priyadarshini Pennathur, Brissa Quiroz, Ann Bisantz, Louis Everett, Arunkumar Pennathur
      Pages: 126 - 129
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 126-129, September 2022.
      Academic institutions in the US have recently refocused their attention on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. This panel consisting of engineering faculty, administrators and industry professionals will discuss how colleges of engineering can approach the problem of recruiting, retaining, and graduating undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students by using a sociotechnical systems modeling approach. The main thrust of the discussion is how an academic organizational system such as a college of engineering can be broken down into a social system consisting of the people (students, faculty, staff and other stakeholders), and a technical system consisting of programs and initiatives for URM student success. Joint analyses of the social system and the technical system can then reveal systemwide barriers and opportunities for enabling URM student success.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661011
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The National Academies Board on Human-Systems Integration (BOHSI) Panel:
           Human-AI Teaming: Research Frontiers

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      Authors: Frederick L. Oswald, Mica R. Endsley, Jessie Chen, Erin K. Chiou, Mark H. Draper, Nathan J. McNeese, Emilie M. Roth
      Pages: 130 - 134
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 130-134, September 2022.
      The National Academies recently issued a consensus study report summarizing the state of the art and research needs relating to Human-AI teaming, especially in the context of dynamic, high-risk environments such as multi-domain military operations. This consensus study was conducted by the National Academies Board on Human-Systems Integration (BOHSI). This panel, organized by BOHSI, brings together prominent researchers, including several members of the consensus committee, to discuss the state of the art and research frontiers for development of effective human-AI teams that can operate resiliently in complex, data intensive, and dynamically paced environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661007
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Recruitment, Admissions, Hiring, Retention, and Promotion: Mechanisms of
           Diversity, Equity, Inclusion (DEI) and Belonging in Higher Education

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      Authors: Erin K. Chiou, Richard J. Holden, Sourojit Ghosh, Yuliana Flores, Rod D. Roscoe
      Pages: 135 - 138
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 135-138, September 2022.
      This panel session is for anyone in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) or related disciplines interested in recruiting, hiring, admitting, retaining, and promoting people within organizations from the perspective of pursuing authentic diversity. Applicants and hiring managers may also gain insight on what makes a meaningful diversity statement, a trending requirement in many degree programs and job applications. Although the panelists featured are from higher education, we welcome hearing from audience members in other industries (e.g., corporate, military, and consulting). Panelists will focus on our experiences crafting admissions or hiring criteria, recruiting and retaining Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) members, and evaluating the contributions of people in our field that go beyond the traditional bounds of science and engineering yet are central to the future of our profession. The goal of this panel is to foster community and discussion across people and organizations working to improve diversity, equity, inclusion, (DEI) and belonging in HFE.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661026
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Developing the Human Factors/Ergonomics Discipline to Support Diversity,
           Equity and Inclusion

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      Authors: Abigail R. Wooldridge, Courtney Grant, Amanda Widdowson, Courtney C. Rogers, Rosemarie Figueroa Jacinto
      Pages: 139 - 141
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 139-141, September 2022.
      Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) is recognized as crucial to addressing societal challenges that are systemic in nature, including issues of diversity, equity and inclusion. The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors (CIEHF) recently issued a guidance outlining how HFE can help address DEI issues, in line with the Annual Meeting activities organized by the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) Diversity and Inclusion Committee since 2016. This panel brings together the author of the CIEHF report, a former President of CIEHF and two HFES members to discuss DEI issues in HFE science HFE. The goal of this session is to identify needs and opportunities within HF/E to directly support DEI initiatives and approaches, both within and external to our disciplinary societies. This is an interactive session between the attendees guided by the panelists.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661020
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Success by Undesirable Means: Differences in Trust Following Successful
           (Yet Deviant) Flight Path Adherence

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      Authors: Nathan L. Tenhundfeld, Jacob R. Davis, Michael Hubler
      Pages: 142 - 146
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 142-146, September 2022.
      The success or failure of a system can impact one's trust in that system. User trust can also be affected by system behavior (e.g., type of movement, how social it is, human-likeness). However, there remains a gap in understanding the relationship between these two influences. Additionally, few studies have examined trust following differences in the behavior of systems with consistently successful results across behaviors. Therefore, the degree to which the behavior of a system in the pursuit of a successful outcome can influence user trust is unknown. In one experiment, participants were tasked with plotting a path for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to fly. The UAV deviated from the path by different amounts, between subjects. Despite no differences in measures of performance (the success of the UAV reaching the end destination, time to complete the task, end score, or how far participants had to draw the routes), nor other cognitive constructs (i.e., workload), differences in trust were reported. These results indicate that it is not simply if a system accomplishes a task, but also the way it does that influences trust.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661097
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Interaction Gap: A Step Toward Understanding Trust in Autonomous
           Vehicles Between Encounters

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      Authors: Jacob G. Hunter, Matthew Konishi, Neera Jain, Kumar Akash, Xingwei Wu, Teruhisa Misu, Tahira Reid
      Pages: 147 - 151
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 147-151, September 2022.
      Shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs) will be introduced in greater numbers over the coming decade. Due to rapid advances in shared mobility and the slower development of fully autonomous vehicles (AVs), SAVs will likely be deployed before privately-owned AVs. Moreover, existing shared mobility services are transitioning their vehicle fleets toward those with increasingly higher levels of driving automation. Consequently, people who use shared vehicles on an “as needed” basis will have infrequent interactions with automated driving, thereby experiencing interaction gaps. Using human trust data of 25 participants, we show that interaction gaps can affect human trust in automated driving. Participants engaged in a simulator study consisting of two interactions separated by a one-week interaction gap. A moderate, inverse correlation was found between the change in trust during the initial interaction and the interaction gap, suggesting people “forget” some of their gained trust or distrust in automation during an interaction gap.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661311
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Qualitative Analysis of Trust Dynamics in Human-Agent Teams (HATs)

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      Authors: Kendall Carmody, Cherrise Ficke, Daniel Nguyen, Arianna Addis, Summer Rebensky, Meredith Carroll
      Pages: 152 - 156
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 152-156, September 2022.
      This study investigated how and why trust changes over time between differing levels of autonomy (LOA) for an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) task involving four unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Four LOAs were implemented in the study ranging from low to high (manual, advice, consent, veto). The analysis examined if trust increased, decreased, or stayed the same during transitions between two different LOAs. Through a thematic analysis, themes influencing the participant’s trust in agents were identified. Current findings suggest trust increases most when a participant moves between moderate LOAs. Specifically, moving from the condition in which the role of the agent is to provide advice, to the agent making decisions on their own with the consent of the human. Trust was also shown to increase when the human moved from the highest LOA (human merely vetoes) to the manual condition. The most prevalent themes influencing trust included perceived agent errors and false alarms.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661242
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Team and Individual Trust Progression for Human-Autonomy Teaming in Next
           Generation Combat Vehicles

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      Authors: Hudson D. Graham, Myke C. Cohen, John Hrabovsky, Dylan Orth, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 157 - 161
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 157-161, September 2022.
      This study investigated in 22 teams, individual and team trust measures reported by two human participants, recruited from a university populace, as they interacted with each other, robotic combat vehicles (RCVs), a human superior, and their team during a simulated Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) mission conducted within Minecraft. Trust was measured via survey questions based on established metrics and was found to be high toward the human peer, the human superior, and the overall team throughout the mission. In contrast, overall trust in the RCV was significantly lower in phases of the mission when breakdown in RCV functionality caused a hindrance in mission completion. Trust in the RCV was shown to recover as the mission progressed in phases without RCV maintenance issues. The findings reinforce that trust is distinguishable at the individual level and not necessarily perceived the same at the team level.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661054
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Self-Repairing and/or Buoyant Trust in Artificial Intelligence

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      Authors: Stephen L. Dorton, Samantha B. Harper
      Pages: 162 - 166
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 162-166, September 2022.
      Artificial Intelligence (AI) is often viewed as the means by which the intelligence community will cope with the increasing amount of information available to them. Trust is a complex, dynamic phenomenon, which drives adoption (or disuse) of technology. We conducted a naturalistic study with intelligence professionals (planners, collectors, analysts, etc.) to understand trust dynamics with AI systems. We found that on a long-enough time scale, trust in AI self-repaired after incidents where trust was lost, usually based merely on the assumption that AI had improved since participants last interacted with it. Similarly, we found that trust in AI increased over time after incidents where trust was gained in the AI. We termed this general trend “buoyant trust in AI,” where trust in AI tends to increase over time, regardless of previous interactions with the system. Key findings are discussed, along with possible directions for future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661098
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparing the Emotional and Cognitive Components of Initial Trust
           Formation in Air Traffic Controller-Autonomy Teams

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      Authors: Kiranraj Pushparaj, Sameer Alam, Vimalan Vijayaragavan, Balázs Gulyás, Vu N. Duong
      Pages: 167 - 171
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 167-171, September 2022.
      The use of intelligent decision aids in Air Traffic Management is recommended to manage the exponential rise in global air traffic. Consequently, trust, which is one of the main drivers of how Air Traffic Controllers use such decision aids, has become an important area of research. It has been suggested that there is a strong emotional influence in the formation of Human-Human Trust, and it is unclear if this paradigm is valid for Human-Autonomy Trust. The extent of the cognitive and emotional components in the initial trust relationship between Air Traffic Controllers and a simulated conflict detection autonomous decision aid was examined with the use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The results confirmed that the emotional component showed higher activation than the cognitive component for the initial formation of trust between Air Traffic Controllers and autonomous decision aids.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661053
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Human-Robot Teams: A Discussion of the Emerging Trends

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      Authors: Sabina M. Patel, Andres Rosero, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Elizabeth Phillips, Jordan Rogers, Ali Momen, Theresa Kessler, Andrea Krausman
      Pages: 172 - 176
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 172-176, September 2022.
      As technology advances, human robot-teams are becoming increasingly commonplace with team interactions taking place in a variety of military, industrial, service, and social settings. Consequently, as HR teams evolve, novel and unique considerations for how these teams interact and perform are rising. The purpose of this panel, therefore, is to host a discussion on state-of-theart issues and emerging trends that practitioners and researchers should scrutinize as the applications of HR teams expands. To provide a diverse set of perspectives, our panelists hail from a variety of backgrounds: military, industry, and academy. Talks will focus on moral and ethical considerations for human-agent decision-making, the influence of robots on team processes in human surgical teams, and on new considerations for trust in human-agent teams, including for covert measures of trust and for the inclusion of team cohesion in trust measurement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661005
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Human Acceptance of the Cleaning Robot in Grocery Environments During the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Yuhao Chen, Yue Luo, Mustafa Ozkan Yerebakan, Boyi Hu
      Pages: 177 - 181
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 177-181, September 2022.
      Cleaning work is a labor-intensive job that frequently exposes workers to substantial occupational hazards. Unfortunately, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased the pressure on janitors and cleaners to meet the rising need for a safe and hygienic environment, particularly in grocery stores, where the majority of people get their daily necessities. To reduce the occupational hazards and fulfill the new challenges of COVID-19, autonomous cleaning robots, have been designed to complement human workers. However, a lack of understanding of the new generation of cleaning tools’ acceptance may raise safety concerns when they’re deployed. Therefore, a video-based survey was developed and distributed to 32 participants, aiming to assess human acceptance of the cleaning robot in grocery environments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the effects of four factors (gender, work experience, knowledge, and pet) that may influence human acceptance of the cleaning robot were also examined. In general, our findings revealed a non-negative human acceptance of the cleaning robot, which is a positive sign of deploying cleaning robots in grocery stores to reduce the workload of employees and decrease COIVID-related anxiety and safety concerns of customers. Furthermore, prior knowledge of robotics was observed to have a significant effect on participants’ acceptance of the cleaning robot (p = 0.039).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661138
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Survey on Robotic Vacuum Cleaners: Evaluation of Expressive Robotic
           Motions based on the Framework of Laban Effort Features for Robot
           Personality Design

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      Authors: Ebru Emir, Catherine M. Burns
      Pages: 182 - 186
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 182-186, September 2022.
      The adoption of robotic vacuum cleaners (RVCs) has drastically increased. During interaction with these embodied autonomous agents, humans tend to ascribe certain personality traits to them even when the robot has a mechanoid appearance and low degree of freedom. As the social capabilities and the persuasiveness of robots increase, the design of robot personality will become important. This paper investigates the impact of expressive motions on people’s perception of robot personality. The framework of Laban Effort Features was implemented for a simple cleaning task. Movement features were programmed in iRobot Create2, and participants were asked to rate the robot’s personality in an online survey. The results indicated that Flow factor was closely associated with neuroticism ratings, Weight factor impacted both agreeableness and conscientiousness ratings, while Time factor impacted only the agreeableness ratings. Movement characteristics should be considered when designing personality into domestic service robots like RVCs, which are expected to operate in highly social settings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661040
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Does My Driver Share My Moral View' Effects of Humanlikeness and
           Morality in an Adapted Trolley Problem

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      Authors: Andrew Atchley, Hannah M. Barr, Emily H. O’Hear, Carly E. Gray, Amber F. Chesser, Nicholaos Jones, Nathan L. Tenhundfeld
      Pages: 187 - 191
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 187-191, September 2022.
      As autonomous systems become responsible for more complex decisions, it is crucial to consider how these systems will respond in situations wherein they must make potentially controversial decisions without input from users. While previous literature has suggested that users prefer machinelike systems that act to promote the greater good, little research has focused on how the humanlikeness of an agent influences how moral decisions are perceived. We ran two online studies where participants and an automated agent made a decision in an adapted trolley problem. Our results conflicted with previous literature as they did not support the idea that humanlike agents are trusted in a manner analogous to humans in moral dilemmas. Conversely, our study did support the importance for trust of shared moral view between users and systems. Further investigation is necessary to clarify how humanlikeness and moral view interact to form impressions of trust in a system.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661111
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Affect-enhancing speech features for robotic communication

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      Authors: Kim Klüber, Linda Onnasch
      Pages: 192 - 193
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 192-193, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661090
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • “What an Emotionless Robot!”: Visuomotor Priming from Video Stimuli
           Influences Emotion Recognition

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      Authors: Kristin M. Finkbeiner, William S. Helton
      Pages: 194 - 198
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 194-198, September 2022.
      Viewing people and other animals elicits social and emotional processes. Similarly, robots are sometimes seen as social agents, but limited emotion-priming research for robots exists. Fifty-nine participants completed three sessions of an emotion recognition task, primed with a dog, robot or random motion (control) video. There was no significant effect from exposure to dog videos (or control) on emotional recognition; however, participants performed significantly worse following robot exposure. A follow-up study of 184 participants) included new videos of all stimuli. Similarly, no significant effects occurred after dog exposure, but robot priming decreased performance. Robot priming appears to worsen emotion recognition, which is interesting. This may be due to motor resonance priming - mimicking observed behavior and actions - or due to pre-existing stereotypes of robots and perceived experimental demands. Further studies should include controlled variations of all videos and live interactions to compare priming effects on emotion recognition.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661057
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Anticipated emotions associated with trust in autonomous vehicles

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      Authors: Lilit Avetisian, Jackie Ayoub, Feng Zhou
      Pages: 199 - 203
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 199-203, September 2022.
      Trust in automation has been mainly studied in the cognitive perspective, though some researchers have shown that trust is also influenced by emotion. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the relationships between emotions and trust. In this study, we explored the pattern of 19 anticipated emotions associated with two levels of trust (i.e., low vs. high levels of trust) elicited from two levels of autonomous vehicles (AVs) performance (i.e., failure and non-failure) from 105 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). Trust was assessed at three layers i.e., dispositional, initial learned, and situational trust. The study was designed to measure how emotions are affected with low and high levels of trust. Situational trust was significantly correlated with emotions that a high level of trust significantly improved participants’ positive emotions, and vice versa. We also identified the underlying factors of emotions associated with situational trust. Our results offered important implications on anticipated emotions associated with trust in AVs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661002
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Application of Naturalistic Decision Making to Studying and Supporting
           Patient Work

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      Authors: Elizabeth Lerner Papautsky, Gary Klein, Laura G. Militello, Richard Holden
      Pages: 204 - 207
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 204-207, September 2022.
      In recent years, there has been growing recognition of the active role of patients in healthcare, highlighting the need to support patient work by designing systems, processes, and communications that are patient-centered. Patients are called upon to make consequential decisions based on complex cognitive and perceptual cues. Some patients may even possess deep knowledge about their condition and its management. However, there is little research applying naturalistic decision making (NDM) to study patient cognition and decision making. This application may have the potential to help understand and support patients to more effectively manage their health, wellness, and safety. In this panel, we address the relevance and applicability of NDM in terms of theory, terminology, and methods to the design of patient-centered solutions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661009
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Nephrologists’ and nephrology nurses’ design preferences for a
           wearable dialysis device

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      Authors: Auður Anna Jónsdóttir, Gabrielle R. Lazo, Sahana Sundar, Larry Kessler, Ji-Eun Kim
      Pages: 208 - 212
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 208-212, September 2022.
      The objective of this study is to characterize nephrology nurses’ and nephrologists’ design expectations and preferences for a wearable dialysis device that allows a dialysis patient greater mobility and improved independence. We gathered ideal design characteristics, acceptable size and weight parameters, and the most preferred design type of a wearable dialysis device. Using qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and quantitative analysis of rank-order questions, our results indicate seven categories of ideal design features and give an estimate of parameters for the largest acceptable size and heaviest acceptable weight of the device. Furthermore, our results show that the clinicians significantly prefer a belt design over a shoulder bag, a vest, or a distributed design type. The findings from this study offer a vision for design preferences and usability objectives to help ensure users’ safe and efficient use of a wearable dialysis device.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661168
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Analyzing the Usability and Acceptability of Wearable Sensors for Health
           Care Workers

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      Pages: 213 - 215
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 213-215, September 2022.
      Health care organizations should prevent clinician burnout to improve quality of care, but current methods to detect burnout add work and are retrospective. This study is part of a project developing a system to pre- dict burnout leveraging wearable sensors. It is important to evaluate participants’ reactions and perceptions of the wearable device. Our objective in this study is to evaluate the usability of the Empatica E4 wrist- bands utilized in the larger project, making design recommendations for improvement. Three health care workers from a COVID-19 diagnostic laboratory wore the Empatica E4 wristband during 10-20 shifts, after which they completed a survey that included the System Usability Scale and other questions about their experience and perceptions. The Empatica E4 has marginally acceptable usability; participants identified its size as particularly negative. We recommend keeping the band size inclusive while reducing the bulkiness of the wearable sensor and exploring alternative materials to improve comfort.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661130
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Predicting Laparoscopic Surgical Skills of Trainees with Eye Metrics
           Associated with Focused Attention and Workload

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      Authors: Shiyu Deng, Tianzi Wang, Jacob Hartman-Kenzler, Sarah Henrickson Parker, Shawn D. Safford, Laura E. Barnes, Nathan Lau
      Pages: 216 - 220
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 216-220, September 2022.
      Eye metrics are effective indicators of focused visual attention and perceived workload that have been used to differentiate surgical expertise and task difficulties. However, the change in eye metrics throughout surgical training in a cohort of trainees is under-investigated. This study collected eye-tracking data from 13 medical students practicing the peg transfer task until reaching the passing criteria of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery. Six eye metrics measuring focused visual attention and workload were computed and then used in multiple linear regression analysis to predict trial completion time. All predictors were significant in the regression model, collectively explaining 61.7% of the variance in log-transformed completion time. Fixation rates and gaze entropy were the most important metrics at revealing skill acquisition as medical students self-train on the peg-transfer task. The results on these eye metrics demonstrate potential in assessing surgeons-in-training and providing feedback to ensure surgical competency.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661156
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Using the National Aeronautics Space Administration Task Load Index
           (NASA-TLX) in surgery: Considerations for use “in the wild”

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      Authors: Jennifer Zamudio, Ken Catchpole, Falisha Kanji, Jennifer Anger, Tara Cohen
      Pages: 221 - 225
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 221-225, September 2022.
      Despite a variety of attempts to infer measurements of workload through more objective means, the NASATLX remains the most preferred tool in various industries. Interest in patient safety and healthcare systems design has seen a frequent application of the NASA-TLX over other methods within a range of surgical settings and has generated other adaptations to increase its sensitivity to specific tasks. However, in moving out of simulation settings and into real-world surgical settings, there are a range of challenges that need to be considered and addressed that have not been regularly reported in literature assessing intraoperative workload. In this paper, we offer insights from both prior research and our own studies that illustrate the value of using the NASA-TLX, and the potential pitfalls, to understand workload in surgery.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661326
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mask-wearing: effects on cognitive task performance and cardiac workload
           indices

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      Authors: Zhengyi (Andersen) Du, Johnathan McKenzie, Nikita Raghatate, Thomas Ferris
      Pages: 226 - 230
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 226-230, September 2022.
      Consistent with CDC recommendations and government mandates during COVID, masks are commonly required/suggested in public gathering places like workplaces and schools. Considering the implications for human factors research, the extent to which mask-wearing impacts cognitive abilities and/or workload assessment from cardiac indicators are unknown. This study investigated these effects by engaging subjects in cognitively-loading tasks (math or memory) while not wearing masks, and additionally by wearing one of three types of masks (surgical, N95, and cloth). Results suggest that mask-wearing does not have significant impact on task performance data (accuracy, total question answered) or cardiac indices (heart rate). This study can foster a deeper understanding of the influence of mask-wearing on actual and perceived cognitive workload, and how mask-wearing may mitigate common workload assessment methods. These findings are valuable for informing human subjects research during COVID, and in identifying implications of mask-wearing on domains that impose cognitive work demands.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661270
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • In Response to Warnings: Exploring Individual Differences in Sustained
           Attention Performance

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      Authors: Olivia H. McGough, Christopher B. Mayhorn
      Pages: 231 - 235
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 231-235, September 2022.
      Sustained attention paradigms can assess an individual’s ability to maintain continuous effort and accurate response rate over a period of time. Measuring individual differences in vigilance capabilities and factors that influence performance can be foundational in the design of user-centered technologies and protocols. In the current work, 137 participants completed the SART (Sustained Attention to Response Task) where half (n = 69) received a warning that they would have to re-start the task if they fell below a performance threshold and the remainder (n = 68) received no such warning. Measures of trait boredom proneness, state-based boredom, and motivation were also collected. Results indicated that the presence of a warning stimuli (extrinsic motivator) significantly affected overall performance on the SART. Discussion focused on how individual differences in the completion of “boring” tasks influences performance on work-related task outcomes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661095
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mental imagery testing for personnel selection, training, and HCI
           applications

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      Authors: Jeffrey B. Colombe, Samantha Gallo, Sacha Panic
      Pages: 236 - 240
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 236-240, September 2022.
      This theoretical paper advocates for research to assess whether tests of mental imagery may be used as reliable and valid predictors to inform the design of human-computer interactions suited to individual differences, and industrial-organizational psychology applications including personnel selection and customized training regimens. Mental imagery includes multisensory, non-sensory spatial, and motor rehearsal forms, and has been correlated with emotional reactivity and performance on laboratory tasks such as memory recognition and recall. We focus on air traffic control and aircraft pilot roles, as cognitive testing has been pioneered in these high-consequence professions, with resulting cultural and institutional support for the use of testing to guide personnel development decisions. Mental imagery testing may also offer benefits in the lifelong career pipeline for STEM, creative, and problem-solving work roles more broadly.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661106
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Individual Differences in the Acceptance and Adoption of AI-enabled
           Autonomous Systems

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      Authors: Kristin Weger, Tiffanie Easley, Nathaniel Branham, Nathan Tenhundfeld, Bryan Mesmer
      Pages: 241 - 245
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 241-245, September 2022.
      With the deployment of AI-enabled autonomous systems in various fields of application, it is critical to understand the factors affecting the acceptance and in turn the adoption of such technology. While previous research has established that individual differences have an impact on the acceptance and adoption of technology, little research has examined the extent and specificity of those individual differences. The current research attempts to address this gap in the literature by examining individual differences concerning the willingness to accept and adopt general technology versus specific AI-enabled autonomous systems. Our findings reveal several significant results between an individual’s personality traits of Openness, Emotionality, and Honesty-Humility, as well as age, gender, and career field with an individual’s level of acceptance and adoption of general versus specific AI-enabled AS technology. Our findings call for future research to further explore these individual differences in detail and to validate current technology models.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661154
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Inclusive Recycling: Challenges And Needs Of Wheelchair Users In Hong Kong

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      Authors: Yi Lin WONG, Kin Wai Michael SIU, Chi Hang LO
      Pages: 246 - 250
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 246-250, September 2022.
      Recycling activities are common in Hong Kong households because of the establishment of different campaigns and promotions organized by the Government and non-government organizations. However, wheelchair users are excluded from the recycling activities, and the current facilities do not cater for their needs. To address the issues of wheelchair users participating in recycling, this paper examines the design of public recycling facilities in Hong Kong and investigates how these facilities facilitate or hinder wheelchair users from recycling. A model of addressing design considerations of wheelchair users, the AC-AD model is developed based on the empirical data. The importance of self-efficacy of wheelchair persons and the connection between public and private are discussed. Improvements on the facilities are then suggested in the paper.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661222
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of Presence of Blood on Medical Laypeople’s Ability to
           Perform First Aid for Massive Bleeding

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      Authors: Wilhelm Brodin, Marc Friberg, Carl-Oscar Jonson, Erik Prytz
      Pages: 251 - 255
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 251-255, September 2022.
      There are currently several educational initiatives to teach first aid courses for medical laypeople, such as the Stop the Bleed campaign. Although much research on educational initiatives has been conducted, there are still factors that remain unexplored, such as the potential effects of blood itself on laypeople’s first aid performance and educational experience. This study investigates such potential effects for performance of the first aid techniques tourniquet application and wound packing, in relation to individual differences in disgust sensitivity and medical fear of blood. The results show that the presence of blood will increase the time a medical layperson takes to apply a tourniquet and pack a wound but does not affect the quality of the aid. Additionally, the disgust sensitivity of the medical layperson was found to predict an increase in application time for the wound packing task, but not the tourniquet application task, when blood was present.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661061
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of Team Member Evaluations Based on Gender

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      Authors: Dominique Engome Tchupo, Gretchen A. Macht
      Pages: 256 - 260
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 256-260, September 2022.
      Using data collected from multiple teams of undergraduate engineering students, this study examines whether team members evaluate members of different perceived genders differently than they would a member of their own perceived gender. This was done using social relations modeling to analyze the dyadic differences within the teams over the course of several years. This research found that despite what was expected, gender only played a minor role in how different team members rated each other as time progressed. This lack of significance of gender in the model could be attributed to the high proportion of women in this major as well as how the teams were formed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661149
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Discussion Panel Examining the Perpetual Issue of Musculoskeletal
           Disorders (MSDs) – Challenges, Gaps, and Opportunities

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      Authors: Lisa Brooks, Christopher R. Reid, Gary Allread, Blake McGowan, Maury A. Nussbaum
      Pages: 261 - 265
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 261-265, September 2022.
      According to Injury Facts® data reported annually by the National Safety Council (NSC), overexertion and bodily reactions have consistently been the leading cause of nonfatal injury or illness events involving days away from work. Data from NSC, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index and peer-reviewed research clearly emphasize the gravity of risk factors related to the worker, work, and workplace on MSD development. The NSC began a major initiative last year with a goal to examine the factors that influence MSDs systematically. With the support of a major industry partner, it formed an international advisory council consisting of stakeholders from industry, academic, and research communities. The invited panel of experts, all members of this advisory council, will present their views on challenges, gaps, and opportunities to mitigate MSDs. These panelists will also discuss various research, translation, and work practice related to MSDs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661018
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Subjective Assessments of Arm-Support Exoskeletons During Simulated Static
           and Dynamic Overhead Tasks

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      Authors: Wallace Morris, Sunwook Kim, Aanuoluwapo Ojelade, Divya Srinivasan, Marty Smets, Maury A. Nussbaum
      Pages: 266 - 267
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 266-267, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661227
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of Support Level and Arm Angle on Passive Arm Support
           Exoskeleton Perceived Weight Reduction

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      Authors: William Hitchcock, Julia Safron, Elizabeth Wiese, Diana J. Schwerha
      Pages: 268 - 272
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 268-272, September 2022.
      This study tested 10 engineering students at Liberty University to determine the effect of various shoulder angles and support level settings on the perceived weight reduction of upper extremity exoskeletons (EXOs). It also examined the impact of support levels and the choice of two different EXOs. Effectiveness was determined by finding the minimum discrete value of a variable weight in a participant’s EXO supported arm at which the participant would assert that they could hold a control weight in their other, unsupported arm for an equal or longer duration. Results indicated that shoulder angle and support level setting were significant factors in determining the perceived weight of equivalence. Arm tested and choice of EXO did not prove significant. Findings indicate that arm support EXOs are more effective when the user’s upper arm is perpendicular to their body and when oriented 120º upward from resting position, and that higher support levels provide the highest reduction in perceived weight.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661208
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Changes in kinematics and muscle activity when learning to use a
           whole-body powered exoskeleton for stationary load handling

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      Authors: Hanjun Park, Sunwook Kim, Maury A. Nussbaum, Divya Srinivasan
      Pages: 273 - 274
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 273-274, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661218
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Changes in lower limb joint torques when using a back-support exoskeleton
           during the swing phase of single step balance recovery from a forward loss
           of balance

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      Authors: Jang-Ho Park, Divya Srinivasan
      Pages: 275 - 276
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 275-276, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661258
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Flexible Sensor-Based Biomechanical Evaluation of Passive Low-Back
           Exoskeleton Use in Lifting

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      Authors: Wei Yin, Yinong Chen, Curran Reddy, Liying Zheng, Ranjana Mehta, Xudong Zhang
      Pages: 277 - 279
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 277-279, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661203
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impacts of Enhanced Physical Abilities via Exoskeletons on Attentional
           Performance and Workload

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      Authors: Daniel Leibman, Daxton B. Mitchell, HeeSun Choi
      Pages: 280 - 284
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 280-284, September 2022.
      Exoskeletons have great potential for reducing physical fatigue and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Prior research investigating the effects of wearing an exoskeleton on the wearers’ cognitive performance suggested both potentially positive and negative impacts. However, the precise effects of wearing different types of exoskeletons on the individual’s various aspects of cognitive functions are under-studied. This study investigated the effects of wearing upper and lower-body unpowered exoskeletons on visual attentional performance while performing simulated industrial tasks, using an innovative augmented reality (AR)-based attentional visual field task. This study also compared physical task performance and self-reported mental workload while wearing an exoskeleton vs. not wearing an exoskeleton. While no universal change in cognitive performance with exoskeleton use was observed, the current study demonstrated large individual differences, which may have significant practical and theoretical implications.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661344
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Mental Fatigue on Trust and Workload with AI-enabled
           Infrastructure Visual Inspection Systems

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      Authors: Snowil Lopes, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Jeffrey Bertrand, Camden Brady, Da Li, Nathan McNeese
      Pages: 285 - 286
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 285-286, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661256
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mutually beneficial decision making in Human-AI teams: Understanding
           soldier’s perception and expectations from AI teammates in human-AI
           teams

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      Authors: Sarvesh Sawant, Rohit Mallick, Nathan McNeese, Kapil Chalil Madathil
      Pages: 287 - 289
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 287-289, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661355
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Investigating Underrepresented Perceptions of Inclusively Designed Voiced
           Automation

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      Authors: Heather Watkins, Richard Pak
      Pages: 290 - 294
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 290-294, September 2022.
      Consumers are increasingly interacting with automated systems for various purposes (e.g., smart speaker, vehicle control). One of the most popular ways they communicate with these systems is via the spoken auditory channel (listening and speaking). However, most of these systems tend to default to a female voice. In addition, many specifically use a White-sounding female voice. While prior work has investigated how attributes of age and gender influence perceptions of voiced automation, an additional vocal attribute of humanness has not been well researched -race. The specific goal of this project is to examine how more inclusively designed AI voices (e.g. exhibiting attributes of race) affect Black users’ attitudes toward autonomous technology. Results are expected to show more preferential attitudes when automation exhibits similar vocal attributes to the user. Findings will add to our understanding of how a deliberately more inclusive design affects an underrepresented population’s attitudes toward technology.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661228
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Perception of Robot Power: Scale Development

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      Authors: Rachel A. Benton, Anne Collins McLaughlin, Ericka M. Rovira
      Pages: 295 - 299
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 295-299, September 2022.
      Robots are increasingly utilized to work with humans in collaborative tasks. While there is a growing body of research investigating individual measures that impact human-robot interaction (HRI), to our knowledge, no measure exists to quantify an individual's perception of robot power. How powerful one perceives robots could be a driving factor in an individual's attitudes toward robots and their trust in HRI. This study aims to develop and validate a scale to quantify peoples' general perception of the power of robots. Preliminary results from exploratory factor analyses with nearly 60% of planned participants revealed three potential factors: companion/task robots, social coworking robots, and domineering robots. Future work will examine whether and how the scale predicts behavior to continue to refine the scale and isolate its measurement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661244
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Stress-Related Mental
           Disorders: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Moein Razavi, Samira Ziyadidegan, Farzan Sasangohar
      Pages: 300 - 304
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 300-304, September 2022.
      The goal of this paper is to review the literature on machine learning (ML) and big data applications for mental health, emphasizing current research and practical implementations. To explore the field of ML in mental health, we used a scoping review process. The literature identified application domains of detection and prediction of stress as a contributor to mental health disorders. We evaluated the articles and data on the mental health application, machine learning approach, type of data (sensor, survey, etc.), and type of sensors. Most studies extracted features before developing AI-based stress detection algorithms. Findings revealed that heart rate, heart rate variability, and skin conductance features are the key indicators of stress. Moreover, among AI stress-detection methods, Random Forest and Neural Networks show promising results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661298
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Identifying the Out Of The Loop phenomenon during driving automation using
           spontaneous gaze behavior

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      Authors: Hanna Chouchane, Hiroki Nakamura, Kenji Sato, Jacobo Antona-Makoshi, Genya Abe, Makoto Itoh
      Pages: 305 - 309
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 305-309, September 2022.
      Human factors research that addresses driver-automation interaction is required to mitigate crashes related to the deployment of automated vehicles. While Automated Driving Systems still require driver supervision, there will remain room for human error. This paper presents results from the first in a series of experiments that aim to estimate driver situation awareness using spontaneous gaze behavior and to ensure the driver is ready for takeover. Spontaneous gaze behavior was studied and compared among 13 participants between partial driving automaton and driver assistance automations condition to extract indicators of the out of the loop phenomenon.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661178
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Managing Distraction Holistically through Driver Attention Support

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      Authors: Bryan Reimer, Linda Angell, Bruce Mehler, Gregory M. Fitch, Alexandria M. Noble, Steven Feit, Lee Skrypchuk
      Pages: 310 - 314
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 310-314, September 2022.
      As the characteristics of in-vehicle human-machine interfaces (HMIs), the driving task, and the expectations and behavior of drivers have evolved, so too should our thinking and approach to HMI design and evaluation. This panel will present background and perspectives on the current status, emerging needs, challenges, and opportunities in this area. A key focus for the panel is an emphasis on attention support. Detailed contextual description is provided below for reference to allow panelists to keep their opening remarks relatively brief to allow for substantive question and discussion time with the audience.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661023
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Road User Attitudes Toward Automated Shuttle Operation: Pre and
           Post-Deployment Surveys

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      Authors: Hyungil Kim, Zachary Doerzaph
      Pages: 315 - 319
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 315-319, September 2022.
      Various driverless shuttles have been tested via pilot studies worldwide, as they have the potential to fill gaps in public transportation services. However, we presently lack a complete understanding of how people who share the road with such vehicles perceive the new technology, as most studies to date have surveyed the general public (without direct exposure) or riders of automated shuttles. To inform future deployments of such vehicles on public roadways, researchers at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute operated a low- speed automated shuttle and surveyed both shuttle riders and also non-riders before and after their 3 months of exposure to the shuttle operation. The results suggest that even though experience with, and exposure to, the technology gathered trust and acceptance among road users, shuttle riders had more positive attitudes toward shuttle operations than did non-riders. In addition, many people strongly support rules and restrictions governing shuttle operations on public roadways. Future researchers and policymakers could leverage the survey findings for more successful deployments of automated shuttles on public roadways.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661042
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Framework to Assess Pedestrian Exposure Using Personal Device Data

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      Authors: Grace Douglas, Linda Ng Boyle, Haena Kim, Anne Moudon, Steve Mooney, Brian Saelens, Beth Ebel
      Pages: 320 - 324
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 320-324, September 2022.
      Capturing pedestrian exposure is important to assess the likelihood of a pedestrian-vehicle crash. In this study, we show how data collected on pedestrians using personal electronic devices can provide insights on exposure. This paper presents a framework for capturing exposure using spatial pedestrian movements based on GPS coordinates collected from accelerometers, defined as walking bouts. The process includes extracting and cleaning the walking bouts and then merging other environmental factors. A zero-inflated negative binomial model is used to show how the data can be used to predict the likelihood of walking bouts at the intersection level. This information can be used by engineers, designers and planners in roadway designs to enhance pedestrian safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661319
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Law enforcement officers’ acceptance of advanced driver assistance
           systems: An application of technology acceptance modeling (TAM)

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      Authors: Farzaneh Shahini, Vanessa Nasr, David Wozniak, Maryam Zahabi
      Pages: 325 - 329
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 325-329, September 2022.
      Vehicle crashes are one of the main causes of injuries and deaths for law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the line of duty. These crashes occur due to factors such as driving at high speed in emergency situations, fatigue, or use of in- vehicle technologies while driving. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to reduce crashes and improve LEO safety in police operations; however, there has been no prior research on acceptance of these technologies among LEOs. A survey study with 73 LEOs was conducted to understand factors that affect their acceptance and intention to use ADAS technologies. Results suggested that trust and training of ADAS features can significantly increase LEOs’ intention to use the technologies. The findings can provide guidelines to enhance LEOs’ attitude and acceptance towards ADAS.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661071
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How likely will a mode shift occur' – Evaluating the demographic and
           location differences between potential and existing users of sustainable
           transportation modes

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      Authors: Meiyu Pan, Alyssa Ryan
      Pages: 330 - 334
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 330-334, September 2022.
      Transportation mode shift programs do not target specific individuals. Therefore, they are less effective in terms of facilitating mode shifts among existing single-occupancy vehicle (SOV) users. Through a widespread survey-based approach, this proposal compared the demographic and location characteristics of those whose best and second-best mobility option is public transit, micromobility, and carpool and evaluate how likely existing SOV users will shift to the more sustainable mobility options. The demographics and location patterns of the carpool nudgeable audience were found to be substantially different from existing carpool users, implying a lower likelihood for them to shift mode. The results can be used by state and regional agencies with sustainability goals to develop more targeted and effective mode shift programs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661088
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Investigating the impact of context and environment on driver’s
           situation awareness

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      Authors: Yilun Xing, Sami Park, Kumar Akash, Xingwei Wu, Teruhisa Misu, Linda Ng Boyle
      Pages: 335 - 339
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 335-339, September 2022.
      The objective of this study is to assess drivers’ ability to detect objects and the trajectory of these objects in scenarios with different environmental complexity levels. This is examined in the context of situation awareness (SA), defined as theperception, comprehension and projection of the environmental properties andpositions. The Situation Awareness Global AssessmentTechnique (SAGAT) was used in a video-based driving simulation study, where participants were asked to mark all objects in the order ofperceived risk and select the corresponding objecttype. This provided spatially continuous SA responses for the objects of interest (i.e.,pedestrians, cars and cyclists). The findings showed that object type and size, visual complexity, number of objects and roadway typehada significant impact ontheoperator’s ability toperceiveobjectsaswellastoprojectthe object trajectories. The resultsprovideus some insightsinchoosing predictorsbesideseye-tracking data for SA predictive model.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661317
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Incorporating driver expectations into a taxonomy of transfers of control
           for automated vehicles

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      Authors: Joonbum Lee, Jessica R. Lee, Madeline L. Koenig, John R. Douglas, Joshua E. Domeyer, John D. Lee, Heishiro Toyoda
      Pages: 340 - 344
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 340-344, September 2022.
      This study expands existing taxonomies for transfer of control (TOC) with driving automation. A TOC taxonomy is necessary to categorize types of TOC, interpret drivers’ behavior during a transition, and assess the safety implications of each TOC type. However, existing taxonomies do not capture important aspects of the driver’s reaction to the transfer because they often only focus on the initiator and receiver. Thus, we synthesized relevant literature and suggested factors for expanding a TOC taxonomy. The literature synthesis revealed that temporal attributes (e.g., urgency) and predictability of TOC are dimensions that can extend existing taxonomies. Based on the findings, we developed a new TOC taxonomy using four factors (initiator, receiver, system predictability, and driver expectation) with relevant use cases. The new taxonomy distinguishes 16 different types of TOCs and enhances our understanding of TOC types and their implications for safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661241
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Impacts of Adaptive Driving Styles on Trust in Level 2 Automated
           Vehicles

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      Authors: Yuni Y. Lee, Miaomiao Dong, Vidya Krishnamoorthy, Kumar Akash, Zhaobo Zheng, Teruhisa Misu, Gaojian Huang
      Pages: 345 - 345
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 345-345, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661327
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How Do Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Fit into Level of Automation
           Frameworks'

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      Authors: Dustin J. Souders, Kathryn Baringer, Savana L. King, Alan Mintz
      Pages: 346 - 350
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 346-350, September 2022.
      Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been increasingly incorporated in cars for nearly four decades and have changed the relationship of the driver to the driving task substantially. Over this period, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have developed similar ADAS functions (e.g., adaptive cruise control, lane keeping assist, forward collision warning), but these functions lack uniformity in their implementation such that there is the possibility of negative transfer of learning across different implementations of the same ADAS function. This brief theoretical paper aims to highlight issues around using some existing human-automation interaction (HAI) frameworks that have been used to classify vehicle automation and discuss considerations for better ADAS classification to inform their design and support safe and satisfactory use.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661323
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Do Drivers Need to Know all ADAS Limitations' A Comparison of Two
           Training Approaches for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

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      Authors: Chelsea A. DeGuzman, Birsen Donmez
      Pages: 351 - 351
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 351-351, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661312
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Behavior Change over Time When Driving with Adaptive Cruise Control

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      Authors: Ian J. Reagan, Jessica B. Cicchino, Eric R. Teoh, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Pnina Gershon
      Pages: 352 - 356
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 352-356, September 2022.
      A field operational test assessed visual-manual disengagement when driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) relative to manual driving. Ten volunteers drove instrumented vehicles on public roads for 4 weeks, using the vehicles as they would their own. To study change over time, the 4-week trial was divided evenly into two periods. Analyses were based on video of drives on limited-access highways when speed was above 25 mph. Visual-manual disengagement from driving was defined as periods when drivers had both hands off the steering wheel or performed visual-manual secondary activity with electronics. Odds of visual-manual disengagement increased from period 1 (weeks 1 and 2) to period 2 (weeks 3 and 4) more during ACC use than during manual driving. Conversely, odds of cellphone manipulation and hands-offwheel behavior increased in period 2 during manual driving only, suggesting a nuanced connection between behavioral adaptation to ACC use after a month of exposure.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661191
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • On-Road Assessment of Driver Mode Awareness of Assisted and Automated
           Driving

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      Authors: Nicholas Britten, Miguel Perez
      Pages: 357 - 361
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 357-361, September 2022.
      Increasingly, today’s vehicles offer Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Level 2 (L2) technology, and a limited number of SAE Level 3 (L3) automated driving systems (ADSs) are being developed. Since L3 ADSs can operate in L2 and manual driving, drivers’ correct mode awareness is essential. To investigate driver’s mode awareness after transitions between modes, an on-road experiment was conducted using a Wizard-of-Oz method to simulate Assisted Driving (L2-like) and Automated Driving (L3/L4-like). A total of 36 drivers completed the on-road experiment. Participants experienced periods of manual driving, assisted driving, automated driving, and transitions between these modes. After each transition, participants’ mode awareness was measured. It was hypothesized that drivers’ mode awareness would increase with system exposure over the planned automated driving periods. Results showed that drivers exhibited declarative mode awareness during both Assisted (ASD) and Automated Driving (AD) modes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661145
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Working Memory Load Impact on Effective Connectivity: a Dynamic Causal
           Modeling Study

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      Authors: Jiali Huang, Chang S. Nam, Edward P. Fitts
      Pages: 362 - 366
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 362-366, September 2022.
      This study aims to examine the roles of the brain regions in working memory (WM) processing and the modulatory effects of WM load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded when participants perform a letter-version n-back task with three different levels of WM load. The directional causal connections between brain regions were estimated using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM). The directions and strengths of the connections were compared for different WM load conditions. The results showed a right-lateralized, backward-only connection pattern for the high WM load condition. The results also showed changes in the roles of the brain regions when the WM load increases. These findings of the modulatory effects of WM load may be utilized in measuring cognitive states, and designing adaptive automation in augmented cognition programs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661139
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Putting the Brain in the Driver’s Seat: Using Transcranial Doppler
           Sonography to Examine Vigilance in Automated Driving

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      Authors: Tiffany G. Lui, Eric T. Greenlee
      Pages: 367 - 367
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 367-367, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661257
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Repurposing design in bedrooms to improve home accessibility: task and
           motion analysis using the virtual reality environment

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      Authors: Yue Luo, Nicolas S Grimaldi, Xiaojie Lu, Sherry Ahrentzen, Boyi Hu
      Pages: 368 - 372
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 368-372, September 2022.
      Functional disabilities, which have an association with a higher risk of falling in households, are common in the U.S. Individuals with functional limitations may benefit from accessible homes since they improve safety and reduce the risk of falling. Repurposing design is one strategy to improve home accessibility, by adapting home spaces and fixtures to serve a new purpose. This study aimed to propose a repurposing design in the bedroom area. The idea for a new bedroom repurposing design was proposed after analyzing a standard bedroom floor plan. The original standard bedroom layout and the redesigned bedroom layout were simulated in a virtual reality environment. To evaluate the accessibility of the new bedroom repurposing design, six participants (four females, 56.3 ± 14.1 years old) were recruited to perform two daily activities (i.e., relocating the robe & going to the bathroom) in both the original and redesigned bedrooms. The comparison of participants' task performance and trunk motion in both bedroom layouts revealed: (1) the sequences of actions required for two daily activities were similar between both bedroom layouts, (2) participants spent less time and walked for a shorter distance in the redesigned bedroom layout than in the original layout, (3) the motion smoothness when walking to the closet improved, whereas the RMS of trunk acceleration when opening the bathroom door decreased in the redesigned bedroom layout compared to the original layout.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661133
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Visual Search in Augmented Reality: Effect of Target Cue Type and Location

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      Authors: Amelia C. Warden, Christopher D. Wickens, Domenick Mifsud, Shannon Ourada, Benjamin A. Clegg, Francisco R. Ortega
      Pages: 373 - 377
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 373-377, September 2022.
      The current experiment examined the relative benefit of different cueing aids during a visual target search task, and the tradeoff between reduced information access effort and increased overlay clutter. Using an augmented reality head-mounted display (AR-HMD), participants completed a 180-degree visual search task with three different cue types (world-referenced arrow, screen-referenced icon target image, and screen-referenced minimap) compared to a control condition (no cueing aid). Target cues differed in terms of display proximity and where they were presented on the AR-HMD (the central field of view or approximately 15 degrees downward from the center). We found an overall performance benefit when searching for an object in the far domain with a target cue compared to searching with no cue, and the arrow cue (highest display proximity) showed the greatest overall benefit. We also found a performance benefit for cues located at the center of the AR-HMD compared to the downward location, but this benefit was offset by the higher clutter of the icon image and the minimap. These findings suggest that target cues with higher display proximity that also reduce information access effort (scanning) may be more suitable cueing aids when searching for an object in the far domain.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661260
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Automating Everyday Activities: A Study on the Usage of Text-Based
           AutoCorrect among Age Groups

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      Authors: Shree N. Frazier, Sara A. McComb, Brandon J. Pitts
      Pages: 378 - 382
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 378-382, September 2022.
      Automation has infiltrated nearly all areas of our lives. Many technologies have not been designed considering older adult populations. Smartphone usage is pervasive among older individuals, but whether age-related differences exist in the use of automated features of mobile devices continues to be researched. This study examined how younger, middle-aged, and older adults use AutoCorrect (AC) to send mobile messages. A total of 138 participants were asked about their perceptions of AC and to write messages in response to four scenarios that varied in complexity. Overall, younger adults had a more favorable perception of AC compared to middle-aged and older adults. Also, when complexity was both high and low, older adults were more likely to proofread their messages, manually correct AC, find AC distracting, and perceive AC to be helpful. Our findings suggest that older adults do engage with automation differently than their younger counterparts, which should be considered by automation designers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661265
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Senior Leaders’ Panel on Symbiosis in Aviation – The Human Factors
           Engineer / Pilot Cooperation

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      Authors: Craig Bomben, Emily L. Howard, Kathy H Abbott, Dr. Meredith Carroll, Ratan Khatwa
      Pages: 383 - 387
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 383-387, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661016
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Joint Activity Design Evaluation Tools for Conducting Staged-World Studies

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      Authors: J.M. Haggit, C. Antonik, J.M. Flach, T.R. McEwen, M.W. Smith
      Pages: 388 - 391
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 388-391, September 2022.
      Intelligence analysis requires an analyst to search for meaningful events in vast amounts of distributed data and synthesize those events into insights to inform decision-making. Because of the complexity, dynamics of the ecology, and typical functions of work, analysis performance can be difficult to study in traditional laboratory environments. Staged-world studies, which maintain experimental control while preserving the complexity of the work domain, represent a promising approach to study analyst performance. To support an ongoing research program, we are developing the Joint Activity Design Evaluation (JADE) platform, a software tool for conducting staged-world studies within the intelligence analysis (IA) domain. Herein, we describe three of JADE’s core capabilities for presenting scenarios based on common challenges of cognitive work, eliciting participant responses, and storing and displaying pertinent data. As JADE continues to mature and add new features, we expect it to become a tool for researchers to conduct staged-world studies across a broader range of application domains.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661124
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Designing for Mutually Beneficial Decision Making in Human-Agent Teaming

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      Authors: Rohit Mallick, Sarvesh Sawant, Nathan McNeese, Kapil Chalil Madathil
      Pages: 392 - 396
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 392-396, September 2022.
      This paper presents a joint decision-making framework between human and artificial intelligent agents in an effort to create a cohesive team uninhibited by each other’s actions. Based on the well-known Recognition Primed Decision-Making Model, our framework expands upon RPD’s single decision maker to be more Human-Agent Teaming (HAT) oriented. Specifically, our framework includes three layers of shared cognition to ensure both a consistent level of transparency between members and the efficient completion of the task. The first layer provides itself as a foundation of expectations that provides familiarity recognition in a situation. The second layer categorizes the environmental features into relevant decisions informing the symbiotic nature of who should and how to enact decisions collaboratively, which is the third layer. Altogether, this mutually beneficial decision-making model emphasizes transparency so that both humans and artificial agents are equal partners in completing tasks in unique situations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661358
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • When Transparency Fails: Compliance with Decision Support in Nautical
           Collision Avoidance

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      Authors: Rebecca L. Pharmer, Christopher D. Wickens, Benjamin A. Clegg
      Pages: 397 - 401
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 397-401, September 2022.
      To attempt to counter uncalibrated compliance with an automated decision aid, the current study sought to introduce some level of transparency into the system’s recommendations. An experiment was conducted using a simple, simulated maritime collision avoidance task featuring an imperfect, but highly reliable, de-cision aid. Specifically, the aid’s recommendations were sometimes paired with a single confidence meas-ure associated with the actual level of difficulty of the trial. Compliance with the aid produced safer out-comes in terms of miss distance at closest point of approach. However, transparency in the form of confi-dence measures did not increase overall compliance with the aid, nor affect the safety of maneuvers. Im-plications for transparency and compliance are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661321
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Strategy-Specific Decision Making with Incomplete Information

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      Authors: William I.N. Sealy, Karen M. Feigh
      Pages: 402 - 406
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 402-406, September 2022.
      Decision making rarely occurs in perfect environments with unlimited time and complete information. Additionally, individual variations in decision strategy are nuanced and time-evolving. It is therefore important to understand the effects of distributions of information under uncertainty, and that we do so with respect to a range of decision strategies. In this study we assess decision making in three decision environments covering both heuristic and analytic strategies. We find that the amount of information presented to the participant and the way in which that information is structured within each cue (across options) significantly affects decision performance in all environments. Additionally, the participants’ information access trends indicate that decision performance is linked with an adaptation of decision strategy to match the environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661236
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparing Team Performance Constructs Involved in Ground Combat and a
           Ground Combat Simulator

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      Authors: Griffin M. Wilson, Yvonne Farah, Veronica Furukawa, April Melody Hui En Tan, Michael C. Dorneich, Stephen B. Gilbert
      Pages: 407 - 411
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 407-411, September 2022.
      This paper aims at exploring whether a single team performance management system could effectively monitor team communication within active firefights in both real and simulated environments. While individual skills training in military settings has undergone extensive research, work focused on contrasting team constructs within real and simulated combat has seen comparatively little development. One hour of firefight footage taken from US Army engagements and one hour of firefight footage taken from groups using the ground combat simulator ARMA 3 were reviewed. Analysis revealed that the team metrics recorded by team performance measurement system are similar in quality and quantity. While this was an early exploratory study, these preliminary results support the proposition that teamwork in real and simulated ground combat environments is similar enough to use common metrics between them. These results may indicate a potential for more effective cross-training of military teams in simulated environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661322
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Incorporation of the ACTA Method for Bone Defect Interpretation Training

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      Authors: Jack Marzullo, Ali Farahani, Mary Fendley, Mary Caldorera-Moore
      Pages: 412 - 416
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 412-416, September 2022.
      There is a need for additional research regarding diagnostic image interpretation in clinical decision making. Educational avenues such as procedural shadowing and lengthy training programs have not lowered a presently high diagnostic error rate that exists within the healthcare community. Past research has introduced schematic approaches to act as a universal model of diagnostic reasoning. We apply the Applied Cognitive Task Analysis (ACTA) methodology to establish additional insight on diagnostic imagery analysis, to guide development of training procedures for bone defect detection. Results indicate how a balance of stained color pattern recognition and functional knowledge of histology proved vital to image interpretation when tasked with finding distinct measurements of bone defects within model images.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661348
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cue Use is Unaffected by Covertly Performing a Task

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      Authors: Lisa Vangsness, Jade Driggs
      Pages: 417 - 421
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 417-421, September 2022.
      Humans learn by watching others. One aspect of these observations are our Judgments of Difficulty (JODs) about a task. Research has revealed discrepancies in the judgments we make while performing and observing; these discrepancies are alternatively explained by the Simulation and Theory Models of metacognition. This study tested these models by capitalizing on a behavior that naturally occurs during observation: covert performance. We compared the cues to difficulty used by pure observers and covert performers as they watched an automated system (AS) perform a visual search task. Students used peripheral and central cues to difficulty similarly, regardless of whether they purely observed or covertly performed the task, lending support to the Theory Model of metacognition. The study offers an explanation for peoples’ inflated sense of ability while watching others perform and suggests that providing people with experience – not just observation– is a critical part of correcting these faulty judgments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661357
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Metrics for Assessing the Quality of NFL Announcers

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      Authors: Mohammadamin Sanaei, Nathan C. Sepich, Kristina M. Schaffhausen, Stephen B. Gilbert
      Pages: 422 - 426
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 422-426, September 2022.
      Announcers are one of the most important factors that can affect viewers’ enjoyment of televised sports. Discovering metrics for announcer quality would be useful for predicting future announcer performance and possibly lead to improvement of announcers. The authors tried to extract useful metrics for announcer quality by using behavioral coding of American football game videos. Initial data was gathered by watching the first half of twelve NFL football games of CBS, ESPN, NBS, and FOX, and metrics were compared with the number of viewers of the different channels. While non-weighted metrics had no correlation with the number of viewers, weighting the metrics showed that announcers’ excitement building, context building, and real-time visual analysis have the strongest potential correlation with viewers’ enjoyment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661232
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mass Casualty Incident Commander Decision-Making Models

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      Authors: Perry O., E. Jaffe, Y. Yuval Bitan
      Pages: 427 - 428
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 427-428, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661091
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • “Why aren’t you talking'” Pilot strategies for helping a wingman
           recover from a physiological event

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      Authors: Laura Militello, April Rose Panganiban, Katie Ernst, Michael Tolston, Eli Wagner, Gregory Funke
      Pages: 429 - 429
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 429-429, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661293
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • PER4Mance Prototyping environment for research on human-machine
           interactions for alarm floods management: the case study of a chemical
           plant process control

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      Authors: Karine Ung, Polytechnique Montreal Omar Nemer, Aswin Krishna, Moncef Chioua, Philippe Doyon-Poulin
      Pages: 430 - 434
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 430-434, September 2022.
      Alarm floods are dangerous because the quantity of alarms triggered is too numerous for operators to reliably implement the right corrective action. Process operators of complex systems, such as chemical plants or nuclear power production, are faced with alarm management systems that can be better built in consideration of human capabilities and limitations. Developing human-machine interfaces (HMIs) that better support operators is critical for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of critical systems and processes. The research team has developed an accessible and adaptable prototyping environment dedicated for research on alarm management and human-machine interactions in the process industry. The method used was to build on the Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP) simulator and incorporate Human-Machine design guidelines. The results are an open-sourced prototyping environment that incorporates data from a real chemical plant and integrates true alarm data and thresholds. At the end of this article, we share the Github link to the entire MATLAB, Simulink and App Designer files of PER4Mance: a prototyping environment for research on human-machine interactions for alarm flood management.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661248
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Using Gaze-based Interaction to Alleviate Situational Mobility Impairment
           in Extended Reality

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      Authors: Yalda Ghasemi, Heejin Jeong
      Pages: 435 - 439
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 435-439, September 2022.
      Significant advancements of eye-tracking technology in extended reality (XR) head-mounted displays have increased the interest in gaze-based interactions. The benefits of gaze interaction proved that it could be a suitable alternative for hand-based interactions when users face situations where they must maintain their position due to mobility impairment. This study aims to assess the user experience of the gaze-based interaction, compared to hand-based interaction, in two movement conditions of static and dynamic. Twenty-four participants took part in this study, and their experience was evaluated in terms of perceived workload, usability, and performance. The results show that gaze-based interactions significantly outperform the hand-based interaction in terms of perceived workload and usability in case of limited mobility. Also, the user performance is significantly higher in gaze-based modes under situational impairment. The findings of this study can be used for designing XR interfaces considering the situation in which the task is performed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661224
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Are Emojis Worth a Thousand Words' An Iconic Tool for Emotion
           Assessment

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      Authors: Sahinya Susindar, Maja Schermuly, Nathaniel Krall, Taylor Pham, Thomas K.
      Pages: 440 - 444
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 440-444, September 2022.
      Assessments of emotional states are plagued with challenges in both the quantitative and qualitative realms. There is a lack of a definitive guide to making objective assessments based on physiological responses and qualitative methods lean heavily on subjective interpretation using self-assessments, both of which are hampered by individual differences. Self-assessment tools have largely used words or phrases to describe feelings however, iconic or visual tools are also gaining popularity. A significant number of such tools are based on the dimensional models of emotion and may not always suit the needs of studies on the role of emotions on cognitive abilities such as decision making. The tool described in this paper is developed based on two key requirements: 1) use in studying emotion and decision making, and 2) can easily be integrated into a context with a demanding primary task, such as driving, to be used concurrently with the task. A survey was conducted to identify emojis that are most commonly associated with basic emotions. Emojis were weighted and ranked for inclusion in the tool. The tool developed is called the Iconic Communication of Emotions (ICE).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661342
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Display Modality on Simulated On-Orbit Inspection Performance:
           Initial Results from Human Exploration Research Analog Campaign 6

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      Authors: Andrew M. Liu, Hannah Weiss, Leia Stirling
      Pages: 445 - 449
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 445-449, September 2022.
      To reduce risk in future human spaceflights, free-flying teleoperated inspector robots could be a viable alternative to extravehicular activity inspection operations. Teleoperation depends on accurate operator situation awareness; consequently, a key to successful operations is providing appropriate feedback through an intuitive interface. During each week of a 45-day mission in NASA Human Exploration Research Analog Campaign 6, four crew members perform two simulated telerobotic inspection tasks (Synchronous Inspection task, Asynchronous Inspection task) while using three distinct visual displays (2D, 3D, AR). Preliminary results from Campaign 6 Mission 1 suggest that task performance and efficiency generally improved with each repetition of the task. Performance with the AR display did not show a performance benefit compared to using the 2D or 3D displays. These results are also in general agreement with a prior laboratory study using the same experiment protocol.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661197
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Predicting Decision-Making Competence using Reward Distributions

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      Authors: Keum Joo Kim, Eugene Santos
      Pages: 450 - 454
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 450-454, September 2022.
      Inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) is a useful tool for building autonomous agents capable of making decisions by learning from the behavioral records of human decision-makers. Incorporating individual differences into multi-agent systems can be key to solving complex problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to predict decision-making competence (DMC) affecting cognitive ability to make decisions, using reward distributions uncovered by IRL. Our framework consists of building Double Transition Models (DTMs) from behavioral records of human subjects, discovering reward distributions using IRL, and utilizing these distributions to predict the DMC of individuals. The experimental results obtained by applying clustering and classification approaches confirmed that the DMC of the SCOUT subjects can be successfully predicted from reward distributions. High DMC individuals were clustered together and predicted more accurately than others, resulting in about 85 percent of predictive accuracy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661003
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Multidisciplinary Projects for Human Factors Courses

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      Authors: Anne Collins McLaughlin, Monifa Vaughn-Cooke, Patricia DeLucia
      Pages: 455 - 459
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 455-459, September 2022.
      Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary work are at the core of human factors research, both in academia and in industry. Working and communicating with those in other disciplines, from computer science to the humanities, is a necessary skill for graduates of human factors programs. Traditional introductory human factors courses include an applied component, usually an individual or group project, that gives students experience with the many tools they will need in the future, from task analysis to making conclusions based on participant data. Here we describe experiences in extending that coursework to include multidisciplinary interactions in applied contexts. Recommendations include using similar methods to broaden human factors education and including experiences with those in different roles and backgrounds than human factors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661070
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • What Does an Emerging Intelligence Augmentation Economy Mean for HF/E'
           Can Learning Engineering Help'

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      Authors: Jim Goodell, Scotty D. Craig
      Pages: 460 - 464
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 460-464, September 2022.
      The emergence of an intelligence augmentation economy will fundamentally change the nature of work and what people need to learn and do to be its contributors and beneficiaries. This paper explores what this means for the science and practice of human factors/ergonomics design and engineering as well as how we teach it. We summarize the augmented economy and HFES relevant examples of learning within it. We them point out some of the challenges to HFES within this setting. Finally, we propose the learning engineering process as one model that might help advance the field respond to the intelligence augmentation economy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661283
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • SecureLD: Secure And Accessible Learning for Students with Disabilities

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      Authors: Sunny Shrestha, David Thomas, Sanchari Das
      Pages: 465 - 469
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 465-469, September 2022.
      COVID-19 has impacted various sectors of everyday living, including the education sector. Due to the pandemic, the educational institutions everywhere were forced to switch to the online platform as per CDC guidelines. However, the transition and adaptation to the online learning format have had varied effects on different populations. This study looks at 62 students with disabilities and their experience with online learning. The technology and tools used in online learning have many vulnerabilities related to privacy and security; thus, we aim to understand students' perceptions of security and privacy in an online learning platform. We have found that, although students with learning disabilities like the option of online learning, they want and require more guidance and coordination in learning to use online learning platforms. We also see that neurodiverse students with learning disabilities recognize the need for a secure and privacy-preserving online learning environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661157
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How an animated pedagogical agent’s emotional expression can impact
           trust and learning outcomes: Emotive virtual humans have the same results
           with a smile or scowl

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      Authors: Robert F. Siegle, Jodi L. Puchalski, Scotty D. Craig
      Pages: 470 - 474
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 470-474, September 2022.
      The current study examines if the emotional expression of an animated pedagogical agent has an impact on the trust formed between learners and the agent or on learning outcomes. Researchers have shown that the design decisions of pedagogical agents, or virtual humans, can impact user interaction. However, the effects of the virtual human’s emotional expression have yet to be fully understood. Results from this study show that trust is not affected by the emotional expression of the agents. However, evidence suggests that emotive virtual humans reduce attrition effects compared to agents without emotional expressions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661336
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A mobile platform app to assist learning human kinematics in undergraduate
           biomechanics courses

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      Authors: Hanwen Wang, Lu Lu, Ziyang Xie Bingyi Su, Xu Xu Edward P.
      Pages: 475 - 479
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 475-479, September 2022.
      Biomechanics examines different physical characteristics of the human body movement by applying principles of Newtonian mechanics to physical activities. Therefore, undergraduate biomechanics courses are highly demanding in mathematics and physics. While the inclusion of laboratory experiences can augment student comprehension of biomechanics concepts, the cost and the required expertise associated with motion tracking systems can be a burden of offering laboratory sessions. In this study, we developed a mobile platform app to facilitate learning human kinematics in biomechanics courses. An optimized computer-vision model that is based on convolutional pose machine (CPM), MobileNet V2 and TensorFlow Lite frameworks is adopted to reconstruct human pose first. A real-time human kinematics analysis then allows students to conduct human motion experiments. The proposed app can serve as a potential instructional tool in biomechanics courses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661058
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Relationships of eye gaze metrics between cognitive processes and strategy
           in spatial problem-solving

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      Authors: Hsiang-Wen Hsing, Nathan Lau, Diana Bairaktarova
      Pages: 480 - 484
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 480-484, September 2022.
      Spatial strategies and cognitive processes have been separately found to indicate performance in spatial problem-solving, but their relationships have not been investigated quantitatively. This study employed eye-tracking to characterize and determine the relationship of the cognitive processes and spatial strategies employed by first year engineering students with low spatial ability. Eighty-eight engineering students with low spatial ability were recruited to complete test items in the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotations (PSVT:R) and the Santa Barbara Solids Test (SBST). Eye-tracking data were collected to indicate the encoding, transformation, confirmation cognitive processes as well as whether holistic or piecemeal strategy was employed. Strategy ratio correlated with encoding fixations more than other cognitive processes. This finding suggests that encoding may be more indicative of spatial strategies being employed than the transform and confirmation processes. Pedagogical practices for low spatial ability students may turn to improving the encoding process for better learning outcomes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661125
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Paving the Path for Sustainability in Design

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      Authors: Amrita Maguire, Andrew Thatcher, Carryl Baldwin, Peter Hancock, Jesse Duroha, Gretchen Macht
      Pages: 485 - 489
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 485-489, September 2022.
      What role can Human Factors and Ergonomics practitioners perform to pave the path to evolving sustainability in design' Being “green” is often perceived to cost money, requires a commitment of resources even when there is not an apparent return on investment (ROI), sometimes it is just about being a good global citizen and responsive to the plight of our planet, with no direct perceived monetary benefit (perhaps ever). This panel will be a social impact discussion hosted by the HFES Sustainability Taskforce. The participants will include HFES attendees in the audience along with Academia, Industries, and Influencers in the area of sustainability. This is an open forum for brainstorming, gathering actionable ideas to charter HF/E influence in sustainable design to support our planet. Industries are chasing sustainability goals and looking for measurable sustainability targets as indicators of success. Let HFES help by guiding future & current practitioners who can help achieve goals.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661024
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Manual Wheelchair Movement Performance Differences Between Older Adults
           with Earlier- and Later-in-Life Incidence

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      Authors: Kamolnat Tabattanon, Bernard J. Martin
      Pages: 490 - 494
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 490-494, September 2022.
      Independent mobility is crucial for healthy aging. Although there are anticipated differences between older adults with earlier-in-life (EL) versus later-in-life (LL) incidence of mobility disability, the degree to which incidence periods impact performance within environments is unknown. While current evaluation methods rely heavily on subjective ratings, historically excluded populations are prone to underrepresent their own challenges. This paper describes an experiment comparing the assumed, perceived, and effective performance of manual wheelchair movement tasks to examine differences between EL and LL groups. Preliminary results found higher muscular exertion in the LL group compared to the EL group for similar movements, particularly in the anterior and posterior deltoid muscles. There was a greater mismatch between the assumed and perceived mental and physical demand for the LL group. For both groups, results suggest poorer mental models for moderate-difficulty tasks compared to high-difficulty tasks, suggesting a need for increased perceptual feedback within moderate-difficulty environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661175
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Can sit-stand table use influence physical behavior and body composition
           in office workers' A six-month intervention study

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      Authors: Dechristian França Barbieri, Luiz Augusto Brusaca, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Divya Srinivasan, Ana Beatriz Oliveira
      Pages: 495 - 496
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 495-496, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661217
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Promoting Healthier Office Environments: Evaluation of Mindfulness and Gym
           Interventions

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      Authors: Alec Gonzales, Jia-Hua Lin, Jackie Cha
      Pages: 497 - 497
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 497-497, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661230
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Ergonomic Assessment Tool
           for Unstructured and Unregulated Work

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      Authors: Nana A. N. Yeboah, Augustine A. Acquah, Clive D’Souza, Bernard J. Martin, John Arko-Mensah, Julius N. Fobil
      Pages: 498 - 502
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 498-502, September 2022.
      Existing ergonomic assessment tools have been designed for routine and structured work making their use in informal work setting challenging due to the high variability in tasks performed by informal workers. The Ergonomic Assessment tool for Unstructured Work (EAUW) was developed by Acquah and colleagues to address this challenge. The tool is efficient and has good inter-observer reliability, but little information is known about its other psychometric properties. This paper assesses the reliability and validity of EAUW. Criterion validity was determined by comparing the EAUW with existing tools for a selected number of e-waste recycling tasks. Intra-observer reliability was determined by comparing observations from the same assessor 5 days apart. Results indicated a high intra-observer agreement for all exposure variables. Compared to existing tools which provide a snapshot of ergonomic exposures, the EAUW provides a more detailed estimate of work exposures between- and within-workers across time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661339
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reconcile Voice Communication and Auditory Distraction in Military
           Open-Plan Workspace Design

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      Authors: Wenbi Wang, Angela Y. Wang, Ann Nakashima
      Pages: 503 - 507
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 503-507, September 2022.
      Facilitating voice communication and reducing auditory distraction are common requirements in layout design of military open-plan workspaces. The implications of these requirements on between-operator adjacency however are often contradictory. To support the design of such work environments, a new analytical procedure was developed to evaluate layout options according to their impact on both requirements. This procedure was explained in a modeling study to compare two frequently used layout configurations, i.e., outward-facing versus inward-facing workstation setups. The results predicted a quieter vocal effort for the speakers and a lower risk of auditory distraction for all listeners in the outward-facing configuration. The study demonstrated the usefulness of this analytical procedure to support layout design of military workplaces where a balanced consideration of communication and distraction is required.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661050
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Empathy from Afar' Towards Empathy for Future Maritime Designers and
           Remote Operators

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      Authors: Steven C. Mallam¹, Kjetil Nordby², Koen van de Merwe¹, Erik Veitch, Salman Nazir¹, Brian Veitch
      Pages: 508 - 512
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 508-512, September 2022.
      Having empathy and being able to empathize refer to the ability to understand, view or feel the experiences and perspectives of others. In a work context, the ability of different actors to empathize with others can have positive effects in the design, organization and operations of complex systems. This article explores the value of empathy within safety-critical work systems and discusses the role of empathy as an entry point for user-centred approaches. We use the maritime domain to illustrate why developing empathic skills and knowledge has relevance and added-value for (1) maritime design and designers, and (2) future remote maritime operations and operators of unmanned vessels. We detail our emerging approaches and methods for developing empathy as a tool to enhance interdisciplinary understanding and knowledge sharing with the overall goal of improving Human Factors utilization in applied work contexts.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661062
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Flip-Flops: A Survey of Risk Perception and Acceptance

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      Authors: David Fortenbaugh, Peggy Shibata, Manuel Meza-Arroyo, Keith Thobe
      Pages: 513 - 517
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 513-517, September 2022.
      This study’s goal was to better understand risk tolerance associated with wearing flip-flops. A review of existing biomechanical data revealed substantial differences in gait kinematics and kinetics and an increased risk of falling when wearing flip-flops. However, users’ awareness of this increased risk and its potential influence on footwear decisions have not been studied. Nearly 800 participants were surveyed to evaluate usage behaviors of flip-flop wearers. Most participants found flip-flops comfortable and easy to wear, recognized the increased likelihood of a slip, trip, or misstep when wearing flip-flops, and reported experiencing such an event, mostly without injury. Older adults were less likely to have these attitudes and experiences regarding flip-flops. Despite the collective practical knowledge of an increased risk of a slip, trip, or misstep, most participants accepted the risk and chose to wear flip-flops, i.e., footwear choice was infrequently affected by awareness of the increased risk.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661160
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Role of Pedestrian Conspicuity and walking speed in the Forensic
           Analysis of a Potential Pedestrian-Tractor Trailer Collision

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      Authors: Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski, Leah S. Hartman
      Pages: 518 - 521
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 518-521, September 2022.
      The case study involves the investigation of an alleged collision between a pedestrian and tractor trailer in which the pedestrian (Mr. D) suffered fatal injuries. Investigation by state officials relied on surveillance video to determine time of death and identified the driver (Mr. R) who pulled up to a pump after Mr. D was last seen in the surveillance video. The Human Factors Consultants utilized both industry standards and human factors data/research in formulating opinions related to pedestrian conspicuity. We found that the gas station did not have adequate lighting in the incident area. Additionally, animations were used to model the typical walking speed of an individual of Mr. D’s age, indicating he would have passed the point of impact prior to the defendant driver passing it. Our analysis regarding the likelihood of a driver perceiving a low contrast pedestrian in conjunction with data from an accident reconstruction offered valuable insight into this matter.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661278
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • FORENSIC TECHNIQUE: The Utilization of 3D Laser Scans for Topographic
           Mapping of Walking Surfaces

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      Authors: Leah S. Hartman, Robert M. Funcik, Stephanie A. Whetsel Borzendowski, Charles A. Robertson
      Pages: 522 - 525
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 522-525, September 2022.
      This case study demonstrates the forensic technique of utilizing 3D scans to provide visual topographic information about a walking surface. The case study involves a woman who allegedly experienced a slip and fall on a transition from a concrete curb ramp to an asphalt parking lot. A portion of the allegations included the potential of ice forming in the area, contributing to the fall. The plaintiff’s expert performed measurements which resulted in the reporting of inaccurately high changes in elevation in the area concluding that there were areas where water could accumulate. With the utilization of 3D scans, we were able to create a topographic map of the area and demonstrate there were no areas where precipitation could accumulate significantly. This methodology is useful to practitioners for the investigation of cases in which the question of changes in elevation and / or slopes are in question.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661272
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Sensitivity of Eye-Tracking Measures to Variations in Mental Workload
           while Learning to Operate a Physically Coupled Robot

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      Authors: Satyajit Upasani, Qi Zhu, Eric Du, Alexander Leonessa, Divya Srinivasan
      Pages: 526 - 527
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 526-527, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661198
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Multifractal Analysis of Heart Rate Dynamics as a Predictor of Teammate
           Trust in Human-Machine Teams

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      Authors: Mustafa Demir, Craig J. Johnson, Myke C. Cohen, David A. Grimm, Nancy J. Cooke, Jamie C. Gorman
      Pages: 528 - 529
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 528-529, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661101
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Role of Timing of Information Front-Loading and Planning Ahead in
           All-Human vs. Human-Autonomy Team Performance

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      Authors: Matthew J. Scalia, Shiwen Zhou, David A.P. Grimm, Julie L. Harrison, Jamie C. Gorman
      Pages: 530 - 534
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 530-534, September 2022.
      The current study examines the effects of teams front-loading information and planning ahead through team-level communication during action phases of taskwork on team performance across all-human and human-autonomy teams (HATs) in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System-Synthetic Task Environment (RPAS-STE). Twenty-one three-member teams (two participants teaming with either a trained experimenter or autonomous agent) flew an RPA with the goal of photographing target waypoints. Basing action phases on Information-Negotiation-Feedback (I-N-F) loops, we used the time difference between F-I as an indication of a team front-loading information. Planning ahead was hypothesized to occur in teams with longer F-I times. We found that all-human teams performed better than HATs while engaging in less front-loading. This indicates that F-I might have been measuring an aspect of team coordination related to optimal timing of action phases and flow of performing taskwork. Effective teamwork may require the right person (agent) get the right information at the right time rather than front-loading information as much as possible.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661251
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Interplay of Cognitive Fatigue and Trust in Human-Robot Collaboration

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      Authors: Aakash Yadav, Sarah K. Hopko, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Pages: 535 - 535
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 535-535, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661261
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Capturing Dynamic Trust Metrics during Shared Space Human Robot
           Collaboration: An eye-tracking approach

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      Authors: Yinsu Zhang, Sarah Hopko, Aakash Y, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Pages: 536 - 536
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 536-536, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661296
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Assessing Workers’ Mental Stress in Hand-over Activities during
           Human-robot Collaboration

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      Authors: Lu Lu, Ziyang Xie, Hanwen Wang, Bingyi Su, Xu Xu Edward P. Fitts
      Pages: 537 - 541
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 537-541, September 2022.
      Human-robot collaboration (HRC) is an emerging research area that has gained tremendous attention from both academia and industry. Since some robot-related factors can elicit mental stress or have negative psychological effects on human workers, it is essential to understand these factors and maintain workers’ mental stress at a low level. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) measures skin conductance and is known to be a physiological measurement that reflects short-term mental stress. Typically, skin conductance increases in response to greater mental stress. In this study, the mental stress caused by the hand-over activities of a collaborative robot was investigated using both GSR as an objective measurement and NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) as a subjective assessment. Several robot-related factors that may lead to mental stress were experimentally examined. GSR outcomes indicated that end effector approaching within workers’ view, low end effector speed, and constrained end effector trajectory led to a significantly lower skin conductance. Some aspects of the NASA-TLX also indicated that speed and trajectory significantly affected the scores. Yet, no significant differences were found between approaching directions regarding NASA-TLX scores.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661194
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Information Modality and Confidence on Trust and Situation
           Awareness in Human-Robot Teaming

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      Authors: Matthew A. Peel, Alexandra T. Wolff, Felix R. Raimondo, Alexander J. Hehr, Shawaiz Bhatti, Margaret Wong, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J. Cooke, Erin K. Chiou
      Pages: 542 - 543
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 542-543, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661250
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Estimating Trust in Conversational Agent with Lexical and Acoustic
           Features

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      Authors: Mengyao Li, Isabel M Erickson, Ernest V. Cross, John D. Lee
      Pages: 544 - 548
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 544-548, September 2022.
      As NASA moves to long-duration space exploration operations, there is an increasing need for human-agent cooperation that requires real-time trust estimation by virtual agents. Our objective was to estimate trust using conversational data, including lexical and acoustic features, with machine learning. A 2 (reliability) × 2 (cycles) × 3 (events) within-subject study was designed to provoke various levels of trust. Participants had trust-related conversations with a conversational agent at the end of each event. To estimate trust, subjective trust ratings were predicted using machine learning models trained on three types of conversational features (i.e., lexical, acoustic, and combined). Results showed that a random forest model, trained on the combined lexical and acoustic features, best predicts trust in the conversational agent (R2adj = 0.67). Comparing models, we showed that trust is not only reflected in lexical cues but also acoustic cues. These results show the possibility of using conversational data to measure trust unobtrusively and dynamically.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661147
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of predictive robot eyes on attentional processes in HRI

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      Authors: Linda Onnasch, Helena Schmidt, Paul Schweidler
      Pages: 549 - 549
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 549-549, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661068
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Robustness of Human Advantage in Swarm Leader Identification

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      Authors: Ankur Deka, Katia Sycara, Phillip Walker, Huao Li, Michael Lewis
      Pages: 550 - 554
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 550-554, September 2022.
      Control of robotic swarms through control over a leader(s) has become the dominant approach to supervisory control over these largely autonomous systems. Resilience in the face of attrition is one of the primary advantages attributed to swarms yet the presence of leader(s) makes them vulnerable to decapitation. Algorithms which allow a swarm to hide its leader are a promising solution. In prior work we found that using a graph neural network, GNN, a swarm could be trained to flock following a leader. An Adversary NN trained to identify that leader (naïve condition) performed substantially better than human observers. When the swarm was trained to hide its leader (deception conditions), however, the advantage reversed with humans outperforming the Adversary. This human advantage persisted even when the swarm and Adversary were jointly trained, allowing the Adversary to adapt to the swarm’s evolving strategies for hiding its leader. The present study investigates the robustness of human leader identification by testing identifications made in the presence of medium and high levels of visual clutter. Clutter degraded human performance to some extent but human accuracy in leader identification remained well above that of the Adversary in deception conditions. Human performance even approached that for an unhidden leader under joint training. This study confirms the robustness of the human superiority effect and argues for the inclusion of humans in AI systems which may confront learned deception.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661148
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The effectiveness of uncertainty communication with varied automation
           reliability: Specificity is necessary but (potentially) not enough

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      Authors: Shannon P. Devlin, Noelle L. Brown, Sabrina M. Drollinger, Brittany N. Neilson, Cyrus K. Foroughi, Ciara M. Sibley, Joseph T. Coyne
      Pages: 555 - 559
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 555-559, September 2022.
      Automation reliance and functionality are ever increasing, especially in supervisory control environments like unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) missions. Of particular relevance is understanding how automation transparency, i.e., explaining the capabilities and limitations of automation to the human in real-time, can improve human-automation performance across automated systems that vary in reliability. Two hundred seventy one Naval Aviation trainees completed a simulated multi-UAV supervisory control mission for 42 minutes with three automated systems that varied in reliability. Participants were never explicitly told the reliability varied, but halfway through the mission, they were alerted that the least reliable system may falter. Results indicated human-automation performance improved after the alert for this specific system, but not as a whole, as one system’s human-automation performance deteriorated. This work suggests uncertainty communication should not only include the specific, real-time capabilities of the automation, but also communicate unintentional consequences it may have on the whole environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661295
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • It’s risk, Jim, but not as we know it: identifying the risks associated
           with future Artificial General Intelligence-based Unmanned Combat Aerial
           Vehicle systems

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      Authors: Paul M. Salmon*, Scott McLean, Tony Carden, Brandon King, Jason Thompson, Chris Baber, Neville A. Stanton, Gemma J. M. Read
      Pages: 560 - 564
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 560-564, September 2022.
      The next generation of artificial intelligence, known as Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), could either revolutionise or destroy humanity. Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) has a critical role to play in the design of safe and ethical AGI; however, there is little evidence that HFE is contributing to development programs. This paper presents the findings from a study which involved the use of the Work Domain Analysis-Broken Nodes approach to identify the risks that could emerge in a future ‘envisioned world’ AGI-based unmanned combat aerial vehicle system. The findings demonstrate that there are various potential risks, but that the most critical arise not due to poor performance, but rather when the AGI attempts to achieve goals at the expense of other system values, or when the AGI becomes ‘super-intelligent’, and humans can no longer manage it. The urgent need for further work exploring the design of AGI controls is emphasised.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661140
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Human Factors Engineering in Infection Prevention & Control:
           Opportunities, Examples, and the Future

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      Authors: Ayse P Gurses, Shawna J Perry, Priya Pennathur, Hugo Sax, Michael Bell, Emilie Roth (Chair)
      Pages: 565 - 569
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 565-569, September 2022.
      Effective and practical infection prevention and control (IPC) processes and protocols are vital to safety of patients and health care workers (HCWs) as well as improving public health. This interdisciplinary panel, composed of experts in IPC, public health, medicine, and human factors engineering (HFE), will discuss the urgent need for developing partnerships with HFE experts for improving IPC across the continuum of care (hospital-to-home), provide examples for consequences of not using HFE principles, and approaches in health care system design and delivery during both ‘normal’ and extraordinary (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic) times, describe previous successful partnerships among IPC, public health and HFE, and delineate possible ways forward for HFE-informed IPC and public health.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661004
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Detecting Burnout of Health Care Professionals in a COVID-19 Testing
           Laboratory

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      Authors: Carolina Carvalho Manhaes Leite, Alexandra Chronopoulou, Adviye Irem Yuceel, Abigail R. Wooldridge
      Pages: 570 - 574
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 570-574, September 2022.
      Health care professionals (HCPs) are frequently exposed to Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) issues that result in stress, adversely affecting their health and negatively impacting the quality of care. Chronic stress can result in burnout, with negative implications for individuals, health care organizations, and patients. Current approaches to monitor burnout are reactive and require additional work (e.g., survey completion). In this study, we pilot a methodology using unobtrusive sensors and advanced statistics to bridge this important gap. We collected two types of physiological data - heart rate variability (HRV) and electrodermal activity (EDA) - and measures of perceived workload and burnout from three HCPs in a COVID-19 Testing Laboratory. We identified meaningful relationships between physiological data, workload, and burnout, demonstrating that burnout can be identified proactively using real-time sensor data. Future work will expand the timeframe of data collection and include a larger sample with different types of HCPs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661066
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Intraoperative teamwork and workload among surgeons and surgical trainees
           during DIEP flap surgery

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      Authors: Hamid Norasi, Emmanuel Tetteh, Tianke Wang, Christin Harless, M. Susan Hallbeck, Minh-Doan Nguyen
      Pages: 575 - 579
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 575-579, September 2022.
      Two attending surgeons (surgeon at abdomen and surgeon at chest) and nine surgical trainees completed electronic surveys after deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgical procedures. The survey included workload and teamwork subscales. The results indicated that DIEP flap surgery is a highly demanding surgical procedure both physically and cognitively. For the surgeon at abdomen, most of workload subscales were significantly higher than the paired trainees (p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661115
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Systematic Approach for Comparing Team-based Care Processes

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      Authors: Bat-Zion Hose, Julian Conn Busch, Meghan Lane-Fall, Ellen J. Bass
      Pages: 580 - 584
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 580-584, September 2022.
      Team-based care process modeling techniques have focused on understanding and designing solutions for a single site. Less is known about tailoring an effective team-based care process from one site to another, which is necessary for multi-site implementation efforts. We propose an approach for analyzing and comparing a team-based care process performed at two sites to inform redesign opportunities. Our approach includes abstracting the goals and strategies of each process by identifying whether sociotechnical system element differences exist. Element differences may exist for the phase, tasks, roles, information, and technology and tools. Differences in system elements may still support process goals and strategies and, thus, be irrelevant for redesign opportunities. We demonstrate the utility of the approach using an operating room to intensive care unit handoff protocol. This approach should be useful for researchers and practitioners that are tailoring and implementing a successful team-based care process at more than one site.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661079
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Understanding Multiple-Team Membership and Team Effectiveness: A Social
           Network Analysis of an Ephemeral Multi- Team System Responding to a Public
           Health Crisis

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      Authors: Kaitlyn L. Hale-Lopez, Abigail R. Wooldridge
      Pages: 585 - 586
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 585-586, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661072
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Applying Epistemic Network Analysis to Explore The Distribution of Work
           Across Dementia Care Networks

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      Authors: A.R. Linden, S. Ponnala, N.E. Werner
      Pages: 587 - 591
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 587-591, September 2022.
      Persons living with dementia (PwD) rely on the support of informal caregivers such as family and friends, who often perform caregiving work within a network of both informal and formal supports. Recent research has provided insight into the size and structure of care networks, however little is known about how the caregiving work is performed and distributed across the various roles. We applied Epistemic Network Analysis (ENA) to transcripts of 30 semi-structured interviews with primary dementia caregivers to create network graphs that illustrate the difference in how primary caregivers perceive the work performed between informal and formal supports. We identified significant differences in the way that primary caregivers leverage the types of support in their care networks, expanding our understanding of the function and needs of a dementia care network.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661315
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Advancing approaches for patient ergonomics: understanding and leveraging
           the patient work network

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      Authors: Nicole E. Werner, Ryan J. Coller, M. Hughes, Elizabeth Lerner Papautsky, Rupa S. Valdez
      Pages: 592 - 596
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 592-596, September 2022.
      For people living with chronic medical conditions, the activities of patient work are often performed by multiple actors. These actors may be formal supports (i.e., paid, professional) such as clinicians in formal clinical settings, in-home nursing and therapies, school nurses, and respite care; or informal supports (i.e., unpaid nonprofessional) such as family and friends. Although often critical to the performance of patient work, the patient work network poses many methodological challenges. The five panelists will provide prepared remarks regarding a methodological approach to studying care networks and provide a discussion of the challenges and opportunities related to using the approach. These presentations will be followed by a discussion with the panel and the audience, moderated by the chair. This discussion will be focused on eliciting further discussion on opportunities, strategies for addressing potential challenges, and additional potential approaches to studying care networks including data collection tools and analytical methods.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661039
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic nature of procrastination in the online learning environment

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      Authors: Tianchen Sun, Glenndi Tjuandi, Ji-Eun Kim
      Pages: 597 - 600
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 597-600, September 2022.
      Procrastination has chronically affected college students for decades. While some researchers have considered procrastination to be an individual trait, others have suggested that procrastination has a dynamic nature over time in face-to-face classrooms. However, whether changes in procrastination over time can be found in the online learning environment remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the dynamic nature of students’ procrastination by comparing procrastination in the online learning environment during the first and second halves of an academic quarter. A deadline rush model is adopted to compute students’ procrastination across the quarter based on their online webpage activity. The results show that the students experienced greater procrastination in the second half of the quarter than in the first half of the quarter. Our findings highlight the importance of the time variable in research on students’ procrastination.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661137
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Dynamic Bayesian Network Approach for Predicting Multitasking
           Performance

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      Authors: Jiaxin Li, Tianchen Sun, Ameer Hamza Shakur, Madison Johnson, Shuai Huang
      Pages: 601 - 605
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 601-605, September 2022.
      This study examines the utilities of a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to predict multitasking performance. Multitasking is the practice of conducting more than one task simultaneously. Compared with BN (Bayesian network), the DBN has the advantage of encoding both spatial and temporal relationships of the multiple variables under uncertain information. We established the DBN model based on contextual and observable variables from 19 participants to predict multitasking performance over time. The proposed DBN outperformed the BN model with smaller prediction errors and showed great potential to be used as a tool in error management and operator screening in diverse work environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661141
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Fatigue Leads to Dynamic Shift in Fronto-parietal Sustained Attention
           Network

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      Authors: Lorraine Borghetti, L. Jack Rhodes, Megan B. Morris
      Pages: 606 - 610
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 606-610, September 2022.
      Recently, the gamma band (γ; 70-100 Hz) has been implicated in sustained attention decay across a vigil consistent with computational models of fatigue. Frontal γ indexing centrally controlled sustained attention and parietal γ linked to gated sensory processes declined across a 10-minute vigilance task, a pattern observed for faster but not slower performers. The anatomical distribution of γ activity indicates neural communication, or connectivity, within the fronto-parietal network. We used Granger Prediction to evaluate fatigue effects on network γ connectivity. Results showed stronger directional connectivity for frontal→parietal versus parietal→frontal over time, indicating that top-down control of attention largely remained intact. However, parietal→frontal early γ connectivity increased with time, suggesting a network shift to enhanced sensory-directed processes after only 8 minutes. This pattern of connectivity was mirrored by fast but not slower performers. Our findings provide new directions for computational accounts of fatigue mechanisms and highlight the importance of individual differences.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661056
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Like day and night: Comparing squad level communications and shooting
           performance under differing battle drill conditions

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      Authors: Grace Teo, Eric Sikorski, Jacquelyn Schreck, Gregory Goodwin
      Pages: 611 - 615
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 611-615, September 2022.
      An indicator of squad lethality is the ability to execute battle drills proficiently in a range of real-world situations and environments. While it is a common understanding that military night operations are vastly different from day operations, there is limited research comparing how squad communications and shooting performance differ from day to night in the field. Communication and shooting data were collected from 18 squads that executed a battle drill in the day, and again at night. In the night drills, there were illumination aids of muzzle flashes, chemlights, and Soldier worn night vision devices. The present field study focused on the support-by-fire team, whose central role was to generate suppressive fire which requires substantial teamwork. Findings revealed day-night differences in Soldier communications, firing activity, and the roles of various weapons in generating suppressive fire. Implications for day and night training are also discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661069
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Individual Differences in Misremembering Fake News on Social Media

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      Authors: Hannah M. Barr, Jenna E. Cotter, Emily H. O’Hear, Carly E. Gray, Amber F. Chesser, Andrew Atchely, Nathan L. Tenhundfeld
      Pages: 616 - 620
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 616-620, September 2022.
      Social media is omnipresent in many lives, and its popularity has made it a prime delivery method for misinformation. This problem is widely recognized, even by social media companies. The debate rages on as to what the right approach should be to combat misinformation; some suggest removal of misinformation; others suggest labeling misinformation. Therefore, it is important to understand how labeling misinformation may interact with individual differences to affect recall of what is and is not misinformation. In addition to factors like confirmation bias, in-group versus out-group assignment, and other cognitive effects, there may be individual differences that could affect the likeliness of misremembering the veracity of information. In this study, the effects of differences in working memory and personality on recall of misinformation labels are tested, with the aim being to determine what, if any, effect these factors have on the utility of misinformation labels. Results indicate no predictive capability for knowing individuals’ working memory, extroversion, and conscientiousness on their recall of whether information was labeled as false.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661078
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A User Study on the Feasibility of Topic-aware Misinformation Warning on
           Social Media

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      Authors: Jingyi Xie, Michiharu Yamashita, Zekun Cai, Aiping Xiong
      Pages: 621 - 625
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 621-625, September 2022.
      Misinformation is one of the most fundamental problems in social media with increasing cases and underlying harmful effects on users. To mitigate such problem, misinformation warnings have been developed, including alerting with warning messages and hiding the contents. Previous studies mainly explored the most effective, one-size-fits-all design. Therefore, little has been known about customizable and flexible warning designs. In this study, we propose a “topic-aware misinformation warning” where users’ preferences for warning designs can vary on topics. To illustrate our ideas, we developed Twitter-like pages using three topics (i.e., politics, gossip, and Covid-19) and three designs (i.e., interstitial, contextual, and highlight). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 participants to explore their preferences and opinions on the designs. Our results show that users’ preferences for misinformation warnings are diverse in topics. Thus, topic-aware misinformation warning is promising to alleviate misinformation problems on Twitter.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661252
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Researching Influence Operation (IO) Mitigation: An HFE Step Forward

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      Authors: K. Raghav Bhat, Richard P. Curley, Robert S. Gutzwiller
      Pages: 626 - 630
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 626-630, September 2022.
      Influence operations (IO) are coordinated efforts by an actor, individual or group, to interfere in the process of meaning-making for manipulation or corruption of public debate (e.g., Bergh, 2020), often involving dis-or misinformation spread. IOs are often employed through social media and based around political, social and/or ‘hotbutton’ issues and narratives. There is increasing study of misinformation spread and correction, but less research examines IO mitigation using human participants and controlled tests (rather than post-facto metrics). We conducted a lightly scoped literature review of IO research using social media, revealing emergent difficulties and challenges to designing and studying IO, and paths toward improving experimentation based on human factors research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661171
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Innovative Macroergonomic Approaches: Responsibilities, Opportunities, and
           Challenges

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      Authors: Eleanore Scheer, Rupa S. Valdez, Eleanore Scheer, Rupa S. Valdez, Patrick Waterson, Michelle M. Robertson, Brian M. Kleiner, Edmond Ramly, Courtney C. Rogers
      Pages: 631 - 635
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 631-635, September 2022.
      Since the early 1980s, human factors professionals have leveraged macroergonomic approaches to build and design complex systems. Macroergonomics is of increasing relevance and interest to modern human factors experts working to address societal and organizational problems. New questions within existing domains necessitate development of new macroergonomic methods. Additionally, modern research needs drive the development of novel approaches in new domains. In this session, panelists will provide expert perspectives on the dynamic evolution of systems analysis, innovative implementation of participatory ergonomics programs, new hazard recognition approaches based on cognitive mnemonics, new applications of improvisation that enhance team performance, and a synthesized method seeking to elucidate micro to macro systems components. After each panelist has presented, we will then facilitate a discussion with the audience and panelists about the responsibilities and opportunities to derive human factors tools and methods that address the challenges and limitations of modern macroergonomics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661035
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Impact of Chair Design on Trunk Sway Parameters During Computer-Based
           Tasks Over a Prolonged Bout of Sitting

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      Authors: Frederick C. Houghton, Melissa Afterman, Meg Honan, Alan Barr, Carissa Harris-Adamson
      Pages: 636 - 639
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 636-639, September 2022.
      Prolonged sedentary behavior has increased due to computer use for work and leisure activities. Prolonged bouts of sitting have been associated with health risks such as low back pain. Prior studies have suggested that chair design characteristics, such as the presence of arm or back rests, are associated with sitting posture, movement patterns, and low back pain. The purpose of this within-subjects study was to examine the effects of armrest adjustments and tilt mechanisms on user-chair interfacial pressure variables and micromotion while performing computer tasks. Preliminary findings indicate that proper armrest adjustments increased average displacement and in-chair movements (p < 0.04) which may reduce low back pain while sitting. Further research is needed to understand the temporality of these relationships over long bouts of sitting.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661350
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Lessons Learned from a Preliminary Study of Non-Treadmill-Based Trip
           Training

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      Authors: Youngjae Lee, Michael L.
      Pages: 640 - 644
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 640-644, September 2022.
      Falls are the leading cause of non-fatal injuries, and trips account for a high percentage of falls. Trip training is a form of perturbation-based balance training that involves exposing individuals to trip-like treadmill perturbations to improve reactive balance and thus reduce fall risk. However, significant costs and space requirements associated with specialized treadmills for this training may hinder its adoption. In this preliminary study, we evaluated a novel non-treadmill training (NT) protocol that would alleviate these requirements. We compared NT to the more common treadmill training (TT) and a control intervention among a convenience sample of healthy young adults. Results showed some promise for NT, while also providing valuable lessons for an upcoming similar study involving adults aged 65 and older.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661077
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Sex differences in neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms in older adults

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      Authors: Oshin Tyagi, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Pages: 645 - 645
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 645-645, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661294
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Model Based Approach of Integrating Spatial and Temporal Tools compared to
           traditional Time Studies

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      Authors: Yifan Li, Thomas J. Armstrong
      Pages: 646 - 650
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 646-650, September 2022.
      This work aims to demonstrate the use of CAD-based workplace models that describe the spatial relationships of a given job and the use with Predetermined Time Systems (PTS) - namely MODAPTS - in lieu of traditional time studies. MODAPTS was chosen for this work as it is widely used and has relative simplicity. This work shows that CAD and PTS models can be combined in an underlying model for predicting work time and work methods that can then be used for interpreting various fatigue risks. It also gives insight on where MODAPTS categorization of movement patterns falls short, and provides taxonomy updates so that a model-based approach can more accurately reflect the job. It also provides a framework that can serve as a foundation for interpreting observation-based results, for identifying specific risk factors, and for designing engineering interventions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661275
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparison of physical workload in upper extremities between left- and
           right-hand ultrasound scanning

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      Authors: Emmanuel Tetteh, Tianke Wang, Hamid Norasi, Merri Bremer, Elizabeth Schmida, Joseph Kim, Jordyn Koenig, Emma Fortune, Garvan Kane, M. Susan Hallbeck
      Pages: 651 - 655
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 651-655, September 2022.
      Ames, IA Cardiac sonographers suffer from high prevalence of work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal pain due to awkward postures and fatigue accumulation. Sonographers can choose either left- or right-hand scanning, or alternate between both, however, the impact of each scanning technique on the upper extremity muscles remains unknown. Four ambidextrous cardiac sonographers performed between four to six cardiac scans using left- and right-hand while postural and muscle activity were collected from specific muscles on the upper extremities. A comparison of the posture showed that apart from forearm pitch and 90th percentile upper arm deviation, upper extremity postures between the two scanning techniques did not differ significantly. Furthermore, while right-hand scanning (RHS) appeared to induce slightly higher muscle activity in the deltoids compared to left-hand scanning (LHS), the difference between the two techniques was not significant. We recommend alternating between these two techniques to distribute muscle stress evenly to prevent muscle overuse.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661144
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Towards Real-Time Minimum-Input Prediction of Lumbar Moment Based on
           Flexible Sensors and Machine Learning

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      Authors: Wei Yin, Yinong Chen, Curran Reddy, Xudong Zhang*
      Pages: 656 - 660
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 656-660, September 2022.
      Knowledge of low-back loading is essential for understanding and mitigating the risk of low-back overexertion injuries. Conventional data acquisition methods for estimating joint loading are limited to laboratory settings, whereas wearable sensors can provide a mobile and cost-effective alternative. This study investigated the feasibility of learning prediction of L5S1 flexion moment based on kinematics and electromyography (EMG) measurements from flexible sensors. Four machine learning methods were compared, and different subsets of sensor inputs were explored. Results indicated that the support vector machine (SVM) method outperformed others, and a subset of four out of seven sensor locations, namely sacrum, thigh, shank, and thoracic erector spinae, yielded the best predictive accuracy. The study demonstrates that machine learning can unlock the potential of mobile miniaturized flexible sensors in field biomechanics or ergonomics studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661205
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Computer Vision Predicts Force During Lifting

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      Authors: Guoyang Zhou, Vaneet Aggarwal, Ming Yin, Denny Yu
      Pages: 661 - 661
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 661-661, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661349
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Predicting Standing Reach Postures using Deep Neural Networks

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      Authors: Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert, Clive D’Souza, Monica L.H. Jones
      Pages: 662 - 666
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 662-666, September 2022.
      Proactive ergonomic analysis of occupational tasks using digital human figure models requires accurate prediction of worker postures. A wide range of methods have been proposed and used, including posture libraries, statistical methods including regression, and optimization approaches that incorporate hypothesized criteria such as strength maximization. A common challenge in the implementation of any method is ensuring that the resulting postures are consistent with the kinematic linkage of the figure model, the boundary constraints are satisfied, including those relevant to the task, and that the figure remains in balance after taking into account external forces. Neural network methods have been applied to human posture prediction for more than 25 years, but successful implementation for human posture prediction requires careful consideration of the relevant constraints. This paper describes the implementation of DNN methods within the Human Motion Simulation Framework, which provides a hierarchical structure for posture and motion prediction applicable to any human figure model.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661150
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Hierarchical Task Analysis of Ophthalmology Clinical Exam for identifying
           Biomechanic risks

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      Authors: Yifan Li, Charlie Hickman, Amy Zhang, Thomas J. Armstrong
      Pages: 667 - 671
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 667-671, September 2022.
      A taxonomy was developed a) to describe clinical procedures with sufficient detail to review differences among practitioners, b) to examine the relationship between individual technique, spatial and temporal relationships of the workspace for calculating biomechanical risk, and c) to enable practitioners to standardize technique around best practices as well as suggest work changes that can reduce load and risk. Three different examples of ophthalmological exams were recorded for three different practitioners of differing statures. A hierarchical task analysis (HTA) was used to decompose the observed exams into successive levels of detail. The results were then used to perform load pattern and fatigue risk analysis for upper-body limbs. Analysis of these selected cases using the proposed taxonomy demonstrates how even routine ophthalmologic clinical exams pose fatigue risks for the practitioners.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661277
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of Voice Transmissions of Air Traffic Controllers in the Context
           of Closed Loop Communication Deviation and its Relationship to Loss of
           Separation

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      Authors: Christopher S. Lieber, Yancy Vance Paredes, Aaron Zhen Yang Teo, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 672 - 676
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 672-676, September 2022.
      The present research examines a pattern-based measure of communications based on Closed Loop Communications (CLC) and non-content verbal metrics to predict Loss of Separation (LOS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). This study analyzes the transcripts from six retired Air Traffic Controllers (ATC) who participated in three simulated trials of various workloads in a TRACON arrival radar simulation. Results indicated a statistically significant model for predicting LOS based on CLC deviations (CLCD), word count in transmission, words per second, and traffic density. However, more research is required to evaluate the significance of each communication variable to predict LOS.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661468
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Developing and Validating Measurement Scales During Pandemic Conditions: A
           Case Study with the Scale for Habitat Usability

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      Authors: Ian Robertson, Brandin Munson, Jerri Stephenson, Ryan Z. Amick
      Pages: 677 - 681
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 677-681, September 2022.
      At NASA, habitat evaluations often employ subjective measures. Some measures are frequently used, well-established tools, whereas others are homegrown measures tailored to specific projects. The variety of measures used makes evaluation comparisons across projects difficult. Additionally, some of these measures are burdensome, may be too specialized, or may require an expert to use and interpret, limiting their utility. Taken together, these drawbacks suggest the need for a new measurement tool. To that purpose, a team at NASA worked on developing a new scale for measuring habitat usability, the Scale for Habitat Usability (SHU). The SHU is intended to be a quick, multi-faceted measure for evaluating habitat usability across the development lifecycle. However, like many research projects, the development of the SHU faced setbacks due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Pandemic prevention protocols precluded in-person data collection, forcing the team to take some non-traditional approaches to scale development. This paper reports the steps the team took to complete the project.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661420
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Modifying International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and
           Health (ICF) to Guide Development of Environmental Interventions for
           Transfer Performance by Individuals with Disabilities and Their Caregivers
           

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      Authors: Su Jin Lee, Jon A. Sanford
      Pages: 682 - 686
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 682-686, September 2022.
      To improve ICF’s utility in guiding design decisions about physical environmental interventions forindividuals with activity limitations and their caregivers, a more robust approach is needed to classify, describe, and measure the task-relevant environmental characteristics that create demands on activity performance. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate one possible approach, through examination of physical environmental influences that impact caregiver-assisted toilet transfer performance by older adults and their caregivers. By applying the Modified Dyadic ICF in our analysis of caregiver-assisted transfers, we make suggestions for conceptualization of physical environmental factors in the ICF. This work suggests that physical environmental influences in dyadic activity performance are highly dynamic, oftentimes reciprocal, and task-specific. The proposed approach appears to be a feasible method to reveal areas of suboptimal environmental interaction during activity performance, which can be remedied by future environmental design interventions. Future research is needed on additional activities to validate the generalizability of this approach.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661493
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • User Experience and Social Presence in Intelligent Personal Assistants
           among Older Users

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      Authors: Phuoc Thai, Fernando Montalvo, Promise J. Stephens, Melissa Dabydeen, Victoria Pineda, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither
      Pages: 687 - 691
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 687-691, September 2022.
      As intelligent personal assistants gain popularity, the technology sees increasing adoption by older users. The device’s use of natural language processing for human-agent interaction purportedly makes it easier for older users to adopt. However, to properly understand how older users perceive and use the devices, continuous user research is needed. To this end, we conducted a user perception, task performance, and social presence study with two standalone IPAs to assess elements of usability and user experience. Additionally, since current research indicates that the devices may help ameliorate loneliness in older populations, the present study assessed perceived social presence and its relationship to loneliness in our sample. Results indicate that older users are mostly satisfied with the device interactions regardless of their actual performance while using the devices. Finally, in our sample, loneliness was not associated with perceived social presence.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661454
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Impact of Peer Influence on Parent Willingness to Transport Children
           in Autonomous Vehicles

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      Authors: Allegra Ayala, Kyle Hickerson, Hannah Lettie, Yi-Ching Lee
      Pages: 692 - 696
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 692-696, September 2022.
      When considering autonomous vehicles (AV) as a potential to increase the mobility of children, one must consider parent opinion, as parents make transportation decisions for their families. This decision making may be impacted by several factors including peer influence on technology adoption from other parents. The current paper examines the potential for the social influence of other parents to impact parent willingness to adopt AVs for their own teenagers. Early adopter status was found to be significantly related to willingness, while effects of sex and age were non-significant. These findings add to the literature that the perceived notion of being an early adopter of technology contributes to parent willingness to use AV for their adolescent children. Future research should examine social and technology readiness factors in the willingness and adoption of AV in children’s mobility from a family perspective.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661449
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Explanations in AI-Assisted Anomaly Treatment for Human
           Spaceflight Missions

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      Authors: Prachi Dutta, Poonampreet Kaur Josan, Raymond K. W. Wong, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Ana Diaz-Artiles, Daniel Selva
      Pages: 697 - 701
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 697-701, September 2022.
      Artificial Intelligence (AI) agents have the potential to play a critical role in human spaceflight by being the first point of contact for astronauts during emergencies in a long duration spaceflight mission, when communication delays with the Mission Control Crew (MCC) become longer and more frequent. Sharing some of tasks done by the MCC with an on-board AI agent that can provide assistance with treating in-flight anomalies gives the crew more autonomy and allows them to respond faster and more safely to emergencies, or focus on other critical aspects of their mission. For this technology to succeed in this role, providing accurate diagnoses for the anomalies encountered is obviously important. However, providing explanations for those recommendations may also be a critical factor to help establish trust and increase the likelihood of the crew actually following the agent’s recommendations. This paper evaluates the effects of explanations on crew performance, trust in automation, mental workload, and situational awareness in the context of anomaly resolution tasks. We conduct a study where subjects subjects work with the AI agent on various simulated anomaly scenarios. They are provided by the agent with a diagnosis and recommendation with no explanations in one session and with explanations for its diagnosis in the other session. We measure the effects of the explanations on Trust in Automation, Situational Awareness, Performance, and Workload. We discuss our findings and provide design recommendations for AI agents in the context of anomaly treatment in Long Duration Exploration Missions (LDEM).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661482
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Examining the effects of interruption timing and frequency on performance:
           An update

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      Authors: Sarah A. Powers, Mark W. Scerbo
      Pages: 702 - 706
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 702-706, September 2022.
      The present study re-examined how the timing and frequency of interruptions impact performance on a planning and decision-making task. Undergraduates performed a trip planning task and were interrupted at coarse breakpoints, fine breakpoints, or not at all. Additionally, interruptions occurred at either a low or high frequency. Based on the memory for goals and event segmentation theories, it was predicted that a higher number of interruptions would be more disruptive than fewer interruptions, and that this effect would be more pronounced at the fine breakpoints. The results supported these predictions. Participants took longer to resume the primary task and experienced higher mental workload and frustration when interruptions occurred at fine breakpoints and at a higher frequency. Overall, these results demonstrate that the disruptiveness of interruptions is tied to their frequency and the point within the task hierarchy at which they occur.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661418
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Humans working with un-reliable automation: Reverse psychology versus
           disuse Model

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      Authors: Yuanchen Wang, X. Jessie Yang
      Pages: 707 - 710
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 707-710, September 2022.
      This paper investigated people’s behavior model and performance when working with an un-reliable automation. Automation with reliability higher than 70% is beneficial to human-automation system. Nevertheless, how automation with reliability far less than 70% affects human’s behavior and performance is yet unknown. Two types of behavior models: the reverse psychology model and the disuse model could occur when automation reliability is low but little research has investigated them. In this study, fourteen participants performed a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) memory test with an un-reliable automation with 20% or 40% reliability. Results showed that the number of occurrences of each behavior model was significantly affected by reliability level. When reliabil ity was 20%, there was a linear relationship between occurrence number of the reverse psychology model and performance improvement. Our findings provided a reference to better understand human behavior in a complex human-automation system where automation reliability could be low.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661452
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Modeling Responses to Alarm Systems: A Drift Diffusion Model Approach

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      Authors: Tobias Rieger, Valentin Koob, Tomer Parnassa, Dietrich Manzey, Joachim Meyer
      Pages: 711 - 715
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 711-715, September 2022.
      In numerous applications, alarm systems play an important role, supporting human decision-making. So far, however, little research dealt with the cognitive mechanisms that are at play in alarm-supported decision-making. In the present study, we aim to disentangle underlying cognitive mechanisms by using drift diffusion modeling. The results showed that going beyond standard approaches of analyzing alarm-system supported binary decision tasks can reveal results unlikely to be captured otherwise. That is, the analyses revealed that the alarm system’s output biased the decision-making process, requiring less evidence to be sampled for agreeing with the system than for disagreeing with the system. Moreover, evidence was accumulated faster on correct than on incorrect alarm system recommendations. Thus, the present results point to promising directions for gaining a more fine-grained picture of automation supported decision making.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661389
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Overall Visibility Might Offer False Affordance to Indoor Wayfinding: The
           Role of Global and Local Landmarks

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      Authors: A. Parush, I. Lindenfeld, D. Fisher-Gewirtzman
      Pages: 716 - 720
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 716-720, September 2022.
      Using a virtual 3D model of a shopping center, this study explored whether greater visibility provided by transparent walls in the building model, along with the presence of global and local landmarks, facilitated indoors wayfinding. Participants observed video clips of a virtual walkthrough either in a building with transparent or opaque walls, responded to wayfinding questions, and their eye movements were tracked while watching the video. Findings showed no significant difference between participants in the transparent and opaque building in answering wayfinding questions. Eye movements showed significantly longer eye fixations for participants in the transparent building compared to participants in the opaque building, in addition to longer fixations on global landmarks compared to local landmarks. Taken together, the findings imply that the greater visibility through the transparent walls may have offered false wayfinding affordance, rather than facilitate wayfinding decisions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661435
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Impact of Automation Conditions on Reliance Dynamics and
           Decision-Making

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      Authors: Carlos Bustamante Orellana, Lucero Rodriguez Rodriguez, Gregory M. Gremillion, Lixiao Huang, Mustafa Demir, Nancy Cooke, Jason S. Metcalfe, Polemnia G. Amazeen, Yun Kang
      Pages: 721 - 725
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 721-725, September 2022.
      The decision process of engaging or disengaging automation has been termed reliance on automation, and it has been widely analyzed as a summary measure of automation usage rather than a dynamic measure. We provide a framework for defining temporal reliance dynamics and apply it to a data-set from a previous study. Our findings show that (1) the higher the reliability of an automated system, the larger the reliance over time; and (2) more workload created by the automation type does not significantly affect the operators’ reliance dynamics in high-reliability systems, but it does produce greater reliance in low-reliability systems. Furthermore, on average, operators with low performance make fewer decision changes and prefer to stick to their decision of using automation even if it is not performing well. Operators with high performance, on average, have a higher frequency of decision change, and therefore, their automation usage periods are shorter.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661477
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Exploring the Effect of Virtual Agent Type on Perceived Hedonic and
           Utilitarian Beliefs of an End User

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      Authors: Jordan A. Sasser, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither
      Pages: 726 - 730
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 726-730, September 2022.
      Online settings have become more commonplace for interactions. Currently, a common-place interaction is with a chatbot of some kind when traversing the web, however, chatbots offer a limited amount of communication channels for social interactions. These limitations could possibly be addressed by using social robots as alternatives for interacting. The present study examines the effects of a real visual component in an online viewing task on participants’ perceived beliefs (hedonic and utilitarian) of a virtual agent. Perceptual judgments were collected after actively viewing a task with one of the two agents (chatbot or online social robot). The focus of the study was to determine whether social robots offer an increased hedonic experience compared to chatbots. Additionally, utilitarian factors were explored. Results indicated that the online social robot offered an overall better experience being perceived as more hedonic as well as being more perceived as easier to use and adaptable.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661458
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • “Paying with my face” – Understanding users’ adoption and privacy
           concerns of facial recognition payment

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      Authors: Mengqi Liao, Devanshi Agnihotri, Xinliang Zhong
      Pages: 731 - 735
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 731-735, September 2022.
      Facial recognition payment (FRP) is a widely adopted technology in countries outside of the United States (US), particularly in east Asian countries. However, FRP is still not widely accepted and implemented within the US, partly due to users' privacy concerns of FRP. In our survey study of 164 US participants, we adopted the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to investigate the relationship between users' privacy concerns, power usage, attitudes, and their intentions of adopting FRP. Our findings showed significant relationships among these assessed variables and indicated that privacy concerns was indeed an important factor in predicting individuals' intentions of adopting FRP, but power users might become early adopters that could spearhead widespread acceptance of FRP within the US due to their lessened privacy concerns.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661480
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Do Spam Filters Make Us Complacent': Examining Email Legitimacy Tags
           and Phishing Susceptibility

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      Authors: William G. Volante, Claire Gendron, Spencer Sewell, Dawn M. Sarno
      Pages: 736 - 736
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 736-736, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661373
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How do drivers respond to vehicle cyberattacks' A driving simulator
           study

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      Authors: Jah'inaya Parker, Fangda Zhang, Meng Wang, Shannon C. Roberts
      Pages: 737 - 741
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 737-741, September 2022.
      Modern vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic components, making them more advanced and automated, while also making them vulnerable to cyberattacks. This study investigated how drivers respond to unexpected, cyber-attack-induced situations through a driving simulator study. It also examined differences in driver responses if they were trained or received warning messages on how to mitigate the effect of a vehicle cyberattack. The findings suggest that drivers' responses to cyberattacks vary based on the severity of the event. Those who receive training are much more likely to drive cautiously when the vehicle behaves unexpectedly and those who receive warning messages are likely to view them, but not necessarily take action. These results have far reaching implications into the utility of training programs in improving driver behavior and leave future work in terms of optimizing warning message systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661506
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • An Investigation of the PERvasive Learning Systems Impact on Soldiers’
           Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulation Skills

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      Authors: Scotty D. Craig*, Robert F. Siegle, Siyuan Li, Nia-Renee Cooper, Yue Liu, Rod D. Roscoe
      Pages: 742 - 746
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 742-746, September 2022.
      The current study an empirical evaluation of the PERvasive Learning System (PERLS). PERLS is a mobile microlearning platform designed for learning anytime and anywhere, taking advantage of planned and unplanned time during a learner’s daily schedule to enhance and reinforce learning. Soldiers taking classes from the Sabalauski Air Assault School at Fort Campbell, KY were recruited. This evaluation compared the impact of PERLS on soldiers’ self-efficacy for their self-regulated learning ability. This evaluation found evidence of impact for the PERLS when implemented into classroom setting with soldiers that used PERLS indicating higher self-efficacy scores.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661491
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Designing a Website for Adolescents to Introduce Human Factors Methods and
           Concepts

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      Authors: Dolly Bounajim, Cecelia Henderson, Dylan H. Hewitt
      Pages: 747 - 750
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 747-750, September 2022.
      Human factors researchers and practitioners have awareness of, and access to, various sources covering methods commonly used in their field. However, human factors curriculum is underrepresented within high school education. In accordance with an effort to produce a website that is geared towards those with, at best, a limited understanding of the field, we wanted to also emphasize universal accessibility.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661421
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Human Factors Methods and How to Use Them: Developing a Website for Novice
           Researchers

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      Authors: Dahlia Alharoon, Nina Ferreri, Kylie Goodman, Khalaeb Richardson
      Pages: 751 - 755
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 751-755, September 2022.
      Due to an abundance of available methodologies and research guidelines, it can be difficult to pinpoint and correctly choose a suitable method for answering human factors-centered research questions. This is especially true for novice researchers who may lack the requisite knowledge to identify and implement methods within the domain that could be most appropriate for solving a specific problem. To address this issue, a human factors methods website was designed and created using an iterative four-stage developmental process consisting of investigation, planning, design, and evaluation phases. This website will serve as a tool for users (i.e., novice researchers) to select, learn, and implement a variety of methods that can be tailored to properly address their research questions and achieve valid results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661385
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Lessons Learned to Effectively Teach and Evaluate Undergraduate Engineers
           in Work Design and Ergonomics Laboratory from a World Before, During, and
           After COVID-19

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      Authors: Vidita Gawade, Christina Bifulco, Weihong (Grace) Guo
      Pages: 756 - 760
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 756-760, September 2022.
      The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted traditional in-person engineering education requiring instructors to adapt to a remote-learning environment. Hands-on engineering is a critical component of engineering education, where students learn applications of the industry through physical design. Remote learning provides opportunities for students to think and instructors to evaluate students using online-learning tools that may not be available in an in-person lab setting. This study compares the effectiveness of undergraduate engineering education in Work Design and Ergonomics Laboratory taught in-person pre-pandemic to during-pandemic remote teaching and post-pandemic in-person instruction. Various hypothesis tests reveal mode of instruction’s impact on effectiveness of engineering education. Three lab case studies (Eye Tracker, Lean Lego, and Time Study) and student evaluations (Student Experience of Teaching Surveys (SETs)) of the course and instructor help assess student learning outcomes and experiences. We analyze the barriers to teaching the lab synchronously both in-person and remotely and how to overcome those.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661505
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Applying User Experience Principles to Patient Experiences

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      Authors: Kathren Pavlov, Fernando Montalvo, Jordan A. Sasser, Luciana Jones, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither
      Pages: 761 - 765
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 761-765, September 2022.
      Patient experiences within the healthcare system are often negative due to the predominantly system-centric nature of healthcare, as well as the physical or mental symptoms of the medical condition being experienced. Improved patient experiences are likely to improve patient visits, engagement with treatment, reduce frustration, and in some medical conditions, improve treatment outcomes. One way to improve patient experiences is to apply user experience principles to the design of patient interactions within the healthcare system. The present study utilized Arhippainen’s User Experience heuristics to identify ways in which patient experiences can be improved. Fundamental restructuring towards patient-centric experiences and general security practices would lead to improved PX and perceptions of healthcare.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661478
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Combining Lean Methodology with Functional Resonance Analysis Method to
           Understand Blood Product Administration

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      Authors: Swaminathan Kandaswamy, Jennifer Jones, Debra Laporte, Evan Orenstein
      Pages: 766 - 768
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 766-768, September 2022.
      Blood productadministrationis a safety critical, complex dynamic sociotechnicalprocess. This study aimsto combinelean analysis with Functional ResonanceAnalysis Method to understand blood product administration at a large pediatric health system. We identified a number of resonance phenomenon and variabilitywithin functionsthat can lead to waste in the process.The results from the study can help with process simplification and developing interventions to reduce safety risks associated with transfusion.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661436
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Design Considerations of Task-Driven Icons for Point-of-Care (POC)
           Documentation In Long-Term Care (LTC) Settings

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      Authors: Shan Yu
      Pages: 769 - 773
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 769-773, September 2022.
      Graphical icons have been introduced as a design solution, i.e., task-driven icons, to improve certificate nurse assistants (CNAs) charting efficiency in long-term care settings. It aims to motivate CNAs to complete POC documentation at work, thus reduce the after-hour charting workload. Currently, few studies have examined the effectiveness of task-driven icons in POC systems and their performance on affecting users’ charting behaviors. This study intends to investigate existing types of task-driven icons in POC systems, and whether those icons have effectively influenced CNAs’ charting behaviors. By analyzing ways of interpreting icons and associating charting tasks, we aim to establish design considerations of the task-driven icons used for POC documentation on future implementations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661407
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Machine Learning in Healthcare: Two Case Studies

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      Authors: Rachael Kang, Esa M. Rantanen, Eric A. Youngstrom
      Pages: 774 - 778
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 774-778, September 2022.
      Machine learning (ML) is making significant inroads into the field of medicine. It can be used as a preventative measure by predicting a patient’s diagnosis and introducing early treatment to prevent adverse outcomes or lessen their impact. However, despite many demonstrated advantages of machine learning tools in health-care, their performance assessment remains partial at best. In particular, human interactions with machine learning tools in clinical settings remain poorly researched. This review examined machine learning tools in two important areas, sepsis diagnosis and suicide prediction. However, our exploration into the use of machine learning in sepsis and suicide prediction turned up no thorough human factors analyses of provider interactions with their machine learning tools, suggesting a critical research gap waiting to be filled.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661518
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Real-time Stress Monitoring for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Nurses

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      Authors: Qian Zhang, Farzan Sasangohar, Pratima Saravanan, Nima Ahmadi, Tariq Nisar, Valerie Danesh, Faisal Masud
      Pages: 779 - 782
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 779-782, September 2022.
      The aim of this study is to explore real-time stress monitoring models (based on physiological features) for intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. The quantification of stress in ICU nurses has been limited to subjective ratings, with a general gap in continuous measurement; real-time stress monitoring based on continuous physiological measurement is needed to assess the negative outcome of stress. Electrodermal activity, eye tracking, accelerometer data, and skin temperatures were recorded continuously through 12-hour shifts for ICU nurses (23 participants). A machine learning algorithm was applied to identify stress over time based on physiological features. eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) was performed with an accuracy of 0.88. Skin temperature contributed the most to real-time stress identification for monitoring. Future work should investigate the efficacy of using skin temperature for stress identification in real-time for ICU nurses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661457
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Impact of False Alarms on Mental Workload, Stress and Performance:
           Implications for Medical Settings

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      Authors: Shivani Nagrecha, Carryl L. Baldwin
      Pages: 783 - 787
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 783-787, September 2022.
      The excessive number of auditory and false alarms (FAs) in medical settings (e.g. ICUs) negatively impact alarm response and performance on ongoing tasks. We examined the impact of two FA rates (low-40% and high-80% in a counterbalanced order repeated measures design) on 36 participants’ alarm responses with a concurrent working-memory (N-back) task. Participants made significantly more responses to FAs in the high FA condition relative to the low FA condition. An FA rate and order interaction revealed that participants who started in the low FA condition responded to fewer FAs in both the high and low FA conditions. Participants who started in the high FA condition responded to more than twice the number of FAs in the high FA condition compared to the low FA condition. Similarly, response time to correct detections (Hits) in the alarm and N-back tasks also revealed interaction effects between order and FA conditions. Participants who received the low FA condition first responded faster to true alarms in the high FA condition compared to those who received the high FA condition first. No significant main effects or interactions were observed for the number of Hits on the alarm task, response times to FAs in either task, nor for subjective ratings of mental workload or stress. Significant main and interaction effects observed on the N-back task were likely attributable to practice effects. These results underscore the need to reduce the number of FAs in medical settings and have implications for designing training paradigms to improve provider performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661497
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Development of a Distributed Teaming Scenario for Future Space Operations

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      Authors: Xioyun Yin, Jeska Clark, Craig J. Johnson, David A. Grimm, Shiwen Zhou, Margaret Wong, Stephen Cauffman, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J. Cooke, Jamie C. Gorman
      Pages: 788 - 792
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 788-792, September 2022.
      The goal of the Space Challenge project is to identify the challenges faced by teams in space operations and then represent those challenges in a distributed human-machine teaming scenario that resembles typical space operations and to measure the coordination dynamics across the entire system. Currently, several challenges have been identified through semi-structured interviews with nine subject matter experts (SMEs) who were astronauts or those who have experienced or have been involved with interplanetary space exploration. We conducted a thematic analysis on the interviews through an iterative process. Challenges were categorized into four categories, including, communication, training, distributed teaming, and complexity. Based on the findings, challenges and key teamwork characteristics of space operations were integrated into the initial scenario development. In addition to the scenario, we plan to use dynamical system methods to analyze team activity in real time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661405
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Investigation of the Joint Simon Effect with Human, Robot, and Computer
           Interface Task Partners: A Pilot Study

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      Authors: Briana M Sobel, Valerie K Sims
      Pages: 793 - 797
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 793-797, September 2022.
      This pilot study assessed whether there are fundamental differences in how people perceive human and nonhuman task partners using a joint Simon task. Fourteen participants completed the task with human, robot, and computer task partners. Results showed no joint Simon effect for any task partner, and the robot and computer were both perceived as not very humanlike. However, while the robot was seen as less accurate and slower than the human task partner, the computer was consistently viewed as more accurate and faster. This indicates that there may be differences in user’s perceptions of different types of technological task partners, and that for certain tasks, robots may be seen as inferior while computers are viewed as superior.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661386
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Modeling the Impacts of Positive Interaction Frequency on Subjective Trust
           in an Autonomous Agent: A Linear Mixed Model Approach

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      Authors: Kenneth M. Jackson, William H. Sharp, Tyler H. Shaw
      Pages: 798 - 801
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 798-801, September 2022.
      With the advancement of technology, automation has rapidly embedded itself in many parts of daily function. As a result, it is imperative to understand the processes in which individuals use and develop trust with automation. Specifically, how this relationship is formed and how it evolves over time. Previous research has theorized that the frequency and the positivity of interaction with automated systems is a prominent influencer in the creation of trust. In the present study, we examined subjective trust ratings when participants performed a pattern recognition task with an autonomous agent which varied in positivity and number of interactions. Results showed that positivity amongst other parameters were significant predictors of subjective trust when analyzed using linear mixed models.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661448
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Moderation Analysis of Gender in Social Robot Interactions

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      Authors: Liam Kettle, Lydia Melles, Kassidy Simpson
      Pages: 802 - 806
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 802-806, September 2022.
      The current study aimed to further analyze Schadenberg et al.’s (2021) dataset examining perceived social attributions after observing human-robot interactions. In their study, visibility of an external cause was found to significantly predict perceived competence of the Robot Social Attributes Scale (RoSAS) only. However, no demographic variable was considered in the analyzes. Therefore, gender was analyzed as a moderator between visibility and participants’ perceived competence of the robot. Additionally, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted on the RoSAS measure to examine its validity in the current context. Results indicated that gender did not significantly moderate the relationship between visibility and perceived competence. This finding could be explained by the RoSAS demonstrating poor fit with the data even though the measure indicated high internal reliability. In light of these results, the current study advocates for further psychometric validation of newer scales across varying conditions, especially within the social robotics field.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661366
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Impact of Role Authority and Communication Initiative on HAT Outcomes

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      Authors: Zachary Guyton, Kiara Pierson, Trinity Garay, Michael Novitzky, Anne Collins McLaughlin, Ericka Rovira
      Pages: 807 - 811
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 807-811, September 2022.
      Theobjective ofthisstudy wasto understand howrole authority and communication initiative of autonomous agents impact Human-Autonomy Team (HAT) performance, trust, workload, and cohesion. The study employed a 2 (role authority: peer vs.subordinate) x 2 (communication initiative: proactive vs.reactive robot communication) mixed factorial design.Participantsworkedcollaboratively with Boston Dynamic’s Spot robotto conductanin-person search and rescue taskin afield environment.The study revealedthe subordinate role authority condition, where therobot-is-subordinate tothehuman, imposed a higher workload thanthe peer condition, where the robot-is-peertothe human.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661503
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Trailblazing Roblox Virtual Synthetic Testbed Development for Human-Robot
           Teaming Studies

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      Authors: Felix R. Raimondo, Alexandra T. Wolff, Alexander J. Hehr, Matthew A. Peel, Margaret E. Wong, Erin K. Chiou, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J. Cookea
      Pages: 812 - 816
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 812-816, September 2022.
      Virtual testbeds are fundamental to the success of research on cognitive work in safety-critical domains. A testbed that can meet researchers' objectives and create a sense of reality for participants positively impacts the research process; they have the potential to allow researchers to address questions not achievable in physical environments. This paper discusses the development of a synthetic task environment (STE) for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) to advance the boundaries of Human-Robot Teams (HRTs) using Roblox. Virtual testbeds can simulate USAR task environments and HRT interactions. After assessing alternative STE platforms, we discovered Roblox not only met our research capabilities but also would prove invaluable for research teams without substantial coding experience. This paper outlines the design process of creating an STE to meet our research team's objectives.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661470
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Trait Loneliness and Social Presence in Human-Human and Human-Robot
           Interaction

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      Authors: Fernando L. Montalvo, Giovanna M. Alves, Charlotte A. Payne, Jordan A. Sasser, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither
      Pages: 817 - 821
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 817-821, September 2022.
      Social robots are a proposed solution to feelings of loneliness and social isolation. Given the psychological complexity of experienced trait loneliness and its potential to reduce perceived social presence, an experiment using a social robot was conducted to examine how trait loneliness impacted perceived social co-presence, psychobehavioral interdependence, and subjective mutual presence in social robot interactions. Furthermore, we explored whether these effects differed from human-to-human interactions. Although trait loneliness only affected third order subjective copresence among the three social presence dimensions, individuals with higher trait loneliness were more likely to accept the robot as a social companion.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661378
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Distinguishing Driving Behavior Using the Dynamical Systems Analysis (DSA)
           Toolbox: Implications for Trust in Automation

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      Authors: Tri Nguyen, Corey Magaldino, Jayci Landfair, Mustafa Demir, Polemnia G. Amazeen, Yun Kang
      Pages: 822 - 822
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 822-822, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661469
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Physiological Measurements of Vigilance: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Elaheh Mehrabi
      Pages: 823 - 827
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 823-827, September 2022.
      Vigilance is the ability to sustain attention for more than 5 to 10 minutes at a time. Maintaining vigilance over a prolonged duration is challenging, and the ability to do so generally declines over time; This is a phenomenon that is known as “vigilance decrement.” Vigilance decrement is often associated with physiological changes. Although previous studies have examined the relationship between physiological responses and vigilance decrement, the results are inconsistent and the trends are not sufficiently clear. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive overview of the existing results, in this paper, we review the most recent studies focusing on physiological changes as indicators of vigilance decrement. We consider electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), eye movement, and electromyography (EMG). We present an overview of the overall relationship between these measures and vigilance levels; we also highlight the limitations and challenges of previous studies and provide some insight into future research directions in this field.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661512
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Resource Pool is Dry: A Model for Surfing the Waves of Energy

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      Authors: Salim A. Mouloua, Daniel S. McConnell, P. A. Hancock
      Pages: 828 - 832
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 828-832, September 2022.
      Exhaustion impedes all humans from achieving their goals, be they during experiments or in daily life. The notion of mental resources has provided substantive discourse on attentional failures and operational mishaps. However, without empirical validation, we cannot assess whether the “resource” is an emergent or contrived phenomenon. We must refute the notion that it is an unspoken Law of Resources. In this paper we celebrate the contributions of the resource and issue a long-needed challenge – grounding it in psychophysiological reality. We outline the initial developments of a dynamic neural energetics model towards that goal. The fundamental question we pose is this – can we expand the capacity of resource theory' Emerging methods are discussed to measure energy waves, a more intuitive and testable metaphor. Our theory merges thermodynamic, information-theoretic, neuroscientific, and dynamical systems approaches into a single framework that argues “limitations” stand in paradox with energization methods.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661487
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Individual Differences in the Effect of Social Presence on Vigilance
           Performance: The Role of Personality Traits

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      Authors: Allison E. Garibaldi, Grace E. Waldfogle, James L. Szalma
      Pages: 833 - 837
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 833-837, September 2022.
      Some research has suggested that social presence may improve performance. However, results in this area have been inconsistent, and it may be the case that individual differences in personality are crucial moderators of the effect of social presence on vigilance performance. Thus, the present study examined the effect of personality traits on performing a vigilance task in various social contexts. 124 participants completed a 24-minute vigilance task either alone, with an evaluative observer, with an independent co-actor, or both. Results indicated that conscientiousness was the only trait to interact with experimental condition, such that conscientious individuals reported higher task motivation when completing the task either alone or in the presence of both an evaluator and co-actor. The present results suggest that while conscientiousness may not affect performance, it may be an important moderator of motivation for vigilance tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661437
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Resilience, Grit, and Stress Mindset as Predictors of Air Traffic Control
           Training Success

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      Authors: Elizabeth Schutt, Brett Torrence
      Pages: 838 - 842
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 838-842, September 2022.
      Air traffic controllers are responsible for the safe and efficient flow of air traffic. The safety-critical nature of the job calls for understanding the psychological characteristics related to success, particularly those that promote adaptive responses in the face of stress and challenge. Several non-cognitive aptitudes describe one’s capacity to bounce back or persevere under task demands. This study investigated if resilience, grit, and stress mindset were predictive of controller training success and differentiated successful and unsuccessful trainees. Findings suggest that these aptitudes did not significantly differ between trainees and accounted for only a small amount of incremental validity, though range restriction may have attenuated the results.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661368
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Supporting Journalistic Trust Determinations: A Heuristic Analysis of News
           Trust Tools Through a Transparency Lens

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      Authors: Ayana Monroe, Errol Francis, Emily Sidnam-Mauch, Bernat Ivancsics, Eve Washington, Joseph Bonneau, Susan McGregor, Kelly Caine
      Pages: 843 - 847
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 843-847, September 2022.
      To combat declining trust in news in the United States, numerous tools have been created to increase transparency by providing contextual information around news content, but they have largely been developed without regard for usability. We examine 59 such tools to identify the type(s) of transparency (disclosure, participatory, or ambient) information each tool aims to provide. We then conduct a heuristic usability analysis of a subset of these transparency tools and identify common usability barriers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661485
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • SEIPS-based patient journey mapping: Application to a patient visit in the
           emergency department

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      Authors: Kathryn Wust, Hanna Barton, Nicole E. Werner, Rachel Rutkowski, Peter L.T. Hoonakker, Manish N. Shah, Brian W. Patterson, Michael S. Pulia, Denise Buckley, Maureen Smith, Barbara King, Paula vW. Dail, Pascale Carayon
      Pages: 848 - 852
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 848-852, September 2022.
      Patient Journey Mapping (PJM) is an emerging method to describe complex health care processes from the patient perspective. In this paper we describe a novel PJM method that integrates the SEIPS model, in particular the five work system elements (i.e., person, tasks, tools/technology, environment, and organization). The SEIPS-based PJM method supports the integration of multiple perspectives (e.g., patient, clinician) throughout the design and development process, and helps to represent non-linear health care processes, such as those experienced by patients who present to the emergency department.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661527
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Latest Computer Workstation Standards

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      Authors: Richard Stone, Midhun Vasan, Fatima Mgaedeh, Zhonglun Wang, Braden Westby
      Pages: 853 - 857
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 853-857, September 2022.
      The study reflects the relevance of existing standards for setting up computer workstations. Normal human behavior doesn't always make us assume the best postures as we tend to shift posture to make ourselves comfortable. Even though we know it's not good for our body, we frequently get caught up in the activity at hand, resulting in inappropriate and awkward postures. A 2x2 factorial design that included two different arrangements of a computer workstation and two different chairs with different features was used to make participants perform a 2-hour computer task during which the postures were measured. There is no significant difference in postural behavior for different workstation arrangements or interaction effects. Two posture variables showed differences across the two chairs used. Arranging workstations based on standards doesn't cause a significant effect on the subjects' postural behavior. Chair features or the design seem to have affected how they assume their postures.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661409
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Improving Balance during
           Squatting Exercise using Center of Pressure Metrics

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      Authors: Sruthi Ramadurai, Michael Jacobson, Prakyath Kantharaju, Hyeongkeun Jeong, Heejin Jeong, Myunghee Kim
      Pages: 858 - 862
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 858-862, September 2022.
      The foot center of pressure (COP) variability is an important indicator of balance, particularly relevant for rehabilitation and training using wearable lower limb exoskeletons. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of our exoskeleton in assisting squatting motion using the COP variability as a metric. Six human subjects performed alternate squatting and standing movements while their foot pressure and COP trajectories were recorded using insole pressure sensors. The exercises were performed under three conditions: i) no device, ii) unpowered device, and iii) device with optimal stiffness. Results showed that the variability of the COP trajectory in the anterior-posterior direction of the foot during squatting tended to be lower for the optimal stiffness condition than the no device and unpowered device conditions, indicating the potential usefulness of the device in improving balance during squatting. This study has implications for human-inthe-loop optimization and balance control of the exoskeleton based on COP.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661447
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of Seat Material on Comfort, Preference and Performance During
           Computer-Based Tasks over a Prolonged Bout of Sitting

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      Authors: Melissa Afterman, Frederick Houghton, Meg Honan, Alan Barr, Carisa Harris-Adamson
      Pages: 863 - 867
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 863-867, September 2022.
      Prolonged sitting time is associated with negative health outcomes, including physical discomfort. Chair design affects seat posture, micro-movement, and pressure distribution, which impacts the user experience. This study investigated the impact of mesh versus foam material, on comfort, preference, and subjective performance. Two chairs were used over a three-hour bout of sitting on two different days. Analysis showed no significant difference in pain, comfort, discomfort, or fatigue between chairs, but pain increased in both chairs during the last hour of sitting. The foam chair felt more supportive than the mesh chair at the end of the test period, while more participants preferred the mesh seat material overall. The overall results indicate that there was not a substantial difference in user experience during a long bout of sitting in chairs of foam or mesh material.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661483
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The impact of computer mice weight on muscle activity, performance, and
           user preferences while gaming

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      Authors: Yishu Yan, Ketki Joshi, Alan Barr, Carisa Harris Adamson
      Pages: 868 - 870
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 868-870, September 2022.
      Extended computer mouse usage may lead to health problems including chronic pain and musculoskeletal disorders. The weight of the computer mouse is an important feature of mouse design. However, the impact of mouse weight on gaming has not been explored. This study assessed the influence of mouse weight on muscle activity, performance, and user preference. Twelve participants participated in this study. Participants used six computer mice (40g-140g) to perform a Fitts' test and gaming tasks. Wireless surface electromyography was used to record muscle activity. Fitts’ test was used to measure the performance. User preference assessed discomfort and overall preference. The results showed that muscle activity was slightly lower when using the heaviest mouse (140g); differences were not statistically significant. The lightest mouse (40g) had the highest error rate. The 60g mouse received the highest overall preference score, likely because it optimized performance while minimizing discomfort.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661516
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Augmenting Remote Worker Vigilance: Effects of Virtual Supervision

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      Authors: Eric T. Greenlee, Chidera O. Azubike
      Pages: 871 - 871
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 871-871, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661465
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of Twelve Automotive CMS Display Layout Designs in
           Two Lane Change Task Scenarios

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      Authors: Jungmin Ryu, Donghyun Beck, Woojin Park
      Pages: 872 - 876
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 872-876, September 2022.
      Recently, the automotive industry has shown a growing interest in replacing conventional automotive mirrors with camera monitor systems (CMS) as CMS may provide multiple advantages, including the enhancement of driving safety through the human factors design of display layout. Despite past research, however, pertinent CMS display layout design guidelines have not been firmly established, due to insufficient empirical knowledge. To alleviate the current research gaps and inform the optimal design, this study comparatively evaluated twelve CMS display layout designs employing driving performance and eye glance behavior measures: six separate display layouts (three with the side-view displays near the A-pillars, and, three, on each side of the steering wheel), and, six integrated display layouts (three “segmented” and three “stitched” view layouts). Each design was evaluated in a safety-critical and a less safety-critical lane change scenario. The study demonstrated that the display layout design effects could vary across different driving task scenarios.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661520
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Identifying To What People Attend When Perceiving Others’ Maximum
           Vertical Reach

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      Authors: Dana Wilder, Nicholas A. Garcia, Keith S. Jones
      Pages: 877 - 877
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 877-877, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661395
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Knowledge of state-recommended following-distance rules

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      Authors: Danielle R. King, Kyra B. Phillips, David A. Krauss
      Pages: 878 - 882
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 878-882, September 2022.
      Rear-end accidents are often attributed to the following vehicle not allowing sufficient headway to react in the event of a sudden change in velocity by the lead vehicle. Accordingly, most U.S. state DMVs offer seconds-based guidelines for safe following distances such as a ‘three-second rule’. However, studies have demonstrated that headways shorter than those recommendations are common. While numerous explanations can account for these observations, fundamentally, drivers must be aware of following distance recommendations in order to follow them. Here, we tested drivers’ knowledge of the following-distance rule (FDR). Results demonstrated that only 55.2% of survey respondents knew their state had an FDR, only 13.4% knew that it was based off of a seconds method, and only 2.4% accurately identified their state’s specific FDR. Factors associated with FDR knowledge included number of years of licensure and self-reported knowledge of driving rules.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661414
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Pathfinder Networks for Measuring Operator Mental Model Structure with a
           Simple Autopilot System

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      Authors: Michael S. Politowicz, Tetsuya Sato, Eric T. Chancey, Yusuke Yamani
      Pages: 883 - 887
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 883-887, September 2022.
      Pathfinder networks are a method to represent mental models from empirically generated pairwise relatedness ratings. This study examined the effects of training exposure on mental model structures based on relatedness ratings collected using the Target Rating method. Forty-eight participants read instruction slides with or without explicit information on the functionality of an autopilot system (Advanced Mental Model or Basic Mental Model groups, respectively). Participants provided relatedness ratings and completed a comprehension test. The Advanced Mental Model group had more common links with the expected model, higher within-group network similarity scores, and higher mental model assessment questionnaire scores than the Basic Mental Model group. Both groups had coherence scores above the minimum threshold for internal consistency. Pathfinder network analysis was sensitive to changes produced by a simple exposure training intervention. In practice, a simple training program may effectively influence operator mental models in novel technological environments such as Advanced Air Mobility.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661510
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The effects of varying music tempo on vigilance performance and affective
           state

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      Authors: Lauren Monroe, Samantha Smith
      Pages: 888 - 892
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 888-892, September 2022.
      Vigilance tasks typically involve an operator monitoring an environment for infrequent, random critical signals, buried among more frequent neutral signals, for an extended period. In addition to a decline in task engagement, task performance, and arousal over time, these tasks are also associated with high perceived workload. Previously, music has been shown to positively influence operator engagement and response times during vigilance tasks; however, the differences between fast and slow tempo music on both vigilance performance and mood measures have not been studied. The present study examined the effects of music played at different tempos on a selection of performance metrics and self-report measures of mood, engagement, and workload. Results indicated that varying music tempo did not influence the typical decline in detection of critical signals, but the fast tempo condition had a modestly positive impact on worry and engagement from pre to post task.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661438
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Visuomotor Lag and the Intermanual Speed Advantage

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      Authors: Julie L. Harrison, Jamie C. Gorman, Michael J. Crites
      Pages: 893 - 897
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 893-897, September 2022.
      Previous research has found evidence for the Intermanual Speed Advantage (ISA), wherein novice actors perform a visually-guided, two-handed task faster with one hand from each partner (i.e., intermanually) compared to when one actor completes the task with their own two hands (i.e., bimanually). The ISA is erased, however, after the task has been well-practiced by both actors bimanually. Visuomotor coupling (i.e., coordination between eye and hand movements) has been found to account for the moderating effect of practice on the ISA. Through a lag analysis, this study uses secondary data to further investigate visuomotor coupling and the ISA. Findings show that the time lag between the gaze and the hands of novice actors entrains to the partner with lower visuomotor coupling (i.e., the less coupled partner) in the intermanual trials. However, for experienced actors with previous bimanual practice, dyads entrain to the more coupled partner.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661404
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Pilot Study of Healthcare Workers’ Experience With Personal
           Protective Equipment

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      Authors: Minji Yu*, Linsey Griffin
      Pages: 898 - 902
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 898-902, September 2022.
      Personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance in healthcare settings has continued to be an issue before and during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to understand the overall experience of healthcare workers with PPE, including types and uses of PPE, their duties, satisfaction, and dissatisfaction with PPE. By examining the PPE design characteristics and requirements of healthcare workers, the ultimate goal is to redesign PPE to increase comfort and work efficiency. As a pilot study, one-to-one online interviews were conducted with three healthcare workers who had experience wearing PPE while working in a hospital. The transcripts were analyzed using NVivo software, and a total of 5 subgroups were created based on the 69 unique codes by grouping them into semantic units: environmental situation and characteristics, satisfaction, improvement and suggestion, issues and problems, and PPE wearing experience. Masks (N95 and surgical), eye protections (goggle and face shield), gowns, and gloves were investigated, and high risk of infection, discomfort and distrust about reusing PPE, low degree of protection, low usability, and low work efficiency were observed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661514
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of semi-automatic pistol slide pull device on law-enforcement
           racking process

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      Authors: Richard Stone, Joseph Kim, Cong Xu, Fatima Mgaedeh, Colten Fales, Braden Westby
      Pages: 903 - 907
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 903-907, September 2022.
      Under life-threatening circumstances, the interaction between law enforcement officers and pistol slides during the racking and reloading process is critical to survival. Nine expert law-enforcement officers were recruited to investigate the effects of slide pull devices on application time and performance using semi-automatic pistols. Participants were asked to manually rack both standard and augmented slide pull devices and then clean three magazines. Videos and times were recorded to compare the slide types. Using a Welch’s t-test, no racking time difference between standard and augmented (p=0.9756) was found, but there is a slightly statistically significant difference in error rate (p=0.0765), with the augmented slide causing fewer errors. Additionally, seven of the nine officers preferred the augmented to the standard slide. Despite the lack of statistical significance with an α-level of.05, the biomechanical differences between slides and user preferences may indicate that slide types can augment participants’ performances to be more precise.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661456
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • I Care, If You Care: A Customizable Methodology for Eliciting Task
           Criticality Ratings to Guide Critical Task Analysis

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      Authors: Hannah Willoughby, Liam Foley, Andrea Scipione, Simon Banbury
      Pages: 908 - 912
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 908-912, September 2022.
      In this practitioner paper, we present a customizable multi-domain methodology for eliciting task criticality ratings to determine if a Critical Task Analysis (CTA) is required to analyze safety-critical tasks undertaken by personnel conducting uranium mining and processing. This evidence-based methodology builds upon previous methodologies by integrating empirical findings from the risk and job analysis literature. Tasks are rated against five critical criteria: Impact on Environmental/Social License, Mission Effectiveness, Impact on Human Health/Safety, Cost, and Impact on Equipment/Infrastructure. The relative importance of each criterion can be customized through pre-determined weightings. Based on the summation of ratings against each criterion, a task criticality rating is derived using a custom flowchart. This allows for wide applicability to projects and industries, whose weighting against each criterion will differ, and is a step towards creating a validated, standardized CTA methodology that can be applied by practitioners across a broad range of safety critical domains.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661432
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Preliminary Comparison of Drivers’ Overtaking behavior between
           Partially Automated Vehicles and Conventional Vehicles

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      Authors: Yi Liu, Ruobing Zhao, Yueqing Li
      Pages: 913 - 917
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 913-917, September 2022.
      The study investigated drivers' overtaking behavior in partially automated vehicles and conventional vehicles under different traffic density conditions. Twelve participants "drove" a simulated vehicle on a 10-mile straight, two-way rural interstate highway in 4 scenarios (2 (traffic density: Low, High) x 2 (vehicle type: Partially automated vehicle, Conventional vehicle)) in random orders. Participants' driving performance, eye movement, brain activity, and workload were collected and analyzed. Results indicated that vehicle type significantly affects speed standard deviation, pupil dilation and workload. Results also showed that traffic density significantly affects average speed and workload. The findings should help improve the design of automated vehicles and thus improve traffic efficiency.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661522
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Adaptive Task Allocation Preferences in Different Workload Scenarios in
           Driving Automation Systems

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      Authors: Skye Taylor, Katherine Garcia, Jing Chen*, Bin Hu
      Pages: 918 - 922
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 918-922, September 2022.
      Adaptive task allocation is used in many human-machine systems and has been proven to improve operators’ performance with automated systems. However, there has been limited knowledge surrounding the benefits of adaptive task allocation in automated vehicles. In this study, participants were presented with photos and videos depicting driving scenarios of low or high workloads at two levels of automation (SAE Levels 2 and 3). The participants reported which tasks they felt comfortable allocating to themselves or to the driving automation system (DAS) in each driving scenario, as well as whether they would conduct the task allocation manually or have the DAS automatically allocate the tasks. Our results showed that participants preferred conducting manual task allocation and preferred the system to complete more tasks when the perceived workload was high. There was no significant difference between the high and low workload scenarios in terms of whether participants chose to allocate tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661426
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • An Online Method to Study Remote Operation of Automated Vehicles

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      Authors: Danielle Morrison, Lingfan Cui, Jing Feng
      Pages: 923 - 927
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 923-927, September 2022.
      Remote operation is an emerging technical component of vehicle automation. One scenario could be a remote operator monitors the functioning of automation and take over vehicle control whenever needed. As the operator may face challenges such as degraded situation awareness or vigilance decrement, it is important to understand operator performance in a variety of takeover scenarios. This study presents an effort to create an online method for studying remote takeover performance. In this study, participants were presented with simulated driving videos and were required to indicate when they felt a takeover was needed. To ensure quality data collection in an online procedure, we made specific considerations when implementing the study. In this paper, we address these considerations and present preliminary data. Our findings suggest that operators may be less able to detect certain automation failures such as disobedience of road signs, and the online method could be useful although with limitations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661460
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Assessing Human Use of Partially-Automated Motor Vehicles: A Subjective
           Method for Use by Human Factors Experts

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      Authors: Emily Nakisher, Paul Green
      Pages: 928 - 932
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 928-932, September 2022.
      This paper describes a pilot test conducted of a quick assessment method in which experts evaluated the safety and usability of partially autonomous vehicles. Two PhD human factors experts drove 3 2018-model-year, partially-automated vehicles (Tesla Model X, Subaru Legacy, and Mazda CX5) and identified safety and usability problems related to the driver interface. From multiple drives of each vehicle over a well-defined course, comments were obtained, and they were classified into 5 safety/usability categories (e.g., not sure what the vehicle did, not sure why it did what it did) with 5 severity levels (cosmetic to catastrophic) in each category. The method was feasible. Planning the route and instrumenting the vehicles proceeded without difficulty, as did the coding of the data. Improvements such as using text-to-speech software (instead of time-consuming manual transcription) to support transcript generation, alternative problem categories, and revised problem severity scoring are described.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661508
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Do Drivers Respond to Lead Vehicles Gradually or Suddenly'

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      Authors: Myriam Oliver, Bradley W. Weaver, Patricia R. DeLucia, Howard Qian, Jason Jupe, Rosemary Yang
      Pages: 933 - 937
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 933-937, September 2022.
      The aim of the current study was to determine whether drivers’ responses to stopped and slow-moving lead vehicles transition gradually in phases, each associated with a distinct optical expansion rate. We also examined whether results were affected by a cell phone conversation and expectancy. We used a driving simulator to assess six response inputs of (1) begins to release the accelerator, (2) releases accelerator completely, (3) starts to press brake (4) comfort-level braking (5) unanticipated-level braking and (6) brake pedal pressed more than 90 percent. Optical expansion rate differed among the first four inputs (the fifth and sixth did not occur enough to analyze), meaning drivers respond to lead vehicles in phases. When drivers were not engaged in a cell phone conversation, optical expansion rate for the perceptual event preceding unanticipated braking was greater when the lead vehicle was stopped compared to slowed. Expectancy did not affect optical expansion rates.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661367
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of Simulation on Road User Acceptance of Restricted Crossing
           U-Turns

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      Authors: Curtis M. Craig, Katelyn R. Schwieters, Disi Tian, Nichole L. Morris
      Pages: 938 - 942
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 938-942, September 2022.
      Restricted Crossing U-turns (RCUTs) show reduction in severe and fatal crashes compared to traditional stop-controlled intersections in rural and suburban areas, but poor community acceptance of these relatively novel road designs can lead to costly delays in installation or cessation of the project. One way to increase road user acceptance of RCUTs and other novel road designs is through the use of persuasive technologies such as virtual environments and simulation. Three studies employing different forms of simulated virtual environments with the same RCUT design were conducted, with participants providing pre- and post-exposure self-report attitudes toward the RCUTs. The results indicated that acceptance towards RCUTs generally improved for two of the three studies that provided a virtual experience driving through an RCUT, but attitudes did not improve for the virtual environment utilizing a highly immersive full-cab simulator. The results have implications for the use of persuasive technologies for novel roadway designs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661417
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Investigating the Effects of Driver Factors on Crash Involvement using
           SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study Dataset

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      Authors: Vigneshwar Pesaru, Na Du
      Pages: 943 - 947
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 943-947, September 2022.
      Driver factors are increasingly recognized as important factors contributing to traffic-related morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate how driver factors, including driver-related demographics, driving-related experience, and trip-related behaviors, influenced the risk of crashes and near-crashes (CNC). Using the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) dataset, we employed a mixed-effects logistic regression model to examine the effects. Results showed that male drivers, young adults, and drivers with abnormal psychological symptoms had significantly higher probabilities of undergoingCNC.Driverswithcrashorviolationexperience, andfeweryearsofdrivingwerehighlysusceptible to CNC. Furthermore, driving impairment, alcohol consumption, distracted driving, less than one hand on the wheel, and traffic law violations significantly increased the probability of having CNC. Our findings can help raise the safety awareness of major stakeholders and inform the development of countermeasures to reduce crashes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661524
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Jarvis in the car: Report on characterizing and designing in-vehicle
           intelligent agents workshop

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      Authors: Manhua Wang, Phillip Hock, Seul Chan Lee, Martin Baumann, Myounghoon Jeon
      Pages: 948 - 952
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 948-952, September 2022.
      As intelligent agents have become more popular at home, they have been progressively introduced into driving environments. Although previous research has discussed agent features and their effects on driver perception and performance, attributes that define in-vehicle agents and distinguish them from other intelligent agents have not been discussed clearly. Thus, we organized a workshop on characterizing and designing in-vehicle intelligent agents at the 13th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces (AutoUI 2021). In this report, we integrated ideas generated during the workshop and identified user-centered action and autonomy as two attributes that define an agent, with functions and features as specific characteristics that vary agent design. The outcomes of this workshop can facilitate in-vehicle intelligent agent design and deliver optimal user experience, while providing insights on manipulating variables in controlled studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661445
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Perception of Intention in Traffic Environments: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Christine M. Petersen, Patricia R. DeLucia
      Pages: 953 - 957
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 953-957, September 2022.
      To navigate safely in traffic environments, road users must correctly predict another road users’ intentions. Understanding how road users correctly predict the intent of other road users can help create possible countermeasures for collision avoidance. The aim of this paper is to examine what cues road users (drivers, bicyclists, and pedestrians) use to successfully predict other road user’s intentions and to highlight gaps and outline future research directions. A systematic literature search using the PRISMA method was conducted, and twenty-seven articles were included in the review. Overall, the results from these studies suggest that observers use body language, cues exhibited by the road user, and seek eye contact, when making predictions of intent about another road user. Future research should aim to understand how specific cues impact a road user’s decision-making process and what factors (e.g., point of view or eye contact) modulate a road user’s prediction performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661396
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of ADHD Diagnosis, Roadway Environment, and Traffic
           Aggressiveness on Aggressive Driving Behavior

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      Authors: John M. Duany, Mustapha Mouloua
      Pages: 958 - 962
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 958-962, September 2022.
      Aggressive driving behavior poses a serious risk to public safety worldwide. Aggressive driving is described as a socially dysfunctional behaviors marked by unsafe driving maneuvers that pose as a risk to driver safety. Sixty-seven drivers with previous driving experience participated in this study. Participants were required to complete a series of driving behavior questionnaires and simulated driving scenarios. Furthermore, an electrocardiogram (ECG) was used to collect heart rate variability (HRV) scores as a measure of mental workload. It was hypothesized that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, roadway environment, and traffic aggressiveness would have an effect on driving performance and mental workload. Results indicated that roadway environment and traffic aggressiveness had a significant effect on driving performance. Results from the HRV analyses showed that ADHD participants had significantly higher HRV scores than their non-ADHD counterparts. Collectively, these findings highlight the utility of HRV measure for evaluating mental workload among ADHD drivers. Our findings have practical implications for driver assessment, roadway design, and traffic safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661472
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Impact of Monitoring Requests on Trust, Acceptance, Blame, and Praise of
           Autonomous Vehicles

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      Authors: Liam Kettle, Yi-Ching Lee
      Pages: 963 - 967
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 963-967, September 2022.
      Vehicles with autonomous features are more prevalent in today’s society, though as the level of autonomation increases, so does the vehicle system’s control of the vehicle. As the driving control shiftsfrom human to the vehicle system, concerns arise regarding the attribution of responsibility and blame following critical events (e.g., collisions or near-misses). In this work-in-progress study, we aim to understand how the public attributes blame and praise to both humans and autonomous vehicles (AVs) following critical events. In addition, we examine how an AI driving assistant that administers Monitoring Requests influences blame and praise attributions. Furthermore, we examine differences in acceptance, trust, and perceived anthropomorphism between an AV with and without an AI driving assistant. Preliminary results are provided followed by a discussion of the expected results and potential impact for research and legal issues.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661495
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Role of Trait Mindfulness in Aggressive Driving Behavior

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      Authors: John M. Duany, Mustapha Mouloua
      Pages: 968 - 971
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 968-971, September 2022.
      Aggressive driving behavior is regarded as a social dysfunction that poses a major risk to traffic safety. Previous research has indicated trait mindfulness as a protective factor for maladaptive thoughts and driver anger. The current study was designed to examine the mediating role of trait driver aggressiveness on the relationship between trait mindfulness and propensity for aggressive driving behavior. A sample of 122 drivers responded to a series of online questionnaires that assessed trait mindfulness, trait driver aggressiveness, and propensity for aggressive driving behavior. Results indicated that trait mindfulness was a significant predictor of trait driver aggressiveness. Similarly, trait mindfulness had also a moderating effect on the relationship between propensity for aggressive driving and trait driver aggressiveness. This indicated that those with higher trait mindfulness scores and lower trait driver aggressiveness scores were less likely to engage in aggressive driving behavior. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and directions for future research are presented.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661441
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Transfer and Retention: A Systematic Exploration of the Effect of a Driver
           Attention Training Program

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      Authors: Jeffrey E. Glassman, Michael S. Politowicz, Yusuke Yamani
      Pages: 973 - 976
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 973-976, September 2022.
      Young drivers are found to be particularly poor at anticipating latent hazards compared to experienced drivers. Road Awareness and Perception Training (RAPT; Pradhan et al., 2009) is a PC-based driver training program that was designed and demonstrated to improve latent hazard anticipation in young drivers. The current longitudinal study aims to examine retention and transfer of RAPT. Participants will complete pre- and post-training evaluation of their latent hazard anticipation skills in both near- and far-transfer scenarios, and all participants will be randomly assigned to either a RAPT or Placebo training group. Two months later, they will be asked to return for the second evaluation session where their latent hazard anticipation skills will be measured again. We hypothesize that latent hazard anticipation performance will persist for the near-transfer scenarios but decay for the far-transfer scenarios.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661499
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • What Does That Car Mean' The Influence of Vehicle Motion and Symbolic
           Patterns of LED Signals on Pedestrians’ Interpretation of a Vehicle’s
           Intent

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      Authors: Yueying Chu, Deveshwar Hariharan, Seth Hollar, Jing Feng
      Pages: 977 - 981
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 977-981, September 2022.
      One critical issue of autonomous vehicles is how to communicate the intention to pedestrians. In this study, the impact of two factors (vehicle motion and LED lighting signal type) on participants’ interpretation of LED signals were investigated. A total of 80 participants completed the study online. We found that motion affects participants’ interpretation, but depending on the LED pattern; participants were also able to understand the vehicle’s intention with the attention capturing pattern (flashing squares). In addition, some creative interpretations were reported suggesting an opportunity to redefine the meaning of light patterns. Implications of these findings and next steps were discussed.澳
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661390
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A training analytics support framework for operational training design

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      Authors: Christopher R. Hale
      Pages: 982 - 986
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 982-986, September 2022.
      The Training Analytics Support (TAS) framework encompasses a theory and associated analysis stages intended to facilitate training design. Through execution of these stages, the TAS framework will allow training developers to define portfolios tailored to the needs of each trainee, track trainee mastery status across careers, and dynamically adjust portfolios to target ongoing training to specific areas in need of remediation. This document summarizes the six stages of training analytics within the TAS framework and briefly describes the manual and automated methods used to instantiate each stage.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661410
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Effectiveness of Active Shooter Responses for Civilians and Law
           Enforcement

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      Authors: Richard Stone, Joseph Kim, Fatima Mgaedeh, Gary Backous, Colten Fales
      Pages: 987 - 991
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 987-991, September 2022.
      The number of active shooter incidents has been increasing over the past two decades. Furthermore, these events have become increasingly more fatal as the average number of casualties per incident has simultaneously been rising. As a result, finding more efficient ways to respond to these threats is essential. The literature evaluating current methodologies, specifically the “Run, Hide, Fight” technique, revealed that not much research has been done on its effectiveness, especially with respect to law enforcement’s responses. Additionally, the training medium for active shooter training for law enforcement and civilians has not been evaluated. A survey of twelve people (six law enforcement officers, six teachers) revealed a discrepancy between the civilians’ response and what law enforcement thought was safe and effective (three stated that current techniques were effective, three stated that current techniques were not). Future training must coordinate both law enforcement and civilian responses so that their responses complement one another.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661501
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Comparative Evaluation of XR-based Remote Collaboration Platforms: A
           Case Study

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      Authors: Hongju Moon, Yalda Ghasemi, Allison Bayro, Sung Ho Choi, Kyeong-Beom Park, Heejin Jeong, Jae Yeol Lee
      Pages: 992 - 992
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 992-992, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661425
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Integrating Usability into the Design of Student Ratings of Teachers: The
           Teaching and Instructional Measure of Effectiveness (TIME)

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      Authors: Ian Robertson, Frederick L. Oswald, Philip Kortum
      Pages: 993 - 997
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 993-997, September 2022.
      At most universities, students are required to complete end-of-semester teacher evaluation forms, which may have undesirable effects on teacher ratings to the extent that students feel inconvenienced, annoyed, or disinterested when completing these forms. Addressing these concerns, we designed the Teaching and Instructional Measure of Effectiveness (TIME), a brief 6-item measure that captures relevant aspects of teaching effectiveness while retaining high levels of usability. The TIME was piloted in a small set of undergraduate psychology courses (k = 22 classrooms, cumulative N = 640 students). Students perceived the usability of the TIME to be good-to-exceptional; and overall, students indicated that the TIME was better than the teaching evaluation system currently employed by the university. Moreover, the TIME correlated very highly with the existing teaching evaluation form, but with fewer items and less time to complete. Together, these results suggest the TIME can reliably yet more conveniently reflect student ratings of teacher performance. Future research on the psychometric properties of the TIME can usefully expand from the current work by involving multiple universities, more disciplines, more diverse classrooms, and a wider range of institutional teaching evaluation forms.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661374
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Micro Task Evaluation of Digital Process Control Displays

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      Authors: Michael Hildebrandt
      Pages: 998 - 1002
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 998-1002, September 2022.
      An important aspect in evaluating modern digital control rooms is to assess if control room interfaces support efficient information acquisition by the operators. Interface efficiency is an indicator of good interface design and can therefore help in judging if conditions are right to support good operator decision making and maintenance of situation awareness. This report describes the results of a micro task data collection where 12 operators each performed 36 relatively simple control room tasks. Performance time for each task was measured. Tasks were categorized according to the type of component or system that was used, as well as if they were knowledge-based or simple identification. Results show consistently low performance times for most components. As expected, knowledge-based tasks required more time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661429
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Rating Product Satisfaction by Watching Others Using Video

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      Authors: Roslyn Shanklin, Philip Kortum, Ian Robertson
      Pages: 1003 - 1007
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1003-1007, September 2022.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, usability practitioners and researchers had to find new approaches to product testing. In-person, contact-intensive product testing became a safety concern, resulting in the need for more remote testing practices. An underexplored and promising method to capture subjective usability measures is Watching Others Using Video, wherein users rate a product after watching videos of others using it. This can have broad application, but previous research found this method yields positively biased usability ratings relative to post-use ratings. This study explored potential factors (e.g., success, error, and failure) that may impact how users perceive satisfaction using this method. To do so, participants were shown videos with different product interactions while systematically varying the factors of interest. Additionally, the effects of the number of errors and error recovery versus failure were explored. Participants watched different videos of the following products being used and rated them using the After-Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ): a website, electric can opener, digital timer. Results found inflated satisfaction ratings across products, however the effect did not reach statistical significance for the website. There also was no observable effect of increasing errors or showing failures. This may be attributed to poor error detection or negligible error severities. Further research is needed for Watching Others Using Video to be accurately implemented as a viable testing method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661392
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Creating a Virtual Dog Simulation to Examine Perceived Control

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      Authors: Kristen M. Schmidt, Valerie K. Sims
      Pages: 1008 - 1012
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1008-1012, September 2022.
      Research on the topic of perceived control in caregiving is often limited in scope due to safety concerns. Two studies were done to create a simple virtual dog training simulation to have a safe and controllable way to test perceived control in both difficult and easy caregiving situations. Using materials normed in Study 1, we were able to create a simple virtual dog training simulation with 3 dog attitude levels; Friendly, Neutral, and Aggressive. Study 2 found a pattern of results that matched previous findings in perceived control research, which indicate not only further evidence on the relationship between perceived control and caregiver interactions with pets, but also the viability of using a virtual simulation to test such things.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661444
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Exploring the Association Between Lifestyle Factors and Visually Induced
           Motion Sickness

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      Authors: Narmada Umatheva, Frank Russo, Behrang Keshavarz
      Pages: 1013 - 1014
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1013-1014, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661459
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Peripheral Display in Virtual Reality Environments involves Higher
           Cognitive Demands Compared to Centered Display during Dual-Tasking

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      Authors: Moncef Bouzar, Marquessa Bryce, Segny Castillo, Damian Cortez, Olivia Doucette, Bayron Garcia, Andy Ho, Kara Ito, Chris Kim, Kelly Lansdell, Rahul Soangra
      Pages: 1015 - 1019
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1015-1019, September 2022.
      Peripheral displays may require higher attention allocation compared to centered displays. This study investigated how cognitive load with peripheral dual-tasking affected gait variability in healthy young adults compared to centered dual-tasking. Eleven healthy young adults (23.8±1.25 years) participated in the experiment. Participants performed three trials of three different tests while walking on the treadmill. The tasks were randomly assigned as i) normal walking without dual tasking, ii) walking with a centered cognitive arithmetic test or centered dual-tasking (DTC) and iii) walking with peripheral cognitive arithmetic test or peripheral dual-tasking (DTP). Gait parameters were evaluated for all three task conditions. We found step width significantly increased during DTP compared to the control walking condition (p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661362
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Supporting Environmental Sustainability with Human Factors and Ergonomics:
           Territories, Opportunities and Considerations

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      Authors: Daniel Gottesman, David Rempel - David Rempel, Andrew Thatcher, Amrita Sidhu Maguire, Gretchen A. Macht, Jesse C. Duroha, Jessica K. Witt, Carryl Baldwin, Cindy Chan, Sara Lu Riggs
      Pages: 1020 - 1022
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1020-1022, September 2022.
      Humanity is facing our greatest challenge ever: to address run-away global temperatures and ecosystem degradation threatening civilization as we know it. Human factors and ergonomics have much to contribute in partnering with industry, government, academia, and society as a whole, to stop the destruction of our home, and evolve systems to sustainably provide clean energy and other resources needed to feed, clothe, house, sanitize, and transport humans.In this poster, we present a sampling of ways ergonomists, human factors researchers, and practitioners are already engaging in work to support environmental sustainability, as well as areas in which HFE could be applied to support progress toward sustainability goals. Examples presented include contributions from members of the HFES Sustainability Task Force. We share this with the HFES community both to inform work completed and in-progress as well as to inspire the participation of others in this important work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661402
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Systematic Review and Comparison of Physical Activity Variations Among
           Global Worker Populations

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      Authors: Hannah Stribling, Alec Gonzales, Jackie Cha
      Pages: 1023 - 1027
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1023-1027, September 2022.
      There are varying levels of physical activity between different occupations, and these levels for the same job can differ among global populations. The purpose of this review was to identify and compare physical activity among occupations and across countries, grouped as continents. A systematic review was conducted adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Five databases were searched, and 10,923 articles were systematically reviewed. Twelve studies were included based on reported measurements of physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Preliminary results show that healthcare practitioners report the highest levels of physical activity. It was found that occupations in Europe reported the greatest mean MET of all continents included in this study. These results can be used to build a database of physical activity levels of different work populations and regions for researchers and practitioners to use for benchmarking.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661489
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Effects of Background Noise on User Experience and Performance of
           Mixed Reality Voice Dictation

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      Authors: Weerachet Sinlapanuntakul, Katlyn S. Skilton, Jose N. Mathew, Barbara S. Chaparro
      Pages: 1028 - 1032
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1028-1032, September 2022.
      From education to manufacturing and medicine, the Microsoft HoloLens 2 mixed reality headset has been increasingly adopted. Text entry is a core functionality of the HoloLens 2, enabling communication and search features. The device tracks hand and finger movements interacting with a virtual keyboard but is slow and cumbersome. Speech-to-text dictation is a promising alternative requiring less physical effort and time. However, the HoloLens 2 dictation performance in environmental settings with varying noise levels is unclear. This study investigated the text input accuracy (WER), speed (WPM), and user perceptions of the HoloLens 2 dictation across three background noise levels (40 dB, 55 dB, and 70 dB). The 70 dB condition resulted in inferior outcomes for text input speed, perceived usability, mental demand, temporal demand, and effort. Users also reported lengthy processing delays in the 70 dB condition, while accuracy remained consistent (2–5% WER) across all noise conditions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661376
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Role of Nomophobia and Cellular Presence in Distracted Driving: A
           Scenario-Based Study

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      Authors: Alejandro A. Arca, Marla Sablyak, Mustapha Mouloua
      Pages: 1033 - 1037
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1033-1037, September 2022.
      The current study was designed to empirically examine the role of nomophobia level and cellphone presence in distracted driving. Seventy-One participants consisting of 13 mild, 37 moderate, and 21 severe nomophobia individuals participated in the study. They were required to complete a series of questionaries and driving vignettes related to their cellphone being either accessible or not accessible. It was hypothesized that higher nomophobia level and lack of cellphone presence would result in higher subjective distraction and negative affect scores for each of the driving vignettes. Results indicated higher nomophobia level and the cellphone not being accessible resulted in significantly higher negative affect and subjective distraction. Furthermore, results highlighted individuals with moderate and severe nomophobia as being at higher probability to be easily distracted and engage in risky driving behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and directions for future research are also presented.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661375
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • An Exploratory Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Speech Intelligibility
           Using Voice Data from a Simulation Experiment

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      Authors: Yancy Vance Paredes, Nancy J. Cooke
      Pages: 1038 - 1041
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1038-1041, September 2022.
      Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs) communicate with pilots through radio communication. Speech intelligibility is vital in ensuring that the message is conveyed accurately. Factors such as speech rate affect this. Additionally, workload and stress have been shown to affect how people communicate significantly. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the voice data of ATCs who participated in a simulated experiment in the context of these non-verbal aspects of communication, particularly transmission length and speech rate. To better understand, we analyzed our data at two levels: aggregate and individual. Moreover, we focused on a single participant to see how such non-verbal characteristics evolve. Understanding these intricacies would contribute to building automated detectors in real-time voice transmissions that would leverage technology to avert any incidents brought about by stress and workload.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661450
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Electrophysiological Data and Aviator Performance: Identifying Measures
           for Operator State Monitoring

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      Authors: Kathryn A. Feltman, Jared Basso, Colby Matthews
      Pages: 1042 - 1045
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1042-1045, September 2022.
      In an effort to identify physiological measures to be used for identifying aviator operator state, a study was completed evaluating electroencephalograph (EEG) data recorded during simulated flight. Eight Army aviators participated in the study. EEG data were recorded during a baseline and high workload flights. Correlational analyses examining the relationship between EEG data and flight performance data found a relationship between frontal alpha activity and altitude deviations. The findings suggest that EEG is a candidate measure for detecting operator state in rotary-wing aviators.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661394
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Developing an Instructional Suite for the Amazon Echo to Support Novice
           Older Adults’ Use

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      Authors: Kenneth A. Blocker, Widya A. Ramadhani, Wendy A. Rogers
      Pages: 1046 - 1050
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1046-1050, September 2022.
      Digital home assistants (e.g., Amazon Echo) hold great potential to support older adults across a wide range of abilities to improve or maintain their quality of life. However, these devices and other related environmental control applications are not equipped with sufficient support for successful technology adoption among older adults. Without useful and usable information for guidance during the initial and continued use of these technologies (i.e., facilitating conditions), older adults may not sufficiently learn how to best utilize them, which is a primary barrier to technology adoption among this population. Our goal was to iteratively develop and test an instructional suite to support set up and use of an Amazon Echo Show and related connected technologies by older adults. Our human factors approach provides a roadmap to inform future instructional development for older adults to learn smart and connected technologies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661422
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How Well Do Privacy-Protective Behaviours Age' The Prevalence of
           Privacy Heuristics Among Older Adults

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      Authors: Alyssa Iglar, Mark Chignell
      Pages: 1051 - 1055
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1051-1055, September 2022.
      Digital technology adoption and engagement is increasing amongst older adults, prompting concerns regarding their privacy-related behaviour while engaging with these technologies. The use of cognitive biases and heuristics may help explain why older adults, and some younger people as well, make decisions that compromise their privacy in digital contexts. A literature review was carried out to assess the use of cognitive biases and heuristics by older adults when deciding whether to adopt, and while using, digital technologies. Tools are needed that guide users away from mental shortcuts such as hyperbolic discounting, anchoring, and shortcut decisions based on trust and that promote privacy protection. In addition to reviewing current literature on the use of privacy-related biases and heuristics amongst older adults, we also present possible future research directions on this topic.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661484
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A unified valence scale based on diagnosis of facial expressions

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      Authors: Alina Schmitz-Hübsch, Ron Becker
      Pages: 1056 - 1059
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1056-1059, September 2022.
      Affect-adaptive systems detect the emotional user state, assess it against the current situation, and adjust interaction accordingly. Tools for real-time emotional state detection, like the Emotient FACET engine (Littlewort et al., 2011), are based on the analysis of facial expressions. When developing affect-adaptive systems, output from the diagnostic engine must be mapped onto theoretical models of emotion. The Circumplex Model of Affect (Russell, 1980) describes emotion on two dimensions: valence and arousal. However, FACET offers three classifiers for valence: positive, neutral, and negative valence. The present study aimed at developing an algorithm that converts these into a unified valence scale. We used FACET to analyze valence-labeled images from the AffectNet database. In a multiple regression analysis, FACET classifier values predicted database valence and explained 38% of the variance. By inserting classifier values into the regression equation, a unified valence scale can be calculated that matches dimensional models of emotion. This research forms the groundwork for adaptation of the emotional user state based on the FACET engine. A future affect-adaptive system can now use the FACET engine to detect the emotional user state on a unified valence dimension, which allows for distinct classification and interpretation of emotions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661500
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Critical Decision Method Interviews to Understand the Initial Treatment
           Planning Process in Foster Care

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      Authors: Connor Wurst, Huei-Yen Winnie Chen, Melanie Sage, Kenneth Joseph, Laura Maggiulli
      Pages: 1060 - 1064
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1060-1064, September 2022.
      In foster care settings, the treatment plan captures goals and interventions for youth in care. The first version of this plan is typically due 30 days after the youth is enrolled in the foster care program, leading to a challenging month of assessing the case and developing the treatment plan. This study utilized Critical Decision Method interviews with care coordinators and clinicians to understand the decision-making involved in balancing assessment tasks, and the barriers to using assessment to inform treatment. The interviews were coded to identify major themes including information sources and constraints. These identified themes and general understanding of the problem space will drive future work developing interventions to improve the workflow process and drive better outcomes for youth in foster care.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661439
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Examining Multitasking Performance in Naturalistic 2D Environments

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      Authors: Kenneth M. Jackson, Lydia Melles, Madeleine M. McCarty, Tyler H. Shaw, William S. Helton
      Pages: 1065 - 1069
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1065-1069, September 2022.
      Visual searches are done frequently and commonly while doing other tasks. Previous research has shown that multitasking inhibits performance of tasks done together, however little has examined visual search and word recall performed together, especially when there are an undisclosed number of targets to be found. The purpose of this study is to examine how multitasking affects visual search and word recall.Participants recalled words shown on a heads-up display while simultaneously searching realistic landscape images for target distortions. The participants also completed these tasks individually. It was found that during multitasking, participants found significantly less targets and remembered significantly less words than when doing those tasks individually. It was also shown that prioritizing tasks led to small improvements in performance for that task. The results of this study could be used to influence design of technology made for individuals searching environments who also need to communicate information.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661424
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Operators over-rely even more when automated decision support is the
           exception and not the norm

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      Authors: Steffen Hoesterey, Linda Onnasch
      Pages: 1070 - 1074
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1070-1074, September 2022.
      Previous findings indicate that operator’s reliance towards a static automated aid increases with the degree of automation (DOA) especially when decision-making is affected. In this data reexamination of a previously conducted study, operators’ automation verification was investigated comparing a static automation supporting decision selection with an automation which in most trials only narrowed down possible diagnoses. Thus, in the majority of trials information sampling was essential for task completion in the latter condition. However, in a few trials the automation provided a diagnosis, too – giving participants the rare opportunity to fully rely on the automation. The question was investigated how participants behave in the exceptional occasions in which reliance is possible compared to participants who always have the opportunity to rely. Results show that when reliance was possible as an exception, participants verified their aid significantly less compared to the group who could rely throughout all trials. Implications for approaches of flexible automation are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661502
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Overcoming the Lumberjack Effect Through Adaptive Autonomy

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      Authors: Allyson I. Hauptman, Nathan J. McNeese
      Pages: 1075 - 1079
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1075-1079, September 2022.
      Research shows that there are a variety of performance advantages to increasing the degrees of autonomy that human-supporting autonomous systems possess, including organizational productivity and the reduction of human workload. Yet, not all the consequences of increasing autonomy are positive. One such negative consequence is the risk of human operators becoming more incapable of responding to system failures as autonomy levels increase, a phenomenon known as the Lumberjack Effect. This paper proposes a conceptual model for using adaptive autonomy as a means to avoid the risks of this phenomenon while retaining the advantages of higher autonomy levels in earlier stages of an organization’s work cycle. We apply our model to two research-based scenarios and discuss future research necessary to validate the model. This model provides the Human Factors community with a possible solution to the debate over the risks of designing human-supporting autonomous systems with higher degrees of autonomy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661372
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Effects of Task Difficulty and Stress on Trust in an Automated
           Navigation Aid

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      Authors: Stephen Monroe, Lisa Vangsness
      Pages: 1080 - 1084
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1080-1084, September 2022.
      Trust is a complex social phenomenon which also affects human interactions with automated systems. Trust in automated systems is comprised of dispositional, learned, and situational trust. The factors that affect situational trust are relatively under-studied in the literature. To further explore factors affecting situational trust in automation, we constructed an experiment using a videogame-like task wherein participants navigated mazes of varying difficulty under the stress of time pressure, aided by a GPS-like navigation aid system which varied in its reliability. Our findings showed that task difficulty and stress had significant effects on participants’ trust in the automated navigation aid. Trust was also affected by the system’s response to errors: participants were slightly less likely to follow the instructions of an automated system that corrected itself. These findings reinforce the importance of considering task and environmental conditions when predicting peoples’ compliance with automated systems under different operating conditions and usage environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661406
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Future of Teamwork: Facilitating Effective Team Performance in Virtual
           and Hybrid Work Environments in a Post-pandemic World

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      Authors: Lang C. J., Dony J. A., Roberts S.
      Pages: 1085 - 1089
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1085-1089, September 2022.
      The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated remote work for a large segment of the workforce. At the height of pandemic restrictions in the United States, almost 70% of full-time workers worked remotely either some or all of the time. That number had fallen to 45% by September of 2021, but remains significantly higher than pre-pandemic levels as many employers delay return-to-work deadlines or implement permanent remote work arrangements. As this trend drastically increases the amount of work that is conducted by distributed teams, organizations and workers can benefit from the implementation of employer interventions to facilitate effective team performance and individual wellbeing among remote workers. This paper presents recommendations based on extant literature, interviews conducted with health and safety professionals at large corporations, and surveys of labor force participants.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661455
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Using Signal-to-Noise Ratio to Explore The Cognitive Cost of The Detection
           Response Task

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      Authors: Prarthana Pillai, Balakumar Balasingam, Francesco N. Biondi
      Pages: 1090 - 1094
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1090-1094, September 2022.
      The Detection Response Task (DRT) is a standardized measure of cognitive load requiring manual responses to intermittent stimuli. Given its simplicity, it is hypothesized that its completion will not interfere with the primary task. However, recent studies challenge this assumption showing a definite cost of DRT performance. In this study we adopt signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a measure commonly used in communication engineering: 1) to explore the cognitive cost of DRT 2) to compare the sensitivity of DRT performance and pupil size in measuring cognitive load. SNR was calculated using the data from a study wherein DRT performance and pupil size were recorded while participants completed increasingly difficult mental tasks. We conclude that DRT completion interfered with the overall cognitive task demand and showed pupil size’s greater sensitivity to changes in cognitive load. Though exploratory, our study advances using SNR as a powerful tool for data integration in HF/E research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661481
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Case for Negotiation Robots in simulated workplace negotiations A
           Theoretical Approach

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      Authors: Andres Rosero, Molly Kluck, Amie MacKay
      Pages: 1095 - 1099
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1095-1099, September 2022.
      Job negotiations are an anxiety-inducing and highly important form of social interaction. Most people are not sufficiently trained in negotiation strategies and often do not receive job offers that are conducive to financial stability. With the rise of virtual agents and robotics that are capable of modeling social interactions, a significant research effort has been established to create realistic simulations of negotiations. While the bulk of this research has focused on virtual agents as a medium for simulated negotiations, we propose that embodied agents can be utilized to model the inherent nuances in human interaction. In this paper, we propose a study that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of embodied agents compared to virtual agents in simulated negotiations with human participants.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661383
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Are Users Better Able to Correctly Interpret Single or Concatenated
           Auditory Icons that Convey a Complex Message'

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      Authors: Jinwoo Choi, Natalie Lodinger, Keith S. Jones, Akbar Siami Namin, Miriam Armstrong, David Sears
      Pages: 1100 - 1104
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1100-1104, September 2022.
      Auditory icons are naturally occurring sounds that systems play to convey information. Systems must convey complex messages. To do so, systems can play: 1) a single sound that represents the entire message, or 2) a single sound that represents the first part of the message, followed by another sound that represents the next part of that message, etc. The latter are known as concatenated auditory icons. To evaluate those approaches, participants interpreted single and concatenated auditory icons designed to convey their message well and poorly. Single auditory icons designed to convey their message well were correctly interpreted more often than those designed to convey their message poorly; that was not true for concatenated auditory icons. Concatenated auditory icons should not be comprised of a series of sounds that each represents its piece of a message well. The whole of a concatenated auditory icon is not the sum of its parts.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661416
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Digital Privacy of Assistive Technology Users with Visual Disabilities

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      Authors: Hyung Nam Kim
      Pages: 1105 - 1109
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1105-1109, September 2022.
      As technology is advancing, accessibility is also taken care of seriously. Many users with visual disabilities take advantage of, for example, Microsoft's Seeing AI application (app) that is equipped with artificial intelligence. The app helps people with visual disabilities to recognize objects, people, texts, and many more via a smartphone's built-in camera. As users may use the app in recognizing personally identifiable information, user privacy should carefully be treated and considered as a top priority. Yet, little is known about the user privacy issues among users with visual disabilities, such that this study aims to address the knowledge gap by conducting a questionnaire with the Seeing AI users with visual disabilities. This study found that those with visual disabilities had a lack of knowledge about user privacy policies. It is recommended to offer an adequate educational training; thus, those with visual disabilities can be well informed of user privacy policies, ultimately leading to promoting safe online behavior to protect themselves from digital privacy and security problems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661363
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Exploring Team Competencies in Cybersecurity

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      Authors: Weerachet Sinlapanuntakul, Crystal M. Fausett, Joseph R. Keebler
      Pages: 1110 - 1114
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1110-1114, September 2022.
      With the exponential increase of cyberattacks due to the ubiquitous adoption of remote work, strong and effective cybersecurity teams are indispensable. However, in-depth knowledge of team competencies in cybersecurity literature is scarce. This article reviews and suggests areas of improvement for cybersecurity teams through the lens of the existing attitudes, behaviors, and cognitions (ABCs) framework. Suggested areas for immediate improvement within cybersecurity teams include attitudinal variables such as cohesion, mutual trust, team reward attitude, and a cognitive variable known as shared mental models. Identifying relevant ABCs associated with the team competencies necessary for cybersecurity teams to be effective will be a critical step toward creating applicable measurement and training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661496
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Fall for One, Fall for All: Understanding Deception Detection in Phishing
           Emails, Scam Texts Messages, and Fake News Headlines

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      Authors: Dawn M. Sarno, Jeffrey Black, Kelsey Harris, Maggie Harris, Piper Koontz, Elizabeth Paradise
      Pages: 1115 - 1115
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1115-1115, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661388
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Opportunity Cost of Action Bias in Cybersecurity Incident Response

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      Authors: Josiah Dykstra, Kelly Shortridge, Jamie Met, Douglas Hough
      Pages: 1116 - 1120
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1116-1120, September 2022.
      The hours and days immediately following the discovery of a cyber intrusion can be stressful and chaotic for victims. Without a documented and well-rehearsed incident response plan, people are prone to costly fear-based reactions. Action bias is the human tendency to favor action over inaction. It feels better for victims to do something even if rushed decisions are suboptimal to thoughtful, careful alternatives. Furthermore, the null baseline of doing nothing or watchful waiting can sometimes be advantageous. This paper describes an application of opportunity cost to action bias. While these insights are not yet backed by empirical data, this is the first work to examine the intersection of opportunity cost with action bias in cybersecurity incident response. Using Sony Pictures Entertainment as a case study, we discuss the implications of opportunity costs from acting prematurely and, conversely, the opportunity costs of waiting to act.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661490
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Towards Autonomous Cyber Defense: Predictions from a cognitive model

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      Authors: Yinuo Du, Baptiste Prébot, Xiaoli Xi, Cleotilde Gonzalez
      Pages: 1121 - 1125
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1121-1125, September 2022.
      We propose that cognitive models will help advance autonomous cyber defense. Congitive models, in contrast to many other sophisticated approaches, such as machine learning models, have the ability to represent human actions, account for human cognitive constraints, and make more accurate predictions of the decisions a human would make. The success of cyber defense largely depends on the ability to predict the attacker’s actions, and expert cyber defenders acquire such an ability through experience. We propose a cognitive model of a cyber defender and demonstrate the model’s predictions in a simple but realistic scenario against two types of attack strategies and under various conditions of noise and feedback frequency regarding the attacker’s actions. The results of the simulations illustrate the expected impact on defense losses when attackers are more knowledgeable,fast, and directed in their attacks compared to when an attacker meanders around; results show how losses increase in the presence of normal activity and how a defender can benefit from receiving feedback less often to reduce losses. We discuss the implications of these results for the future of autonomous cyber defense.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661504
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Practical Tool to Enhance Faculty and Student Interactions Surrounding
           e-Learning Platforms

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      Authors: Kimberly N. Williams, Alexandria K. Gombas, Claudia Cornejo Happel, Tracy C. Parodi, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Barbara S. Chaparro
      Pages: 1126 - 1130
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1126-1130, September 2022.
      Learning management systems (LMS) are prevalent in modern day education, but their implementation is often highly diverse based on individual faculty and course needs. This can result in students falling behind in their schoolwork if they do not understand how faculty use the e-learning platform in specific courses, which may be further exacerbated when students are exposed to many different faculty using learning management systems in different ways at a single institution. The current research sought to create a practical tool to reduce the impact of diverse LMS implementation through the generation of a homepage template that could be customized across courses. We utilized focus groups and literature review to identify requirements and create the template. This template was implemented across a diverse set of classes and its impact is being assessed through surveys administered to faculty and students. From the faculty perspective, the template has been well received and the majority of faculty who have completed our feedback survey intend to continue to reuse the template in many of their courses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:12:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661397
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Breaking News! Writing University Newspaper Articles to Build UX Skills
           and HF/E Awareness

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      Authors: Emily Rickel, Jasmine Allen, Barbara S. Chaparro
      Pages: 1131 - 1135
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1131-1135, September 2022.
      Hundreds of colleges and universities in the United States produce newspapers for the campus community and general public. This paper discusses how a university user experience (UX) research lab has utilized their campus newspaper to regularly publish student research findings. Publishing through this medium promotes the visibility of the human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) and UX fields, while affording undergraduate and graduate student researchers opportunities to gain practical experience using HF/E and UX methods, improve their science communication skills by presenting findings to a layperson audience, and obtain exposure to a fast-paced, collaborative environment that is common in industry. This paper also reports interview results of current and alumni HF/E student researchers who have published HF/E and UX articles through the campus newspaper. Results indicate that publishing articles effectively complements students' academic coursework that helps them apply skills learned in class and makes them more marketable job candidates.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661379
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Relationship between Teaming Effectiveness and Online Students’
           Sense of Connectedness in a First-Year Engineering Program

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      Authors: Susan Amato-Henderson, Jon Sticklen
      Pages: 1136 - 1140
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1136-1140, September 2022.
      The relationship between team effectiveness and student online connectedness was investigated in a first- year engineering course developed around teaming projects. While team effectiveness has typically been incorporated in learning environments to obtain specific content-related learning objectives or career preparedness outcomes, our goal was to determine if the teaming could also contribute to students’ sense of community and connectedness during virtual courses offered during the pandemic. Our exploratory study determined that several of the teaming effectiveness factors significantly predicted factors from the Online Student Connectedness Survey. We discuss the possibility of intentionally utilizing good teaming practices to enhance students’ sense of community and connectedness to course or programs of study.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661525
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Trends in the Proceedings of the International Annual Meeting of the Human
           Factors AND Ergonomics Society (2021)

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      Authors: Crystal M. Fausett, Andi N. StClair, Joseph R. Keebler
      Pages: 1141 - 1144
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1141-1144, September 2022.
      The field of human factors and its associated research has experienced a large amount of growth over the years. In this paper we present the results of a text frequency analysis of the Proceedings of the International Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Vol. 65 Issue 1, September 2021. Popular words in proceedings titles include "Performance" (n = 28), "Task" (n = 24), "Learning" (n = 21), "Robot" (n = 21), and "User" (n = 21). These are preliminary results of a larger endeavor to uncover the publishing trends within the field of human factors over the last decade and therefore limited. However, this analysis will provide a useful lens for students, researchers, and industry practitioners to better understand the trends within the field of human factors and ergonomics over the past year.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661515
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Heuristic Evaluation of the CDC’s Social Media Information
           Dissemination Practices

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      Authors: Luciana Jones, Bijita Devkota, Fernando L. Montalvo, Jordan A. Sasser, Kathren Pavlov, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither
      Pages: 1145 - 1149
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1145-1149, September 2022.
      During the present COVID-19 global pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is tasked with providing information and public guidance for appropriate COVID-19 prevention and management. However, public perception is varied and disseminated information must compete with sources of misinformation. Given usability’s impact on trust, usefulness, and attitudes towards systems, we conducted a usability heuristic assessment of the CDC’s COVID-19 information dissemination practices on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Results show a critical need for dissemination practices to include design elements which help reduce external influences. Additionally, the usability of the CDC health information is impacted by the medium through which the information is disseminated, especially when the information is released via social media.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661408
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluating a Biofeedback Mobile Health Application to Improve
           Self-Management of Stress

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      Authors: Carl Markert, Sudeep Hegde, Changwon Son, Karim Zahed, Farzan Sasangohar
      Pages: 1150 - 1150
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1150-1150, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661486
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Telemedicine Solution for Multidisciplinary Care Delivery: A User
           Requirements Analysis

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      Authors: Farah Elsiss, Nathan Chun, Colette Keyser, GeeBeum Park, Mckensie Winn, Dania Ammar, Shan Bao
      Pages: 1151 - 1155
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1151-1155, September 2022.
      The main goal of this paper is to apply a user-centered approach to develop a telemedicine solution, Medlly, to support multidisciplinary care delivery. For this purpose, three key tasks for the proper conduction of the remote visit between the various medical specialists and the patient were considered: (1) the scheduling procedure, (2) the online communication meeting, and (3) the conglomerate after-visit summary. The goal was achieved through the application of user requirements analysis methods including task analysis, prototyping, and usability testing which was conducted with actual healthcare providers. Results showed that the developed multidisciplinary telemedicine prototype ensures efficient interaction between the interface and its users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661519
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Understanding disposition decision-making for older adults as it occurs
           within the emergency department work system

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      Authors: Rachel A. Rutkowski, Michael S. Pulia, Megan Salwei, Emma Loveless, Lily Jaeger, Michael Rawson, Kathryn Wust, Peter Hoonakker, Barbara King, Manish N. Shah, Brian W. Patterson, Paula vW. Dáil, Maureen Smith, Pascale Carayon, Nicole E. Werner
      Pages: 1156 - 1157
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1156-1157, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661509
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Users’ Experience with Technology and Equipment in Trauma Room
           Environments

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      Authors: Sharmin Kader, Sara Bayramzadeh, Parsa Aghaei
      Pages: 1158 - 1158
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1158-1158, September 2022.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661475
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Advancing Human-Robot Teams: A Framework for Understanding Swift Trust

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      Authors: Sabina M. Patel, Sarah E. Napoli, Addison S. Rohrbacher, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Elizabeth Phillips
      Pages: 1159 - 1163
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1159-1163, September 2022.
      In this paper, we describe how swift trust in human-robot (HR) teams is developed through the incorporation of surface-level cues and imported information. Surface-level cues are physical characteristics whereas imported information serves to shape preconceived notions about the robot itself. A multidimensional continuum is used to explore the effects of varying surface-level cues and imported information on the type of swift trust that may form as a result: high, medium, and low swift trust. Similar surface cues and positive information suggest higher swift trust development, whereas, negative imported information and differing surface cues evoke low swift trust. Surface cues and imported information that are incongruous leads to medium swift trust formation. This paper offers insights into the development of swift trust depending on the specific traits relevant to both the human and robot team members.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:16:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661365
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • An Interdisciplinary Approach: Potential for Robotic Support to Address
           Wayfinding Barriers Among Persons with Visual Impairments

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      Authors: Megan A. Bayles, Travis Kadylak, Shuijing Liu, Aamir Hasan, Weihang Liang, Kaiwen Hong, Kathrine Driggs-Campbell, Wendy A. Rogers
      Pages: 1164 - 1168
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1164-1168, September 2022.
      Persons with Vision Impairments (PwVI) often have difficulties navigating indoor environments. The challenges and solutions can change based on their level of familiarity with the location. A collaborative effort was made to design a user needs assessment to understand the collaborative nature of human-robot interaction for wayfinding. The user study was an interview study to discuss with PwVI their navigation experience in familiar, somewhat familiar, and unfamiliar locations. Following this, we discussed their current solution strategies for wayfinding in those locations to discuss how they could imagine a robot to support wayfinding. We report on four case studies to illustrate specific user needs, such as vocal direction and orientation to learn a new environment and navigate, and highlight common strategies, such as supplemental lighting, different types of human assistance, and technologies used (i.e. white canes).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661384
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparing Levels and Types of Situational-Awareness based Agent
           Transparency in Human-Agent Collaboration

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      Authors: Sylvain Daronnat, Leif Azzopardi, Martin Halvey
      Pages: 1169 - 1173
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1169-1173, September 2022.
      Increasing agent transparency is an ongoing challenge for Human-Agent Collaboration (HAC). Chen et al. proposed the three level SAT framework to improve Agent Transparency and users’ Situational Awareness (SA) by informing about (1) what the agent is doing, (2) why the agent is doing it and (3) what the agent will do next. Explanations can be descriptive (informing the user decision-making process) or prescriptive (guiding the user toward a pre-determined choice). To study these differences, we conducted a 3 (SA level) x 2 (explanation types) online between-group user experiment (n=180) where we designed six visual explanations and tested their impact on task performance, reliance, reported trust, cognitive load and situational awareness in a goal-oriented HAC interactive task. We found that SA level 1 explanations led to better task performance, while SA level 2 explanations increased trust. Moreover, descriptive explanations had a more positive impact on participants compared to prescriptive explanations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661498
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic Modeling of Trust in Automation in Human-Autonomy Teaming

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      Authors: Jayci Landfair, Tri Nguyen, Corey Magaldino, Polemnia G. Amazeen, Lixiao Huang, Mustafa Demir
      Pages: 1174 - 1178
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1174-1178, September 2022.
      Quantitative analysis of the relationship between humans and automation becomes increasingly important as the reliance of humans upon automation becomes more commonplace. We present a literature review of key factors—categorized as effects from automation, operator, and the environment—that influence trust in or reliance upon automation. Those factors are treated as parameters in a dynamical systems analysis (DSA) model whose manipulation induces phase transitions in the decision to use automation. A review of the most recent dynamical models indicates a trend toward including increasingly more parameters in increasingly sophisticated models. We review the challenges inherent in that approach and suggest an alternative with precedence in the broader DSA literature that is more parsimonious and amenable to real-time analysis.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:14:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661463
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Context, Assistance, and Communication on Beliefs About
           Cooperation in Human-Machine Teaming

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      Authors: Gregory Funke, Michael Tolston, Margaret Bowers, Katherine Holderby
      Pages: 1179 - 1183
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1179-1183, September 2022.
      The efficacy of future human-machine teaming will be determined by the ability of machine agents to engage in teamwork behaviors and processes with their human teammates. A critical aspect of teamwork is cooperation, as team members must work interdependently to achieve common goals. In the current experiment we investigated how violations of cooperation expectations, presented to participants in a narrative vignette, influenced ratings of cooperation on a novel measure derived from social interdependence theory. Our results indicated that participants’ ratings of cooperation were strongly influenced by actions associated with assisting and communicating with a cooperating partner; violations in these expectations resulted in much lower estimates of cooperation, though the identity of the actors as two humans or a human and a robot did not appear to matter. Overall, this is an important first step to understanding the factors that influence perceptions of cooperation in human-machine teaming.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:15:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661377
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Examining the Effects of Cognitive Assistive Agents on Team Coordination
           in Manufacturing Teams

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      Authors: Begerowski S.R., Waldherr F., Biddlecom J., Traylor A., Krugh M., Mears L., Shuffler M.L.
      Pages: 1184 - 1188
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 66, Issue 1, Page 1184-1188, September 2022.
      This article details the motivation and design of an experiment to investigate the effects of artificially intelligent cognitive assistive agents on coordination efforts in manufacturing teams. As automation solutions become more accessible and products rapidly grow in complexity, there are significant calls to leverage abilities of both artificial agents and human workers to maximize team functioning and product output. As such, we propose an experimental design where we introduce a cognitive agent with two levels of autonomy (low, and high) into a team of participants during an assembly task. We hypothesized that cognitive assistive technologies would enhance coordination within assembly teams, leading to higher productivity and reduced errors, with initial data suggesting trends in support of these hypotheses. We seek to demonstrate the value of cognitive agents in augmenting human workers, allowing manufacturers to see the benefit of increased productivity while retaining value and relevance of human labor in the face of technological development.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T06:17:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1071181322661401
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2022)