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Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1541-9312
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Inattentional Insensitivity As A Predictor of Relevant Situation Awareness
           Questions And Irrelevant Questions

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      Authors: Andrew R. Dattel, Hui Wang, Sophie Chanoux, Cristhian Padilla, Haroon Jamanzi, Rochelle Potdar, Rajan Maroju, Tianxin Zhang, Pooja Amonkar
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This study explored predictors of situation awareness (SA) and predictors of irrelevant information in a complex task. Thirty-one participants were tested on personality, a little-known situation awareness test, working memory, inattentional blindness (IB), and inattentional insensitivity (IIS) as predictors of situation awareness and performance in a driving simulator. The two IIS conditions were visual (IB) and tactile. Participants were paid $25 for about a 1 ½ hour commitment. During the driving simulator scenario, participants answered 10 questions (half related to the driving task and half not critical to safe driving performance). More relevant questions were answered correctly than irrelevant questions. However, few predictors were shown for SA (relevant questions), but IB, and personality variables predicted response time for irrelevant questions. Tactile IIS was found to be better for performance on one of the SA tests and resulted in fewer errors in one of the tactile IIS tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T04:15:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231221721
       
  • Transitioning Lab Courses to Online Platforms by Higher Education
           Institutions during COVID-19

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      Authors: Gayatri Anoop, Arvind Kolangarakath, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Katie Shakour, Rebecca Short, Tim Ransom
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic forced universities to shift their in-person lab courses to remote delivery, which presented several challenges for instructors and students. This article analyzed 33 peer-reviewed research articles to identify the various approaches taken by universities to migrate lab courses to remote platforms, as well as the difficulties encountered during the transition. The review revealed that technology and internet issues, workload constraints, academic integrity, and the overall educational experience were among the challenges faced. The authenticity and completeness of online labs were inferior to in-person labs, resulting in mixed opinions on the effectiveness of online labs. Students found labs that incorporated video recordings and simulations on a synchronous platform to be the most engaging. However, home labs provided limited hands-on experience, depending on the circumstances. Further research is required to investigate the cognitive, physical, and temporal demands posed by these technologies to develop a more compelling online lab experience.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T04:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231221720
       
  • A Novel Application of Non-linear Dynamics Investigating Cognitive
           Workload and Situational Trust in Highly Automated Vehicles

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      Authors: Emily Parcell, Sidney Scott-Sharoni, Nadia Fereydooni, Bruce Walker, John Lenneman, Benjamin Austin, Takeshi Yoshida
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Vehicles with driving automation are becoming increasingly present despite the reported apprehension of potential consumers. The potential benefits, such as fewer crashes, lighter traffic, and increased transportation access, give merit in researching how to engender appropriate human- automation interaction that will ensure a smoother adoption of the technology. One method involves investigating how users receive information about the vehicle. Using a simulated highly automated vehicle, researchers examined how content temporality and modality affected the situational trust and cognitive workload of 36 participants using subjective measures and 15 participants using non-linear dynamics. Researchers found only one significant main effect of temporality on workload; however, post-hoc comparisons between groups were insignificant. Nevertheless, applying non-linear dynamics to driving research is a novel and underutilized approach. Researchers, designers, and users may benefit from using real-time measures rather than aggregate scores to understand how driver behavior changes based on the environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T04:13:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10711813241228178
       
  • The Effect of Virtual Instructor and Metacognition on Workload in a
           Location-Based Augmented Reality Learning Environment

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      Authors: Jung Hyup Kim, Ching-Yun Yu, Kangwon Seo, Fang Wang, Danielle Oprean
      Pages: 1550 - 1555
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 67, Issue 1, Page 1550-1555, September 2023.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-19T07:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192938
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Systematic Literature Review for Measure, Estimation, and Mitigation of
           Motion Sickness in Vehicle Environment

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      Authors: Yein Song, Myung Bin Choi, Sung hee Ahn, Myung Hwan Yun
      Pages: 1567 - 1569
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 67, Issue 1, Page 1567-1569, September 2023.
      There are various studies to investigate the factors that affect driving experiences in the automobile environment and auditory experiences as variables. These factors might eventually affect users' sensitivity and performance of driving-related and non-driving-related tasks. Research on mechanical and electrical technology development is significant and has been conducted a lot. For driver- or passenger-centered auditory experiences, however, it is very important to understand people's perceptions and evaluations according to the technical design of the car sound. Therefore, in this paper, we would like to identify trends in 10 years of research on in-vehicle auditory experiences studied since 2013 and propose a human-centered automotive sound evaluation framework. The driving context, sound, and people were derived as factors affecting the car hearing experience, and specific sub-factors were derived. The results of this study are expected to provide insight into directionality in future automotive auditory.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:19:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192257
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Recursive Bayesian Estimation Search with Environmental Constraints and
           Psychological Beliefs and Biases

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      Authors: Misty R. Hechinger, Steven C. Howell, Triet M. Le, Rickey P. Thomas
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In the paper, we consider a modification of the Recursive Bayesian Estimation technique and incorporate the Fast Sweeping Method to extend recent work in search applications with an algorithm capable of calculating optimal trajectories in the context of multiple targets and searchers. In addition to providing a computational overview of the algorithm, we demonstrate how incorporating knowledge, deception, and belief biases into the algorithm alters the optimal trajectories of the searchers. Finally, we present Monte-Carlo simulations of how these psychological factors influence the mean probability that the searchers detect the target. We will discuss the implications of the findings, current limitations and future extensions of the model, and potential applications to decision support.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T11:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193666
       
  • Designing Visual Displays for Deep Space Habitats: Challenges and
           Opportunities from a Cognitive Task Analysis with ISS Mission Control

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      Authors: Zixu Zhang, Paul Parsons
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores some challenges and opportunities in designing visual interfaces for deep space habitats with communication delays to Earth. The study first examines how Mission Control for the International Space Station (ISS) operates in detecting and responding to anomalous events. Interviews with participants who have held roles as flight controllers, backroom engineers, astronauts, or flight instructors for ISS and shuttle missions were conducted to gain insights into the responses to anomalous events. The collected anomalous scenarios were then re-considered under the context of deep space missions, where communication delays and other environmental factors are substantially different. Findings and insights on data analysis of the anomalous scenarios were then presented subsequently. Based on the findings, four areas of challenges and opportunities for visual interfaces design were identified. The paper suggests that these design challenges and opportunities be considered in more detail in future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231200875
       
  • Exploring Use of Explanative Illustrations to Communicate Differential
           Privacy Models

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      Authors: Aiping Xiong, Chuhao Wu, Tianhao Wang, Robert W. Proctor, Jeremiah Blocki, Ninghui Li, Somesh Jha
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Proper communication is key to the adoption and implementation of differential privacy (DP). In this work, we designed explanative illustrations of three DP models (Central DP, Local DP, Shuffler DP) to help laypeople conceptualize how random noise is added to protect individuals’ privacy and preserve group utility. Following a pilot survey and an interview, we conducted an online experiment (N = 300) exploring participants’ comprehension, privacy and utility perception, and data-sharing decisions across the three DP models. We obtained empirical evidence showing participants’ acceptance of the Shuffler DP model for data privacy protection. We discuss the implications of our findings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:56:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195006
       
  • Unleashing “currents of curiosit”: Reconfiguring learning design using
           academic comics in higher education

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      Authors: Denis Fischbacher-Smith
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This paper considers the experience of developing an online, blendedlearning approach for use within university education. It explores the learning design process for the delivery of learning and teaching across three academic ‘worlds’, each of which has a human factors component. These are management, medicine, and psychology, where the common teaching elements across those three disciplines include: risk and uncertainty, human error, systems failure, and the role of information and expertise in decision-making. The approach to learning design reported here is based on a systems approach which integrates the use of visualisation, bespoke academic comics, and animations in addition to more traditional academic publications. The affordances associated with each of those technologies provides students with the opportunity to support their learning in ways that suit their preferences and, because of the synergistic nature of the materials in a student-centred approach, allows them to develop a deeper understanding of the issues.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194989
       
  • Phone call while riding among delivery workers: The Application of the
           Theory of Planned Behavior

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      Authors: Genhao Wu, Ange Wang, Chunxi Huang, Dengbo He
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      With the rapid growth of online food delivery services, the population of delivery workers has reached 13 million in China. Most of them use electric bicycles (e-bikes) as their primary transportation tool. On the other hand, mobile phone call (MPC), as the primary and most effective communication method for delivery workers, induces distracted riding and threatens traffic safety. Although MPC has been extensively investigated in driving-related research, MPC among delivery workers has not yet been investigated. In this study, a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior has been designed to investigate social-psychological factors leading to MPC among delivery workers. 150 delivery workers participated in this study. The structural equation model method was adopted to analyze the data. The results show that injunctive norm is positively associated with MPC behaviors; but descriptive norm is negatively associated with MPC behaviors, potentially because of the selective perception phenomenon.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:51:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193658
       
  • Impact of Mentoring Relationships on Perceived Quality Of Life among
           Engineering Graduate Students

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      Authors: Mariah McCallum, Ian Godwin, Jiahui Ma, Hailey Barlow, Dimantha Kottawa Gamage, Bernadette McCrory
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Graduate students’ experiences bring on unprecedented challenges, influenced by physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors. Through a productive and authentic mentor-mentee relationship, it was hypothesized graduate students would be more satisfied with their graduate experience. An instrument was developed using the 26-item World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire consisting of four health domains (physical, psychological, social relationships, environmental) and additional questions on psychosocial help and the graduate student’s satisfaction with their advisors and overall graduate school experience. Overall, graduate students who were satisfied with their mentoring experience had a higher quality of life (QoL). Graduate students’ QoL was lower in social relationships (p=0.009) and psychological domains (p=0.000), similar to medical school students. Second- and third-year graduate students had lower QoL than those in the first or fourth+ year. Graduate students were satisfied with their overall mentoring experience, and better mentoring experience tended to have better QoL.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:47:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192556
       
  • Getting to the Objective: Analyzing Navigation, Automation, and Situation
           Awareness from a Soldier’s Perspective

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      Authors: Jacob S. Walters
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Land navigation ability is essential for US Army soldiers, who must use it both when planning routes to an objective and while executing the mission itself. Soldiers use automation to offload the cognitive effort of navigation, but if the system fails soldiers must expend precious time and mental energy reacquiring their location on a map. Despite this risk, soldiers still over-trust automated navigation and lose their location-related situation awareness. Loss of situation awareness leads to an inability to acquire the necessary spatial knowledge required to manually navigate. This paper reviews existing research to examine the effects of automation on situation awareness and a user’s ability to build a cognitive map from a soldier’s perspective. It further identifies issues with current technology and suggests possible directions for future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192545
       
  • Biomechanical Investigation of Methods of Grasping a Trombone: A Pilot
           Study

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      Authors: Zachary Orme, Carolyn M. Sommerich, Steven A. Lavender
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Trombonists, like other musicians, are at risk for developing use-related musculoskeletal symptoms. This study investigated an ergonomic aid for playing the trombone, the Neotech Trombone GripTM, which assists a trombonist’s left hand in supporting the instrument. The objective of the study was to investigate effects of this device on the left upper extremity while playing the trombone in comparison to the standard, unaided method of grasping it. Seven trombone players used the grip for two weeks prior to providing objective and subjective data in a laboratory environment. They played a scale and a piece of their choice under four conditions: sitting or standing with or without the device on their trombone. While playing, muscle activity in the trapezius, anterior deltoid, middle deltoid, extrinsic finger flexor, and extrinsic finger extensor muscle groups on the left side of the body were collected. Perceptions on the device using a survey were also assessed. Results indicated a consistent decrease in muscle activity in the finger flexor group when using the device. Smaller, less consistent effects were seen in activity in the trapezius (decrease), finger extensor group (increase), and anterior deltoid (increase) muscles, while using the device. Effects were more pronounced in players with smaller hands (among the group of participants). Most players subjectively found the device beneficial and all would recommend it to other players.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:43:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192535
       
  • Designing, evaluating, and benchmarking auditory alarms for the chemical
           and oil processing industry

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      Authors: Judy Edworthy, Deborah Reed, Connor Wessel, Liam Lawrence, Jonathan Edworthy
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The auditory alarms used in oil and chemical processing control rooms are often based on practices and knowledge which is twenty to thirty years out of date, and therefore do not embody the significant progress that has been more recently made in this area. Best practice available from other areas (aviation, transport, and healthcare) can be brought to bear in improving and updating control room alarms as they share similar problems with alarms in those domains. This paper describes the processes of designing, benchmarking, and testing a series of sets of auditory alarms intended for use in control rooms by the oil and chemical processing industry. In particular, the work shows how important the localizability of alarms can be in practice, and how improved localizability can be designed into auditory alarms.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:41:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192443
       
  • Web Accessibility: A Revisit of U.S. State and Territory COVID-19 Websites
           After Two Years

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      Authors: Jennie Vo, Dylan H. Hewitt, Yingchen He
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This study is a longitudinal replication of a website accessibility study conducted in 2021 to compare if COVID-19 sites had improved, declined, or stayed the same in terms of accessibility. Two automated accessibility checker tools, MAUVE++ and WAVE, were used to assess the accessibility of all available U.S. state and territory COVID-19 websites. Each state and territory's home page, testing page, and vaccine page were examined, and accessibility ratings were determined. The number of errors and the overall accessibility ratings were compared between the current (2023) and previous (2021) versions of the sites, both archived using the WayBack Machine. Multi-level modelling methods were employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that the most inaccessible components were those requiring visual interaction, and there were no significant changes in the overall accessibility of websites over the years. A closer examination of individual Success Criteria revealed a significant increase in violation rate of 1.4.11 (non-text contrast) from 2021 to 2023. Overall, this research suggests that there has been a lack of improvement in accessibility of the chosen COVID-19 websites over the past two years, and it has also identified areas that need to be improved.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:38:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192275
       
  • How Do People Prefer Ridesplitting' A Survey Study Focusing on Passenger,
           Matching, and Trip Characteristics

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      Authors: Fangda Zhang, Shannon C. Roberts, Claudia V. Goldman
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Ridesplitting services have gained great popularity in recent years. Past research has stressed that passengers, social matching, and trip characteristics are users’ top concerns when choosing such services. The present study sought to uncover potential users’ preferences toward ridesplitting in terms of the three aspects. We conducted a survey study and leveraged logit and multivariate ordinal regression models to analyze the data. Our results show that most respondents preferred splitting a ride with others that they’ve known and that they cared about passenger’s characteristics. Their expectations of trip length and time were quantitatively revealed. Sociodemographic factors exerted impact in such a way that users of certain groups were more conservative toward ridesplitting services. To better deploy ridesplitting and increase its adoption among users, we would recommend that future services consider users’ preferences and sociodemographic information when matching different people. An accurately estimated travel time also appears to be desired.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:31:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195826
       
  • Flppr: Cognitive Loading Task for Error Dependency Research

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      Authors: Roger Lew, Ronald L. Boring
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Does error beget error' Error dependency describes the notion that humans are more likely to error once they have committed an initial error. Here we survey the decades old concept of error dependency for HRA and present a new cognitive loading task intended to aid in the empirical evaluation of error dependency and preliminary data.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T05:28:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196252
       
  • Innovation in Respirator Design, Research, & Protection: A model of
           predictive fit for occupational safety and health.

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      Authors: Linsey Griffin, Minji Yu, Susan Sokolowski, Susan Arnold, William K. Durfee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Improving the fit of a half-mask respirator can be achieved by developing a design, fit, and sizing strategy to fit the faces of the general population or a specific group such as race, age group, or occupation. The purpose of this study was to define respirator fit based on the body product relationship and to develop a new set of facial landmarks and measurements for half-mask respirator design. 3D scan data and quantitative fit factor scores from 47 healthcare workers and 9 researchers in healthcare-related fields were utilized to investigate the relationship of new anthropometry measurements to respirator fit. A mask fit association model was validated through logistic regression. The respirator fit prediction model incorporating highly correlated face measurements opens the possibility of developing a system for judging respirator fit success and failure based on face dimensions; it can be integrated with automated measuring technologies and machine learning.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T04:56:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192265
       
  • Identifying the Factors that Influence the Use of Care Coordination in
           Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

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      Authors: Andrea Macedo Salas, Anne Collins McLaughlin, Landon Grace, Maria Mayorga, Juan Marcos Gonzalez Sepulveda, Stephen Fransen, Tianyu Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Coordination of the necessary efforts of medical personnel, caregivers, and social networks to support a patient with a chronic health condition increases time consumption and costs. According to a CDC study from 2023, six out of ten Americans suffer from chronic illnesses, including diabetes, which can lead to other medical complications like diabetic retinopathy (DR). Care coordination programs are one of the systems currently in use to assist in the management of patient’s healthcare and the network of individuals involved in their treatment plans. Compared to institutions that utilize fewer care coordination systems, those that use these programs consistently have much higher patient attendance rates. Therefore, it is important that to improve the current systems we comprehend the user experience with care coordination. To study the barriers and motivations underlying participation in care coordination programs among diabetes patients, we created an interview utilizing the Integrated Behavior Model (IBM). The findings from our interviews will contribute to the body of existing literature by identifying barriers and motivators that must be taken into consideration when designing DR screening system aids.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T04:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192551
       
  • The Influence of Time Pressure and Persuasion Principles on Phishing
           Detection

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      Authors: Jeffrey Black, Dawn M. Sarno
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Phishing is a pervasive threat with annually growing costs. Research has explored how users may be susceptible due to individual differences, email content, and situational factors. However, the influences of persuasive strategies and time pressure on phishing susceptibility remain unclear. The present study explored how the use of Cialdini’s six persuasion principles and time pressure (high vs low vs control) affect users’ abilities to classify 60 emails (50% phishing). Results indicated that time pressure influenced the pace at which users completed the task but was otherwise uninfluential. Rather, participants were generally insensitive to emails in all three conditions, indicating a potential floor effect. Additionally, persuasion principles influenced classifications. Users struggled to classify emails using the authority and commitment/consistency principles the most, and emails using the social proof, liking, and reciprocity principles the least. Overall, our findings suggest that users struggle to identify persuasive phishing attacks, regardless of time pressure.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T04:26:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192442
       
  • Technomorphic Tendencies: Scale Revision & Understanding the
           Individual Differences at Play

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      Authors: Heather C. Lum, Jessica Lee, Yue Liu, Taylor Kampf
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Although traditionally researchers have focused on making robotics more user-friendly from a human perspective, a new theory has begun to take shape in which humans take on the perspective of a robotic entity. This paper examined the concept of technomorphism and where the individual differences may lie in the tendency to technomorphize. The Technomorphic Tendencies Scale was revised and re-validated. Furthermore, the concept of technomorphism was investigated in a more representative population across different regions, educational backgrounds, and ages. The implications and next steps for the concept of technomorphism are also discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T04:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192920
       
  • Trust in Automated Vehicles under Normal and Drowsy Driving Conditions

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      Authors: Nichole L. Morris, Curtis M. Craig, Katelyn R. Schwieters
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      One path to significantly reducing traffic deaths is the implementation of automated vehicles. However, the proliferation of automation relies on public acceptance, and debiasing can be a useful approach to persuade the public of the safety benefits of automated vehicles. The research team surveyed 186 adults about their comfort level on drowsy driving, trust in automated vehicles, and whether they would trust an automated vehicle if they were falling asleep at the wheel. Increased age and drowsy driving comfort level predicted a lower level of overall trust in automated vehicles, while only age predicted degree of trust in automated vehicles when sleepy. Participants’ trust in automated vehicles increased when considering the risky circumstance of nodding off at the wheel. Identifying other cases in which drivers would trust automation is one key to de-biasing overconfidence in one’s driving and increasing public trust of automation in situations when automation may be superior.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T09:58:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192881
       
  • A Human Factors Approach to Improve Layout Design for A Virtual
           Reality-based Training Platform

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      Authors: Md Humaun Kobir, Taufiq Rahman, Yiran Yang, Shuchisnigdha Deb
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In manufacturing industries, equipment arrangement, and layout design are critical factors that directly influence productivity, workplace safety, and workers’ performance. Link analysis, as a human factors approach, has been widely used in industries for many years to improve layout design and machinery arrangement. This approach considers humans' physical and cognitive capabilities and movement limitations to find an optimal design. Virtual reality significantly impacts our society from product design to worker training. Hence, effective virtual training platforms require the same attention to layout design as manufacturing work settings which offer efficient testing of multiple layouts. This research focuses on developing a virtual 3D printing laboratory for workforce training and has used a link analysis and user perception study to improve the layout of the virtual workplace. The research demonstrates the importance of layout design in virtual training platforms and the potential benefits of utilizing link analysis in optimizing layout design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T09:56:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192657
       
  • The Importance of Understanding Foot Posture Strategies during Stair
           Descent for Forensic Incident Investigations

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      Authors: Vasiliki Kefala, Catalina Mantilla, Angela Levitan, Tim Joganich
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Falls on stairs are commonly claimed to be caused by slipping on the tread nosing, but few studies have explored specific foot kinematics at initial contact during stair descent. Further understanding of such kinematics can aid forensic incident investigations. We investigated foot posture at initial contact with the tread surface of seven participants while descending stairs to determine: a) foot posture variability across participants, and b) the effects of foot posture with respect to the nosing on foot placement. We calculated foot posture as the angle at initial contact relative to the horizontal plane using two consistent landmark points on the subjects’ shoes. Our preliminary results demonstrated inter-subject and intra-subject significant differences in foot posture (P
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T09:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194330
       
  • Exploring individual physiological correlates of procrastination with a
           deadline rush model

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      Authors: Tianchen Sun, Jessica Hwee, Ji-Eun Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Measuring procrastination is critical to discovering how procrastination impacts individuals. Studies have frequently adopted methodologies to quantify procrastination after task deadlines have passed. However, there are no models and strategies to predict procrastination while individuals are still working on tasks. The present exploratory study investigates the individual correlates of eye movement and physiological responses with procrastination. We conducted laboratory experiments with 18 participants and recorded their physiological data during the experiments. Participants’ procrastination levels were computed based on individual behavioral data collected during task completion. For most participants, the number of eye fixations, fixation rate, and standard deviation of skin temperature were related to procrastination. Our preliminary findings can be used to direct future research on modeling procrastination using combinations of eye movement and physiological responses with individual customizations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T09:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192608
       
  • The Impact of Observing a Video-Based Student Model on Learning

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      Authors: Siyuan Li, Scotty D. Craig
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the impact of observing a video-based student model demonstrating study behaviors on learning might help educators utilize videos as instructional strategies to promote students’ academic motivation and benefit learning. This study evaluated two competing hypotheses on whether watching videos consisting of a studying person and non-human studying-related visual cues will increase learners’ performance through the lens of modeling and the seductive details effect. A 2 (Human: presence, absence) × 2 (Cues: decorated, plain) randomized factorial design was conducted on Amazon MTurk. A modeling effect was not found in this study. However, support for the seductive details effect hypothesis was found in which observing a human was seductive because indirectly human behavior without specific ties to the learning task in a video appears to cause distraction from learning and trigger a seductive details effect.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T09:50:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192888
       
  • Examining the Effects of Cellphone Separation on Cognitive Engagement and
           Behavioral Performance in A Stroop Task

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      Authors: Alexa Quesnel, Xiao Yang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Cellphone has become an integral part of people’s daily life. Anxiety may arise from cellphone separation. Although negative cognitive effects of cellphone separation were reported, the mechanism of how cellphone separation anxiety influences cognition. In the present study, we examined the effects of cellphone separation on state anxiety and physiological indicators of cognitive engagement, heart rate (HR), and high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV). Seventy-five college-aged participants were assigned into three groups (explicit separation, implicit separation, and control groups) and performed a Stroop task. Anxiety, HR and HF-HRV at baseline and during the task were measured. Additionally, trait anxiety, working memory capacity, and daily cellphone usage were measured as covariates. The dependent variables were submitted to repeated-measure mixed-model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Although there were no group effects on state anxiety and HF-HRV, the implicit cellphone separation group showed the highest level of HR response and the Stroop effect on RTs. The results suggest that the activation of the mental representation of a cellphone, which occurred in the implicit separation group, facilitates cognitive engagement and enlarge the effects of inhibition on the speed of Stroop responses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T09:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192619
       
  • Two Birds With One Stone: Writing a Paper Entitled “ChatGPT as a Tool
           for Studying Human-AI Interaction in the Wild” with ChatGPT

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      Authors: Nathan L. Tenhundfeld
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Few advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have seemed to be quite as captivating for the public as was the release of ChatGPT by OpenAI. This chatbot has been able to provide remarkably accurate answers to factual questions, write workable code in a variety of programming languages, and generate human-like text passages on any number of topics. Because, at the time of writing, this technology is so new, there is a need to understand the capabilities and limitations of the system. This includes understanding the nature of collaborative and iterative writing. This paper reviews an attempt to write a conference proceedings paper on the ways in which to use ChatGPT to study human-AI interaction. Evaluation of output and the iterative processes required shows the strengths of ChatGPT’s context awareness, while highlighting its limitations in attempts to provide academic references. Additionally, metrics of passage similarity to prior passages is assessed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-07T09:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192916
       
  • The Influence of Olfactory and Visual Stimuli on Students’ Performance
           and Mood in Virtual Reality Environment

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      Authors: Hayoun Moon, Mohammadreza Freidouny, Mohammad Sadra Rajabi, Shokoufeh Bozorgmehrian, Ankit Sangwan, Myounghoon Jeon
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Exposure to sensory stimuli such as aromatherapy and immersion in Virtual Reality (VR) has shown impacts on task performance and emotional state. In this study, we examined the effects of stimuli types (olfactory, visual, and both) and themes (forest and café) in a VR environment to improve students’ performance and mood. While both the stimuli type and theme had no influence on the performance of the Stroop Test, providing olfactory with visual stimuli did increase the level of awakeness compared to providing visuals only or olfactory only. The choice of theme was an important factor in affecting mood; presenting the forest theme made participants feel better, more awake, and calmer compared to presenting the café theme. No interaction effect of stimuli and the theme was observed in any of the studied measurements. More complex tasks should be further tested to see whether aforementioned stimuli can have effects on students’ performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-06T04:35:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199688
       
  • Premortems in Game Development Teams: Impact and Potential

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      Authors: Kaitlyn M. Roose, Betsy R. Lehman, Elizabeth S. Veinott
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Software design teams need methods to evaluate plans as part of agile development processes. The premortem is a cognitive, structured, analytic technique that supports team plan evaluation and re-planning. Few empirical or longitudinal studies involving premortems exist. Ten game development teams (n=68 members) conducted premortems early on during a year-long game development project. Teams provided initial ratings of their game design plan, then conducted a premortem, and revised their plans. In the premortems, teams identified 17.8 unique reasons on average for project failure and 16.7 mitigations to those failures. Reasons for project failure focused mainly on game design execution, team communication, and game complexity (e.g., too many levels, branching). While most teams identified solutions for these challenges, surprisingly few teams revised their plans to scale back the game design complexity.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T11:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193680
       
  • Was I thinking about thinking about the task' Measurement issues with
           self-reports of task-related and task-unrelated thoughts

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      Authors: William S. Helton, Kenneth Jacksonil
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In two studies we examined participants self-reports of their cognitive state after performing tasks. The reports of cognitive state included separate single item measures of task-related and task-unrelated thoughts framed as opposing sets (thoughts about X and –X). In study 1, we examined two data sets from previously published research. The correlation between task-related and task-unrelated thoughts was ~r = −.25. In addition, the two items loaded onto separate factors when they were combined with other measures from the Short Task Relevant Evaluation of Stress State (STRESS). In study 2, 33 participants played a simulated natural disaster strategy game for five sessions and after each session they self-reported their cognitive state during the game. The correlation between task-related and task-unrelated thoughts at the individual level was also low, ~r = −.24. Participants may have difficulties accurately rating their thought content post-engaging in a task.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T11:28:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192694
       
  • Don’t Drop the Ball: A Comparison of Throwing Performance Between VR
           and Real Life

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      Authors: Samantha Kelling, Nicholas Kelling
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      A two-experiment study assessed throwing performance in VR and real life. The first experiment was a direct comparison of a carnival type throwing game in which participants attempted to throw 20 balls into a bucket from distances of 5 and 10 ft. Fifteen participants completed the task in both real life and in an identical VR environment. In the second experiment, the same task was repeated at the 5ft distance only with the addition of a randomized order of three different VR controllers and the real-life condition. Results from both experiments indicate substantial differences between real life and VR performance along with differences between controllers. Significant VR research has stressed enhancing visual quality to better replicate real life. However, the focus needs to shift to examine creating accurate psychomotor interactions to achieve more accurate performance and ultimately training success.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T11:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192659
       
  • Identification of Potential Causes for Increased Central Line Associated
           Bloodstream Infection Rates in the NICU

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      Authors: Angela Parker, Mark Nolan, Frank Drews
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The University of Utah Newborn Intensive Care Unit (UUNICU) has seen a recent increase in rate of Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) after an extended period of 965 days with no CLABSI’s. Unfortunately, in the last three years, infection rate has been on average 2.6 CLABSI per year. The goal of this study was to identify potential contributing factors leading to this substantial increase. To conceptualize these factors, we focused on the emergence of safety conflicts during the intravenous medication administration process. A safety conflict was defined as an interference between two separate pathways designed to protect the integrity of patient care (a ‘safety pathway’). A total of 30 structured health care worker observations of the intravenous medication administration process were conducted. Data analysis shows a notable increase in safety conflict frequency, and necessary LCs as the number of medications per administration event increases. Conversely, the average duration of a single vs. two medication administration events does not significantly increase, which indicates substantial batching of tasks. This batching increases the likelihood of safety conflicts, negatively affecting patient safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T11:23:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192553
       
  • Up, Down, On, Off' Effects of Camera Decisions on Interpersonal Perception
           During Videoconferencing

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      Authors: Mira Gruber, Mirella Galliano, Annamarie Brosnihan, P A Hancock
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Videoconferencing rapidly rose in popularity with the COVID-19 pandemic. With this recent interest in videoconferencing, discussions of how to appear one’s best on camera became similarly popular. However, despite the current interest in how one appears on camera, there is relatively little empirical research on this topic. This exploratory analysis investigates how camera usage and angle impact perceptions of videoconference users. Participants watched a brief video vignette of two actors completing a social negotiation task and evaluated the actors’ perceived experience, competence,and effort The results suggest that camera decisions can impact interpersonal perception; however, individual differences in users may moderate these effects.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T11:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192280
       
  • Toward Evacuation Training in Virtual Reality: Requirements Gathering for
           Wildfire Experiences

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      Authors: Zoe Loh, Alison Crosby, Sri Kurniawan, Spencer C. Castro
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      With increasing wildfires in the Western U.S., preparing individuals for evacuations has become vital. However, putting people in the presence of actual flames and smoke would be dangerous. Virtual Reality training provides valuable experience without endangering safety. To be optimally effective, a training should be designed by combining best practices with user insights. This study analyzed interviews with ten evacuees to identify their regrets and needs for future evacuations, informing VR training design. In a thematic analysis, the themes of Communication, Reflection, and Item Management emerged as critical. In a follow-up survey, participants ranked medicine, documents, and a first-aid kit as the most important items to pack during evacuation. By leveraging evacuee insights, VR training can address communication, mitigate regrets, and improve item management, empowering individuals with skills to navigate evacuations confidently.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T11:20:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192209
       
  • Factors Influencing Adoption of Pooled Rideshare An Explorative Study on
           User-Centered Design and Services

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      Authors: Rakesh Gangadharaiah, Haotian Su, Elenah B. Rosopa, Kristin Kolodge MS, Lisa Boor, Patrick J. Rosopa, Yunyi Jia, Johnell O. Brooks
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of real-time information communication through smartphones and wireless networks enabled the growth of ridesharing services. While personal rideshare services (individuals ride alone or with people they know) initially dominated the market, the popularity of pooled ridesharing (individuals share rides with strangers) has grown globally. However, pooled rideshare remains less common in the U.S., where personal vehicle usage is still the norm. Vehicle design and rideshare services may need to be tailored to user preferences to increase pooled rideshare adoption. A national U.S. survey (N = 5,385) used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to identify four key factors influencing riders’ willingness to consider pooled rideshare: comfort/ease of use, convenience, vehicle technology/accessibility, and passenger safety. Understanding and implementing these user-centered design principles and service-related factors may be critical for increasing the future use of pooled rideshare services in the U.S.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-02T12:22:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192636
       
  • COMPASS App: A Patient-centered Physiological based Pain Assessment System

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      Authors: Wenchao Zhu, Chang Liu, Haoxiang Yu, Yikang Guo, Yan Xiao, Yingzi Lin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Chronic pain patients lack at-home pain assessment and management tools. The existing chronic-pain mobile applications are either solely relying on self-report pain levels or restricted to formal clinical settings. Our app, abbreviated from an NSF-funded project entitled Novel Computational Methods for Continuous Objective Multimodal Pain Assessment Sensing System (COMPASS), is a multi-dimensional pain app that collects physiological signals to predict objective pain levels and trace daily at-home activities by incorporating a daily check-in section. We conducted a usability test with 33 healthy participants under pain conditions. The results provided initial support for the validity of the signals in predicting internalizing pain levels among the participants. With further development and testing, we believe the COMPASS app system has the potential to be used by both patients and clinicians as an additional tool to better assess and manage pain, especially for mobile healthcare applications.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-12-02T12:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192200
       
  • Development of a Smart Learning Application in Multi-person Virtual
           Reality Using Biometric Measures of Neuroimaging, Eye Tracking, and Haptic
           Interactions

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      Authors: Ziho Kang, Ricardo Palma Fraga, Kurtulus Izzoteglu, Junehyung Lee, Daniel D. Deering, Willow X. Arana
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Non-text-based smart learning refers to technology-supported learning that uses non-text features (i.e. visualized information) and adapted learning materials based on the individual’s needs. Fully immersive multi-person virtual reality (MVR) refers to humans located at different places wearing VR devices to join a single virtual room, a classroom with unlimited size, to learn from an instructor. The learning environment is poised to undergo a major reformation, and MVR will augment, and possibly replace, the traditional classroom learning environment. The ultimate purpose of this research and development of apps is to discover new smart learning methodologies within the MVR environment using nonintrusive multimodal analysis of physiological measures, including eye movement characteristics, haptic interactions, and brain activities. We provide the design concepts that were developed and implemented to create the MVR semantic network app. Furthermore, demonstration details are provided showcasing how we could leverage the MVR technology for education and training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T08:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196245
       
  • Health Professional Perspectives on Communication and Monitoring During
           Interfacility Neonatal Transport

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      Authors: Matthew W. Cook, Shruti Patel, Rachel Umoren, John Feltner, Lien Nguyen, Gol-Dann Slater, Danial Le, Prashanth Rajivan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Adverse events occur in a majority of pediatric critical care ambulance transports. For neonatal interfacility transports in particular, Medical Control Physicians overseeing the transfer are located remotely and must respond to referrals, updates, and questions over the phone. Technology options not currently utilized for neonatal interfacility transport may enhance communication and monitoring before and/or during transit. To identify the most beneficial new technologies, two activities were performed with the health professionals involved in transport: interviews and design workshops. The individual interviews focused on current processes and communication preferences. The design workshops brought together an interprofessional group of health professionals involved in transport to discuss an idealized state of transport and agree on priorities for the greatest needs to address. Health professionals agreed that the most desirable technologies enable remote vital sign monitoring, enable remote video visibility of the patient, and aid in the decision on where to send the patient.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T08:20:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192605
       
  • Where’s that bike' Sounds and metrics for a smart bicycle bell

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      Authors: Judy Edworthy, Rachael Brown, Connor Wessel
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      A bicycle bell is an important safety add-on and is used by the vast majority of bicycle users. Traditional bicycle bells make a single sound based on the construction of the bell, ranging from the gentle ring of a bell to the honk of a horn. A new wave of digital bell is now appearing which can make a range of sounds. One of the challenges of a digital bell is the issue as to what sorts of sounds should be made, how they will be responded to, and whether they are perceived as suitable for use in a digital bell. In this paper we present a study on the localizability of a set of digital bicycle bells, and how they are perceived along a range of relevant perceptual and aesthetic dimensions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T07:24:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192480
       
  • Looming sounds as auditory warnings: Uses for enhancing visual contrast
           sensitivity'

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      Authors: Patrick Seebold, Chang S. Nam, Yingchen He
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Looming sounds have been shown to influence visual perception, suggesting they may make effective auditory warning tones for use with visual tasks. To explore the use of looming sounds as warning signals and to determine whether the strength of a looming sound will impact its effectiveness, we tested five looming sounds with different amplitude increases as warning tones in a contrast sensitivity task where participants made judgements concerning the orientation of low-contrast sinusoidal gratings. Reaction time, accuracy, and contrast threshold were measured for each sound condition. Our results indicate that accuracy was higher and reaction time was faster when a sound was present compared to when no sound was present, and contrast threshold was significantly lowered in sound trials compared to silent trials. However, there was no difference in accuracy, reaction time, or contrast threshold by strength of looming. These results suggest that while auditory warning sounds do enhance performance on a basic visual task, the benefit was not unique to looming sounds. This experiment will help inform the design of warnings by providing insight into the underlying effects of looming sounds on visual performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T07:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192411
       
  • I thought we tested that!: Lessons learned from a team communications
           field study

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      Authors: Jacquelyn Schreck, Eric Sikorski, Michael King
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents practical lessons learned for conducting field research based on challenges faced during a complex field study. Communication between soldiers was captured via audio recorders as Army squads conducted simulated battle drills. The communication data provided critical information regarding squad performance in a realistic context that would not have been obtainable in a lab environment. The field study, despite intensive preparation, presented unforeseen issues requiring both short-term and long-term solutions. Issues were encountered with the environment, data collection, and data handling, which were able to be dealt with in real-time because we were adequately prepared. Preparations, challenges with specific examples, and universal lessons learned that can be applied to other field studies are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T06:55:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194321
       
  • The Impact of Content Temporality and Modality in Automotive User
           Interface on Trust and Comfort

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      Authors: Nadia Fereydooni, Sidney T. Scott-Sharoni, Bruce N. Walker, John K. Lenneman, Benjamin P. Austin, Takeshi Yoshida
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The manner an HMI presents information can affect a user's experience in highly automated vehicles. This online experimental study analyzed how informing participants of future or current events and vehicle behaviors in various modalities affected trust and comfort. We observed that presenting users with information about upcoming road events and vehicle maneuvers lead to greater user trust and comfort, but only when also alerting users about the immediately occurring events. Psychological and human-robot interaction theories provided explanations for why a combination of current and future alerts may result in higher user trust. Understanding how content temporality impacts the individual has design implications that may potentially lead to an increased partnership and optimized interaction between a person and their highly automated vehicle.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T06:46:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193654
       
  • The Effect of Patient Gender and Undressing Method on Chest Exposure for
           the Treatment of a Gunshot Wound

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      Authors: Katelyn R. Schwieters, Bradley A. Drahos, Curtis M. Craig, William Kessler, Marshall Mabry, Jack E. Norfleet, Mark V. Mazzeo, Nichole L. Morris
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Disrobing of a casualty on the battlefield is a key step in treatment to ensure injuries have been properly treated. Hesitancy to fully disrobe female patients may result in poorer treatment provided to female casualties. The goal of this study was to determine whether patient gender predicted the occurrence of complete or partial chest exposure and whether the type of undressing method predicted complete or partial exposure. Second, we sought to determine whether simulator gender, undressing method, and chest exposure predicted differences in the treatment of a gunshot wound (GSW) to the chest. Thirty-six soldiers treated GSW on male and female patient simulators. Complete chest exposures were more likely with male patients or when shears were used. For male patients, there were fewer errors, chest was exposed completely, and tearing methods were used. Results indicate opportunities to improve wound discovery and decrease GSW treatment errors, particularly for female patients.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T06:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192926
       
  • Examining the Inclusivity of Extended Reality (XR) in Current Products

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      Authors: Jessyca L. Derby, Stephanie M. Mello, Nicholas R. Horn, Andi N. StClair, Barbara S. Chaparro
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      With Extended Reality (XR) moving more towards the general public there are many companies developing commercial devices for their customers. Little research has been done to examine how inclusive these devices are for diverse populations. Instead, the focus has been on how we can develop specialized XR technology to help those with disabilities, such as helping those who are blind navigate their environment. This article provides an investigation of some of the current XR devices on the market based on established best practices, standards, and developer kits for inclusive XR design through three case studies: head-mounted displays, mobile devices, and smart glasses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-28T11:42:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192621
       
  • Finding a Natural Fit: A Thematic Analysis of Amputees’ Prosthesis
           Setting Preferences during User-Guided Auto-Tuning

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      Authors: Jing Yuan, Xiaolu Bai, Abbas Alili, Ming Liu, Jing Feng, He Huang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Amputees’ preferences for prosthesis settings are critical not only for their psychological well-being but also for long-term adherence to device adoption and health. Although active lower-limb prostheses can provide enhanced functionality than passive devices, little is known about the mechanism of preferences for settings in active devices. Therefore, a think-aloud study was conducted on three amputees to unravel their preferences for a powered robotic knee prosthesis during user-guided auto-tuning. The inductive thematic analysis revealed that amputee patients were more likely to use their own passive device rather than the intact leg as the reference for the natural walking that they were looking for in the powered device. There were large individual differences in factors influencing naturalness. The mental optimization of preference decisions was mostly based on the noticeableness of the differences between knee profiles. The implications on future design and research in active prostheses were discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T10:44:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231216121
       
  • Feeling Your Way with Navibar: A Navigation System using Vibrotactile
           Feedback for Personal Mobility Vehicle Users

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      Authors: Mungyeong Choe, Ajit Gopal, Abdulmajid S. Badahdah, Esha Mahendran, Darrian Burnett, Myounghoon Jeon
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Navigating routes using navigation systems while using Personal Mobility Vehicles (PMVs) like bikes or scooters can lead to visual distraction in outdoor environments, creating possibilities for an accident. This article proposes a new navigation system called NaVibar for PMVs that uses vibrotactile feedback on the handlebar to enhance route information delivery and reduce visual distraction. The study aims to answer four research questions about visual distraction, route recognition, mental workload, and usability. The results of the study showed that vibrotactile feedback can be an effective and useful addition to the PMVs navigation system, reducing visual distraction, and enhancing the user experience. Also, vibrotactile feedback did not affect the participants' route recognition, but it positively affected the participants’ lower workload levels. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the addition of vibrotactile feedback could enhance the usability and safety of PMV navigation systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T10:23:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194994
       
  • A case-study comparison of qualitative and quantitative techniques for
           assessing surgeon ergonomics

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      Authors: Evan R. Johnson, Syed A. Husain, Steven A. Lavender, Carolyn M. Sommerich
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Surgeons are often exposed to many ergonomic risk factors during open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted surgical procedures, which lead to pain or discomfort in alarmingly high percentages of surgeons. Ergonomic risk factors specific to colon and rectal surgery subspecialty have been hypothesized, but little research has been done on this topic. To investigate this, an ergonomics-centered case study was performed with an experienced colon and rectal surgeon at a teaching hospital to investigate their experiences with surgery, ergonomics, and musculoskeletal pain. Specifically, a semi-structured interview was performed with the participant, and skin surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the participant to record muscle activity data as they performed rectal surgeries using open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted surgical techniques. The results of this case study indicate that for this participant, robotic surgery may provide the most relief from current pain and discomfort; however, the relationship between muscle activation and surgical modality is complex, and both qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to provide a complete ergonomic analysis of colon and rectal surgery in a teaching hospital setting.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T10:21:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193687
       
  • Environmental Intervention Evaluation to Support Motor Planning of
           Wheelchair Movements: A Pilot Study

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      Authors: Kamolnat Tabattanon, Emily Nakisher, Ekim Koca, Bernard J.
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Environmental interventions provide a promising opportunity to support inclusive mobility in our rapidly changing society and workforce. Concurrently, the trends for aging into mobility disability, working into older age, and health and economic burdens of unpaid caregiving continue to rise. Hence, providing equitable mobility for all is an urgent need. In the context of manual wheelchair control, a novel method investigating the impact of environmental interventions on individual’s internal representation of motor actions is proposed. In addition to measuring objective and subjective performance metrics, we propose that an understanding of how internal representations of tasks are influenced by user perception of the environment has promising potential towards informing effective and inclusive task-environment interactions. The application explored in this pilot study aims to facilitate mobility.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-27T10:19:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192877
       
  • Sentiment analysis of Artificial Advisors in Search and Rescue Tasks

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      Authors: Huao Li, Maximilian Chis, Keyang Zheng, Michael Lewis, Dana Hughes, Katia Sycara
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The potential of Artificial Intelligence in assisting human teamwork has yet to be fully realized, despite its success in other domains. To ensure AI’s effectiveness and credibility as a team advisor, it must be able to effectively infer team dynamics and issue appropriate interventions. This study focuses on AI-mediated human teamwork in an simulated search and rescue (SAR) task, where a team of humans is monitored and guided by an artifical social intelligence (ASI). Six different ASIs are compared against a human baseline investigating the characteristics and effectiveness of their interventions. When adjusted for initial player competence ASIs performed on par with the human advisor although the human advisor was rated as more trustworthy and useful. Additionally, sentiment analysis of the interventions reveals that participants were more likely to accept interventions with negative emotions and resulted in improved team performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T10:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231205569
       
  • Systemic Analysis of Barriers of High Quality of Care in Telemonitoring:
           Integrating the Seips Framework and Fault Tree Analysis

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      Authors: Maryam Tabibzadeh, Apurva Shivakumar
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Amid the COVID-19 outbreak, healthcare systems have undergone a transformation with telehealth playing a key role. There has been a dramatic shift in the use of telehealth due to its benefits including the convenience it has offered. With the use of telehealth to monitor patients’ health on the rise, it has become more critical to improve the quality of care by identifying and resolving barriers to virtual care delivery systems. In this study, we apply the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) 2.0 framework to systematically investigate telemonitoring implementation, as a main category of telehealth services, and identify barriers to high quality of care while monitoring care virtually. We analyze those barriers by capturing them across different work systems of the SEIPS framework, which are: people (patients, healthcare providers, nurses, telemonitoring staff), organization, tools and technology, tasks, internal environment, and external environment. We then, through some research, determine some of those barriers that are more influential and conduct Fault Tree Analysis to identify their root causes. Furthermore, some recommendations are provided to address the identified barriers and their root causes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T10:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193679
       
  • A Method of Characterizing Street Crossing Behavior for Pedestrian and
           Driver Perspectives

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      Authors: Caleb Jeanniton, Leia Stirling
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Signalized traffic intersections are variable decision-making environments where safety is paramount. Safe decision outcomes require road users to consider the interaction of many environmental factors including their proximity to an intersection, the changing states of traffic lights, and whether they are walking or driving. Individuals often encounter traffic intersections as both drivers and pedestrians, so understanding how crossing decisions differ between perspectives can help support the development of targeted traffic policies for these road users. Our study leverages a simulated traffic intersection to evaluate an individual’s crossing decisions from both driver and pedestrian perspectives at various light change distances. Each participant views a series of pre-recorded videos of the traffic intersection from first-person driver and pedestrian perspectives. Presenting both perspectives to the same participant sample allows us to characterize the differences in their decision outcomes as they assume the role of driver and pedestrian.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T10:38:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192624
       
  • Evaluating the dissociation between drivers’ self-perceived and
           objective need for vehicle assistance during obstacle avoidance tasks

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      Authors: Maya S. Luster, Brandon J. Pitts
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Driver-assistance systems are becoming more commonplace; however, the realized safety benefits of these technologies depend on whether a person accepts and adopts automated driving aids. One challenge to adoption could be a preference-performance dissociation (PPD), which is a mismatch between a self-perceived desire and an objective need for assistance. Research has reported PPD in driving but has not extensively leveraged driving performance data to confirm its existence. Thus, the goal of this study was to compare drivers’ self-reported need for vehicle assistance to their objective driving performance. Twenty-one participants drove on a simulated road and traversed challenging, real-world roadway obstacles. Afterwards, they were asked about their preference for automated vehicle assistance (e.g., steering and braking) during their drive. Overall, some participants exhibited PPD that included both over- and underestimating their need for a particular type of automated assistance. Findings can be used to develop shared control and adaptive automation strategies tailored to particular users and contexts across various safety-critical environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T10:37:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192620
       
  • Scale Worlds: Iterative refinement, evaluation, and theory-usability
           balance of an immersive virtual learning environment

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      Authors: Linfeng Wu, Brian Sekelsky, Matthew Peterson, Tyler Gampp, Cesar Delgado, Karen B. Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Feedback-based iterative refinement is important in the development of any human-computer interface. The present work aims to evaluate and iteratively refine an immersive learning environment called Scale Worlds (SW), delivered via a head-mounted display (HMD). SW is a virtual learning environment encompassing scientific entities of a wide range of sizes that enables students an embodied experience while learning size and scale. Five usability experts performed think aloud while carrying out four interactive tasks in SW and compared three different design options during A/B testing. Improvement features based on the feedback from an earlier SW usability evaluation as well as HMD-specific features were examined. Usability experts completed the post-study system usability questionnaire, the NASA task load index, and a bipolar laddering survey that collected subjective perception of specific SW features. Results show that the progress panel (an improvement feature) was informative while the instructions (another improvement feature) caused clutter. The experts indicated clear usability preferences during A/B testing, which helped resolve three sets of theory-usability conflicts. The overall assessment of SW paved a path for theory-usability balance and provided valuable insights for designing and evaluating usability in immersive virtual learning environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T10:35:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192534
       
  • A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Cost and Benefits of Overlay versus
           Separate Displays

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      Authors: Amelia C. Warden, Christopher D. Wickens, Benjamin A. Clegg, Francisco R. Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Costs and benefits are associated with how information is presented depending on the type of task required. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the costs and benefits associated with overlaying information on a single display, as in the case with a head-mounted display, or presenting information more separately, as in the case with a head-down display (e.g., a tablet). Seventeen studies contributed a total of 82 individual effect sizes that met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Overall, overlaid displays led to a response time benefit for integration tasks without compromising accuracy, whereas separate displays led to an accuracy benefit for focused attention tasks. The findings here speak favorably to the use of head-mounted displays for tasks that require integrating information on the display with information in the real world.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T10:32:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192430
       
  • The Effect of Time Pressure on Visual Search Eye Tracking Metrics in
           Virtual Reality

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      Authors: Mohamad El Iskandarani, Sara Lu Riggs
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The study of visual search has focused on various guiding factors, but less attention has been given to how environmental factors affect visual search in virtual reality (VR). The visual search literature has primarily been based on 2D laboratory tasks, which lack the complexity of real-life search tasks. Thus, this study studies the effect of time pressure on visual search in a naturalistic environment. To do that, participants were immersed in a virtual living room using VR and tasked with finding objects under a time constraint. Eye gaze data was collected, and convex hull volumes and scanning rates were calculated and analyzed. The results show that time pressure reduced convex hull volume and increased scanning rate, indicating faster search speed and a gaze tunneling effect. Understanding how time pressure affects visual search can help improve training strategies and design better user interfaces for visual search critical domains.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T10:31:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192429
       
  • Illuminating the augmented reality stage: Assessment of lighting
           conditions for space exploration

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      Authors: Alesawy N., Halim P., Nadai M., Son J., Davis S., Teixeira C., Nelson T., Wang A., Holliman-Lopez G., Alesawy S., Stirling L.
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Augmented reality (AR) technology faces a prevailing challenge when dealing with harsh lighting environments, which are common in space. The study aims to evaluate the lighting compatibility for successful hand gestures using HoloLens 2, a device that utilizes AR technology for heads-up displays (HUDs), as a potential way to provide critical information to astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs). The study modulated luminance (dim, neutral, bright) and hand coverings (bare hand, white glove, black glove) to determine the HoloLens functionality. The results will inform design changes to support the astronaut experience by enhancing hand gesture recognition and reducing time wasted re-gesturing. By understanding the lighting requirements for HoloLens, we can improve the AR experience for future space missions. This study highlights the importance of considering lighting conditions in the development of AR technology, especially in challenging environments like space.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T07:10:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231210845
       
  • Enhancing Art Gallery Visitors' Experiences through Audio Augmented
           Reality Technology

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      Authors: Abhraneil Dam, Yeaji Lee, Arsh Siddiqui, Wallace Santos Lages, Myounghoon Jeon
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Audio Augmented Reality (AAR) applications are gaining traction, especially for entertainment purposes. To that extent, the current study explored its use and effectiveness in enhancing art gallery visitors’ experiences. Four paintings were selected and sonified using the Jython algorithm to produce computer generated music (Basic AAR); the audio was then further enhanced with traditional music by a musician (Enhanced AAR). Twenty-six participants experienced each painting in Basic, Enhanced, and No AAR condition. Results show that AAR cues had a significant effect on participants’ subjective feedback towards the paintings. Sentiment Analysis shows that participants mentioned significantly more positive words from Enhanced AAR than the others. Enhanced AAR also made participants express a sense of immersion, whereas Basic AAR made them concentrate more on forlorn aspects of the paintings. Findings from this study suggest ways to improve and customize AAR cues for different painting styles, and indicate the need for multi-modal augmentations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T07:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192706
       
  • Perspective on Emotion Detection for Automotive Applications: Performance
           Evaluation of Two Emotion AI SDKs

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      Authors: Mansoor Nasir, Kalyani Sonawane, Nikhitha Bekkanti, Walter Talamonti
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The work presented herein quantifies the limitations of the technology provided by two prominent suppliers in Emotion AI. Each Software Development Kit (SDK) performance was measured for accuracy using image and video databases. The results indicate that while the SDKs show high accuracy in detecting positive emotions (e.g., Happy), the performance suffered for negative emotions (e.g., Angry) due to missed and false detections. The results were worse for structured video datasets and degraded further when subjects were in naturalistic settings. Although Emotion AI have improved greatly in recent years, the current versions are not reliable enough for automotive applications. The paper provides perspectives on the reasons for subpar performance and guidance for improvement for future emotion estimation software.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T05:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192630
       
  • Case Study Analysis of Near Miss Events: A Misstep and a Trip

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      Authors: Benjamin Stephens, Michaela Cuoco
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      We discuss two case studies that illustrate the application of conspicuity measures to evaluate two near miss events. Conspicuity distance measurements in both cases suggest that the hazards were not noticed during the user’s normal activities. Near miss events can suggest the presence of hazardous situations. Near miss events also illustrate forensic analysis that may generalize to cases with more serious injuries.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T05:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192597
       
  • Pendulum Chair: A Research Platform for Cybersickness

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      Authors: Mohammadamin Sanaei, Arthur J. Perron, Stephen B. Gilbert
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Despite advances in VR hardware, cybersickness remains a key barrier to VR. Having a common customizable research platform could help the research community. This paper introduces a cybersickness research platform called Pendulum Chair for “spinning world” (egocentric rotation) experiences. The design of Pendulum Chair is justified and four different conditions are described from a Pendulum Chair study as validation. The conditions were defined as two different background scenes and two conditions of music. Data from 56 participants were collected and results showed that in all four conditions, participants reported cybersickness. The use of the open-source Pendulum Chair Unity project could enable stronger comparisons across cybersickness studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T05:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192456
       
  • Usability testing of Healthcare Devices: A review of the current UX
           methods used for usability testing of healthcare devices

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      Authors: Sahil Sawant, Pratyusha Joshi, Sarvesh Sawant
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This literature review examines the state of usability testing in medical device design, focusing on techniques and instruments used for assessing user-centered design. The analysis includes 30 studies from various fields, such as telemedicine, assistive technology, and healthcare devices. The review discusses different UX analysis techniques, their benefits and their drawbacks. Usability testing is critical in healthcare equipment design, utilizing various approaches and metrics. However, the analysis also highlights significant obstacles that need to be addressed, such as the need for more rigorous testing procedures and the application of user-centered design concepts. Overall, the review underscores the importance of usability testing in creating user-friendly, secure, and efficient medical equipment that benefits both patients and medical professionals.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T05:35:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192409
       
  • Behavioral Compliance with Safety Signs and Labels: An Analysis of
           Research Methods from the Past 25 Years

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      Authors: Julia K. Diebol, Kelly LoVoi, Chason J. Coelho
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reviews research published from 1998 to 2022 that involved collection of original data related to behavioral compliance with safety signs and labels. This review provides a needed update to previous similar reviews using a published taxonomical approach. The approach was used here to categorize study methodology and was extended to further categorize studies by whether they addressed behavioral compliance or intention/predicted likelihood of compliance. Nearly all of the studies reviewed assessed behavior in laboratories or via surveys of hypothetical scenarios, and relatively few used real-world experimental or real-world observational methods. Results revealed a lack of empirical demonstrations that intention and predicted likelihood of compliance are reliable predictors of real-world behavioral compliance. There was also a notable lack of evidence that warnings design aspects impact such real-world compliance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T05:34:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192259
       
  • Balancing the Scales of Explainable and Transparent AI Agents within
           Human-Agent Teams

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      Authors: Sarvesh Sawant, Rohit Mallick, Camden Brady, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Nathan McNeese, Jeff Bertrand, Nikhil Rangaraju
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      With the progressive nature of Human-Agent Teams becoming more and more useful for high-quality work output, there is a proportional need for bi-directional communication between teammates to increase efficient collaboration. This need is centered around the well-known issue of innate mistrust between humans and artificial intelligence, resulting in sub-optimal work. To combat this, computer scientists and humancomputer interaction researchers alike have presented and refined specific solutions to this issue through different methods of AI interpretability. These different methods include explicit AI explanations as well as implicit manipulations of the AI interface, otherwise known as AI transparency. Individually these solutions hold considerable merit in repairing the relationship of trust between teammates, but also have individual flaws. We posit that the combination of different interpretable mechanisms mitigates each other’s flaws and extenuates their strengths within human-agent teams.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T05:32:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192250
       
  • Are Eating and Phone Use Equally Distracting' A Simulated Driving
           Model Comparison

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      Authors: Xialou Bai, Celia Henderson, Dylan Hewitt, Zachary Traylor, Ziyang Xie, Chang Nam
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we sought to compare the mental workload of eating/drinking and phone use while driving. This was done by using Micro Saint Sharp to model a simulated driving task that included stop lights combined with either eating and drinking or a phone call. We hypothesized that the mental workload for phone use and eating/drinking would be the same, as literature suggests that eating while driving can be equally dangerous. Results show that eating and drinking were associated with a lower mental workload than phone use, and both eating and drinking are associated with significantly higher workload than baseline. This research has the potential to inform future legislation regarding driver safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T05:30:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192243
       
  • Driving Automation and Vulnerable Road Users: Peanut Butter & Jelly or
           Oil & Water'

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      Authors: Jose A. Calvo, Jesse Eisert, Laura Sandt, David Kidd, Chris Monk, Bahar Dadashova, Charlie Klauer
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Driving automation and vulnerable road users are two pieces of the enormous puzzle that is roadway safety. Ideally, driving automation will improve the safety of vulnerable road users. However, more research needed to understand the effects driving automation will have on the safety of vulnerable road users. In this panel we will examine the relationship between driving automation and vulnerable road users from several different perspectives. Regulatory and research initiatives will be presented, lessons that can be learned from existing technology will be examined, and questions of equitable solutions will be raised. These interdisciplinary experts are brought together with the audience to discuss the research needs, possible effects of driving automation implementation on vulnerable road users, and to try and determine just how well these two pieces of roadway safety fit together.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T07:28:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231208171
       
  • Flow Disruptions as A Result of Personal Electronic Devices in Orthopedic
           Surgery

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      Authors: McKenna Tooker, Paige Lawton, Gabriela Rosado, Sabrina Ehrenfort, Albert Boquet
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The operating room (OR) is a complex environment in which highly trained individuals perform cognitively demanding tasks. Distractions in this environment may lead to deleterious effects, as a loss of situational awareness can interfere with surgical procedures. The present study aims to quantify the frequency and nature of distracting events associated with personal electronic devices (PEDs) during twenty elective orthopedic surgery cases. PED use was coded using a real-time, custom data collection tool beginning in the pre-operative area and terminating at the time of handoff with the post-anesthesia care team. PED use accounted for 242 flow disruptions in the OR. The vendor showed the highest frequency of flow disruptions (73), followed by the circulating nurse (52) and the certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) (52). Thus, taking a proactive safety approach to account for intraoperative distractions associated with PEDs among OR team members will be critical to ensure high-quality patient care.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T07:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231208169
       
  • New Methods to Quantify Functional Strength for Young Children: Laboratory
           and Task Design Considerations

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      Authors: Monica L. H. Jones, Sheila M. Ebert, Carl S. Miller, Matthew P. Reed
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Strength data for children are needed to improve the safety of products. Currently, minimal information on strength is available for children under age 6 years. This paper describes the development of methods to measure functional, task-relevant strength for children ages 24 to 71 months. Strength measurement methods used for adults and older children must be adapted substantially to obtain meaningful data from this younger cohort. This paper discusses the challenges associated with gathering volitional, maximal force-generation capability for this age cohort with attention to applicability, repeatability, and reproducibility.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T07:19:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231205573
       
  • Learning across Diverse Training Modalities is Different across Gender:
           Insights from a Neuroergonomics Approach

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      Authors: John Hayes, Shivangi Dwivedi, Isabella Pedron, Joe Gabbard, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Recent challenges such as COVID-19 call for innovative methods of delivering training. In this study, we compare the effectiveness of augmented reality (AR) based psychomotor learning compared to videobased training. Participants completed either AR or video training to learn four basic AR interactions, before completing an AR evaluation. The AR group reported greater workload during training but demonstrated better performance during evaluation. We used functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to compare brain activation and functional connectivity across groups during evaluation. We found that participants in the AR group displayed smaller brain networks during the evaluation, suggesting more efficient utilization of neural resources. Sex differences in activation and connectivity suggest that men and women potentially employ different neural strategies while learning motor skills in AR. Future studies should examine how these differences could impact performance and user experience in future AR-based training programs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T07:13:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231205572
       
  • An Exploratory Study to Evaluate the Technological Barriers and
           

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      Authors: Mitali Bhosekar, Shilpalakshmi Mena, Sahar Mihandoust, Anjali Joseph, Kapil Chalil Madathil
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to identify the technological barriers and facilitators of safe and effective pediatric mental and behavioral health care in emergency departments. The study, which involved a total of 4 participants, employed observational studies and semi-structured interviews to gather data from medical professionals across two hospitals. The data collected from the interviews were analyzed for themes relating to the use of technology, including factors that enable or impede safe and effective care for pediatric mental and behavioral health patients. Barriers included challenges related to software usability, inadequate training on newer software features, and concerns regarding the quality of service delivered by third-party vendors. Facilitators comprised the accessibility of clinician's notes, effective tools and technologies for clinician and patient safety, and efficient communication tools.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T07:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231205571
       
  • Advancing the design of trustworthy robots for older adults in home
           environments: A participatory design approach

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      Authors: Samuel A. Olatunji, Vy Nguyen, Yi Cao, Henry Evans, Jane Evans, Aaron Edsinger, Charles C. Kemp, Wendy A. Rogers
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Assistive robots have the potential to support independence for older adults with mobility limitations and to alleviate the demands of their care partners. Several design considerations are required to ensure that the users can successfully rely on the robot to carry out their tasks. Therefore, building trustworthy robots is necessary for wider acceptance of these assistive robots. Using a participatory design approach, we assessed various aspects involved in advancing the design of a trustworthy robot in home environments. This is a case study focused on supporting an older adult with mobility limitations and his care partner. Through several iterations of co-active development as a team, most of the tasks were accomplished to meet the needs of the older adult couple interacting with the robot. Our approach highlighted usability challenges, the merits of a multidimensional approach in evaluating trust, and co-design strategies to improve the trustworthiness of the robot.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T07:01:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231205566
       
  • A Comparison of Three Types of Computer-Based Procedures: An Experiment
           Using the Rancor Microworld Simulator

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      Authors: Anna Hall, Ronald L. Boring, Thomas A. Ulrich, Roger Lew, Michelle Velazquez, Jinding Xing, Tim Whiting, Georgios Michail Makrakis
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The nuclear power industry has historically used paper-based procedures, but a shift towards computer-based procedures (CBPs) has the potential to reduce human errors, alleviate mental workload, and improve work performance. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three CBP types using the Rancor Microworld Simulator, and each performed two different types of operational scenarios (startup and loss of feedwater). The three CBP types varied in levels of digitalization. It was hypothesized that there would be less favorable impressions of the most basic procedures, and that these would demonstrate lower usability than types with greater digitalization. Overall, our predictions were partially supported with some interesting caveats, specifically with some performance benefits for CBPs that provided indicators but not embedded controls. We discuss our findings in terms of optimal levels of digitalization/automation within nuclear operations and suggest pathways for future directions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-23T06:53:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231205507
       
  • Learning from accented virtual humans: Can quality of voice and
           globalization overcome accent familiarity'

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      Authors: Robert F. Siegle, Jodi L. Puchalski, Scotty D. Craig
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The current study’s data is from a select portion of a larger study, which investigated the impact accents have on learning outcomes and perceptions of the instructor. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial design was conducted on the type of voice (human, synthetic) and the accent of the voice (English, Russian), and their impacts when being spoken by a virtual human. Previous research has consistently shown that instructor accents can impact learning outcomes, perceptions of the instructor, and perceptions of the learning materials. However, the current study’s results conflict with these past findings, with no effects found for the accent condition and accent familiarity having no significant impact. This study’s focus will be on the accent familiarity findings, which will demonstrate the need for further research on the impact accents have on learning, perceptions, and how increasing globalization and quality of voice may influence these outcomes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T10:17:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192417
       
  • Who Hacked My Car' Designing Autonomous Vehicles to Support Driver
           Response to Security Threats

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      Authors: Cherin Lim, Prashanth Rajivan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Modern vehicles have evolved into intelligent and autonomous transportation systems, yet such computer-driven developments also create opportunities for unforeseen cyber-security attacks on self-driving cars. These threats may pose critical risks to human lives but there is a considerable lack of understanding in designing vehicle systems to support driver response during rare and hazardous security events. We conducted an interview with autonomous vehicle drivers to understand their perception of automotive threats and design needs for effective response during security events. Results show that drivers expect information relating to malfunction detection, trouble-shooting instructions, and log data from the vehicle. Moreover, drivers were more likely to act based on instincts the more the driver perceives the threat to be urgent, rather than process the situation during the initial stages of an attack. We thus propose a ‘Driver Response Phase’ and corresponding design implications for future vehicles that support user response to security risks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T10:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192217
       
  • Feasibility of a Circadian Lighting Intervention to Promote Sleep in
           College Students

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      Authors: Martha Sanders
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      College students report poor sleep quality that impacts class attendance, productivity, and overall success in college. Circadian lighting has helped to regulate sleep patterns and improve sleep quality in populations who traditionally experience poor sleep. A feasibility study was conducted to determine the practicality of conducting a study in which a circadian lighting intervention would be implemented in college students’ dorms to study the effect on sleep, mood, and productivity. This study examined the process, resources, data management, and preliminary efficacy of a 4-wk, daily, one-hour lightbox exposure. Results indicated the lightbox was well-received by students. Recommendations to facilitate the study include improved recruitment efforts, data management, use of a research-grade activity tracker, modification of data collection days, and utilization of research associates to assist in data collection. Preliminary outcomes showed improved sleep quality and productivity for schoolwork in this sample of college students.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T10:13:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192196
       
  • Understanding the Impact of Team Cognitive Load and Advice Compliance in
           Urban Search and Rescue Task

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      Authors: Matthew M. Willett, Mustafa Demir
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This research concentrates on the impact of Artificial Social Intelligence (ASI)'s advice intervention text messages and the compliance of three human team members, who communicate via voice to carry out victim rescue operations, on the team's performance. This experiment takes place in a simulated Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task environment built using Minecraft. The ASI agent, utilizing its analytical components designed around interactive real-time measurements, oversees the team's behavior in the USAR task environment. The agent discerns and forecasts the human team members' actions, offering interventions via text messages to foster and sustain team efficacy. The study examines (1) the influence of the team's cognitive load on message compliance from the advisor, and (2) how these elements collectively affect team performance. The results show a positive association between cognitive load, compliance, and enhanced task performance, despite the lack of a significant correlation between cognitive load and compliance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-18T05:02:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192293
       
  • Mass Casualty Incident Commander Decision-Making Models: Novice vs. Expert
           Decision Making

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      Authors: Omer Perry, Avishay Goldberg, Eli Jaffe, Yuval Bitan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: Managing a mass-casualty incident (MCI) challenges commanders in the pre-hospital phase. Exploring the differences between the decision-making processes of novice and expert commanders can reveal how to improve training. This study aims to compare the decision-making processes between paramedic students and veteran paramedics. Methods: Data from eight MCI field simulations of paramedic students with no experience, and one simulation of a veteran paramedic were collected. Results: In the first phase of the simulation, both the students and the veteran paramedic followed the MCI protocol. From the second phase, the paramedic students mostly responded to received cues, while the veteran paramedic initiated actions without preliminary cues. Discussion: The veteran paramedic initiates actions and utilizes "considered" decision-making process earlier than the students, that frequently acted in response to cues. Although these results are based on a small sample, this study indicates a difference between novice and expert commanders’ decision-making processes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-17T01:02:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192921
       
  • Phishing in Social Media: Investigating Training Techniques on Instagram
           Shop

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      Authors: Katherine R. Garcia, Jeremiah Ammons, Xiangrui Xu, Jing Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      As new communication technologies emerge, social media continues to grow rapidly and falls into users' hands. However, social media also brings new forms of phishing attacks compared to conventional email phishing and desires new forms of anti-phishing intervention including user training. To tackle this problem, we investigated the efficacy of current email training techniques for phishing scams on Instagram Shop advertisements. Participants were tasked to rate how likely they would recommend an office product in Instagram Shop to their boss based on how legitimate the advertisement (ad) appeared. Our results indicated that shoppers’ experience with Instagram influenced their ability to distinguish between phishing and legitimate ads. However, more-frequent Instagram users did not have a decreased susceptibility to phishing than less-frequent users, and the current training techniques had no effect on participants’ ratings of phishing and legitimate ads. Future studies may explore other training methods, such as including feedback to participants.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T06:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192588
       
  • Factor Analysis of a Generalized Video Game Experience Measure

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      Authors: Jessica Williams, Rhyse Bendell, Stephen M. Fiore, Florian Jentsch
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Video gaming experience has been found to impact behavior and performance on experimental tasks, can influence cognitive processes, and may even transfer to proficiency in novel tasks. There is a growing need for an empirically validated generalizable tool that can capture differences in participants gaming experience due to the growing representation of regular video gamers, and the proliferation of gamified, simulated task environments. The analyses reported here examine the factor loadings of a general Video Game Experience Measure (VGEM) designed to tap facets of gaming experience that can distinguish non-gamers from gamers and is also sensitive to varying levels of proficiency. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses find support for a five-factor model capturing: Game-skill Confidence, Gaming Lifespan, Gaming Intensity, Gaming Frequency, and Gamer Self-efficacy. These findings are discussed in the context of how the VGEM can support research using gamified task environments requiring the study of cognition and collaboration.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T05:59:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192224
       
  • Investigating Human Physiological Responses to Work-Related Stress

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      Authors: Jimmy Uba, Joseph Nuamah
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Studies have shown that work-related stress is one of the causes of employee burnout, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction, among other negative effects. Physiological features have been used to investigate stress, but more knowledge is needed in understanding physiological indicators of work-related stress. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, no study is available that integrates both pupillometry and heart rate in investigating work-related stress. We, therefore, utilized task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) from pupillometry and heart rate (HR), in the assessment of physiological responses of 32 subjects during the performance of Multi-Attribute Task Battery-II consisting of working baseline and stress conditions. A comparison of results of both conditions showed that TEPR and mean HR significantly increased during stress condition, as compared to working baseline condition. These results are attributed to the work related-stressors integrated in our study, thereby bolstering the applicability of heart rate and pupillometry in studies of work-related stress.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T05:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192596
       
  • A Completion Rate Conundrum: Reducing bias in the Single Usability Metric

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      Authors: Carl J. Pearson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In the Single Usability Metric benchmarking method, the calculation of completion rates creates a bias for completion rates by ignoring the z-score transform that is conducted for satisfaction and time-on-task measures. This artificially inflates all ‘good’ scores and marks some ‘poor’ scores as ‘good’. This paper discusses two methods to augment the SUM so that it will accurately calculate completion rates into the final SUM score.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-01T11:45:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194328
       
  • Format Readability Enhancing In Basic Mathematical Operations

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      Authors: Caterina B Azzarello, Dave B Miller, Ben D Sawyer, Joanna E Lewis
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Individuated font selection, which can increase text reading speed, may be able to increase mathematical expression reading speed and influence reasoning accuracy. To investigate whether the same font that increases a participant’s reading speed enhances mathematical reading, we compared their speed in evaluating mathematical expressions as true or false presented in their fastest reading font as determined by empirical test and with a control font, Times Roman. Participants were faster in completing mathematical problems when using typography selected for individual readability, but no difference occurred in task accuracy, matching patterns previously seen in interlude reading. Future research should assess the impact of elements of time pressure, math complexity, numeric versus text-based questions, and associated math anxiety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-01T11:44:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199682
       
  • Rancor Computer-Based Procedures – A Framework For Task Level Human
           Performance Data Collection

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      Authors: Thomas A. Ulrich, Ronald L. Boring, Roger Lew, Timothy A. Whiting
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      To support new and novel concepts of operations for the anticipated wave of advanced nuclear reactor deployments, human factors and human reliability analysis researchers need to develop advanced simulationbased approaches. The lack of standardized HRA models and human performance data is not new and has outlasted numerous potential solutions. This paper presents a Rancor microworld simulation with computerbased procedures that serve as a framework to classify human behaviors without manual or subjective experimenter coding during scenarios. This method supports a detailed level of analysis at the task level. It is feasible for the collecting large sample sizes required to develop quantitative modelling elements that have historically challenged traditional full-scope simulator study approaches.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-01T06:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196242
       
  • Biomechanical Evaluation of Case Hook Designs for Selector Use in
           Distribution Centers

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      Authors: Steven A. Lavender, Anthony Udemba, Anas Kachlan, Carolyn M. Sommerich
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Case hooks are tools used in distribution centers by selectors to help them reach and pull products located on the back half of a pallet. This study investigated the postural, electromyographic, and usability responses as 4 handle and 3 tip types were used to pull cases forward on a pallet. The data suggest the pistol grip may be most biomechanically advantageous. With the pistol grip, the rake and conventional tips worked well and had good usability scores.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-01T06:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196241
       
  • A Mathematical Model Relating Foam Material Properties to Heightened
           Interface Pressure between a Human and Mattress Surface

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      Authors: Molly E. Laird, Nassif Rayess, Megan O. Conrad
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Hospital patients often develop pressure injuries when lying in bed for an extended time due to relatively high contact pressures breaking down skin tissues. Pressure injuries adversely affect patients by potentially leading to infection and creating advanced health risks. Our prior research identified children experience highest risk of pressure ulcer in the head region. Thus, this study aimed to gather pressure data and create a corresponding model relating foam material properties to predicted interface pressure between the head and a foam mattress overlay surface. Research findings provide data guiding clinicians and designers to mattresses with material properties capable of reducing the incidence of pressure ulcers in children and adults.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-11-01T06:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192717
       
  • The Development of the Trust in Self-Driving Vehicles Scale (TSDV)

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      Authors: Ian W. T. Robertson, Philip Kortum, Claudia Ziegler Acemyan, Frederick L. Oswald
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Self-driving vehicles (SDVs) are an emerging technology in which consumers have low levels of trust. Researchers/designers can understand and improve consumer trust through research and iterative design, but doing so effectively requires reliable measures. Although general trust-in-automation measures exist, a measure tailored to SDVs may provide a more accurate tool. This study presents work undertaken to create a domain specific trust measure for SDVs. Candidate items were given to 400 participants who rated their trust in an SDV portrayed in a narrative describing a ride in said vehicle. The Trust in Self-driving Vehicles Scale (TSDV) was created by analyzing participants’ responses using psychometric methods. Four factors were extracted from participants’ responses. Five items were retained for each factor to create the TSDV. Initial evidence of the validity of the instrument is presented through the TSDV’s ability to discriminate between a trustworthy and non-trustworthy vehicle, as portrayed in use scenarios.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:31:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192515
       
  • Comparison of Naïve Decision Aides for Time-Pressured Degraded
           Environments

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      Authors: William I.N. Sealy, Karen M. Feigh
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Decision accuracy often suffers when missing information and time-pressure are introduced, and there is little consensus on how best to support decision making in these conditions. In this study we compare two naïve decision aides which aim to improve decision accuracy in two environments biasing towards Take-the-Best and Weighted Additive decision strategies. The first support aide slowly acquires missing information for the participants and the second aide provides option suggestions based on estimates of missing information. We found that while both decision aides were able to significantly improve decision accuracy, the aide which provided option suggestions outperformed the decision aide which acquired missing information. We also find that both decision aides have unique mediating effects on the presence of information imbalance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:30:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192905
       
  • Biodynamic Modeling and Analysis of Human-Exoskeleton Interactions During
           Assisted Manual Handling

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      Authors: Yinong Chen, Wei Yin, Liying Zheng, Ranjana Mehta, Xudong Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a back exoskeleton on joint kinematics and kinetics during assisted manual handling tasks using subject-specific musculoskeletal biodynamic models and model-based analyses. We constructed these musculoskeletal models using OpenSim (Delp et al., 2007), incorporating optical motion capture, ground reaction forces (GRFs) measurements, and humanexoskeleton interactive force input. Our long-term goal is to enable digital modeling and simulation that can aid in the design and development of more effective exoskeletons and safer manual handling practices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192867
       
  • Design of a trusted shift of Coordination Forms: Supporting Collaboration
           to handle future non-human intelligent collaborators (NICs)

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      Authors: Rune Stensrud, Sigmund Valaker
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      We introduce principles for designing collaboration among special operation forces (SOF) and future non-human intelligent collaborators (NICs), focusing on interdependence and emergent dynamics of workflow. We discuss a dynamic mixed-initiative human-autonomy teaming (HAT) coordination concept, where multiple military SOF teams collaborate together with autonomous capabilities. We argue that effective tactical actions requires shift of coordination forms, i.e. who is enacting coordination functions, which in military command and control (C2) terminology is formalized as coordination authority. Coordination forms could shift according to a set of requirements and we discuss how to elicit experiences of such coordination from simulated missions where human teammates and/or NICs have had to make choices of coordination form. We formulate a set of hypotheses remaining to be empirically analyzed. We draw on collaboration research investigating socio-technical systems where machine teammates collaborate with human teammates to achieve a common goal.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:26:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192695
       
  • Face Matching as a Function of Prior Identity Information in Professional
           Screeners

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      Authors: Kristopher Korbelak, Kevin Zish, Daniel Endres
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Using a computer-based face matching task we objectively measured face matching performance (reaction time, sensitivity, accuracy) as a function of prior identity source type (Artificial Intelligence (AI), human, none), prior information accuracy (accurate, inaccurate) and task difficulty (high, low) in professional screeners. Participants were required to judge how similar they thought a pair of faces were, to decide whether the faces in each pair were the same person, and then to judge the difficulty of that decision. Professional screeners were more accurate, faster, and, more sensitive when normative task difficulty was low. Professional screeners were also more accurate, faster, and more sensitive when prior identity source information was accurate. There was no main effect of prior identity source type on performance (there was a trend-level effect). Face matching accuracy positively correlated with normative data from non-professional screeners. Professional screeners were more accurate 80.6% of the time, compared to non-professional screeners.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:24:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192652
       
  • Is it Stress O’Clock': Comparing Cardiac Data from Industry-Leading
           Smartwatches against Subjective Workload Measures

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      Authors: Lauren Horde, Aaron Moore, Dr. Sara Lu Riggs
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Health information like heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns are available to the public on smartwatches; however, there may be a disconnect between these health measures and how users subjectively experience feelings of stress. This study examines the health detection features of two leading smartwatches in the industry, the Apple Watch Series 6 and Fitbit Sense, to determine if these devices may be used to accurately measure stress. Participants engaged in a multi-tasking program (MATB-II) that varied in cognitive workload demand while wearing smartwatches measuring cardiac data. Subjective workload responses resulted in significant differences between low and high workload conditions, indicating an increase in stress. However, both smartwatches were unable to detect significant differences in stress responses between low and high workload conditions. Overall, these results indicate that smartwatch HR and ECGs may not reflect internal feelings of stress and are sensitive to variability in measurement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:20:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192629
       
  • Ergonomic Analysis of a Novel Shelf Stocking Cart

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      Authors: Evan Poska, Steven A. Lavender, Carolyn M. Sommerich
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the potential for an ergonomic intervention, specifically a prototype height-adjustable stocking cart to reduce the physical demands experienced when stocking shelves. This study compared muscle activity, kinematics, and subjective preferences when participants used the prototype cart versus a traditional, manual stocking method. Nine males and three females participated in this study. A traditional stocking method was compared to the prototype cart method for two types of dry grocery products as they were moved to three different destination shelf heights. EMG data, kinematic data, and subjective feedback generally favored the cart prototype over the traditional method. Bilaterally, anterior deltoid muscle activity was reduced for the cart condition when transferring products to the lower and higher shelves; trapezius activity was reduced for only the higher shelf; right side erector spinae activity was reduced for the lower shelf. The cart primarily benefited the anterior deltoid and trapezius descendens through reduced shoulder flexion. There were interaction effects of cart and shelf height on shoulder and spine kinematics. Questionnaire data showed that participants favored using the prototype. Study results support the continued development of the prototype cart toward a commercially available ergonomic aid for shelf stockers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192542
       
  • The Effects of Variable Tension Forces on Exoskeletons’
           Effectiveness

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      Authors: Joseph Yun-Ming Kim, Richard Stone, M. Susan Hallbeck, Hamid Norasi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Exoskeletons are ergonomic devices that can support workers to improve performance and worker safety. This study created an apparatus that simulated a head-and-neck exoskeleton designed for surgeons to test the effects of varying tension forces on muscle activation (splenius capitis, splenius cervices, and erector spinae), body part discomfort, dexterity, cognition, and overall usability of the device. Eight participants were involved in twelve trials over two days and held static postures (looking down at 45° or 90°) for 20 minutes with 10-minute breaks between trials. Six trials utilized tension forces, which were recorded every two minutes and then averaged for each trial. A bivariate regression analysis ( on each metric vs. average tension forces demonstrated that increasing tension forces led to decreased muscle activity of the left splenius capitis, change in general body pain, change in neck discomfort, and the rate of discomfort developing, and improved usability scores.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T11:16:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192533
       
  • Towards Making XR 100% Accessible: A Discussion Panel

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      Authors: Michael A. Rupp, Aaron Gluck, Jessyca Derby, Thom Gable, Nicholas Kelling, Carmen Van Ommen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Given the increased usage of extended reality (XR), it is important to consider what difficulties users may have using these systems. This discussion panel will provide an open dialog about what accessibility means for XR systems and for whom. Each panelist will provide a brief overview of the following topics within their bailiwick followed by Q & A. Aaron Gluck will discuss broadening access to XR by users with disabilities. Jessyca Derby will discuss heuristics for making AR/MR experiences more accessible and what resources are available to assist designers and practitioners, Thom Gable will discuss inclusive design in the XR space more broadly and discuss the approach within Microsoft, Nicholas Kelling will discuss the role behavioral and sensory accessibility plays in opening XR to a broader audience, and Carmen Van Ommen will discuss how best practices from other domains can be applied to XR
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T11:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192632
       
  • Team Skill Metrics that Span Human-Human and Human-Agent Teams: An Initial
           Assessment

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      Authors: Michael C. Dorneich, Stephen Gilbert, Rick F. Francis, Mitchell Talyat, Elmin Didic
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Team skill metrics were operationalized by translating team constructs to metrics based on observable behaviors. As human coordination with autonomous agents turns to collaboration, humans may increasingly view agents as teammates. This transition will require agents to possess team skills and necessitate appropriate metrics for measuring team skills across human-agent and human-human teams. Thirty-eight teaming metrics were developed across five stages of teaming: preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustment, and team chemistry. Behaviors from 78 multiplayer gameplay videos were coded to establish which metrics could be measured via observable behaviors. An exploratory assessment demonstrated that the metrics captured teaming differences in team composition (human-human teams vs. human-agent teams) and three levels of team expertise. Results suggest that these team skill metrics could aid agent designers in anticipating the team dynamics of humans working with their agents.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T11:38:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192892
       
  • Exploring the Association between Trust in Healthcare Entities and
           Exposure to Emerging Health Misinformation in Nebraska: A Pilot Study

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      Authors: Natalie Arambul, Syeda Sraboni, Josephine Chukwunweike, Ayokunle Olagoke
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction:This pilot study investigated the association between trust in healthcare entities and exposure to emerging health misinformation in rural Nebraska. Methods: We surveyed 42 residents of Nebraska to assess their trust in healthcare entities (i.e., the healthcare system, clinicians, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and local health departments) and their exposure to emerging health misinformation. Results: Most participants with decreased trust in healthcare entities also reported exposure to health misinformation in the last week. Specifically, 62.5% of participants who reported decreased trust in the healthcare system, 75% in the CDC, 83.3% in the FDA, and 62.5% in the local health department also reported exposure to at least misinformation. Conclusion: The findings suggest that trust is a crucial human factor and is critical in exposure to health misinformation. This highlights the need to prioritize effective communication strategies to build trust.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T07:07:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192887
       
  • Augmented Reality Order Picking Aid for Foreign Workers in Warehouses

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      Authors: Ahmad Albawaneh, Shruthi Venkatesha Murthy, Goutam Singla, Jiang Wu, Hyungil Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Background:In warehouse logistics, picking work comprises roughly 60% of the costs, emphasizing the need for efficiency (Matsumoto et al., 2019). Traditionally, workers utilize written instructions, which can be challenging for those less language proficient. The integration of augmented reality (AR) head- mounted displays (HMDs) may enhance accuracy and efficiency (Matsumoto et al., 2019). However, AR HMDs may come with some drawbacks—after extended use, some users report discomfort and decreased performance (Vidovič & Gajšek, 2020). Despite promising improvements in warehouse operations, HMDs’ long-term impacts remain uncertain (Fang et al., 2019). Furthermore, the influence of language proficiency on HMD effectiveness needs exploration (Murauer et al, 2018). In order to fully comprehend the potential and limitations of HMDs, further research is necessary, targeting effective strategies for implementation and optimal AR user interface (UI) design.Objective:This study aims to evaluate an AR HMD system against traditional methods, focusing on its potential to aid non-native English-speaking warehouse workers and boost efficiency and accuracy in picking tasks. Our goal is to ascertain whether an AR aid system, utilizing universal and conformal design principles, can yield superior results in user performance, usability, and situational awareness compared to written instructions.Method:We identified the language-related challenges faced by foreign workers through interviews. Guided by these insights and Ganapathy’s mobile AR guidelines (Ganapathy et al., 2013), we designed an AR solution with universal symbols and intuitive interactions. The AR solution was prototyped using Microsoft HoloLens 2. To evaluate user experience with the proposed system, we conducted a within-subject experiment in a controlled laboratory environment, comparing this AR headset instruction with traditional written instructions. We employed the situation awareness rating technique (SART) questionnaire (Taylor et al., 2017) and system usability scale (SUS) questionnaire (Brooke et al., 1995), along with performance measures, to assess the effectiveness of the proposed system.Results:Our study with 17 participants indicated no significant difference in task completion time between traditional and AR headset instructions. However, AR significantly reduced package identification time (M=6.89, SE=0.40 vs. M=10.15, SE=0.61). Moreover, people with the AR instructions had no errors while with the traditional written instructions had a total of 2 errors. The proposed AR aid also resulted in enhanced worker situation awareness by allowing them not to divide their attention across job instructions and the dynamic warehouse environment (M=2.41, SE=0.24 vs. M=3.70, SE=0.35). The AR headset was perceived as easier to use (M=4.35, SE=0.16 vs. M=3.35, SE=0.17) and better integrated various functions (M=3.94, SE=0.16 vs. M=2.70, SE=0.19), despite some participants reported a need for technical assistance.Conclusion:The human-subject experiment demonstrates that the proposed AR aid system is effective in eliminating errors, improving ease of use, and enhancing situation awareness of foreign workers in warehouses. This study also underscores the importance of a user-centered approach in leveraging technology for users in diverse contexts.Application:Our proposal holds promising prospects beyond the scope of the study. Its potential extends to various safety- critical domains, including transportation, construction, and military operations, where operators’ awareness of the dynamic environment is crucial (Kim et al., 2020).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-26T07:04:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192868
       
  • ChatGPT as the Ultimate Travel Buddy or Research Assistant: A Study on
           Perceived Attitudes and Usability

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      Authors: Gabriela Flores-Cruz, Sean D. Hinkle, Nelson A. Roque, Mustapha Mouloua
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to investigate participants’ perceived attitudes and usability with OpenAI’s ChatGPT AI chatbot. Participants were asked to watch screen recorded videos of a researcher exploring the AI’s ability to create a quantum mechanics experiment and to plan a trip to New York City. Thirty percent of participants had previously used the AI before the study. Attitudes towards the AI were in the middle of the scale, and prior use did not affect these attitudes. Additionally, ratings on usability were higher for planning a trip compared to creating an experiment, but no differences were found depending on prior use. Future research should examine attitudes and usability when participants interact with the AI chatbot directly in different scenarios. The study also emphasizes the need to examine the potential effects of AI on user experience, and safety, given the prevalence of ChatGPT in the general population.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:30:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193678
       
  • Progressive Medical Simulation: An Analysis of the Integration of
           Progressive and Personalized Learning in Central Line Simulators

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      Authors: Isra K. Elsaadany, Jessica M. Gonzalez-Vargas, Jason Z. Moore, Scarlett R. Miller
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Progressive learning gradually increases task difficulty as students advance in their education. One area that can benefit from it is medical education since it can optimize medical trainees’ skill acquisition. While progressive learning can allow for skill transfer to patient encounters, personalized learning increases the efficiency and effectiveness of learning. However, it is not well understood the number of practice trials needed to reach proficiency. To evaluate whether progressive and personalized learning can enhance medical trainees’ learning gains, the learning interface of the Dynamic Haptic Robotic Trainer (DHRT) for Central Venous Catheterization was assessed. Results showed that residents’ performance on the DHRT did not differ based on task difficulty and residents’ performance was as effective with less number of trials. The findings imply a need to integrate progressive and personalized learning on the DHRT simulator to ensure that residents are fully prepared for any patient scenario in a real-life encounter.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:27:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192713
       
  • Project AVIAN: Implications of Utilizing the Novel AVIAN-S Machine
           Learning Model in Analyzing Aviation Safety Event Reports

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      Authors: Amelia Kinsella, Edward Bynum, R. Jordan Hinson, Katherine Berry, Michael Sawyer
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Voluntary Safety Reporting Programs (VSRPs) create an opportunity for actively identifying potential safety issues within aviation operations. However, manually reading and analyzing these reports can be labor-intensive and heavily relies on subject-matter experts. The full potential of VSRP data is difficult to achieve due to limited resources available to extract meaningful human factors (HF) data from reports. New machine learning (ML) techniques involving natural language processing (NLP) offer opportunities to label factors of interest within safety reports more efficiently and effectively. A novel ML model was developed to identify HF issues within aviation safety reports. The AVIAN-S model was trained on over 50,000 rows of manually classified VSRPs. The model uses ML and NLP to automate the process of labeling aviation safety reporting data and coding reporter narratives according to an established HF taxonomy. Preliminary results and implications for using the AVIAN-S model for analyzing aviation safety event reports are described.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192913
       
  • Understanding Learning Engagement with User-Centered Human-Computer
           Interaction in a Multimodal Online Learning Environment

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      Authors: Jiahui Ma, Elizabeth A. Johnson, Bernadette McCrory
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Multimodal online learning environment improves learning experience through different modalities such as visual, auditory, and kinesthetic interactions. Multimodal learning analytics (MMLA) with multiple biosensors provides a way to overcome the challenge of analyzing the multiple interaction types simultaneously. Galvanic skin response/electrodermal activity (GSR/EDA), eye tracking and facial expression were used to measure the learning interaction in a multimodal online learning environment. iMotions and R software were used to post-process and analyze the time-synchronized biosensor data. GSR/EDA, eye tracking and facial expression showed real-time cognitive, emotional, and visual learning engagement for each interaction type. There is a tremendous potential for using MMLA with multiple biosensors to understand learning engagement in a multimodal online learning environment was shown in this study.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:24:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193675
       
  • Measuring Temporal Awareness for Human-Aware AI

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      Authors: Margaret A. Gray, Zhuorui Yong, Abhijan Wasti, Esa M. Rantanen, Jamison R. Heard
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigated human performance in response to task demands that may be used to convey information about the human to an artificial agent. We performed an experiment with a dynamic time-sharing task to investigate participants development of temporal awareness of the task event unfolding in time. Temporal awareness as an extension, or a special case, of situation awareness, may provide for useful measures of covert mental models applicable to numerous tasks and for input to human-aware AI agents. Temporal awareness measures may be used to classify human performance into the control modes in the contextual control model (COCOM): scrambled, opportunistic, tactical, and strategic. Twenty-one participants participated in a withinsubjects experiment with an abstract task of resetting four independent timers within their respective windows of opportunity. The results show that temporal measures of task performance are sensitive to changes in task disruptions and difficulty and therefore have promise for human-aware AI.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:21:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192635
       
  • Classification of Human Driver Distraction Using 3D Convolutional Neural
           Networks

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      Authors: Kelvin Kwakye, Armstrong Aboah, Younho Seong, Sun Yi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Distracted driving is a dangerous driving behavior that causes numerous accidents on US roads each year. It is critical to identify distracted drivers in order to prevent such accidents. Previous studies attempted to detect distracted driving using heuristics and machine learning; however, none of these methods could capture the problem's spatiotemporal features. As a result, the purpose of this study was to use a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) that can capture both spatial and temporal information to classify distracted drivers based on facial features and behavioral cues. We used the Database to Enable Facial Analysis for Driving Studies (DEFADS), an open-source dataset containing 77 human subjects performing scripted driving-related activities, to achieve this goal. The PyTorch video library was used to train the model. The 3D CNN achieved an overall recall and precision of 97.6 and 98.1, respectively, indicating its efficacy in detecting distracted drivers in the real world.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192576
       
  • Learning Engineering Perspectives for Supporting Educational Systems

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      Authors: Scotty D. Craig, Jim Goodell, Erin Czerwinski, Jodi Lis, Rod D. Roscoe
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This panel will focus on the emerging area of Learning Engineering. Learning Engineering is a transdisciplinary area focusing on the systematic application of evidence-based principles from science of learning disciplines to create effective learning experiences, addressing the challenges of learners. During the panel, examples of Learning Engineering will be presented of interest to anyone within human factors and ergonomics with interest in education, training, or usability/design science. The panel will represent experience from both academia and industry. The goal of this panel is to foster dialog between the IEEE Industry Connections Industry Consortium on Learning Engineering (ICICLE) and HFES members in the hope of increasing knowledge of Learning Engineering and creating ties between the two organizations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192886
       
  • Levels of Digitization, Digitalization, and Automation for Advanced
           Reactors

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      Authors: Ronald L. Boring, Thomas A. Ulrich, Roger Lew
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Much has been written about levels of automation (LOA), but comparatively little has been written about levels of digitization (LODi) and levels of digitalization (LODa). Digitization is a digital representation of analog information and is typical of migration from analog to digital control systems, digitalization involves enhancing the functionality of digital information, and automation changes control from humans to machines. Each of these technology implementations has its own scales, and each forms a viable type of functionality that should be considered not as a continuum toward automation but rather as separate categories of solutions that meet the needs of advanced reactors. In this paper we develop separate LODi, LODa, and LOA scales and demonstrate how conflation of these technologies, using the example of computer-based procedures, can lead to confusion in the design process. With the race to develop advanced reactors, the surest metric of success and safety is proper consideration of the right technology requirements for different control systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192575
       
  • User-Centered Development and Pilot Test of a Virtual Reality Training
           Prototype for Parents of Children with Autism

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      Authors: Christina A. Simmons, Patrice D. Tremoulet, George D. Lecakes, Garret J. Williams, Amanda S Almon, Shreekanth Mandayam
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently engage in severe destructive behavior that presents significant risks to themselves and others, poses substantial barriers to community integration, and results in high familial and societal financial impact. Despite the efficacy of behavior analytic (BA) interventions for decreasing destructive behavior, to produce meaningful outcomes in the natural environment, treatment effects must transfer to parents. Parents often experience in-person training barriers, such as time, financial burden, transportation, and childcare, as well as concerns with the quality of training delivered, such as unrealistic and uncomfortable training with therapists. This paper presents preliminary results from a pilot test of a prototype of a virtual reality parent training tool intended to reduce access and quality barriers for parents with children with ASD who engage in severe destructive behavior.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193690
       
  • Comparing Armband EMG-based Lifting Load Classification Algorithms using
           Various Lifting Trials

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      Authors: Sakshi Pranay Taori, Sol Lim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of machine learning (ML) algorithms developed using surface electromyography (EMG) armband sensor data in predicting hand-load levels (5 lb and 15 lb) from diverse lifting trials. Twelve healthy participants (six male and six female) performed repetitive lifting with three different lifting conditions, i.e., symmetric (S), asymmetric (A), and free-dynamic (F) lifts. ML models were developed with four lifting datasets (S, A, S+A, and F) and were cross-validated using F as the test dataset. Mean classification accuracy was significantly lower in models developed with the S dataset (78.8%) compared to A (83.2%) and F (83.4%). Findings indicate that the ML model developed with controlled symmetric lifts was less accurate in predicting the load of more dynamic, unconstrained lifts, which is common in real-world settings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192435
       
  • Designing for Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment: A Panel Discussion

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      Authors: Wendy A. Rogers, Sara J. Czaja, Neil Charness, Walter R. Boot
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The population is aging and a subset of older adults will have some level of cognitive impairment. Human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) practitioners must consider them in the design process but often are not prepared to do so, lacking relevant experience or training. In this panel, an interdisciplinary team with expertise in aging, in general, and cognitive impairment, in particular, will (a) provide insights into cognitive challenges confronting older adults with cognitive impairments; (b) discuss impacts of these challenges on everyday performance (e.g., transportation, computer use, health); (c) explore the design cycle as it relates to cognitive impairment; and (d) provide examples of accommodations necessary for research and user testing for this population. Interactive audience discussion will focus on future directions and challenges for design and testing of emerging technologies for persons aging with cognitive impairment. This panel will be of interest to a broad range of HF/E domains.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:08:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192934
       
  • A review of best practices, standards, and approaches for transportation
           safety data and driver state prediction

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      Authors: David Nartey, Hananeh Alambeigi, Anthony D. McDonald, Eva Shipp, Michael Manser, Scott Christensen, John K. Lenneman, Elizabeth Pulver
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This systematic review documents current best practices, standards, and approaches for transportation safety data analytics. While standards exist for defining measures, there are few available standards or guides for processing driving and driver data. Standards are crucial for ensuring repeatability and appropriate cost-benefit decisions. The review identified 36 relevant studies describing behavioral and physiological measures. Most studies do not comprehensively report data processing steps. Of the studies that did report data processing steps, few analyzed the impact of decisions made during data processing on algorithm performance. Most studies were conducted in a controlled simulator environment and may not generalize to naturalistic settings. The findings show that driver behavior and physiological data show efficacy for detecting fatigue, distraction, stress, and driver errors. The results of these studies may necessitate additional data processing standards and future work should focus on measuring the effects of data decisions on model performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:08:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192428
       
  • A data-driven approach to understand factors contributing to exoskeleton
           use-intention in construction

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      Authors: Sunwook Kim, Albert Moore, Aanuoluwapo Ojelade, Nancy Gutierrez, Carisa Harris-Adamson, Alan Barr, Divya Srinivasan, Maury A. Nussbaum
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) remain an important heath concern for construction workers. Occupational exoskeletons (EXOs) are a new ergonomic intervention to control WMSD risk, yet their adoption has been low in construction. We explored contributing factors to EXO use-intention, by building a decision tree to predict the intention to try an exoskeleton using responses to an online survey. Variable selection and hyperparameter tuning were used respectively to reduce the number of potential predictors, and for a better prediction performance. Performance was assessed using four common metrics. The importance of variables in the final tree was calculated to understand which variable had a greater influence. The final tree had moderate prediction performance. Important variables identified were associated with opinions on EXO use, demographics, job demands, and perceived potential risks. The key influential variables were EXOs becoming standard equipment and fatigue reduction with EXO use. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:07:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192932
       
  • Sequencing Patient Care Tasks as an Infection Prevention Practice

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      Authors: Bradley W. Weaver, Joel M. Mumma, Sweta Parmar, Jill S. Morgan, Golpar Ghassemian, Kylie B. Burke, Paige R. Gannon, Rebecca E. MacKay, Brandon A. Berryhill, Lindsay Lee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Healthcare-associated infections are common, yet largely preventable. We examined whether nurses that successfully limited their contamination spread in a high-fidelity simulated environment sequenced their tasks differently than nurses that spread more contamination by reanalyzing an existing dataset. In the simulations, contamination spread was tracked using live viral surrogates (bacteriophages), which are harmless to humans. An overall contamination performance score was calculated for each participant, who were divided into one of three performance groups: high (M = 93%), medium (M = 78%), or low (M = 59%). An ANOVA showed contamination performance group did not have a statistically significant effect on the order nurses completed tasks; the largest effect size was small (ηG2 = 0.019). Thus, even if nurses that successfully limit their contamination spread do sequence their tasks differently, it may not be practically meaningful because it is a small effect.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:05:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192931
       
  • Learning data science methods through a mobile device and full body motion
           data

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      Authors: SeHee Jung, Hanwen Wang, Bingyi Su, Lu Lu, Liwei Qing, Xu Xu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents a mobile app that facilitates undergraduate students to learn data science through their own full body motions. Leveraging the built-in camera of a mobile device, the proposed app captures the user and feeds their images into an open-source computer-vision algorithm that localizes the key joint points of human body. As students can participate in the entire data collection process, the obtained motion data is context-rich and personally relevant to them. The app utilizes the collected motion data to explain various concepts and methods in data science under the context of human movements. The app also visualizes the geometric interpretation of data through various visual aids, such as interactive graphs and figures. In this study, we use principal component analysis, a commonly used dimensionality reduction method, as an example to demonstrate the proposed learning framework. Strategies to encompass other learning modules are also discussed for further improvement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231200871
       
  • Shifting Perspectives: A proposed framework for analyzing head-mounted
           eye-tracking data with dynamic areas of interest and dynamic scenes

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      Authors: Haroula M. Tzamaras, Hang-Ling Wu, Jason Z. Moore, Scarlett R. Miller
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Eye-tracking is a valuable research method for understanding human cognition and is readily employed in human factors research, including human factors in healthcare. While wearable mobile eye trackers have become more readily available, there are no existing analysis methods for accurately and efficiently mapping dynamic gaze data on dynamic areas of interest (AOIs), which limits their utility in human factors research. The purpose of this paper was to outline a proposed framework for automating the analysis of dynamic areas of interest by integrating computer vision and machine learning (CVML). The framework is then tested using a use-case of a Central Venous Catheterization trainer with six dynamic AOIs. While the results of the validity trial indicate there is room for improvement in the CVML method proposed, the framework provides direction and guidance for human factors researchers using dynamic AOIs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192929
       
  • Quantifying Visual Attention of Teams During Workload Transitions Using
           AOI-Based Cross-Recurrence Metrics

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      Authors: Jad A. Atweh, Jackie Al Hayek, Sara L. Riggs
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) metrics may offer a means to provide information about the quality of collaboration in real-time. The goal of the present work is to use Area of Interest (AOI) based CRQA metrics to analyze the eye-tracking data of 10 pairs who participated in a shared unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) command and control task. We are interested in how teams respond to workload transitions and how it affects AOI-based CRQA metrics. The results showed that as workload increased, team members spent a longer time on the same task which may indicate that they are coordinating together on a task, or they are not adapting and getting “trapped” in certain tasks. The findings suggest that CRQA AOIbased metrics are sensitive to workload changes and validate these metrics in unraveling the visual puzzle of how workload impacts scanpath patterns which contribute to quantifying the adaptation process of pairs over time. This also has the potential to inform the design of real-time technology in the future.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:02:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193683
       
  • A Framework of Vehicle-Human Communication Features at Traffic
           Intersections to Enhance Trust and Situation Awareness

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      Authors: Liam Kettle, Kayla M. G. Herrera, Pawinee Pithayarungsarit, Kassidy L. Simpson, Yi-Ching Lee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Vehicle manufacturers are advancing their automated driving system (ADS) capabilities with enhanced transparency features. Research supports driving assistants (DA) and augmented reality (AR) displays for conveying the ADS status, actions, and road environment elements. However, providing continuous or irrelevant information degrades driving performance and attitudes towards the ADS. Therefore, the current study sought to create a framework for specific communication features that would enhance drivers’ trust and situation awareness via DA and AR stimuli. Participants watched various driving scenarios and provided their desired communication features to improve trust and situation awareness across modalities. Results identified key themes consistent across events (i.e., current/intended vehicle actions) as well as context-dependent themes such as police presence or pedestrian detection and location. In contrast, auditory cues were identified as redundant across events. These findings can support researchers to focus on relevant information to enhance drivers’ attitudes, awareness, and safety while operating ADS-equipped vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T11:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192927
       
  • Level of detail in visualization for human autonomy teaming: Speed,
           accuracy, and workload effects

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      Authors: Tianzi Wang, Nathan Lau
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      For human autonomy teaming, information for promoting transparency could lead to information overload, negatively impacting performance and workload. This paper presents an empirical study investigating how different level of details (LODs) about the autonomy represented on the user interface would influence speed, accuracy, and workload. Specifically, we compared visualizations of a lost person model at four different LODs to aid in directing human and unmanned aerial vehicles searchers in search and rescue missions. The lowest LOD was found to support higher accuracy but at the expense of speed. The highest LOD induced the highest workload, while the other three LODs induced lower and similar levels of workload. The results indicate that the LOD in transparent displays could induce a speed and accuracy tradeoff.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193673
       
  • A new taxonomy to categorize flexible work arrangements for post-covid
           organizational work planning

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      Authors: Wenbi Wang, Jimmy Le
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Flexible work arrangements (FWA) widely proliferated around the world during the covid pandemic lockdown. A new multi-dimensional taxonomy was proposed in this paper to classify different forms of FWA according to the degree of autonomy that a policy offers to employees with respect to their spatial mobility, temporal flexibility, and the degree of freedom from supervision. This taxonomy reflects the defining features of contemporary flexible working. It enables researchers and business decision-makers to categorize different forms of FWA, meaningfully compare their impacts on organizational and individual performance metrics, and support an evidence-based approach to inform the establishment of post-pandemic FWA policies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:57:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192925
       
  • Using AI Tools to Develop Training Materials for Aviation: Ethical,
           Technical, and Practical Concerns

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      Authors: Blake Nguyen, Nathan Sonnenfeld, Lindsay Finkelstein, Alex Alonso, Caroline Gomez, Fiona Duruaku, Florian Jentsch
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      A key potential advantage of modern training technologies relates to the ability to use them to automate aspects of training. Although in the early stages of adoption within the aviation industry, artificial intelligence (AI) tools and methods have many promises for training design, development, delivery, and assessment. We applied the use-case technology-mapping framework (UCTM) to identify and analyze how automation and AI technologies may be used within the flightcrew training design pipeline, integrating perspectives from relevant literature, informal discussions with stakeholders, and workshops with domain experts. Our preliminary findings highlight current/near-future applications of AI methods and tools in the training design pipeline. Here, we discuss ethical/legal, technical, and practical considerations for flightcrew training. We urge practitioners and researchers in the aviation human factors community to engage in this discussion and to conduct empirical research that will allow for a positive use of the technology across applications, including in aviation training.Practical Takeaways/Applications.• We present a wide range of potential use cases of AI in flightcrew training.• We discuss the ethical/legal, technical, and practical implications of automation and AI.• This information may inform future training processes and practices in the aviation domain.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:55:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192904
       
  • Assessing Drivers’ Mental Model Of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
           Using Signal Detection Theory

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      Authors: Chunxi Huang, Song Yan, Dengbo He
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies evaluated drivers’ knowledge of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) using different kinds of percent-correctness-based mental model scores (MMS), which makes cross-study comparisons difficult. To resolve this issue, our study explored the use of sensitivity (i.e., d-prime (d’)) and response bias (i.e., criterion location (c)) in signal detection theory (SDT) as a measure of drivers’ ADAS mental models. Based on the data collected from a survey among 287 ADAS users, regression models were fitted, and it was found that d’ and c accounted for a large variance when estimating drivers’ ADAS mental models as measured by MMSs (adjusted R2> 0.8). Further, predictors of MMSs were also predictors of d’ and c, but d’ and c include additional information that was not covered in MMSs. These findings support the usage of d’ and c as standard metrics for assessing drivers’ ADAS mental models in future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:55:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193671
       
  • Factors Influencing Trust in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems for
           Current Users

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      Authors: Chelsea A. DeGuzman, Birsen Donmez
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the factors influencing trust in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) may help inform training and education to support appropriate use. We surveyed 369 drivers with experience using both adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assist (LKA). The survey included questions to assess trust in ADAS, along with objective knowledge about ADAS limitations, self-reported understanding of ADAS, familiarity with technology, propensity to trust technology, and demographics. Regression results showed that self-reported understanding, but not objective knowledge, predicted trust in ADAS. Self-reported understanding was not correlated with objective knowledge; overall, participants were not aware of many of the system limitations included in the survey. Propensity to trust technology was also a significant predictor of trust. Training/educational materials could be designed to inform drivers of potential gaps in their understanding and adjust expectations of ADAS to support appropriate trust for those with a high propensity to trust technology.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:53:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192903
       
  • Using Sensitivity and Bias in Signal Detection Theory to Predict
           Proportion Correctness: Simulation and Case Study on ADAS Mental Model
           Evaluation

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      Authors: Chunxi Huang, Dengbo He
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The sensitivity (d’) and bias (c) in signal detection theory can reflect respondents’ objective performance in understanding a system and their bias towards saying yes. Thus, d’ and c can be used as alternatives of proportion correctness (PC) when evaluating drivers’ mental models of advanced driving assistance system (ADAS). The adoption of d’ and c as mental model metrics also allows cross-study comparisons as their values are independent of signal (i.e., ADAS function present) and noise (i.e., ADAS function absent) ratio. However, there is no closed-form solution of the relationships among d’, c, and PC. Hence, using numerical simulations, we extracted an empirical equation that quantifies how d’ and c can estimate PC. The equation was then validated based on participants’ responses from a survey study that targeted towards drivers’ ADAS mental model. The results show that the empirical equation reached a satisfying performance (R2> 0.8) in estimating PC.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193662
       
  • Testing Pupil Size as a Possible Alternative Metric of Physical Fatigue in
           Automotive Manufacturing Tasks

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      Authors: Francesco N. Biondi, Frida Graf, Joel Cort
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This work investigates using pupil size to track changes in physical fatigue during manufacturing tasks. Participants completed an automotive manufacturing task over three trials. Impulse and peak force were recorded as ground-truth metrics of physical fatigue. Pupil size and blink rate were also recorded by means of a head-mounted eye-tracker. Impulse and peak force decreased between trial 1 and trial 3 suggesting an increase in fatigue. Interestingly, this was accompanied by a significant reduction in pupil size. No difference in blink rate was found. Our study adds to the literature on fatigue assessment suggesting pupil size as a future possible alternative metric for fatigue assessment in manufacturing Ergonomics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:51:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192895
       
  • Framing Updates: How Framing Influences Trust for Automated Driving
           Systems

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      Authors: Scott Mishler, Jing Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The boom of automated driving systems (ADS) promises to change the way humans drive and interact with their vehicle, especially when these systems receive new updates that may change the way they work. Human-automation teams need to ensure proper roles are established for who is in control of the driving task at any given time. The human needs to have properly calibrated trust to know how to properly work with the system during driving. Framing research shows that positive and negative framing can influence how individuals perceive and make decisions, and swift trust shows that trust can be created quickly in newly established teams. We draw from both realms of literature and tested how new updates of the ADS are framed to the driver with the goal of either promoting or dampening trust to ensure the human driver is maintaining proper trust calibration.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192894
       
  • Frustration, Confusion, Surprise, Confidence, And Self-Doubt: Cyber
           Operators’ Affects During A Realistic Experiment

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      Authors: Robert S. Gutzwiller, Madison Gilbert, T. J. Drescher, Kimberly J. Ferguson-Walter, Noella Mikanda, Craig J. Johnson, Dakota D. Scott
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper we examine data from a complex two-day experiment with professional cyber red teamers to determine what creates, or contributes, to affective states that may further disrupt attackers. Participants rated their frustration, surprise, confidence, self-doubt, and confusion at the end of each day, and these responses were scored on a Likert scale and using Thematic analysis. We found several elements strongly contributed to the frequency and severity of these affective states, supporting our initial hypothesis, and further that (1) experiencing a Lack of Progress impacted four of the five states with moderate severity, and (2) interacting with elements in the environment that Deviated from what was expected was associated strongly with surprise. Implications for cyber defense and limitations of the method are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:39:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192883
       
  • Keep your hands on the wheel: The effect of driver supervision strategy on
           change detection, mind wandering, and gaze behavior

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      Authors: Shruti M. Amre, Kelly S. Steelman
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Advanced driver-assist systems (ADAS) enable drivers to relinquish operational control of the vehicle to automation for part of the total drive. While these features are engaged, drivers have an increased risk of losing awareness of their environment. Current ADAS broadly utilizes hands-on-the-wheel or eyes-on-the-road driver supervision strategies to continually monitor steering-wheel torque and drivers’ head and eye positions to ensure driver attention. The current work examines the effect of hands-on-the-wheel and eyes-on-the-road driver supervision strategies on change detection, mind wandering, and gaze behavior in a low-fidelity semi-autonomous driving task.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:38:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192858
       
  • Multitasking in Complex Environments: An Attempt to Generalize Individual
           Differences in Multitasking to a Realistic Task Setting

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      Authors: Hanna Schindler, Jayanti Bista, Philipp Graffe, Maria Ivanova, Florian Hahne, Veit Kubik, Jovita Brüning, Tobias Rieger
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Multitasking is a common feature of many modern work and home environments, and this study investigated the relationship between multitasking performance in two different paradigms: a more controlled task-switching paradigm (TSWP) and a more complex, semi-ecologically valid multitasking paradigm (SynWin). The study also explored whether parallel processors may have performance advantages in a complex dual-task environment. Results showed no significant correlation between individual multitasking efficiency in the TSWP and SynWin paradigms. Additionally, the results indicated that the combination of subtasks was the primary factor affecting performance in dual-task variants of the SynWin, rather than the use of a parallel processing mode. We conclude that there may be constraints with respect to the experimental conditions necessary to generalize findings from controlled multitasking paradigms to semi-ecologically valid tasks scenarios. Future research should prioritize efforts to understand how people multitask in more realistic settings and the underlying cognitive processes involved.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:37:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192874
       
  • Effects of Variations in the Tragus Expansion Angle on Users’
           Comfort for In-ear Wearables

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      Authors: Hao Fan, Mengcheng Wang, Xiao Zhao, Yihui Ren, Chen Chen, Yunjie Dou, Jinlei Shi, Dengkai Chen, Carisa Harris-Adamson, Chunlei Chai
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Tragus expansion angle (TEA) is an angular variable that quantifies the degree of outward expansion of the tragus cartilage induced by in-ear wearables worn in the human ear. However, the TEA cannot be measured directly, and the mechanism that explains how expansion variations affect users’ comfort experience is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between variations in the tragus expansion angle and users’ comfort experience. TEA was measured on 400 healthy participants and normalized using a measuring device (ATMC prototype) and Tragus Expansion Index (TEI). Our results show that the comfort range across variations in TEA was similar for both sexes, yet compared to females, males could tolerate larger variations both in TEA and TEI. A quantitative relationship was established using TEI values, (dis)comfort ratings and GaussAmp function, which can be employed for ergonomic design purposes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:35:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192616
       
  • Development of Janitors’ Workload Calculator

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      Authors: Stephen Bao, Jia-Hua Lin, Ninica Howard, Wonil Lee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the development of a Workload Calculator specific to the commercial office building janitorial service industry. This is developed due to the increased need for addressing the high workload issues and increased work-related injury claims in the industry. Actual field data were collected to quantify various workload measures and the risks are evaluated with widely used ergonomics job evaluation methods. These workload measures include work pace, overall workload (steps walked and energy expenditure demands, hand/wrist, shoulder and low back biomechanical exposures). This developed workload calculator can provide industrial practitioners with a tool to estimate the workload of planned or existing jobs. It can also help EHS, safety and ergonomics practitioners to identify issues and develop focused interventions. It can also provide cleaning equipment manufacturers and cleaning method developers means to identify issues in the current system and develop new equipment and methods for improvement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192623
       
  • Using Multilevel Hidden Markov Models to Understand Driver Hazard
           

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      Authors: Manhua Wang, Ravi Parikh, Myounghoon Jeon
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Ensuring a safe transition between the automation system and human operators is critical in conditionally automated vehicles. During the automation-to-human transition process, hazard avoidance plays an important role after human drivers regain the vehicle control. This study applies the multilevel Hidden Markov Model to understand the hazard avoidance processes in response to static road hazards as continuous processes. The three-state model—Approaching, Negotiating, and Recovering—had the best model fitness, compared to the four-state and five-state models. The trained model reaches an average of 66% accuracy rate on predicting hazard avoidance states on the testing data. The prediction performance reveals the possibility to use the hazard avoidance pattern to recognize driving behaviors. We further propose several improvements at the end to generalize our models into other scenarios, including the potential to model hazard avoidance as a basic driving skill across different levels of automation conditions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:32:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192612
       
  • How do Blame Attributions Impact Trust in Complex Task Environments'

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      Authors: Andrew Atchley, Emily O’Hear, Hannah M. Barr, Jenna E. Cotter, Bryanna Hamblin, Grace Oswald, Bryan Mesmer, Kristen Weger, Sampson Gholston, Vineetha Menon, Mustafa Demir, Nathan L. Tenhundfeld
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Trust in automation is a multidimensional process in predicting the proper use of automated systems. Trust can be generalized across components in multi-component systems, leading to contagion effects. However, no research has considered how blame attributions influence the size of contagion effects. We conducted an experiment to address how attributions of blame and responsibility influenced the magnitude of contagion effects for trust. Participants were presented with a hypothetical scenario depicting an airplane environment consisting of six human and six automation components. Participants rated their trust in each component before and after an oxygen mask failure. The findings indicate that the percentage of blame attributed to a component predicted the degree to that trust decreased following an error. Thus, more research should focus on how users assign blame across systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:30:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192618
       
  • Learning by Successful or Unsuccessful Experiences'

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      Authors: Keum Joo Kim, Eugene Santos
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Humans learn from both successful and unsuccessful experiences, because useful information about how to solve complex problems can be gleaned not only from success but also from failure. In this paper, we propose a method for investigating this difference by applying Preference based Inverse Reinforcement Learning to Double Transition Models built from replays of StarCraft II. Our method provides two advantages: (1) the ability to identify integrated reward distributions from computational models composed of multiple experiences, and (2) the ability to discern differences between learning by successes and failures. Our experimental results demonstrate that reward distributions are shaped depending on the trajectories utilized to build models. Reward distributions based on successful episodes were skewed to the left, while those based on unsuccessful episodes were skewed to the right. Furthermore, we found that players with symmetric triple reward distributions had a high probability of winning the game.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:28:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192528
       
  • Effects of Color Commonality of Overlay Clutter and Information Access
           Effort on Tasks Requiring Visual Search

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      Authors: Amelia C. Warden, Christopher D. Wickens, Benjamin A. Clegg, Francisco R. Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The amount and color of overlay clutter can impede focusing attention on one layer of information from multiple sources, and influence dividing attention when comparing across layers. The current experiment examined the effect of information access effort and color commonality of overlay clutter on performance. Participants viewed maps with two domains of information that were either overlaid, adjacent, or separated, and answered questions about either both domains (integration) or one domain (focused attention). The overlaid information was either similar (green) or dissimilar (red) in color relative to the background. Overlaid displays benefited integration tasks but imposed a cost to focused attention tasks for accuracy but not response time. Increased display separation did not impose performance costs. Computational models account for some costs of clutter in overlay displays but the color similarity between databases also contributes to cost and benefits of overlay in a fashion not currently considered by such models.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192615
       
  • Human Factors Extended Reality Showcase

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      Authors: Randall Spain, Benjamin Goldberg, Shannon Bailey, Stephanie Fussell, Allison Bayro, Kelly Hale, Aaron Jones, Rachel Regina, Bob Thomas, Kevin Owens, Nathan Lau, Abhraneil Dam, Karen Chen, Luke Sturgeon, Monifa Vaughn-Cooke, Nuela Chidubem Enebechi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This alternative format session provides a forum for human factors scholars and practitioners to showcase how state-of-the-art extended reality (XR) applications are being used in academia, defense, and industry to address human factors research. The session will begin with short introductions from each presenter to describe their XR application. Afterward, session attendees will engage with the presenters and their demonstrations, which will be set up around the demonstration floor room. This year’s showcase features XR applications in STEM education, medical and aviation training, agricultural data visualization, homeland security, training design, and visitor engagement in informal learning settings. Our goal is for attendees to experience how human factors professionals use XR to support human factors-oriented research and to learn about the exciting work being conducted with these emerging technologies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:24:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192432
       
  • Explaining Trust Divergence: Bifurcations in a Dynamic System

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      Authors: Mengyao Li, Sofia I. Noejovich, Ernest V. Cross, John D. Lee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      When people experience the same automation, their trust in automation can diverge. Prior research has used individual differences—trust propensity and complacency—to explain this divergence. We argue that bifurcation as an outcome of a dynamic system better explains trust divergence. Linear mixed-effect models were used to identify features to predict trust (i.e., individual differences, automation reliability, and exposure). Individual differences associated with trust propensity and complacency increases the R2 of the baseline model by 0.01, from R2 = 0.40 to 0.41. Furthermore, the Best Linear Unbiased Predictors (BLUPS) for random effect of participants were uncorrelated with trust propensity and complacency. In contrast, modeling trust divergence from a dynamic perspective, which considers the interaction between reliability and exposure along with the individual by-reliability variability fit the data well (R2 = 0.84). These results suggest dynamic interaction with automation produce trust divergence and design should focus on state dependence and responsivity.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192294
       
  • Comparing mouse versus trackpad input in a web-based app for assessing
           motor learning

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      Authors: Alexandra T. Watral, Abby Morley, Robert Pastel, Kevin M. Trewartha
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Current laboratory approaches to measuring motor learning are not accessible to all populations, limiting research about developmental processes and medical conditions that impact motor control. We recently created a web-based application remote assessment of visuomotor adaptation, a gold-standard approach to studying motor learning. Previously, we validated this application in younger and older adults. However, preliminary analyses suggested that the input device (mouse or trackpad) may have impacted performance. The current study directly evaluated performance differences in younger adults using the application with a mouse compared to a trackpad. Results showed no statistically significant differences in learning curves or movement times between groups, but reaction time was significantly faster in mouse users. While the input device had very little impact on motor learning, slower reaction time when using a trackpad may be related to increased cognitive demands or reduced movement efficiency compared to using a mouse for this task.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:22:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192911
       
  • Optimizing Automated Alarm Systems Through the Integration of Operator
           Preferences and Proactive Monitoring: Initial Testing

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      Authors: Theresa Parker, Robert Henning
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Efforts to optimize automated alarm systems have introduced the use of supplementary graphical proactive monitoring displays (GPMDs) that promote salient deviation detection alongside alarms. This study proposes the incorporation of newer, adaptable automation techniques, which afford operators control over an automated alarm’s reliability, in combination with GPMDs to further optimize these systems. A 2 (choice in reliability) x 2 (supplementary display) case-control match design was used to examine effects on task performance, operator mood, trust in automation, and subjective workload using an open-source version of the NASA Multi-Attribute Task Battery (OpenMATB). Results indicate that experimental participants rated the automation significantly higher on a trust in automation subscale than those in the control group. Few negative findings indicate it would be worthwhile to continue investigating the proposed system adaptations to determine if there are benefits to be gained from their application in realworld scenarios where risk of failure is especially dangerous.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199690
       
  • Effect of Task Demands on Elementary Features in Vigilance

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      Authors: Tiffany G. Lui, Lucas J. Hess, Eric T. Greenlee, Patricia R. DeLucia
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The current study sought to extend upon the findings of DeLucia et al. (2018), who observed a vigilance decrement when observers were asked to detect the presence of an elementary perceptual feature. A second, harder condition was introduced that asked participants to search for the absence of an elementary perceptual feature. Results indicated that correct detections and response time were worse in the feature-absence condition than in the feature-presence condition, and both conditions elicited progressively slower response times as the task progressed (i.e., a vigilance decrement). Eye-tracking data suggested that searching for feature-presence was more efficient than searching for feature-absence. These results echo those of DeLucia et al., indicating that elementary feature detection is not automatic and cannot protect fully against the vigilance decrement. Our results also suggest that display designs that task users with detecting elementary features can augment overall, average vigilance performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192707
       
  • Use of Trajectory Option Sets to Support Collaborative Constraint
           Propagation

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      Authors: Philip J. Smith, Tanya Yuditsky, Bart Brickman
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Air traffic flow management is supported by a highly distributed work system in which airline dispatchers and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) traffic managers must coordinate. To support asynchronous coordination between a dispatcher and a traffic manager, the FAA has developed software that allows the flight operators to submit multiple, prioritized alternative flight plans. This set of alternative flight plans, submitted along with a filed route, is referred to as a Trajectory Option Set (TOS). And some airlines have now developed initial versions of software capable of generating and submitting such TOSs. This paper reports on cognitive walkthroughs with 5 dispatchers and 3 traffic managers on 5 scenarios designed to evaluate the operational concept, procedures and supporting FAA and airline software. The findings provide guidance for application of the concept of collaborative constraint propagation to support distributed work, as well as 42 recommendations for enhancing associated procedures and supporting software designs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192899
       
  • Predicting Automated Vehicle Takeover Decision During the Nighttime

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      Authors: Nade Liang, Chiho Lim, Denny Yu, Kwaku O. Prakah-Asante, Brandon J. Pitts
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Conditionally automated vehicles require drivers to take over control occasionally. To date, takeover performance has been mostly evaluated using only re-engagement time and quality metrics. However, the appropriateness of takeover decisions, which has not been considered by previous research, should also be included as a performance indicator as it reflects one’s situation awareness of the takeover scenario. The goal of this study was to use eye-tracking, demographic factors, workload, and non-driving-related task (NDRT) conditions to predict takeover decisions. Forty-three participants drove a simulated conditionally automated vehicle while performing visual NDRTs and needed to decide the most appropriate maneuver around a roadway obstacle. Six classifiers were used to predict takeover decisions. The Random Forest model achieved the best performance, and driving experience and perceived workload were the most influential features. Findings may be used to assist in the design of adaptive algorithms that support drivers taking over from automated vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:18:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194993
       
  • Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Interactions for Fleet HumanRobot
           Interaction: Insights from Field Testing

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      Authors: Elizabeth Phillips, Lilia Moshkina, Karina Roundtree, Adam Norton, Holly Yanco
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      A growing number of domains for Human-Robot and Human-Machine Interactions (HRI/HMI) will involve fleets of autonomous machines. In these fleet environments, robots will encounter not just primary interactors in one-on-one encounters, but also secondary, and even tertiary ones who are bystanders to direct human-to-robot interactions. Thus, the interaction paradigms used by such robots may need to be reconsidered to meet a growing diversity of interactions as fleet HRI/HMI applications continue to grow. Relying on use cases from field testing in mock urban environments, the purpose of this paper is to discuss our lessons learned when supporting multiple “layers” of interactors and how they relate to needs that Human Factors and Ergonomic (HF/E) science can help to address.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192890
       
  • Sensor-based Stress Level Monitoring: An Exploratory Study

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      Authors: Jiaxin Li, Robyn Soh, Ji-Eun Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Stress is a common concern in modern workplaces. However, traditional stress measurements such as selfreported questionnaires have limited application in real-world settings. In this exploratory study, we collected physiological signals via a wristband and an eye tracker from five participants while they were executing a stress-inducing task. Our mixed-effect model revealed that several physiological responses, including electrodermal activity, skin temperature, and average pupil diameter, can be used as indicators of perceived stress levels. Our findings suggest the potential of using physiological sensors to monitor individuals’ perceived stress in real-world scenarios and thus facilitate workplace stress management and intervention.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:14:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194985
       
  • Unintended Biases due to Simulated Impairment within Inclusive Mobility
           Research and Design

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      Authors: Kamolnat Tabattanon, Aaron Sun, Bernard J.
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Simulated impairment refers to requiring persons without impairments to substitute persons with impairments in endeavors related to training, design creation, or usability testing. However, disability voices and research suggest limited effectiveness, greater distancing, and exclusion. Despite this, the simulation of physical limitations, including that of aging, continue to be used under the assumption that physical tasks and usability ratings do not significantly differ in simulation. In this experiment, age- and sex-matched older adults who use and do not use a manual wheelchair (MWC) are instructed to independently perform a self-paced parallel park using an MWC. The total clearance between obstacles required to perform a collision-free trial was recorded. Thirty-eight volunteers were recruited (MWC-user n=15; Simulated Impairment [SI] n=23). Higher clearance was required by the MWC group, suggesting the use of simulated impairment for motor tasks may result in bias. Open-ended questions revealed self-centered viewpoints, supporting literature that raises inclusion concerns regarding views of an “Other” group. Overall, our results support the direct engagement of target populations during early design to appropriately define user perspectives and needs. Designers should work with the community of people who face limitations rather than substituting their voices with those who may not accurately represent all of their consumer needs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192871
       
  • Toward the Validation of a Novel Measure of Individuals’ Influence
           During Team Collaborations

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      Authors: Julie L. Harrison, Jamie C. Gorman, Jason G. Reitman, Sidney D’Mello
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is an important skill in the modern workforce, and due to its interactive nature, is challenging to assess. The present study builds on work in team sciences to provide initial validation for a metric that quantifies CPS influence—the extent to which each individual contributes toward the team’s CPS processes—using average mutual information (AMI). The measure is investigated in teams collaborating in a computer programming task, where one teammate was assigned to a controller role (i.e., the only person who engaged with the task interface directly). Results suggest the controller had more influence over the team’s CPS processes than the other participants in the triad, providing initial validation for the influence metric. Future work will investigate the measure in classrooms and multiple modalities, and extend the metric in real-time to understand how influence fluctuates over the course of collaboration.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192643
       
  • Eye Tracking-Based Adaptive Displays: A Review of the Recent Literature

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      Authors: Wafic Chahine, Nour Hachem, Nadine Marie Moacdieh
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Adaptive displays have long been touted as a means of improving the usability of different types of interfaces. However, purely eye tracking-based adaptive displays have not yet lived up to the initial promise. In many cases, adaptive displays are tailored to users with special needs, developed to supplement virtual reality, or combine eye tracking with other physiological measures. This mapping review focuses instead on recent adaptive displays that rely solely on eye tracking input to understand a user’s needs while interacting with a regular computer display. We aimed to answer three main research questions related to 1) the application domains of such adaptive displays, 2) the eye tracking metrics that have been adopted to track attention allocation in real time, and 3) the adaptation triggering mechanisms. We provide a summary of the current state of eye tracking-based adaptive displays, identify gaps in the literature, and suggest topics for future work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:09:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192631
       
  • May I, please': Examining the Need for Improved Intention Communication on
           the Road Using Naturalistic Data

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      Authors: Miao Song, Jackie Ayoub, Danyang Tian, Miguel Perez, Julie McClafferty, Ehsan Moradi Pari
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Drivers need to constantly communicate their intention while sharing the road with other road users to attract attention, reduce confusion, and avoid collisions. With current advancements in the transportation system, particularly the increasing penetration of various levels of automation, the need to communicate intentions has become even more demanding and complex. Thus, it is critical to investigate the limitations and consequences of the existing communication channels and examine the need for improved communication. This study focused on two representative event types: lane change/merge and stop sign-controlled intersection in the SHRP 2 NDS dataset. Communication was deemed essential to the successful navigation of these maneuvers. Through exploratory analysis of driving behavior, insights were gained into the prevalence of lack of communication (LOC) among target events. Identified LOC events were further classified based on the scenario type. Moreover, descriptive observations of the interaction between drivers in these situations were developed and categorized.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192593
       
  • Impacts of Roadside Vegetation and Lane Width on Speed Management in Rural
           Roads

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      Authors: Jiabei Wu, Jiachen Jiang, Vincent Duffy, Jue Zhou, Yaobin Chen, Renran Tian, Dan McCoy, Taylor Ruble
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Effective speed management in transition areas is crucial. Although numerous studies have proposed countermeasures to ensure driving safety, little research has been conducted on identifying effective and low-cost countermeasures for speed management when transitioning from rural roads to small towns. This study proposes two countermeasures: roadside vegetation and change in lane width and investigates the impact of these countermeasures on speed management performance in this context using a driving simulator experiment. Thirty participants completed eight scenarios, and countermeasures were evaluated based on stabilized speed, minimum speed, and in-town average speed. Results showed that stabilized speed and minimum speed decreased significantly in the combination of narrow lane and different vegetation designs compared to the baseline. Post-countermeasure in-town average speed didn’t decrease significantly in all scenarios. These findings suggest that roadside vegetations and narrow lane width can be effective for speed management in the transition from rural roads to small towns.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192639
       
  • Willingness to Consider Pooled Rideshare': An Exploratory Study on
           Influential Factors

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      Authors: Haotian Su, Rakesh Gangadharaiah, Elenah Rosopa, Johnell Brooks, Lisa Boor, Kristin Kolodge, Patrick Rosopa, Yunyi Jia
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Rideshare use has grown significantly, beginning with solo riders and evolving to pooled rideshare. Pooled rideshare involves sharing a ride with stranger(s). Despite the growth in rideshare services worldwide, the use of pooled rideshare in the U.S. is relatively low within all rideshare trips and compared to other forms of transportation, e.g., driving one's personal vehicle. A national survey of 5,385 individuals was conducted to identify factors influencing riders' willingness to consider pooled rideshare. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. The survey results indicated five factors: service experience, time/cost, traffic/environment, privacy, and safety. Understanding these factors is crucial for the future of dynamic ridesharing services in the U.S.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192590
       
  • Law Enforcement Perspectives on Police Vehicle Cybersecurity

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      Authors: Shannon C. Roberts, Maryam Zahabi, Lauren McCarthy, Christopher Lanclos, Jonathan Romero
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Cyberattacks on law enforcement officers’ vehicles can compromise and disrupt emergency response, yet there is little knowledge of how law enforcement officers understand and respond to cybersecurity concerns within their work vehicles. This study gathered data on law enforcement officers’ perceptions of vehicle cybersecurity. A survey study was conducted with 80 law enforcement officers, focusing on gathering information to quantify the relationship between their experience as an officer, their cybersecurity experience, and their perception of vehicle cybersecurity. Overall, there was a lack of understanding and knowledge regarding vehicle cybersecurity. Results also revealed a small relationship between how many hours an officer spends in the vehicle and vehicle cybersecurity and an even stronger relationship between the officer’s cybercrime experience and their perceptions of vehicle cybersecurity. With appropriate interventions (e.g., training), there is an opportunity to impact law enforcement behavior to positively promote vehicle cybersecurity resiliency.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:02:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192578
       
  • A Controlled Experiment on the Impact of Intrusion Detection False Alarm
           Rate on Analyst Performance

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      Authors: Lucas Layman, William Roden
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Organizations use intrusion detection systems (IDSes) to identify harmful activity among millions of computer network events. Cybersecurity analysts review IDS alarms to verify whether malicious activity occurred and to take remedial action. However, IDS systems exhibit high false alarm rates. This study examines the impact of IDS false alarm rate on human analyst sensitivity (probability of detection), precision (positive predictive value), and time on task when evaluating IDS alarms. A controlled experiment was conducted with participants divided into two treatment groups, 50% IDS false alarm rate and 86% false alarm rate, who classified whether simulated IDS alarms were true or false alarms. Results show statistically significant differences in precision and time on task. The median values for the 86% false alarm rate group were 47% lower precision and 40% slower time on task than the 50% false alarm rate group. No significant difference in analyst sensitivity was observed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T10:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192573
       
  • Designing for Trust and Situational Awareness in Automated Vehicles:
           Effects of Information Type and Error Type

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      Authors: Yaohan Ding, Lesong Jia, Na Du
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Trust and situational awareness (SA) are crucial to the adoption and safety of automated vehicles (AVs). Appropriate design of AV explanations could promote drivers’ acceptance, trust, and SA, enabling drivers to get more benefits from the technology. This study investigated the effects of error type and information type of AV explanations on drivers’ trust and SA. We recruited 300 participants for an online video study with a 3 (information type) × 2 (error type) mixed design. Linear mixed model analyses showed that compared with false alarms, misses were associated with more trust decrease after the error and more trust decrease after the post-error recovery. Compared with why information, how information was associated with lower SA generally and risked potential over-trust in false alarms. Therefore, we recommend deploying AV decision systems that are less miss-prone and including why information in AV explanations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:57:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192406
       
  • Law Enforcement Uniforms and Public Perception: An Overview and Pilot
           Study

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      Authors: Braden Westby, Richard Stone, Colten Fales, Desmond Bonner
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In a delicate balancing act between improving public relations and enhancing functionality and safety, law enforcement agencies often revisit the standards for their uniforms. Many experiments have been conducted over the years in reference to uniform color, but comparatively little research has been conducted relating to the implementation of accessories. In this study, we demonstrate that the use of “formal accessories” (as worn on a Class A uniform) may impact the public’s perception of police, particularly in reference to their perceived professionalism, authority, competence, and approachability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192273
       
  • Ergonomics Advances in Office Work and Work-from-Home

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      Authors: Kaitlin M. Gallagher, April J. Chambers, Jia-Hua Lin, Karen Jacobs, Michelle M. Robertson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Office ergonomics deals with the equipment and environment that office workers interact to perform their job duties. With constant advances in tools, technology, organizations, and society as a whole, the consequent advantages and impacts on office ergonomics warrant constant examination. In this panel discussion, five researchers will share their recent efforts. The panel starts with two studies on components of office works: the impact of ultrawide computer displays and the utility of sit/stand desks. While these components can be used in both traditional and home office environment, the latter three studies focus on the emergence of work from home (WFH), or hybrid work styles. The determinants of successful WFH ergonomics settings, the physical and mental well-being as well as the productivity among workers in the new workstyle, and an example of organizational intervention for a successful change are presented. The panelists will engage the attendees to explore the future of office ergonomics landscape.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192577
       
  • Examination of Human Spatial Reasoning Capability and Simulated Autonomous
           Rendezvous and Docking Monitoring Performance

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      Authors: Hannah Larson, Leia Stirling
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) maneuvers are challenging tasks that require collaboration between a human and a spacecraft to be successful. As automation becomes more integrated into ARD systems, it is important to consider when and why a human may take control. Intrinsic human characteristics can influence these decisions. We consider how human spatial orientation capacity affects participants when monitoring a simulated ARD maneuver and initiating takeover when the system is perceived to be failing. Participants’ spatial reasoning capability was assessed and compared to performance in the monitoring task and perceived mental workload. While participants showed high rates of success in the task, they showed a wide range in spatial reasoning capacity and perceived mental demand. Spatial reasoning capacity did not indicate participants’ mental workload, which has implications for the human as the supervisor. These results inform future work on augmentative displays that may incorporate exocentric and egocentric views.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:53:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192262
       
  • SpearSim-V2: Synthetic Task Environment for Evaluating Attacker Behaviors

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      Authors: Elaheh Mehrabi, Tianhao Xu, Prashanth Rajivan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Despite extensive research on phishing, a severe lack of work centered on attackers has resulted in a limited understanding of the adversarial behaviors conducive to attack success and failures. This work describes a novel method for conducting controlled laboratory studies of cognitive vulnerabilities that attackers experience during the design and execution phases of spear-phishing attacks. Based on the SpearSim platform, the new simulation environment integrates cognitive agents that model and predict end-user responses to spear-phishing attacks. This advancement to SpearSim allows the generation of real-time, automated, “human-like” responses to simulated spear-phishing attacks. This enables the execution of experiments focused on attackers and attacker behaviors. We describe the proposed simulation framework, provide details about the implemented simulation environment, and present results to evaluate the performance of the simulation environment. Compared to the earlier version of SpearSim involving human end-users, the new approach generates responses at a much faster rate (3 times faster than human end-users) and importantly with less variance in the time to respond. The cognitive agents used in the simulation predicted human responses to phishing and spear-phishing attackers with moderate accuracy (about 60%). Our proposed method intends to provide an effective and robust way to conduct laboratory experiments on spear-phishing attacks and further understand attackers' decision-making processes that could be exploited to thwart future attacks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:50:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192215
       
  • Distributed Supervisory Coordination and Function Allocation Between
           Multi-Teams in Crewed Space Exploration with Time Delays

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      Authors: Lacey M. Davis, Barrett S. Caldwell
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Function allocation and distributed task coordination are complex challenges facing many multi-team systems. These challenges are intensified in the case of human expeditions to and exploration of Mars, due to the impact of one-way light-time communication delays that can exceed 20 minutes. Research to identify, enhance, and support new requirements for task coordination and communication include considerations to mitigate the impact of delays through improved state monitoring and crew coordination and knowledge sharing techniques. Effective coordination for human cislunar and Mars exploration operations, including servicing, assembly, and maintenance activities, require effective and adaptive function and task allocation constrained by available bandwidth and crew member workload capability. The authors describe some of their previous research and ongoing activities, including improvements to time-delayed information and data displays to support mission control and spaceflight crew member situational awareness when conducting both routine operations and real-time responses to emerging anomalies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:47:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196249
       
  • The Impact of Hospital Bed Height and Gender on Fall Risk During Bed
           Egress

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      Authors: Ahmad Raza Usmani, Susan E. Kotowski, Kermit G. Davis
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Many patient falls in healthcare facilities can be attributed to bed ingress and egress tasks. While bed height has been used as a means of fall injury prevention, some positions may actually place the patient at a biomechanical disadvantage during ingress and egress tasks, increasing fall risk, but this interaction is not well understood. Therefore, this study investigated the interaction between bed height, gender, and biomechanical outcomes of ground reaction forces to determine fall risk changes as a function of bed height. Participants were 24 healthy individuals who completed 72 trials. Results showed the main effects of bed height and gender were significant (p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195914
       
  • Sharing Vehicle Situation Awareness Reduces Driver-Initiated Overrides in
           Urban Environments

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      Authors: Joonbum Lee, Hansol Rheem, John D. Lee, Joseph F. Szczerba, Akilesh Rajavenkatanarayanan, Roy Mathieu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Driver assistance technologies have rapidly advanced. However, using partially automated driving systems in urban environments is still challenging. The potential disuse of driving automation is one of the challenges that prevents users from taking full advantage of the system. To address this issue, we investigated whether sharing the vehicle’s situation awareness (SA) information could increase the proper use of driving automation in urban contexts. An Augmented Reality Head-Up Display (AR HUD) was developed to present the vehicle’s SA information, and its effect was tested using a driving simulator. We used a two-part mixed model to analyze driver reliance behavior. The results showed that sharing the vehicle’s SA information decreased override responses when the automation could handle the situation but had no significant effect on the override time. These findings suggest that providing drivers with the vehicle SA information can increase the appropriate use of driving automation in complex urban driving situations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:39:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195827
       
  • Exploratory Analysis of Automated Vehicle Crashes Using an NLP Pipeline

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      Authors: Anjnesh Sharma, Na Du
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This study utilized a recently released crash dataset of Level 3 automated vehicles (AVs) made publicly available by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective was to investigate various crash types and identify factors that influence crash severity. To achieve this, we employed a lightweight Natural Language Processing (NLP) pipeline to automatically extract relevant information from crash narratives and categorized the crashes into 15 distinct types. By analyzing the dependency triples derived from the crash narrative using the Stanford CoreNLP library, we determined the similarity between each narrative and the predefined categories. Our findings highlight safety-critical crash scenarios based on real-world data encompassing diverse operational design domains (ODDs), revealing a statistically significant impact of lighting conditions on crash severity. These results contribute to a better understanding of AV crashes and provide valuable insights to enhance the safe testing, integration, and development of AVs in real-world environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194987
       
  • Using Detection Response Task and NASA-TLX to Measure the Difference in
           Cognitive Workload Between Partially Automated Mode and Manual Mode: An
           On-Road Study

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      Authors: Noor Jajo, Francesco N. Biondi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study is to investigate how partially automated vehicles affect cognitive load. The study involved an on-road experiment where 29 participants drove a Tesla in both partially automated and manual mode for up to 45 minutes. The researchers objectively measured the participants' cognitive workload using the Detection Response Task (DRT) and subjectively assessed it using NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). The findings revealed that there was no significant difference in cognitive workload between the partially automated mode and manual mode in both objective and subjective measures. Our study expands the literature on the effects of partially automated vehicles on cognitive workload by using DRT and NASA-TLX. Further studies should adopt similar methodology with the addition of physiological and ocular measures.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:33:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193689
       
  • Relationships between people’s mental programs and trust in
           automation

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      Authors: Zixin Cui, Fan Yang, Seul Chan Lee, Jieun Lee, Xintong Li, Makoto Itoh
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Social and human factors are also important for the development of human-automation trust (HAT) besides technical factors of automation. The current article reviewed studies on the influences of social and human factors on HAT and provided a new perspective by combing Hofstede et al. (2010)’s mental programs model. Results showed that although few studies have discussed the relationships between HAT and human nature, oxytocin secretion can positively influence HAT. Then, it was found that different cultural characteristics tended to play different roles in HAT formation, however, the newest and direct evidence is still lacking. Lastly, some personality traits were verified to affect HAT, whereas the effects of other traits are still controversial across contexts. This literature review provided the need for future studies: validating how and why each level of mental programs affects HAT and clarifying the core factors and the synergies of each level of mental programs on HAT.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:31:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192917
       
  • Gender Differences in Responsibility Assignment Towards Level 3-ADS
           Vehicles

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      Authors: Liam Kettle, Yi-Ching Lee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Numerous collisions have occurred since integrating vehicles with automated driving system (ADS) features. Attributed responsibility following collisions differ dependent on level of automation or anthropomorphism. However, gender differences are yet to be examined. Thus, the current study examined gender differences in responsibility assignment following collisions involving an ADS-equipped vehicle and the influence of a driving assistant (DA) that administered monitoring requests. Participants read hypothetical scenarios and watched corresponding simulated videos with or without the DA present before assigning blame to the human or the ADS. Hypotheses included gender differences in overall blame assignment, and interaction effects between gender and DA presence; gender and agent; and gender, DA presence, and agent. Results indicated gender differences when assigning responsibility to the human agent only. No other significant differences were supported indicating that men and women generally attribute blame similarly. However, further demographic differences (e.g., age, socio-economic status) should be explored.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:26:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192889
       
  • Lower Executive Function Ability May Lead to Higher Perceived Mental
           Workload in Driving Scenarios

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      Authors: Haoyan Jiang, Sachi Mizobuchi, Mark Chignell
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Driver mental workload may represent a mismatch between task demands and available mental resources. If driving mental workload arises from a mismatch involving executive functions, then drivers with more executive function ability should perceive less mental workload in driving situations. To test this hypothesis, 33 participants rated the mental workload associated with 16 driving scenarios and also carried out three cognitive assessment games designed to measure executive functions (response inhibition, working memory updating, switching/shifting). We found a significant relationship between two of the executive function abilities (response inhibition, and switching/shifting, but not working memory updating) and mental workload ratings. With an increase in the age of participants, we observed lower response inhibition and higher perceived mental workload after viewing representations of driving scenarios. These results demonstrate that previous results showing higher perceived mental workload for older drivers may be, at least partly, due to decreases in executive function ability as people age.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:07:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192859
       
  • Evaluating the Usability of Common Warnings across Industries Using the
           System Usability Scale

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      Authors: Carly Ngo, Claudia Ziegler Acemyan, Philip Kortum
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated people’s perceived usability of warning signs and labels using the System Usability Scale (SUS), to understand how textual and visual factors of warnings contribute to SUS scores. 30 warning signs/labels across various industries were selected and 135 participants evaluated these warnings on their usability and familiarity. Each warning’s textual and visual complexity was also assessed. The resulting SUS scores for the warnings covered a broad range (min = 26.1, max = 92.4). Familiarity with the system and the number of words on the warning significantly correlated with SUS scores. Warnings with higher lexical density, a measure of how informative a written text is, related to higher SUS scores. There was no significant relationship between warnings’ visual complexity and SUS scores. The results suggest that the SUS might prove to be a simple and useful way to measure the usability of warnings.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192703
       
  • Comparing Trunk Kinematics Computed by Optical Marker-Based Motion Capture
           System and Inertial Measurement Units During Overground Trips

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      Authors: Youngjae Lee, Neil B. Alexander, Christopher T. Franck, Michael L. Madigan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Falls are the most common cause of non-fatal injuries, and trips are responsible for high percentages of those falls in the United States. Traditional method for estimating trunk kinematics during overground trips uses optical marker-based motion capture systems. However, their cost and space requirements can often be barriers in this research field. Inexpensive and portable inertial measurement units may be an appropriate alternative. This study compared trunk flexion angle and angular velocity at touchdown of the initial recovery step after laboratory-induced trips while walking captured by the optical markerbased motion capture system versus IMUs. Our results provide evidence that a sternum-worn IMU can provide trunk kinematic measurements of clinical relevance and may be used to provide meaningful data to understand kinematic responses to trips or trip-induced falls that occur in real life.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:57:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192698
       
  • Redesigning Educational Countermeasures to Increase Virginia Drivers’
           Road-Sharing Safety Knowledge

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      Authors: Alexandra B. Proaps, Jeremiah D. Still
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The lack of alignment between drivers’ and cyclists’ road-sharing knowledge results in unsafe interactions. To address this issue, educational countermeasures must clearly present and apply evidence-based practices to increase the likelihood that drivers will learn how to share the road safely with cyclists. In this study, we redesigned an existing Virginia road-sharing safety educational handbook to support a series of experiments. The redesign was based on established principles of instructional, organizational, and visual design. Virginia drivers completed a comprehension test after reviewing road-sharing educational material online. Results showed that reviewing the redesigned brochure did not improve global comprehension, law-based knowledge, and procedural knowledge about sharing the road with cyclists. However, the improved design of the educational material enhanced drivers’ declarative knowledge of road-sharing laws and safety. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of transferring these design choices to other transportation domains, so policymakers and instructors can effectively prioritize approaches for improving road safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192669
       
  • Applying Forces Measured at the Hands to Estimate L5/S1 Compression During
           Manual Patient Bed-to-Wheelchair Transfers Across Different Levels of
           Patient Assist

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      Authors: Jacob J. Banks, Jie Zhou, Chelsea O. Riehle, Neal E. Wiggermann
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Transferring a patient from a bed to a wheelchair is important for patient well-being. Research has shown that manually performing this task exposes healthcare workers (HCWs) to lower back kinetic demands that can exceed safety standards, necessitating the use of mechanical lift equipment. However, HCWs still commonly perform this task manually, especially for lighter patients who are capable of assisting. Although lower back kinetic demands are presumably dependent upon the patients (in)ability to assist during the transfer, this has not been systematically tested. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to compare the peak L5/S1 intervertebral joint (IVJ) compressive force demands during a bed-to-wheelchair manual transfer across different levels of simulated patient assist (0%, 18%, and 36% of patient bodyweight). We also compared peak IVJ compressive forces from an approach using external forces directly measured at the hands of the HCW, with an alternative traditional approach that assumed the patient’s mass was fully lifted by the HCW throughout the transfer. Peak L5/S1 IVJ compressive forces were lower (p < .001) during the 36% than the 0% and 18% bodyweight patient assist conditions when applying the measured forces at the hand. Overall, peak compressive forces were lower (p < .001) and tended to occur at different phases of the transfer when applying the measured forces at the hand versus assuming all the patient’s mass was being lifted. Our results emphasize the importance of accurately modeling the forces at the hands when estimating in vivo demands. Further, these findings suggest that encouraging the patient to assist during transfers may reduce IVJ forces on HCWs, but for heavier patients even a modest degree of patient assistance is not likely to protect the HCW from elevated spine loads. In most circumstances, lift equipment is warranted.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192653
       
  • Holographic Augmented Reality Visualization Interface for Exploration
           (HARVIE)

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      Authors: Abbie Hutton, Bill Bui, Valerie Hubener
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The Holographic Augmented Reality Visualization Interface for Exploration (HARVIE) was developed for the 2022 NASA SUITS (Spacesuit User Interface for Students) challenge. HARVIE assists astronauts with elevated demands of the lunar surface through navigation, terrain sensing, and an optimal display of suit status elements (e.g., oxygen, battery, and heart rate). Considering environmental constraints, the system architecture promotes efficient cross modal communication between the mission control center, other astronauts, and the user interface. Currently, the system utilizes a hands-free modality such as speech recognition. Throughout the design process, we conducted heuristic evaluations on a low-fidelity prototype. Then, we implemented HARVIE into a high-fidelity prototype on the HoloLens 2 and utilized the Rapid Iterative Testing & Evaluation (RITE) method for human-in-the-loop testing. Lastly, we evaluated our final design at NASA Johnson Space Center. Our interface serves as a novel approach to enhance how astronauts navigate on missions using augmented reality.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:49:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192648
       
  • Academic procrastination as a mediator between learning environment and
           academic performance

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      Authors: Tianchen Sun, Roger Huynh, Ji-Eun Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Learning environment variables, such as online/in-person learning and time in academic term, are known to increase students’ academic procrastination and worsen their academic performance. However, the role of academic procrastination in the relationship between learning environment and academic performance remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the multivariate relationships among learning environment variables, including online/in-person classrooms and time in academic term; academic procrastination; and academic performance simultaneously in an integrated model. A longitudinal field study consisting of 120 undergraduate participants was conducted from 2019 to 2022. A structural equation model was constructed to test the relationships among variables. The results showed that in the second half of the academic quarter in online learning environments, students procrastinated more and submitted assignments close to the deadline, which resulted in low academic performance. Students’ academic procrastination mediated the relationship between learning environment and academic performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192638
       
  • Clinical Decision Support Systems and Trust in Automation: Case of a
           Clinical Reminder for Titration of Beta Blockers

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      Authors: Smith MW, Kalsy M, Weir CR, Brown CR, Virani SS, Garvin JH
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Trust in automation depends on more than just the automation itself, but the larger context in which the automation and the human operator are collaborating. This study takes a naturalistic approach to explore providers' trust in a Clinical Decision Support System. Primary Care Providers were shown simulated medical records and a prototype Clinical Reminder indicating that the patient should be titrated with recommended Beta Blockers to address the patient's Heart Failure with reduced ejection fraction. Analysis of responses showed three main themes: Concerns about the medical documentation used to generate the recommendation; Complexity of the patient condition and care delivery context (and how such factors limit possible courses of action); and Concerns about the Clinical Reminder and clinical guideline it is instantiating. These results align with the macrocognitive model of trust and reliance based on sensemaking and flexecution.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:39:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192614
       
  • Investigating User Preferences for Conversation Design of Voice Assistant
           Systems using Linguistic Features

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      Authors: Lilit Sargsyan, Seungju Choi, Sang-Hwan Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      As the use of voice assistant (VA) systems is increasing, conversation design in the system is important for effective human-system interaction. The objective of the study was to investigate the level of user preference for VA outputs in terms of linguistics. Answers of three VA systems for each of the nine questions were collected and categorized for distinctive linguistic factors such as type of theme, thematic progression, number of predications, and ellipsis. The VA answers were evaluated through an online survey. Results show that linguistic factors and features significantly affect user preference for VA outputs. The results imply that the linguistic features need to be considered for designing voice interaction communications as a natural interaction method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192609
       
  • Intelligence Analysis Shift Work: Sensemaking Processes, Tensions, and
           Takeaways

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      Authors: Aimée A. Kane, Susannah B. F. Paletz, Sarah H. Vahlkamp, Tammie Nelson, Adam Porter, Madeline Diep, Melissa Carraway
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Intelligence analysts pore over myriad sources to identify key facts, make sense of them, and use that “sensemaking” to inform mission-critical action. Often these operations are conducted 24/7 with analysts working in shifts. To understand these processes in situ, we conducted interviews with seven former and current United States intelligence analysts. We develop theory and advance a descriptive model of shift handover processes in this domain, which takes into account sensemaking, the communication process, and the features of big data. Our qualitative analysis reveals the following tensions analysts face in shift handovers (1) narrowing versus broadening one’s own sensemaking, (2) sensemaking versus encoding for the subsequent analyst, and (3) trusting versus validating the prior analyst’s sensemaking. In addition, we describe several practical takeaways.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192569
       
  • Interpersonal and Human-Automation Trust in an Underwater Mine Detection
           Task

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      Authors: Grace Barnhart, Shala Knocton, Aren Hunter, Lori Dithurbide, Heather Neyedli
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In target detection tasks false alarms (i.e., indicating a target is present when it is absent) decrease trust more than misses. Furthermore, human advisors providing advice at the same time as automation, may impact how users trust and subsequently rely on automated aids. This study aimed to understand whether the false alarm rate (FAR) of an automated target recognition aid impacts trust in the automated aid, trust in a human teammate, or operator self-confidence in a dual-advisor target detection task. Participants completed a mine detection task while receiving advice from a human and an automated advisor. The FAR of the automation was manipulated between groups and trust in each type of advisor was measured. Automation FAR did not influence trust in the automation. Low FAR automation was associated with higher trust in a human teammate and increasing self-confidence over the course of the experiment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:30:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192560
       
  • A Conditional Variational Auto-encoder Model for Reducing Musculoskeletal
           Disorder Risk during a Human-Robot Collaboration Task

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      Authors: Liwei Qing, Bingyi Su, Ziyang Xie, Sehee Jung, Lu Lu, Hanwen Wang, Xu Xu, Edward P. Fitts
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, there has been a trend to adopt human-robot collaboration (HRC) in the industry. In previous studies, computer vision-aided human pose reconstruction is applied to find the optimal position of point of operation in HRC that can reduce workers’ musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks due to awkward working postures. However, the reconstruction of human pose through computer-vision may fail due to the complexity of the workplace environment. In this study, we propose a data-driven method for optimizing the position of point of operation during HRC. A conditional variational auto-encoder (cVAE) model-based approach is adopted, which includes three steps. First, a cVAE model was trained using an open-access multimodal human posture dataset. After training, this model can output a simulated worker posture of which the hand position can reach a given position of point of operation. Next, an awkward posture score is calculated to evaluate MSD risks associated with the generated postures with a variety of positions of point of operation. The position of point of operation that is associated with a minimum awkward posture score is then selected for an HRC task. An experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of this method. According to the findings, the proposed method produced a point of operation position that was similar to the one chosen by participants through subjective selection, with an average difference of 4.5 cm.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:27:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192538
       
  • Eliciting Ergonomic User-Defined Gestures for Virtual Reality: A Pilot
           Study

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      Authors: Nathan Sanders, Elif Sener, Karen B. Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      People are increasingly using virtual reality (VR) for work. As a result of extended use, fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders affecting the upper arms and shoulders are already becoming common among VR users. This pilot study presented a “virtual working area” (VWA) to reduce the risk of fatigue resulting from using gestures obtained in gesture elicitation studies, and explored how the distance to the user interface (UI) interacted with different functions (select, scroll) during a mock reading task. Results showed that keeping the hands within the VWA had the potential to reduce Rapid Upper-Body Limb Assessment (RULA) and Borg CR10 scores at clinically significant levels. Scores were worse when the UI was far away and for the select function, suggesting the design of virtual UIs can play a role in eliciting naturalistic yet ergonomic interactions. The results also provide effect sizes and variance estimates to plan future work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:23:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192530
       
  • NIOSH research efforts to prevent work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

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      Authors: Menekse S. Barim, Ursula (Asha) Brogan, Alysha Meyers, Tristan Victoroff, Brent A. Baker, Liying Zheng, Mahiyar Nasarwanji, Jessica Ramsey
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      NIOSH researchers are pioneering the study of musculoskeletal health as professional ergonomists. We examine physical and social components of work environments to mitigate musculoskeletal injury risks. Part of our mission is to reduce the burden of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) through a focused program of research and prevention that protects workers from MSDs, helps management mitigate related risks and liabilities, and helps practitioners improve the efficacy of workplace interventions.The purpose of this discussion panel is to disseminate research findings and recommendations (1) to practitioners to interpret and apply the results of research to real-world problems, and (2) to inspire researchers to continue their efforts to protect the millions of workers at risk.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192446
       
  • Effects of a Shoulder-support Exoskeleton on Shoulder Strain during
           Augmented Reality Interactions

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      Authors: Yong-Ku Kong, Sang-Soo Park, Jin-Woo Shim, Kyeong-Hee Choi, Hyun-Ho Shim, Kiana Kia, Jeong Ho Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This study determined whether a passive shoulder-support exoskeleton would reduce biomechanical load in the shoulders during augmented reality (AR) interactions. Twenty participants were recruited to a repeated-measures laboratory study to perform AR tasks with and without a shoulder-support exoskeleton. The AR tasks consisted of two standardized tasks (omni-directional pointing and cube placing task). Shoulder muscle activity, postures, discomfort, and task performance (i.e., completion time) were measured during the experimental sessions. The result showed that the shoulder muscle activity (trapezius and deltoid muscles) and subjective shoulder discomfort were significantly lower with the exoskeleton compared to the no-exoskeleton condition (p < 0.05). The shoulder posture data showed that the exoskeleton use increased the 50th percentile of the shoulder flexion (p = 0.02). In contrast, the exoskeleton had limited effects on task performance (p> 0.83). These results suggested that a shoulder-support exoskeleton may have potential to reduce shoulder strain during AR interactions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192433
       
  • An Integrative Model for Change: Scoping Review of Human Factors,
           Implementation Science, and Quality Improvement Approaches in Primary Care
           

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      Authors: Reid Parks, Edmond Ramly
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This scoping review collects methods and frameworks from three fields with a shared goal of improving healthcare practice with a focus on primary care settings: Human Factors, Implementation Science, and Quality Improvement. The approaches from these three fields have been synthesized in a conceptual model that builds on complementarities between fields and encourages interdisciplinary integration. The resulting integrative model provides a helpful guide for organizing healthcare improvement approaches into a cyclical process that is consistent with real-world practice. Users of this model can select from a collection of existing approaches to support their improvement projects, develop and test new transdisciplinary approaches that combine or mix existing approaches, or guide their interdisciplinary education in primary care change approaches. Future work will refine and expand this model to balance practicality and rigor.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192253
       
  • Key Constructs, Measures, and Considerations for Human Factors Researchers
           in the Advanced Air Mobility Domain

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      Authors: Maureen Namukasa, Meredith Carroll, Bhoomin B Chauhan, Vivek Sharma, Kendall Carmody, Donna Wilt
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The emergence of Advanced Air Mobility (AAM) has seen the design of new electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft that will be utilized to serve the AAM market and associated use cases. Before operations commence, aircraft manufacturers must obtain a government-issued type certificate proving that the new aircraft meets prescribed safety levels. Human factors is an important aspect of AAM certification as the proposed designs have significant changes to how pilots will interact with the aircraft. Published certification standards create an opportunity for human factors researchers to generate meaningful ties between the research being conducted in their laboratories and the work being conducted in the industry to prove the effectiveness and safety of AAM systems. To facilitate this, the current effort identified human factors language used in the certification documents that is related to information processing on the flight deck and relevant to AAM aircraft. This language was then mapped to constructs and associated measures studied in the literature. This mapping can serve as a guide for human factors researchers to ensure the relevancy of the research being conducted for this emerging domain.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T08:11:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231200876
       
  • Control Task Analysis of the Deprescription Process: A Pilot Study

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      Authors: Connor Wurst, Huei-Yen Winnie Chen, Robert Wahler, Kelly Tenzek, Ranjit Singh, Matthew Cosmai, Alexandria Wahler, Scott Monte
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Deprescription is the process by which a physician supervises a patient’s withdrawal or dose reduction of a given medication due to side effects or diminishing efficacy. Prior studies on the process of deprescription have resulted in a number of models, two of which are used in this pilot study alongside the decision ladder to construct a novel analytic method. Initial findings indicate that this approach can offer unique insight into the deprescription process, particularly regarding the paths physicians take through the decision making process and when certain factors are most important. These early results are limited but lay the foundation for a rich variety of future work.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T07:29:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231200874
       
  • Biochemical and Physiological Dynamics in Ligament Injury & Healing

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      Authors: Amjad A Ramahi, Fadi Fathallah, Thomas Jue
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Ligaments play a crucial role in the musculoskeletal system. When maximal and sub-maximal ligamentous injury occur, a cascading response is initiated, starting with platelet plug formation and ending with remodeling. A rodent model was used to examine the role of modulating the initial recruitment of platelets and their impact on biochemical, histological, functional, and mechanical material properties. Functional gait testing, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), histological evaluations, and material property testing were performed. Animals (n=150) were randomized to a no-treatment group, a platelet rich fibrin treatment group and, a Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSIAD) treatment group. Initial results show that antiinflammatory drugs slow gait functional recovery; whereas, PRF shows faster functional recovery. PRF shows a faster increase in VEGF, and NSAIDs slows down VEGF and reduced its intensity. Evaluating injury recovery and impact of treatment methods, in both occupational and sports settings, provides insights about the healing response.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T07:26:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231200873
       
  • Waking Up to the Challenge of Fatigue Management in Transportation

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      Authors: Christina M. Rudin-Brown, Ashleigh J. Filtness, Michelle Gauthier, Crystal Kirkley, Daria Luisi, Muataz Jaber, Jana Price, Pierre Thiffault
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      While a vehicle operator falling asleep at the controls is the most obvious symptom of fatigue in transportation operations, less extreme and apparent fatigue levels are reliably associated with performance impairments in, for example, attention, information processing, memory, and situation awareness. Compared to in other industries, fatigue in transportation is made more likely by challenges to the body's circadian rhythm caused by shiftwork and travel across time zones. While experiencing fatigue is a normal physiological and behavioral state, for drivers, pilots, mariners, and other vehicle operators, experiencing fatigue while operating a vehicle can have catastrophic consequences. Fatigue can also contribute to heightened, though less-direct, risk for those who support transport operations, such as shift schedulers, supervisors, and managers. This discussion panel will explore high risk and important human factors challenges to fatigue management facing transportation workers and their industries today, and some practical, and proven, ways to manage them.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T07:24:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231200872
       
  • Exploring Trust With the AI Incident Database

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      Authors: Jeff C. Stanley, Stephen L. Dorton
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Engineering trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI) is important to adoption and appropriate use, but there are challenges to implementing trustworthy AI systems. It is difficult to translate trust studies from the laboratory to the field. It is also difficult to operationalize “trustworthy AI” frameworks and principles to inform the actual development of AI. We address these challenges with an approach based in reported incidents of trust loss “in the wild.” We systematically identified 30 cases of trust loss in the AI Incident Database to gain insight into how and why humans lose trust in AI in various contexts. These factors could be codified into the development cycle in various forms such as checklists and design patterns to manage trust in AI systems and avoid similar incidents in the future. Because it is based in real incidents, this approach offers recommendations that are concrete and actionable for teams addressing real use cases with AI systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T07:16:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231198084
       
  • Privacy, Security, and Usability Tradeoffs of Telehealth from
           Practitioners’ Perspectives

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      Authors: Faiza Tazi, Archana Nandakumar, Josiah Dykstra, Prashanth Rajivan, Sanchari Das
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly transformed the healthcare sector, with telehealth services being among the most prominent changes. The adoption of telehealth services, however, has raised new challenges, particularly in the areas of security and privacy. To better comprehend the telehealth needs and concerns of medical professionals, particularly those in private practice, we conducted a study comprised of 20 semi-structured interviews with telehealth practitioners in audiology and speech therapy. Our findings indicate that private telehealth practitioners encounter difficult choices when it comes to balancing security, privacy, usability, and accessibility, particularly while caring for vulnerable populations. Additionally, the study revealed that practitioners face challenges in ensuring HIPAA compliance due to inadequate resources and a lack of technological comprehension. Policymakers and healthcare providers should take proactive measures to address these challenges, including offering resources and training to ensure HIPAA compliance and enhancing technology infrastructure to support secure and accessible telehealth.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T07:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199689
       
  • Exploring the Addition of Torso Flexion to the LIFFT Analysis Tool

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      Authors: M. Fehmi Capanoglu, Menekse S. Barim, Richard F. Sesek, Robert M. Sesek, Mark C. Schall, Sean Gallagher
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The Lifting Fatigue Failure Tool (LiFFT) is an ergonomic assessment tool based on fatigue failure theory that uses the lower back load moment to evaluate the risk associated with multi-task jobs involving manual lifting. The current LiFFT tool does not account for the moment associated with flexing the lifter's torso. This study explores the incorporation of torso flexion into the LiFFT model while maintaining the relative simplicity of the original LiFFT tool. Automotive manufacturing workers (n=607) performing various tasks were included in the study. Non-manual material handling (MMH) tasks with no MMH load moment were considered "zero" risk. The moment associated with trunk flexion was considered if a worker flexed at the torso during non-MMH assembly tasks. The torso moment from bending was computed using the "average" worker height and weight for the data set used in this study. The proposed model yielded higher odds ratios than the original model.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T07:00:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199687
       
  • Look Before You Leap: Insights On The Implementation Of Ai Across
           Healthcare Settings

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      Authors: Shilo Anders, Laura G. Militello, Yuval Bitan, Megan E. Salwei, Raj Ratwani, Elizabeth Lerner Papautsky
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The prevalence of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly growing across industries including in health care. AI has the potential to improve patient safety (e.g., diagnostic error) and reduce clinician workload (e.g., documentation burden) and healthcare costs. Yet, many questions remain about how clinicians will interact with and use AI to support their work and how these technologies will impact clinician workflow, decision-making, and teamwork. It is also uncertain how patients will interact with AI, with a recent report suggesting 60 percent of US adults are uncomfortable with their health care providers using AI. In this panel, we will discuss AI applications across differing health care contexts and describe how AI influences clinician (and patient) workflows. We will outline considerations for the design and implementation of AI-based technologies in health care and needed areas of future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:57:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199686
       
  • Performance, Perceived Impacts, and Perceived Use of Low-back Exoskeletons
           for EMS Work

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      Authors: Eshan Manchanda, Vishal Gottumukkala, Tiago Gunter Xavier Do Vale, Mytreyi Abburu, Tiash Rana Mukherjee, Oshin Tyagi, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) have a high prevalence of low back injuries and low-back pain. Low back exoskeletons, that have proven to be effective tools in injury prevention in industry, can be seen as a potential solution to reducing the risk of injury for EMTs. The aim of this study was to evaluate user perception and perceived workload of EMTs for a low back exoskeleton. Trained EMTs performed various equipment and patient handling tasks as well as tasks providing emergency care in a control condition and while wearing a low back exoskeleton. While overall perception of the exoskeleton was positive, EMTs did not perceive the low back exoskeleton to be useful for their job.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199685
       
  • Dark Patterns and User Mental Health: Identifying Theoretical Impacts of
           Deceptive Design on Vulnerable Demographics

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      Authors: Morgan Hilton
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Deceptive Design, or “Dark Patterns” in UI/UX are becoming increasingly prevalent and sophisticated in nature. As a result, users frequently encounter them in contexts such as e-commerce and social media whether it’s unbeknownst to the user or not. While previous research has explored user perception and attitudes towards “Dark Patterns”, little research has been conducted to investigate its potential impacts on a user’s mental health. The purpose of this paper is to identify vulnerable demographics of users who may face harmful outcomes as a result of interacting with deceptive design. From this, we generate a set of research questions that are intended to generate discourse and further investigation into the possible impacts of Dark Patterns on these users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:43:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199684
       
  • Evaluating Workload Indicators for Learning During Stress Exposure
           Training of Endotracheal Intubation

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      Authors: Gabriel Gazetta, Chloe Miller, Brian Clemency, Kaori Tanaka, Matthew Hackett, Jack Norfleet, Rahul, Steven D. Schwaitzberg, Suvranu De, Lora Cavuoto
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is an important procedure of point-of-injury care and emergency medicine. Although ETI is a complex procedure with possible stressful conditions demanding higher levels of mental workload, traditional training methods do not involve stress exposure training. This study aims to evaluate potential workload indicators for stress exposure training for ETI. Twelve participants executed intubation tasks in three separate visits and were exposed to auditory and visual stressors. Participants were instrumented with eye-tracking glasses and a heart rate monitor. Participants rated their perceived workload using the NASA-Task Load Index scale. When comparing the first repetitions during the first visit to the last repetitions on the last visit, participants expressed a significant improvement in performance, reduction in perceived workload, and smaller differences in heart-rate variability between rest and task execution. Results demonstrated the potential effectiveness of stress exposure training in improving performance and reducing mental workload.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:39:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231199681
       
  • Effect of a Simultaneous Mental Arithmetic Task to a MMH Lifting Task on
           Muscle Activity in the Trunk and Shoulders

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      Authors: Anas Kachlan, Steven A. Lavender, Carolyn M. Sommerich
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: This study investigated the effects of concurrent mental demands on material handling tasks. Methods: Eleven subjects performed a material handling task with and without cognitive loads while lifting a 5 kg box to three different destination heights. The cognitive load was created by having participants perform a concurrent math task while lifting the box. The study measured the muscle activity in trunk and shoulder muscles. Results: The study found that, in select muscles, the cognitive load conditions led to longer lift times and increased cumulative muscle activity, but lower peak muscle activity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that lifting tasks with a concurrent cognitive load could lead to greater cumulative muscle activity, increasing the risk of muscular fatigue during manual material handling tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196250
       
  • What feels light to you' An exploration into supplying simple information
           through a light bar in a highly automated vehicle

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      Authors: Sidney T. Scott-Sharoni, Nadia Fereydooni, Bruce N. Walker, John K. Lenneman, Benjamin P. Austin, Takeshi Yoshida
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      As advanced features integrate into vehicle, drivers may feel apprehensive to use them. Providing users information using human-machine interfaces (HMIs) may ease fears; however, in highly automated vehicles, the optimal method of displaying information is unclear. Our study examined how using a light strip to transmit varying degrees of information (none, redundant, or supplemental) impacted trust and acceptance in participants (N = 36) across two drives using self-report and physiological measures. We also analyzed which measures predicted psychological comfort in an exploratory investigation of the largely undefined concept. The results indicated no significant effects suggesting that transmitting information through a light strip and its presence may not impact users. In a regression, only trust significantly explained variance of psychological comfort. Future research would benefit from examining what factors influence psychological comfort. Given our young participant demographic, it is possible future AI users may remain unaffected by additional non-textual HMI displays.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:24:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196248
       
  • Effects of Back-support Exoskeletons on Task Performance and Perceived
           Exertion During Construction-related Tasks: Differences related to
           Experience

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      Authors: Aanuoluwapo Ojelade, Sunwook Kim, Wallace Morris, Carisa Harris-Adamson, Alan Barr, Maury A. Nussbaum
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of three Back-support Exoskeletons (BSEs) on task performance (completion time) and perceived exertion were examined during simulated construction tasks. Forty participants (20 novices) completed the tasks using no BSE and three BSEs, each with two support settings (On and Off). There were significant main and interaction effects of Experience level on both outcome measures. Using BSEs negatively affected task performance for some tasks, though these effects were smaller among experienced participants. Interestingly, using BSEs inconsistently affected perceived physical effort, possibly due to the characteristics of the tasks, BSE designs, and experience levels. These results indicate that the effects of BSE on task performance and perceived physical effort are specific to experience level, BSE designs, and task demands. Further study is needed to better understand how to generalize these results to the actual work population.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196236
       
  • Promises and Trust Repair in UGVs

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      Authors: Connor Esterwood, Arsha Ali, Zariq George, Samantha Dubrow, Jonathon Smereka, Kayla Riegner, Dawn Tilbury, Lionel P. Robert
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are autonomous robots capable of performing tasks through self- navigation and decision-making. They have the potential to replace humans in dangerous driving scenarios. However, UGVs must be viewed as trustworthy to be accepted, and like any automation, they can make mistakes that decrease human trust in them. Trust repair strategies can mitigate the consequences of trust violations, but they are not always effective. To better understand their effectiveness on UGVs, we designed a between-subjects study examining promises on a UGV’s trustworthiness. Preliminary results showed that promises had a marginal impact on overall trustworthiness but were influential in repairing benevolence but not ability or integrity. These findings have implications for the design of UGV’s and trust repair theory.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231196235
       
  • Do Researchers Use the Levels of Automation Appropriately' How Automation
           is Discussed in Research

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      Authors: Jah’inaya Parker, John D. Lee, Anthony McDonald, Paul Rau, Brian Philips
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Despite multiple taxonomies and descriptions of automation there is inconsistency in describing automation capabilities, making it difficult to interpret and replicate research. We conducted a systematic literature review to investigate how studies document automation. The Scopus® database was searched on January 13th, 2023, for vehicle automation studies published in the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference between 2012 and 2022. Twenty-one studies were identified. Sixteen of these studies described the vehicle automation in the protocol and apparatus and five were missing at least one element. We show inconsistency and insufficiency of these explanations, suggesting researchers and participants might not understand the levels of automation. We offer a guide for improving how researchers describe automation capabilities to improve the interpretability and replicability of studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:07:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195913
       
  • Exploring the Impact of Actionable Guidance & Feedback on
           Pro-Environmental Behaviors, Climate Anxiety, and Environmental Efficacy

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      Authors: David Hussey
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence indicates that the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and pollution are tipping our global climate toward changes that jeopardize the stability of our environments and are likely to impact the overall suitability of our planet for habitation by humans and many other living organisms. As the global climate situation becomes more pronounced and increasingly signals itself as a threat to human wellbeing, a new mental health concern has also begun to delineate itself, that of climate anxiety, which is being felt by individuals across the globe, from mood and decreased levels of functioning, to more severe manifestations like substance abuse, depression, and insomnia. The goal of this work is to review and expand on the concepts of climate anxiety, as well as environmental efficacy, and explore their relationship with proenvironmental behaviors with considerations for the potential moderating effects that actionable guidance and measurable feedback may have on the adoption and outcomes of those behaviors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T06:03:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195912
       
  • Impacts of AI-Generated Confidence and Explanations on Task Performance
           and Trust in Human-autonomy Teaming

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      Authors: Shihong Ling, Yutong Zhang, Na Du
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In human-autonomy teaming (HAT), human operators and intelligent agents cooperate and coordinate together to achieve shared goals. This study aimed to enhance autonomy transparency by proposing the automatic generation of confidence and explanations (bounding boxes, and bounding boxes and keypoints) and investigating their impacts in HAT. A total of 36 participants engaged in a simulated surveillance task, during which they were assisted by the intelligent agents we designed using Keypoint Faster R-CNN. As a result, we found that visual explanations using bounding boxes and keypoints improved detection task performance only when confidence was not visualized. Moreover, participants had higher trust in and preference for autonomy when visual explanations were provided but whether confidence was visualized did not influence their trust and preference. These findings have implications for the design of autonomy and can facilitate human-machine interactions in HAT.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T05:58:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195002
       
  • The Effects of Individual Differences in Working Memory on Trust Recovery

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      Authors: Connie Ku, Richard Pak
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      While trust repair is an active area of inquiry (i.e., systems that proactively repair users’ trust in itself, De Visser, Pak, and Shaw 2018), most technology does not have the ability to initiate trust repair. Thus, it is crucial to examine how unaided trust recovery occurs and the factors that could influence it. Prior research has highlighted the potential importance of individual difference factors such as working memory capacity (e.g., Rovira, Pak, McLaughlin, 2017). Previous research also suggests operators’ trust on automation recovers naturally without trust repair strategies (e.g., Lee and Moray, 1992; Mishler and Chen, 2023). However, the specific dynamics of unaided trust recovery and how they are influenced by individual differences are unknown. There are theoretical and practical reasons why this topic is important. Theoretically, it is important to know why some people show trust recovery (i.e., trust recovery naturally, over time), but not others, as such information can inform theories of human-machine trust. Practically, a lot of technologies do not have a trust repairing system to rebuild users’ trust after errors occur; information gained in this study may have direct implications for redesigning systems to aid trust recovery (without using trust repair). The current study has two goals; the first is to understand how trust recovers naturally (unaided). The second goal is to specifically examine how working memory is related to the process of unaided trust recovery. This study will use a computer-based automation task to examine participants’ trust level at three different time points (i.e., before, during, and after automation failures). A final exploratory role of this study will be to examine the role of attention control on trust dynamics. The current study will shed light on individual differences in unaided trust recovery and potential causes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T05:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231195000
       
  • Understanding overdriving: Human factors considerations in heavy vehicle
           headlight visibility and stopping distance

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      Authors: Shane J. Davis, Ropafadzo Denga, Peter Shlanta, David Cades
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Nighttime road fatalities are a significant safety concern in the U.S., especially those involving commercial vehicles. Often an explanation offered involves overdriving headlights, or driving at a speed that does not allow for safe response within the range of the headlights’ visibility. The scientific literature was reviewed to assess the real-world applicability of guidance commonly provided in Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) manuals that advises heavy vehicle drivers to drive at a speed that allows them to be able to stop within the range of the vehicle’s headlights. We conclude that this guidance provided by CDL does not account for the variety of roadway types, driver expectations, and travel speeds, nor a scientific understanding about visual perception and hazard avoidance. It is recommended that further work be conducted to examine real-world application of commercial vehicle driver capabilities and variable roadway types to better inform guidance and recommendations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T05:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194340
       
  • Examining Central Fatigue Pathways under Stress: Integrating Insights from
           Graph Theoretical Neural Modeling and Motor Cortex Excitability

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      Authors: Oshin Tyagi, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Acute cognitive stress affects neuromuscular fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify the influence of stress on central fatigue and associated functional changes in the brain. Thirty participants, balanced by sex, performed intermittent elbow flexion contractions at 30% of their maximum strength till voluntary fatigue. Endurance time, strength loss, and voluntary activation loss rate were collected. Functional hemodynamic changes in the participants’ prefrontal and motor areas of the brain were also collected and used to calculate functional integration and segregation in the PFC and M1. Results show that stress had a facilitative effect on fatigability and the fatigue related decline in the functional integration and segregation of prefrontal cortex were not observed under stress. These findings demonstrate how the imposition of dual task demands in the workplace delays the perception of neuromuscular fatigue, thereby increasing the risk of injury.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:52:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194339
       
  • Theoretical Considerations and Applications for Social Robots in Virtual
           Reality

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      Authors: Pawinee Pithayarungsarit, Min Ji Kim, Boyoung Kim, Rydia Weiland, Elizabeth Phillips
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      While Virtual Reality (VR) has been used by researchers to investigate human-robot interaction (HRI), these efforts were largely focused on investigating HRI with industrial robots. In this current paper, we identify this gap in the literature and suggest the benefits and the limitations of investigating HRI in VR, and offer use cases for interacting with social robots in the VR space. We identify some use cases where interacting with a social robot in VR may be beneficial over interacting with a human in VR, and offer future directions and applications for this topic.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192562
       
  • Restoring Consumer Trust in a Home Improvement Service Provider with
           Negative Reviews

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      Authors: Amal Ponathil, Aasish Bhanu, Kapil Chalil Madathil
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      With the growth in technology, the use of digital information to learn about a product or a service has increased substantially. Generally, users tend to trust a service provider until they find negative information.However, when their trust is violated, it becomes difficult to rebuild it. This study focused on the type of response that a service provider can provide to restore a user’s trust. We recruited 400 participants through Qualtrics Research Services for a 2*5 between subjects study. The findings suggest that irrespective of the type of accusation, i.e., morality- or competence-based, both an elaborate apology and denial restore the trust in the service provider. However, these ratings fell within the average range, suggesting that both are only an initial action and additional information is needed to regain the trust lost due to an accusation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192513
       
  • Where to gaze during take-over: Eye gaze strategy analysis of different
           situation awareness and hazard perception levels

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      Authors: Wen Ding, Yovela Murzello, Shi Cao, Siby Sameul
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      While autonomous vehicles are being developed for the future of surface transportation, drivers today still need to be prepared for takeover. The objective of this study is to understand the optimal gaze strategy during the take-over process. First, an affine transfer method was used to link the eye tracking coordinates and pre-defined Aera-of-Interests (AOIs) locations. Then, independent t-tests were applied to analyze the relevance between the gaze strategy determined by the gaze time percentages on various AOIs and the Situation Awareness (SA) and Hazard Perception (HP) levels. The results showed that drivers with higher SA used different gaze strategies before and after they detected the hazards, while drivers with higher HP kept focusing on the center of the road. Explanations and implications of take-over request design are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:28:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193650
       
  • Information Access Costs with a Wide-Angle Desktop Display

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      Authors: Cody A. Poole, Amelia C. Warden, Christopher D. Wickens, Aditya Raikwar, Benjamin A. Clegg, Francisco R. Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      In choosing where to present information on large displays, multiple monitors, and head-mounted displays, the potential arises to create access costs associated with placing information outside of the immediate field of view. The current experiment examined performance tradeoffs associated with increasing information access effort ranging from 16 to 128 degrees of lateral separation on a wide-angle desktop display. During a spatial integration task, participants indicated whether grid coordinate numbers shown in one location on the screen were within a designated zone on a map displayed in another location. Results showed a significant non-linear trend of head movements, a linear trend of response time, and no effect on error, when the two pieces of information were displayed at greater separation distances. These results have implications for designing visual displays, suggesting where information access effort needs to be considered when scanning for information outside of the immediate field of view.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192646
       
  • Exploring Strategies to Improve Performance Accuracy on Vigilance-Based
           Tasks

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      Authors: Olivia H. McGough, Christopher B. Mayhorn
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Vigilance is the ability to maintain attention on a task over time without becoming distracted. Many high-stakes fields require employees to regularly engage in vigilance tasks (e.g., TSA baggage screening). Understanding strategies to improve accuracy on such tasks can be critical in ensuring efficiency and safety. In the current work, trial-by-trial feedback and extrinsic motivators were tested as potential aids to improve accuracy on vigilance tasks. Measures of state boredom were also collected. Results provide insight that trial-by-trial feedback may be an effective tool to increase accuracy on basic vigilance tasks. Further research is needed to understand the impact of trial-by-trial feedback and extrinsic motivators on state boredom and their impact on applied tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:21:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192440
       
  • Simulation Modeling for Health Care Operations: User-centered Design
           Needed!

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      Authors: Victor P. Cornet, Michelle Charles, Tammy Toscos
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Simulation modeling in health care has been touted as a solution to many problems, such as scheduling, wait times, or staffing. While researchers have argued for stakeholder involvement, few have described how to implement user-centered design (UCD) to develop, evaluate, and implement simulations for health care. In this paper, we explain how UCD theory can address common issues found in the health care simulation literature. We illustrate our points using experience applying UCD to develop a vaccination clinic simulation and provide additional UCD strategies relevant to the design of simulation models for health care.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:20:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192438
       
  • A Review of User Experience Requirements for a Procedural Training Task in
           Virtual Reality

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      Authors: Stephanie G. Fussell
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. Air Force (USAF) Warfighter Interactions and Readiness Division is actively integrating virtual reality (VR) technology in Distributed Mission Operations Live, Virtual, and Constructive (DMO LVC) training. A head-mounted display (HMD) comparison methodology was pilot tested to evaluate the usability of multiple VR headsets for application in Warfighter training. This report discusses key factors and considerations that may impact usability and user experience, thereby impacting the training of the user. Implications on how these findings may correlate with training efficiencies are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:19:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192437
       
  • Design of a Custom Force Fixture Fitting Miniature Load Cells for
           Individual Finger Force Measurement

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      Authors: Lauren Ross, Nichole Kutchey, Nassif Rayess, Megan O. Conrad
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This research aims to address limitations of current hand grip measurement techniques by designing, building, and testing a more robust cylindrical dynamometer capable of measuring orthogonal force components while accounting for forces exerted by individual finger segments. The novel grip fixture consists of three static beams instrumented with strain gauges measuring orthogonal forces and eight attached miniature compensating load cells accounting for force contribution from finger segments. Following device fabrication and calibration, data was validated in a pilot study (n=6) where grip strengths were compared between the custom fixture and a Jamar dynamometer. Data suggests the custom dynamometer provides hand grip strength measurement comparable to that produced on a traditional dynamometer (p> 0.05). Future research studies using a similar device can guide therapy for patients with impaired hand strength by providing clinical professionals with a more complete profile of the forces exerted by hand segments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192434
       
  • On or Off Topic: Secondary Task Relevance, Visual Input, and the Vigilance
           Decrement

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      Authors: Brendan Schwartz, Scott Mishler, Jing Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The current study investigated the effects of secondary task relevance on measures of vigilance decrement in a Level 2 semi-autonomous driving simulation. Past research has demonstrated that over the course of a vigilance task, vigilance (or sustained attention) decreases which leads to worse performance on measures like reaction time and accuracy. This phenomenon is known as the vigilance decrement. However, the underlying cause of the vigilance decrement is under debate. Secondary tasks can not only shed light on this debate but they might also potentially help mitigate this vigilance decrement if designed and implemented properly. Therefore the current research used secondary tasks to manipulate task demand and task engagement to further investigate the cause of the vigilance decrement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:14:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192424
       
  • See You on the Other Side: A Crosswalk Navigation System with Multimodal
           Alert System for Distracted and Visually Impaired Crosswalk Users

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      Authors: Alec Werner, Md Shafiqul Islam, Anvitha Nachiappan, Tanishq Bafna, Maryam Movassagh, Myounghoon Jeon
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Distracted and visually impaired crosswalk users are at increased injury and death risk. A system that redirects the attention of distracted crosswalk users and helps both distracted and visually-impaired crosswalk users safely navigate crosswalks could mitigate that risk. We tested the effectiveness of four feedback systems on crosswalk navigation: no feedback (baseline), auditory (whistle), vibrotactile, and multimodal (auditory and vibrotactile). Twelve participants were recruited and blindfolded to cross an in-lab mock crosswalk. Analysis showed that multimodal auditory and vibrotactile feedback significantly increased the success rate of navigating through a crosswalk compared to the baseline. Among the participants, 83.3% (10 participants) preferred vibrotactile feedback, and 75% (9 participants) found vibrotactile feedback to be most intuitive. These findings can inform the development of infrastructure-embedded alert systems that promote the safety of distracted crosswalk users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:13:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192420
       
  • Effect of Olfactory Stimulus on Drivers’ Immediate Cognitive State

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      Authors: Chiho Lim, Mansoor Nasir, Kozak Ksenia, Brandon Pitts, Denny Yu*
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The immediate effect of olfactory stimuli on drivers’ cognitive states with brain activity monitoring techniques was investigated. Time-variant cognitive states induced by external stimuli in driving are not well understood. We applied active stimuli in-cabin to understand the temporal characteristics of the stimuli on drivers’ cognitive states. Nine subjects participated in simulated driving task. Neural signals were acquired by a wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) headset. The olfactory stimuli were applied by providing scent. Time-frequency analysis was conducted for measuring time-variant EEG signal. Finally, event-related synchronization/desynchronization spectral power were calculated to evaluate drivers’ cognitive states. We found ERSs in theta (1-2s, 3-4s)/alpha (3-4s)/beta (3-5s) band.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:12:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192412
       
  • Analyzing Cognitive Load Associated with Manual Text Classification Task
           Using Eye Tracking

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      Authors: Jeevithashree Divya Venkatesh, Aparajita Jaiswal, Gaurav Nanda
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The accuracy of machine learning-based automated text classification systems, such as spam filters and search engine results, heavily depends on the quality of manual text classification. However, the cognitive demands of manual text classification tasks, particularly when dealing with challenging or difficult-to-comprehend texts, have not been extensively explored in previous studies. This research aims to address this gap by investigating the cognitive load associated with manual text classification tasks through analyzing eye tracking data. In this study, 30 participants performed manual text classification tasks while their ocular parameters were recorded using an eye tracker. The findings of this study revealed that ocular parameters recorded through eye tracking provided valuable insights into the cognitive load experienced during manual text classification tasks. Furthermore, it was observed that complex narratives led to higher cognitive load estimation. Moreover, native English-speaking participants exhibited lower cognitive load, compared to non-native English speakers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:11:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192221
       
  • Tossing Your Tylenol: Supporting Sustainable Behavior in Medication
           Disposal Through Label Design

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      Authors: Vianney Renata, Jah’inaya Parker, Shanmugapriya Loganathar, Amudha V. Kamaraj, Mengyao Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Pharmaceutical waste has proven harmful to society and the environment either stagnating in home medicine cabinets or seeping back into the ecosystem. This points to an unsustainable pattern of disposal of pharmaceutical waste. This paper presents the implementation of a user-centered design process paired with a sustainable behavior paradigm to address barriers to the proper disposal of pharmaceutical waste. The design process revealed that a lack of awareness of proper disposal methods is a contributing factor to improper disposal. Labels with images highlighting different strategies for the proper disposal of medication were prototyped. A message meant to motivate the user to properly dispose of medication accompanied the images. Three types of motivational messages (eco-affective, norm-based, and social implication based) were presented to assess their effectiveness and preference. User testing revealed issues with label interpretability and a preference for social-implication-based motivational messages. A final prototype incorporating user feedback is presented.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:09:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192218
       
  • Teamwork Traits Associated with Positive Perceptions of the Dependability
           and Utility of Autonomous Advisors

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      Authors: Rhyse Bendell, Jessica Williams, Stephen M. Fiore, Florian Jentsch
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Near future human-autonomy teams (HATs) will feature artificial agents with increasingly advanced social capabilities. The social atmosphere of a team is known to be important for successful teaming; however, it is not clear that factors influencing human-to-human exchanges will transfer directly to human-autonomy exchanges. Here, using data from the DARPA ASIST program, we employed four measures tapping individuals’ personality, social preferences, and social intelligence to explore differences in perceptions of human as compared to autonomous teammates’ dependability as well as perceived impacts regarding team coordination and performance. We found that psychological collectivism, sociable dominance, and extraversion were associated with positive perceptions of autonomous teammates serving as advisors, but not human teammates in the same role, and a reversed relationship for conscientiousness and openness. Awareness and examination of these factors in increasingly social HATs will be important for developing successful agents and selecting effective team members.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T12:08:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192207
       
  • A Meta-Analytic Approach to Investigating the Relationship Between
           Human-Automation Trust and Attention Allocation

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      Authors: Tetsuya Sato, Jessica Inman, Michael S. Politowicz, Eric T. Chancey, Yusuke Yamani
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Trust and attention allocation are pivotal determinants in human-automation interaction. However, there are scarce empirical findings regarding the relationship between trust and attention allocation. Observations from our previous work suggested there may be a negative correlation between trust in automation and eye movement towards automation, though no formal analysis of these data had been conducted to quantify this relationship. The present meta-analysis examined the relationship between three dimensions of trust in automation (performance, process, and purpose) and visual attention allocation to the automation. Specifically, we applied Cumming’s (2014) meta-analysis technique to combine evidence across three experiments. Results indicated a negative correlation between trust in automation and visual sampling of the automated system monitoring task for performance-based trust, but not for process- or purpose-based trust. These findings suggest that operators scanned the automation’s behavior less frequently when indicating higher performance-based trust towards the automation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:43:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194333
       
  • The Influence of Viability, Independence, and Self-Governance on Trust and
           Public Acceptance of Uncrewed Air Vehicle Operations

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      Authors: Tetsuya Sato, Jessica Inman, Michael S. Politowicz, Eric T. Chancey, Yusuke Yamani
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Trust is expected to be a critical construct that drives successful use of advanced air mobility technologies. As yet, though, the role of trust in human-autonomy interaction is underexplored. Kaber (2018) argues that autonomy requires the highest level of three independent dimensions – viability, independence, and self-governance. The present study examined whether trust varies across the three dimensions of autonomy under varying levels of risk. Participants in the high-risk group read a series of vignettes on a drone that delivers medical supplies over a city where the current study was conducted. Participants in the low-risk group read a series of vignettes on a drone that delivers fast food over a fictitious city. Each vignette described a drone that is either autonomous (i.e., possesses all dimensions) or automated (i.e., one of the dimensions is compromised). Results imply that the three dimensions of autonomy do not equally influence human-technology trust and behavior.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:40:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231194326
       
  • Racial and ethnic disparities in long-term contraception use among the
           birthing population at an academic hospital in the Southeastern United
           States

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      Authors: Tosin Akintunde, Jeffrey Howard, Dulaney Wilson, Amartha Gore, Christine Morton, Latha Hebbar, Chris Goodier, Myrtede C. Alfred
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Ensuring women and birthing people have access to the contraceptive of their choice is essential for patient-centered care, health equity, and reproductive justice. While trends in national data in the United States reveal racial disparities in long-term contraceptive use, health-system and hospital-level investigations are essential to understand disparities and encourage interventions. We used data from 5011 patients who delivered at a large academic hospital to determine the effect of race/ethnicity and social vulnerability index (SVI) on the odds of undergoing a long-term contraceptive procedure. Results indicate that SVI substantially affects the odds of long-term contraception for non-Hispanic White women and birthing people. In contrast, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black women and birthing people have significantly higher odds of undergoing a long-term contraceptive procedure due to race/ethnicity. Contributions to these disparities may be based on factors including healthcare providers, organizational and external policies. Interventions at all levels of care are essential to address disparities in contraceptive care, outcomes, and patient experience.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:34:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192873
       
  • I Spy Differences in System Reliability

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      Authors: Colleen Patton, Amelia C. Warden, Rebecca Pharmer
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The current experiment examined how the level of exposure to automation of various reliabilities impacts perceptions of reliability and confidence in perceived reliability ratings. Participants viewed images of multicolored Mega blocks presented side-by-side with a recommendation from an automated system indicating whether the images were a match or not. Participants responded whether the automation recommendation was correct or incorrect. The reliability of the automation across blocks was either 50%, 80%, or 90% and participants saw 10, 50, and 100 trials of each reliability. Overall, the level of exposure to the system had no impact on perceptions of automation reliability, or confidence in reliability ratings. Exposure did differentially impact accuracy of automation classification recommendation across the levels of automation reliability. Results also indicated that increases in perceptions of automation reliability increased confidence in the reliability perceptions. These findings have applications for training participants on imperfectly reliable systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192718
       
  • Development of Proposed Heuristics for Evaluating Multilingual Website
           Usability

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      Authors: Min Ji Kim, Ronna ten Brink, Cristina Chenal
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The number of multilingual websites and interfaces grows as the world becomes more globalized. However, there is a lack of heuristics available to easily evaluate these websites and interfaces. While well-known usability heuristics like Nielsen’s 10 Heuristics have served as an industry basis for heuristic evaluations, they fall short of providing full considerations for multilingual systems. This paper proposes multilingual usability heuristics that can be used with existing usability heuristic sets to conduct heuristic evaluations on multilingual websites. We used U.S. Internal Revenue Service applications accessed in Korean and English to test the proposed Multilingual Usability Heuristics. We updated the Multilingual Usability Heuristics based on the results these evaluations. Our final set contains 6 heuristics that can be used in tandem with other heuristic sets, like Nielsen’s 10 Heuristics. Though they are not yet empirically validated, these heuristics are useful in evaluating multilingual website and graphical user interfaces.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:28:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192715
       
  • A Framework for Human-Algorithm Teaming in Biometric Identity Workflows

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      Authors: John J. Howard, Laura R. Rabbitt, Isabelle M. Shuggi, Yevgeniy B. Sirotin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Biometric identity workflows are made up of multiple subsystems which can be automated to varying degrees using computer algorithms. Setting the appropriate level of automation for each subsystem is crucial for optimal system performance, which relies on synergistic human-algorithm teams. In this work, we leverage an automation design framework from prior research to define levels of automation for each biometric subsystem. This framework aligns a four-stage model of human processing with equivalent system functions. We propose applying this framework as a method to determine the appropriate allocation of tasks between humans and algorithms within a biometric identity workflow. While previous work has focused on the role of the human in the comparison and decision subsystems, we emphasize the need to consider the full biometric system in determining the role of humans in biometric identity workflows.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192692
       
  • Errors in Augmented Reality Interactions Affected Muscular Loads in the
           Neck and Shoulders

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      Authors: Kiana Kia, Jaejin Hwang, Jay Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The use of augmented reality (AR) head-mounted displays is becoming increasingly prevalent due to their ability to provide interactive experiences with high degrees of freedom. However, AR interactions have been shown to be associated with increased biomechanical loads in the neck and shoulders. This repeated-measures study evaluated the effects of interaction errors on neck and shoulder biomechanical loads during AR tasks. Twenty participants performed two standardized AR tasks (omni-directional pointing and cube placing) with and without AR interaction errors. During the tasks, neck and shoulder angles and muscle activity were collected. The results showed that the presence of errors led to increased neck extension and shoulder flexion angles. Peak muscle activity in the shoulders (anterior and medial deltoids) also increased with errors. These findings highlight the importance of reducing interaction errors in AR interfaces to minimize risks of musculoskeletal discomfort and injuries in the neck and shoulders
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192667
       
  • Invited Symposium Workspaces Reexamined: Implications for Design,
           Management, and Employee Wellbeing

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      Authors: Sonit Bafna, Ruth Kanfer, Yeinn Oh, Jennifer Egan, Mansi Shah
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The rise in remote work arrangements has accelerated interest in the design of employee workspaces across geographic locations. The rapid expansion of workspaces beyond organizational structures highlights the need for developing a person-centric perspective on work design that takes into account how workers perceive and craft their physical work environment and utilize new technologies, so that strategies for ensuring worker well-being and desired worker outcomes may be developed. The goal of this symposium is to introduce an interdisciplinary approach to this person-centric perspective that draws upon foundational concepts in psychology and architecture, and to delineate a future research agenda with practical implications for organizations and workers in the workplace of the future.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192664
       
  • The effectiveness of social activism gaming on changing social networking
           site use

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      Authors: Angela S. Kelling, Nicholas J. Kelling, Stephen M. Cherry
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Social networking site (SNS) use has become ubiquitous with both positive and negative effects. While significant focus has detailed its negative effects, understanding potential behavioral countermeasures becomes increasingly relevant. Simultaneously, there has been an organic growth of games tailored to highlight social issues. These social activism games are less focused on entertainment but leverage the interactive nature to create an emotional connection. This study investigated the ability of a game focused on the dangers of SNS use to create immediate and lasting change within players. Sixty-two participants played the social activism or control game with survey assessments occurring pre-gameplay, post gameplay, and 7-days after participation. Results indicate a high potential for immediate emotional connection to the SNS issue highlighted via the game, but lasting behavior changes were less obvious. Although the possible effectiveness of social activism gaming is well supported, more research is needed to better understand beneficial design characteristics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:14:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192663
       
  • Artificial intelligence-enabled operating room data analysis: Current and
           future prospects for enhancing surgical safety

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      Authors: Emmanuel Tetteh, Tianke Wang, Hamid Norasi, Joseph Kim, Sean Cleary, M. Susan Hallbeck
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Despite advances in medical technology, intraoperative adverse events (IAE) continue to occur in hospital’s complex systems. Current approaches to understanding and mitigating IAEs rely on retrospective data analyses to recognize the series of events leading to an IAE. This paper discusses current challenges and highlights the potential of the Operating Room Blackbox (ORBB) system use to enhance patient safety.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192661
       
  • Repurposing a Digital Twin-Based Decision Support System as a Training
           Tool by Incorporating Learning Science Principles

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      Authors: Jeffrey M. Beaubien, Maartje Hidalgo, Valarie Yerdon, Deepak Haste, Sudipto Ghoshal, Jason Wong
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. Navy has a sophisticated manpower planning process for recruiting, selecting, training, and placing thousands of enlisted Sailors into hundreds of specific jobs every year. Given the large number of “moving parts” in this manpower planning process, some inefficiencies are unavoidable. For example, there may be a non-trivial time gap between when some Sailors complete their job-specific training course and when they arrive at their duty station. During this time, their knowledge and skills will invariably decay due to lack of use. Electronic job aids, such as Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs) and Decision Support Systems (DSS), are important to mission success because they help to reduce the need for Sailors to memorize rarely used factual details. However, IETMs and DSSs are job aids, not training tools. In this paper, we describe how we repurposed an existing digital twin-based DSS to create a ubiquitous, online training tool. We did so by leveraging the learning science principles of human performance measurement, adaptive learning with scaffolding, performance feedback, and training data analytics. We conclude with a series of best practices and lessons learned that other practitioners could follow when attempting to repurpose electronic job aids that were not originally designed for training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:08:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192658
       
  • Ergonomic Assessment of Structural Firefighter Turnout Suit Designs for
           Improved Mobility

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      Authors: Meredith McQuerry, Sherry Schofield, Michael J Ormsbee, Liliana I Rentería, Maddy Poley-Bogan, Timothy D Griest, Robert Wilson, Leah Livin, Brett Cross, Kieran Paterson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to design a novel turnout suit for improved mobility based on firefighter user needs. A wear trial assessment was performed to investigate the differences in range of motion (ROM), ease of movement, and comfort of a novel structural firefighter turnout suit versus existing suit models on the market today. Ten healthy firefighters wore three different turnout suits while their ROM was measured using electro-goniometers worn against the skin in the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints. Perceived ease of movement ratings were gathered for 13 static joint exercises. A subjective perception survey was administered after completing the static protocol in each suit. A dynamometer measured peak force and torque in the elbow, knee, and shoulder joints. Results indicate significant differences occurred between the suits for perceived ease of movement ratings and hip ROM.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T11:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192654
       
  • The Impact of Example-Based Xai on Trust in Highly-Technical Populations

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      Authors: Maya Perlmutter, Samantha Krening
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the impact of explainable artificial intelligence on trust in a highly-technical population applied to a high-risk domain. Specifically, we examined the effect of an example-based explainable machine learning system on trust for data analysts working for a pipeline inspection company. This study compared a baseline interface with no explanation to two example-based explainable interfaces. We found that showing examples from multiple classes significantly increased trust compared to the other interfaces. Also, enabling the user to override the ML agent’s decision is a bigger factor for trust for this technical population than the amount of explanation shown in the interface.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:56:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192602
       
  • Emotion Recognition in Virtual Reality: Investigating the Effect of
           Gameplay Variations on Affective Responses

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      Authors: Allison Bayro, Christopher Buneo, Heejin Jeong
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Virtual reality (VR) technology offers a unique platform for affective computing research, which aims to create intelligent systems capable of recognizing, interpreting, and responding to human emotions in immersive and interactive virtual environments. This study examined how different variations of VR games can elicit different emotional responses in players. Thirty participants played three VR Pong games, and their emotional responses were measured using the Self-Assessment Manikin and physiological measures. Results showed that different gameplay variations evoked varying emotional responses in players, and two features, average heart rate and the non-specific skin conductance responses (in peaks per min), were found to differ significantly between the games. The study suggests that VR gameplay can provide an engaging and interactive platform to study human emotions and behavior, with implications for designing and developing affective computing systems in fields such as healthcare, marketing, and humancomputer interaction.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192600
       
  • Proof of Concept for a Data-Driven Vr Spatial Disorientation Training Tool
           for Navy Pilots

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      Authors: Isabel Erickson, Maartje Hidalgo, Jonathan Reynolds, Cherrise Ficke, Victoria Krumholtz, Jonathan Drucker, Kara J. Blacker, Kyle A. Pettijohn, Christopher J. Burcal
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Spatial disorientation (SD) contributes to at least 30% of aviation mishaps, with most being fatal. These mishaps involve not only complex interactions between human, machine, mission, and environment, but also multiple internal neurophysiological systems. Given the complexity of these dynamics, SD competency (i.e., the ability to recognize, confirm, and recover from an SD incident) is hard to predict and teach in the classroom. The Aptima team has developed a data-driven, practical, and realistic virtual reality (VR) training platform for SD called MAVIS, which includes a set of subjective, objective (performance), and physiological measures to rigorously evaluate SD competencies. Preliminary results of this proof of concept confirm the validity of our theoretical framework with a small sample, although rigorous experimentation with a larger sample will be required to validate the approach and justify its operational use. These preliminary results indicated that (1) the MAVIS protocol induces SD; and (2) self-report, performancebased, and neurophysiological measures seem to associate with SD induction and its sequelae.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:49:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192599
       
  • Simulator Feature Framework: Requirements to Support Training, Research,
           and Education

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      Authors: Olugbenga Gideon, Thomas A. Ulrich
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      There is an expansion of nuclear power plant control room simulator use beyond traditional operator training. Modern simulator designs require more robust capabilities to serve the diverse needs of multiple user groups including researchers and educators. A common framework for evaluating simulator features to support training, research, and education is critical to ensure future simulators enable research for immediate and future plant modernization and advanced reactor deployment needs. An initial framework comprised of 8 feature categories was developed by reviewing published simulator-based research and analyzing simulator features against research objectives and results. Future research will focus on evaluating the suitability of this framework in characterizing and differentiating simulators across training, research, and education use cases.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192595
       
  • Usability of Ranked-Choice Voting Paper Ballots

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      Authors: Kaitlyn M. Stewart, Philip Kortum, Michael Byrne
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Ranked choice voting (RCV) is a method of voting where individuals rank their choices for each race in an election, rather than selecting a single candidate. For paper ballot implementations, there are three basic formats: bubble grid, column, and handwritten. This study aimed to understand which format produces the best outcomes with the fewest errors. Using a between-subjects design, we measured voting time, errors, success rates, and overall subjective usability using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results showed that the handwritten format took significantly longer to complete. However, the handwritten ballot errors were recoverable and generally did not invalidate the ballots. The column and bubble grid ballots had significant errors, with fewer errors on the bubble grid format. There was no significant difference in SUS scores, nor any contribution of demographics across ballot types. Ballot format directly dictates the time taken to vote, usability, and overall voter success.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:43:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192592
       
  • Dynamic Text: How to Effectively Embed Emotions in Text-based
           Computer-Mediated Communication

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      Authors: Dasol Han, Sukayna Hamka, Sang-Hwan Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Despite being an effective mode of communication, Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC), particularly regarding text-based exchanges, still has inherent limitations compared to in-person communication. The objective of the current study is to review the previous studies which identified and addressed the challenges, including difficulty in embedding emotional information in text effectively. Previous studies demonstrated changes in text properties might deliver emotional information as well as the two phases of text encodings could be completed simultaneously by interaction designs. The study also suggests future studies to find the emotional meaning of text features and to develop novel applications using machine learning technologies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:39:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192591
       
  • Perceived Usability of a Live Feedback Interface for Neonatal Ventilation
           Training

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      Authors: Jacqueline Hannan, Gary Weiner, Leia Stirling
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      During positive pressure ventilation (PPV), a careful balance of applied force must be administered to hold the face mask against an infant’s face. Applying too much force can hurt the child, while not enough force will contribute to insufficient air delivery and ineffective ventilation. Currently, there is no tool to assist clinicians in training with understanding the amount of force they should apply to the face mask to deliver effective PPV. Prior work has developed a sensor system and live-feedback interface to provide information about applied force to individuals training to learn PPV. This work assesses the perceived usability of the live-feedback interface using quantitative and qualitative analyses, including the System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire and verbal questions. Results from this study will help improve future iterations of this interface and can assist in other works seeking to develop training interfaces for use in hospital environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192589
       
  • Synthesized Framework of Decision Making for the Army Aviation Context

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      Authors: Katie Ernst, Emilie Roth, Devorah Klein, Laura Militello, Christen Sushereba, Michael Wilson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the results of a project to articulate a theory–based framework for characterizing the decision making and situation awareness (SA) of Army Aviators. This was the first step toward developing strategies for evaluating the impact of emerging technologies on cognitive performance. The team conducted a literature review of decision making and SA models along with a review of Army Aviation cognitive requirements and identified key decision making concepts. The team synthesized a framework of decision making based on key concepts from the literature tailored to Army Aviation. The framework guided a literature review of evaluation methods and measures. Evaluation literature review findings included the use of scenario-based evaluation with a range of complexities, and multiple, complementary measures. The synthesized framework served as a useful tool to describe aviator decision making and how technology can influence decision making and SA, and may be useful beyond the Army Aviation context.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192586
       
  • Lateral Visuomotor Distortions and Their Effects on Performance Carry-Over
           Effects in a Simulated Laparoscopic Environment

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      Authors: Marissa Tharp, Bradford Howe, Zachary Turkowski, McKenna M. McKay, Alexander G. Brito, Elijah G. Velasquez, Chris Monico, Martina I. Klein, Noah J. Wheeler
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Laparoscopic surgery necessitates viewing the target tissue via a camera on a monitor, resulting in a disruption of surgeons’ hand-eye mapping. This disruption is amplified when the camera cannot provide a front view of the target area (i.e., scenarios requiring a side view) relative to the surgeon. Prior research indicates that azimuth camera rotations between 90° and 135° that provide a side view of the target (relative to the operator’s front view) result in the worst performance. In contrast, a 180° view (providing a rear view of the target) results in superior performance relative to side views. This superior performance has been attributed to a comparatively easy axis or movement inversion of the normal hand-eye mapping. The goal for the present study was to assess whether task performance using a right 45° side view of a target area facilitates subsequent performance using a camera location that is rotated 180° from the right 45° side view (i.e., the camera provides a left 135° view). Results indicated that exposure to a right 45° side view did not impact performance at a subsequent camera position that provided a left 135° side view. This indicates that participants could not utilize an axis inversion from the right 45° side view exposure. Additionally, our findings replicated superior performance at the 180° view condition compared to performance observed at the left 135° side view condition, suggesting that participants in the 180° view condition were able to employ the relatively easy axis inversion.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:29:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192583
       
  • Improving Self-management for Long COVID: Using Double Diamond Model to
           Design A mHealth App

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      Authors: Zhen ZHAO, Lisha YU, She LYU, Hailiang WANG
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Due to physical isolation and shortages of medical resources caused by COVID-19, many patients with long-term symptoms cannot receive effective treatment and care after discharge from the hospital. In the present study, we proposed the design process of a mobile health (mHealth) app to improve the long COVID patients’ self-management. This study was mainly guided by the Double Diamond Model in four phases: discover, define, develop, and deliver. We interviewed twenty patients and used a user journey map to describe their experiences throughout their healthcare period. Four app themes were identified via thematic analysis in the develop phase, including self-monitoring, mental health improvement, health coaching, and health data visualization. Prototypes of the mHealth app were determined through user-centered design. The findings contributed to long COVID healthcare using mHealth and overcoming environmental barriers in existing healthcare services.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:25:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192582
       
  • A Perfect Storm: Helicopter Emergency Medical Services and Degraded Flying
           Conditions

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      Authors: Paige Lawton, Gabriela Rosado, McKenna C. Tooker, Albert Boquet
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      As a result of increasing availability, Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) operations have become an important part of the healthcare system within the United States; however, this growth has come at a cost to the pilots and crew members who provide these services. For several decades, the largest contributing factor to HEMS accidents and fatalities has been flight into degraded conditions. Flying in dark night conditions as well as continued and inadvertent flight into IMC persist as the biggest risk factors for HEMS crews. Using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), our analysis investigates the active failures which increase risk in HEMS operations and lead to accidents continuously occurring in degraded conditions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192579
       
  • Effects of Spatial Uncertainty on Tactile Vigilance

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      Authors: Patricia R. DeLucia, Jayashri Prakash, Eric T. Greenlee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      We examined effects of task demand on tactile vigilance by manipulating spatial uncertainty, which has been shown to affect visual vigilance. While holding a tactor in each hand, participants received a long or short (critical) vibration, and pressed a foot pedal when the critical stimulus occurred. In the “certain” condition, the spatial location of the stimulus alternated predictably across hands. In the “uncertain” condition, the stimulus was randomly assigned to either hand. We measured response time; proportion hits and false alarms; sensitivity and response bias; and stress and workload. Vigilance decrement was observed; sensitivity decreased and response time increased. Spatial uncertainty did not affect the occurrence or magnitude of the decrement. Results suggest that effects of cognitive demands are more similar between tactile and auditory modalities compared to the visual modality. Interface designers should be aware that spatial uncertainty likely has more detrimental effects on visual vigilance, compared to tactile vigilance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:19:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192574
       
  • Crash Risk Among Young Drivers Diagnosed with Psychopathology

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      Authors: Pnina Gershon, Kellienne R. Sita, Bruce G. Simons-Morton
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Young drivers’ crash rates are highly elevated. Despite the small age range, this population is extremely heterogeneous, with subgroups at greater risk than others. Real-world driving data were used to examine risks of young drivers diagnosed with psychiatric psychopathologies. 654 young drivers were assessed for up to 2yrs. Relative to healthy controls, drivers with any psychiatric diagnoses had higher crash/near-crash (CNC) rates (aIRR=1.49). Young drivers diagnosed with internalizing psychopathology (depression and/or anxiety) had 41% higher CNC rates compared to healthy controls. Young drivers with comorbid externalizing (ADD/ADHD/Tourette’s Syndrome) and internalizing psychopathologies had the highest crash and CNC rates compared to healthy controls (aIRR=2.60; aIRR=2.51, respectively). In conclusion, psychiatric disorders represent a specific vulnerability for crashes where young drivers with comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders are at much greater risk to crash. Future research should examine possible variability or attenuation of risk associated with psychiatric treatment (e.g., medication or behavioral interventions).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:15:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192563
       
  • Effects of Traffic Clutter and Road Type on Road Hazard Detection

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      Authors: Matthew A. Peel, Mary B. Tigue, Kyle A. Amores, Evan M. Palmer
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      While operating a manually driven or even a highly automated vehicle, drivers may need to quickly perceive and respond to road hazards. In this study, we investigate several factors that might influence drivers’ ability to rapidly recognize road hazards in real-world settings. Using the publicly available Road Hazard Stimuli dashcam footage set, we divided stimuli into videos from highway and non-highway environments. We also developed the concept of “traffic clutter,” which is the area of the video screen containing other vehicles, and divided videos into those with high or low traffic clutter. Half the video clips showed road hazards occurring, and the other half showed another snippet from the same dashcam footage without a road hazard. Forty participants viewed these short, 233 ms video clips and responded whether they detected a road hazard or not. Using signal detection analyses, we show that drivers behave differently when responding to road hazards, depending on the context. First, participants were well above chance at detecting road hazards despite the short presentation times. Further, participants had higher sensitivity (d’) to road hazards when viewing videos with high traffic clutter. In terms of participants’ response criterion (c), we found that in both non-highway and high traffic clutter scenarios, drivers were more willing to commit false alarm rather than miss hazards. This difference in hazard response strategies may reflect biases drivers have developed during their time on the road.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T10:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192546
       
  • Heuristic Evaluation of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
           Displays

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      Authors: Thao Pham, Alexander P. Boone, Mary K. Ngo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is a computer software architecture that collects, analyzes, and delivers real-time production data to an accompanying human-machine interface (HMI) display. SCADA displays can help ensure efficiency in industrial settings by allowing users to monitor and control production processes, see system issues, and directly interact with equipment or devices (e.g., sensors, motors). However, SCADA displays tend to be highly complex and cluttered with data and interactive components. In this research, we conducted an evaluation of various SCADA displays available online using Neilson’s ten usability heuristics. The findings revealed that those displays scored poorly in the evaluation, indicating the need for redesign concepts that prioritize user needs. We then provide redesigned displays, conduct computational modeling to ensure the effectiveness of the redesigns, and propose a set of SCADA display design guidelines aimed at improving those displays to support user needs and, ultimately, improve user performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192536
       
  • Assessing safety through agent-based simulation for aircraft carrier
           flight decks

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      Authors: M.L Cummings
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Aircraft carrier flight decks are dangerous work environments that require high degrees of coordination between humans in and around aircraft. It is impossible to run experiments in such settings to determine if new policies and rules could reduce the risk of injury. In order to explore possible safety improvement strategies in such settings where deaths still occur, an agent-based simulation environment was developed that allows for exploration of the impact of new procedures and technologies during aircraft launches. In this Optimal Manning Simulation (OMS), safety is measured through unexpected halo violations, where people inadvertently enter a bubble of high risk around an aircraft. An analysis with OMS demonstrated that safety-focused agent-based simulations could uncover not only where personnel face high risks but also when such risks could significantly increase. Thus, OMS can be used not only in a descriptive and predictive manner but also prescriptively to inform future policies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193676
       
  • Looking at Participant Engagement for Product Design Through a Critical
           Lens

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      Authors: Maurita T. Harris, Christina N. Harrington, Kenya Oduor, Enid Montague, Rod D. Roscoe, Jacklin Stonewall, Marie Campbell Statler
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Human factors focus on taking the users’ capabilities, limitations, and environment into consideration when developing products. Thus, it is essential to have diverse perspectives and voices when designing products to be used by a variety of users. However, this is not always done and can be a missed opportunity in developing inclusive products. In this panel, we bring together researchers from different sectors to discuss challenges and strategies to engage a diverse research population at different stages in the product design process. Topics include research planning and the design process; data collection methods; and community- and participant-level recruitment. We hope that by sharing our experiences, we can prepare others to have the conversations needed that will allow them to successfully approach these topics.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193663
       
  • Can Real-Time Gaze Sharing Help Team Collaboration' A Preliminary
           Examination of its Effectiveness with Pairs

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      Authors: Jad A. Atweh, Rana Hazimeh, Sara L. Riggs
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Complex and dynamic domains rely on operators to collaborate on multiple tasks and cope with changes in task demands. Gaze sharing is a means of communication used to exchange visual information by allowing teammates to view each other’s gaze points on their displays. Existing work on gaze sharing focuses on relatively simple task-specific domains and no work-to-date addresses how to use gaze sharing in data-rich environments. For this study, nine pairs of participants completed a UAV search and rescue command-and- control task with three visualization techniques: no gaze sharing, gaze sharing using the real-time dot, and gaze sharing using the real-time fixation trail. Our preliminary results show that performance scores using the real-time fixation trail were statistically significantly higher than when no gaze sharing was present. This suggests that the real-time fixation trail is a promising tool to better understand operators’ strategies and could form the basis of an adaptive display.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:31:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193659
       
  • The Role of Human Factors in Evaluating and Updating Requirements for
           Flight Deck Displays and Controls

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      Authors: Kelene A. Fercho, Dennis B. Beringer, Colleen Donovan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The remarkable level of safety of aviation operations is due, in part, to Federal Aviation Administration requirements and guidance that govern civilian aviation activities in the United States National Airspace System. At times, these requirements and guidelines need reevaluation and updating—for example, due to a known change in the pilot workforce or with flight deck technology. This paper provides examples of when this may be necessary, and explains the role that human factors research plays in this process. One objective of this paper is to make the case that it is necessary to periodically review and update requirements and guidance, even if the equipment or technology haven’t changed; often the human operators have changed or additional information is now available. Additionally, the process described here may be applicable to international aviation authorities, other federal agencies, and the private sector, as a best practice and critical safety initiative.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:27:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193651
       
  • Cognitive Systems Engineering at 40, Part I: Deriving Theory from Practice

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      Authors: Michael F. Rayo, Nancy J. Cooke, John M. Flach, Robert R. Hoffman, Philip J. Smith, David D. Woods
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This expert panel is the first of a two-panel series marking the 40th anniversary of “Cognitive Systems Engineering: New Wine in New Bottles” by Hollnagel and Woods (1983) and, arguably, the beginning of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE). These experts were there at (or near) the beginning, devising new methods, expanding and creating new theories, and revealing a new perspective on how complex systems sustain performance and fail. They also wrestled and struggled with these new ideas to propose and implement solutions to improve performance in a number of high-consequence industries. Whether in graduate school or as early-career professionals, they saw the surprises that served as signals that the thinking that brought us to that point would not, alone, be the thinking and doing that would take us further. They will each answer the question, “What ideas and perspectives are important about Cognitive Systems Engineering, and why'”
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193648
       
  • Towards Joint Activity Design Heuristics: Essentials for Human-Machine
           Teaming

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      Authors: Dane A. Morey, Prerana Walli, Kenneth S. Cassidy, Priyanka K. Tewani, Morgan E. Reynolds, Samantha Malone, Mohammadreza Jalaeian, Michael F. Rayo, Nicolette M. McGeorge
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      As machines increasingly behave more like active cognitive agents than passive tools, additional heuristics for supporting joint human-machine activity are urgently needed to complement existing usability heuristics. Despite the rich and extensive design guidance produced by forty years of cognitive systems engineering (CSE) and related fields, the lack of large-scale impact can be attributed, in part, to insufficient translation of CSE principles and guidelines to language and tools that are ready for designers and other decision-makers responsible for these automation-infused solutions. Towards this need, we synthesized a partial and preliminary list of ten machine requirements intended to capture some of the essentials of joint activity. We believe solidifying these essentials and their implications for machines is a first and necessary step towards deriving joint activity design heuristics that are valuable, practical, and sustainable for operational personnel. Through iterative refinement, we believe the combination of strong ideas and strong practicality in these tools can be the basis for a large-scale shift in the design and evaluation of human-machine teams.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:19:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193646
       
  • First Time Use of an Autonomous Food Delivery Robot: Effects of Affect and
           Delivery Scenarios

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      Authors: Lindsey A. Malcein, Yi-Ching Lee
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of the study was to examine the effect of users’ emotions and delivery outcomes from sidewalk autonomous delivery robots on user experience and perception of the robots. Participants’ emotions were induced by specific clips from movies and were measured by a self-report emotion scale. Two delivery scenarios were designed to mimic two extreme delivery outcomes where the delivered food was either on time and as expected or late and not as expected. Results showed that delivery outcomes led to significantly different user experiences, whereas the induced emotions did not. In line with prior research, the current study suggests that the quality of the food delivery service is more important than user emotions in prompting users to want to use the service again and rating the robots more favorably.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192930
       
  • Drivers’ trust & reliance on automated braking at intersections: Effects
           of automation braking profile & in-vehicle displays

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      Authors: Dina Kanaan, Luckyna Laurent, Birsen Donmez
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      An online, video-based, within-subjects experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of three different automation braking profiles and three in-vehicle display designs on drivers’ trust and reliance on automated braking systems. 36 participants watched videos of automated braking at intersections (with different braking times and displays) and rated their trust in the automation and comfort with the automation’s braking time. They then watched the same videos and were asked to press the space bar and pause the video if they believed they should take over from the automation and brake. The braking profile had a significant effect on the trust and comfort ratings, while both the braking profile and display had a significant effect on the takeover time. The findings provide insights on drivers’ trust and reliance on automation that is designed to avoid lateral collision hazards at intersections.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192557
       
  • Human Factors and New Nuclear: Advancements and Future Possibilities

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      Authors: Michael Hildebrandt, Niav M. Hughes Green, Claire Blackett, Ronald Boring, Scott Egli, Brian Green, Shuhui Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      After years of stagnation, interest in the development and construction of new nuclear power facilities is accelerating. Some of the proposed designs, such as small modular reactors and microreactors, are significantly different from the plants currently in operation. Therefore, much of the nuclear human factors knowledge acquired over the last 40 years may not be easily transferrable to these plants. At the same time, other kinds of human factors research, such as work on high-levels of automation and remote operation, become increasingly relevant. This panel aims to provide guidance for human factors practitioners in this shifting landscape by gathering experts with backgrounds in research, regulation, and operations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:09:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192555
       
  • Designing Feasible and Effective Cognitive Assessment for Older Adults in
           Long-Term Care

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      Authors: Alyssa Iglar, Mark Chignell, You Zhi Hu, Debbie Barton, Grace Steeves, Justine L. Henry
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Cognitive assessment and training are needed to avoid accelerated cognitive decline. We have developed BrainTagger, a suite of serious games that evaluate and potentially train cognitive abilities such as inhibitory control, processing speed, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Ideally, cognitive assessments can be used as sentinels to detect problems that might damage brain functions (e.g., dehydration, poor nutrition, depression, delirium, inappropriate medication). In this paper, we report on a multi-year effort to develop hardware and software solutions that support effective implementation of cognitive assessment games (CAGs) in long-term care. Issues and constraints addressed include accommodating physical disabilities; making cognitive assessment enjoyable and engaging; providing scientific evidence that each game is measuring the intended construct; and reporting game results in a meaningful way. This article describes how we addressed some of these issues and demonstrates the sustained effort required to make this type of functionality work in practice. We also include some preliminary design guidelines, based on our experience, that may be useful in guiding future work on developing CAGs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T09:05:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192552
       
  • Selective access to decision support as a function of event uncertainty

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      Authors: Yoav Ben-Yaakov, Jason McCarley, Joachim Meyer
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The effective design of decision support systems requires an understanding of how system outputs affect users’ preferences and behavior. In an online experiment with 171 participants, we investigated how uncertainty influences users’ tendency to access additional information when using decision support (DS) with varying levels of reliability (high or low) that exhibit the same data in different ways. We compared preferences across three DS designs: binary independent output, likelihood independent output, and integrated likelihood output. We also examined the impact of DS displays and reliability on users’ performance and subjective trust. Users were more likely to seek additional information when presented with events incorporated with uncertain information. Moreover, the presentation of the information had a significant effect on performance and subjective trust.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T08:58:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192540
       
  • Rethinking Human Factors Methodologies: User Needs & Applied Domain
           Characteristics

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      Authors: Ruixuan Li, Katya Le Blanc
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Technologies and systems have become more complex with the advancement of modern digitalization. Human factors practitioners and researchers face challenges in designing products for everyday activities and complex domains. Learning one human factors methodology at a time is the most common approach, and finding complementary methodologies is sometimes difficult. In this paper, we summarize achievements needed in human factors research in three categories: motivation-related needs, task-related needs, and applied domain assumptions and characteristics. Some common methodologies are discussed, and we briefly introduce how to implement them in general resilient and cyber-resilient systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T08:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192531
       
  • How does perceived usefulness of an exoskeleton change with virtual
           reality training'

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      Authors: Vishwajeet Ransing, Jang-Ho Park, Yang Ye, Sunwook Kim, Eric Jing Du, Divya Srinivasan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated how novices’ perception of exoskeleton usefulness changes with different types of exposure to an exoskeleton; and when the biomechanical benefits and limitations of potential exoskeleton use are presented to them. Twenty young, healthy participants completed this study. The three types of informational exposures to a back-support exoskeleton (BSE) were: (1) Information-based, (2) Virtual Reality (VR)-based, and (3) hands-on experience (lifting a box using the BSE), where users virtually and physically completed various lifting/lowering tasks set at shoulder, waist, and ankle heights in symmetric and asymmetric positions. After every trial in each exposure, perceived usefulness was obtained. Overall, perceived usefulness ratings generally varied with major task variables (load, lift height, and trunk angle). The VR-based exposure appeared to clarify the specific circumstances under which the BSE was perceived to be useful and reduced extreme biases (positive or negative) that individuals may have developed prior to trying on a BSE.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T08:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192544
       
  • Exploring Cognitive Fatigue: Machine Learning, Forecasting,
           Generalization, Personalization, Inference and Labels

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      Authors: David Nartey, Rohith Karthikeyan, Theodora Chaspari, Ranjana Mehta
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Fatigue is a feeling of tiredness or weakness that can be physical, mental or both. Interpretable machine learning methods can be used for inference while having the dimension of time series prediction for developing intelligent health systems to manage fatigue. The study explored forecasting perception and performance scores associated with fatigue manifestation using cardiac activity with generalized and personalized models at a forecast interval of 10-minutes during a cognitively fatiguing task. Participants underwent a 2-hour cognitively fatiguing working memory task with subjective fatigue responses obtained every 10-minutes. Participants’ performance was calculated over the 10-minute interval. Performance labeled models had the lowest mean absolute error for forecasting in both generalized and personalized models using Gradient Boosting Regression. This provides the ability to forecast performance decrease due to fatigue and to generate fatigue mitigation interventions to reduce fatigue-related injuries.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T08:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192267
       
  • Cognitive Systems Engineering at 40, Part II: Applying Theory to Practice

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      Authors: Michael F. Rayo, William C. Elm, Mica R. Endsley, Laura Militello, Christopher Nemeth, Emilie M. Roth
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This expert panel is the second of a two-panel series marking the 40th anniversary of “Cognitive Systems Engineering: New Wine in New Bottles” by Hollnagel and Woods (1983) and, arguably, the beginning of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE). These experts were there at (or near) the beginning. They wrestled with the daunting issues of how to apply new CSE findings, many of which they themselves discovered, into workable solutions that actually improved systems performance in high-uncertainty, high-stakes settings. Their work has been implemented in a number of fields, including aviation, healthcare, power generation, and defense. They will each answer the question, “What ideas and perspectives are important about Cognitive Systems Engineering, and why'”
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T07:21:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193686
       
  • The Privacy Attitudes Questionnaire (PAQ) Turned 20: What’s Next for a
           Generalized Measure of Privacy Attitudes'

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      Authors: Wayne C. W. Giang, Alyssa Iglar, Mark Chignell, Reza Samavi, Kopiha Nathan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Attitudes and concerns related to privacy are not homogeneous, but instead differ based on the individual and context at hand. Understanding how these attitudes and concerns vary could inform product, service, and policy design. Questionnaires, such as the Privacy Attitudes Questionnaire (PAQ), can be used to evaluate and derive implications from people’s privacy orientations in numerous domains, including healthcare, social media, and e-commerce. Our objective is to refine the PAQ to reflect areas of privacy concern in today’s landscape. The panel will serve as a forum for conversation about areas of privacy concern, guided by our panelists’ expertise and questions about demographic and user considerations for the revised PAQ, a framework-inspired understanding of privacy, and privacy in healthcare. Insights and perspectives arising from the discussion panel will be considered for subsequent revisions of the PAQ.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T07:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192539
       
  • Range Anxiety among Battery Electric Vehicle Users: Both Distance and
           Waiting Time Matter

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      Authors: Jiyao Wang, Chunxi Huang, Dengbo He, Ran Tu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Range anxiety is a major concern of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) users or potential users. Previous work has explored the influential factors of distance-related range anxiety. However, time-related range anxiety has rarely been explored. The time cost when charging or waiting to charge the BEVs can negatively impact BEV users’ experience. As a preliminary attempt, this survey study investigated time-related anxiety by observing BEV users’ charging decisions in scenarios when both battery level and time cost are of concern. We collected and analyzed responses from 217 BEV users in mainland China. The results revealed that time-related anxiety exists and could affect users’ charging decisions. Further, users’ charging decisions can be a result of the trade-off between distance-related and time-related anxiety, and can be moderated by several external factors (e.g., regions and individual differences). The findings can support the optimization of charge station distribution and EV charge recommendation algorithms.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T07:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231193669
       
  • Time Study for the Power Stow Rollertrack Conveyor for Airport Baggage
           Handling

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      Authors: Ming-Lun Lu, Dwight Werren
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      A time study was conducted to evaluate the operation efficiency and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for using the Power Stow Rollertrack Conveyor (PSRC) for baggage handling in the cargo holds of narrow-bodied aircrafts. The PSRC employs a retractable roller conveyor from a belt loader to provide powered transportation for loading and unloading baggage in the cargo holds. Thirteen baggage handlers at the Boston Logan International Airport participated in the data collection, which involved videotaping their work postures and methods during baggage handling operations in the cargo holds of the Boeing 737 and 757 aircrafts. Results showed that the PSRC provided improved efficiency in handling baggage, especially for unloading baggage by about 2 bags per minute. There was no significant difference in the total time spent on the risk factors for MSDs, such as lifting, pushing and pulling tasks per person for each bag between PSRC users and non-users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T07:07:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192901
       
  • Forced Prosocial Behaviors towards Robots Induce Cognitive Conflict

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      Authors: Abdulaziz Abubshait, Sofie Eklund Therkelsen, Craig McDonald, Eva Wiese
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      With the rising use of social robots, it is important to understand how to evaluate their effects on human cognition. Thus, we aimed to implicitly measure prosociality towards robots (i.e., the tendency to impart rewards to robots), using a conflict-monitoring paradigm. Here, participants completed a gambling task where they “Won” or “Lost” gambles. Afterwards, a computer assigned the outcome of their gamble to either themselves, or Cozmo, a social robot. Critically, participants had to confirm the computer's assignment using a keypress. If participants experienced conflict, we reasoned that confirming the assignment would be delayed. Results showed that participants experienced more conflict when they won a gamble but had to give it to Cozmo as shown by slower response times. These data suggest that participants experienced conflict when forced to be prosocial towards Cozmo and provide evidence that conflict monitoring can measure implicit attitudes towards robots.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T07:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192897
       
  • Building Situation Awareness and Team Cohesion through Effective
           Information Sharing in a Distributed Team-Based Command and Control
           Scenario

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      Authors: Chrissy M. Chubala, Aren Hunter, Lori Dithurbide, Heather F. Neyedli
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Within complex command and control domains, where teams are often geographically distributed and heterogeneous in expertise, the formulation of a course of action depends upon effective information sharing between teammates. The communication and development of situation awareness (SA) may both depend upon and help foster trust and cohesion among teammates. However, distributed and heterogeneous environments present challenges for the development of trust and cohesion. This study investigated the relationship between information sharing, SA, trust, and team cohesion in a distributed team-based emergency management scenario. Participants played the role of humanitarian aid experts, public health experts, and migration and social services experts responding to a potential outbreak of cholera following a natural disaster. The results of exploratory analyses provide preliminary support for a complex relationship between effective information sharing, the convergence of higher-level SA, and the development of team cohesion, and propose a roadmap for further exploration of this rich dataset.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T07:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192866
       
  • The National Academies Board on Human-Systems Integration (BOHSI) Panel:
           Emerging trends in technology: Implications for future research in
           human-system interactions (HSI)

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      Authors: Emanuel Robinson, Frederick L. Oswald, Linda Ng Boyle, Tara Behrend, Nancy Currie-Gregg, Prashanth Rajivan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Future technological innovation will continue to transform the future of human-system interactions (HSI). While immersive sensors, smarter devices, and integrated systems will drive innovations in HSI, the fundamental elements of human information processing must still be considered to ensure the appropriate use of the technology in the context that the human operator will be using the technology. BOHSI has organized a panel that brings together prominent researchers to discuss emerging trends in technology and the implication for future research needs in domains where increasingly autonomous systems are becoming more accessible, but supervisory control by the human is still needed. The implications for the future of work and the safety and security of systems that are complex and continually evolving are also discussed).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:57:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192723
       
  • Encouraging Isometric Holds and Reducing Stress: Comparing Dogs and Robots
           as Motivators

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      Authors: Kristin M. Finkbeiner, William S. Helton
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) indicates interacting with nature (animals) is restorative to directed attention, via activation of involuntary attention (Kaplan, 1995). Dogs specifically have been linked to promoting exercise and stress reduction (Wells, 2009; Wohlfarth et al., 2013). The application of ART to the expenditure of physical effort was currently explored, hypothesizing that live dog interaction may increase effects of ART during an isometric hold. Sixty participants randomly assigned to an interaction group (dog, robot or toy) completed two isometric holds at maximal effort (before and after interaction) while reporting ratings of perceived effort (RPE) and stress. Results show no significant differences between conditions for duration of holds or RPE. However, ratings of stress were lower for dog interaction than other conditions, implying the presence of dogs help alleviate stress, without affecting performance. Further studies are needed to determine whether ART impacts executive control (directed attention) or affect.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:53:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192719
       
  • Impact of Central Vision Loss on Eye Movements and Time-to-Contact
           Judgments

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      Authors: Melissa Cloutier, Patricia R. DeLucia
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to loss of central vision and typically occurs in older adults. Loss of central vision has been associated with degraded mobility, including difficulties with streetcrossing decisions, which implies that there also may be degraded timeto-contact (TTC) judgments. Further, individuals with AMD have shorter saccades compared to individuals with normal vision leading to difficulty with tracking objects. This study investigated the impact of eye movements on TTC judgments in an AMD group using a predicted motion task in a virtual reality system. Results indicated that longer saccades were associated with more accurate TTC judgments and showed that the AMD group had shorter saccades, and less accurate TTC judgments. As such, difficulties with judgments of collisions in individuals with AMD may result from inefficient eye movements.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192710
       
  • Impact of Engaging with Intelligent Tutoring System Lessons Prior to Class
           Start

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      Authors: Anne M. Sinatra, Rebecca L. Robinson, Benjamin Goldberg, Gregory Goodwin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      A study was conducted using the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) intelligent tutoring system (ITS) software and an Army Schoolhouse course. Existing materials were provided and used to create 9 computer-based GIFT lessons that included adaptive tutoring versions of the materials. These lessons included a Pre-Test, 7 content lessons (on the areas of Detect, Engage, and Assess), and a Post-Test. Six participants completed the Pre-Test, Post-Test, and all lessons. Overall Post-Test scores were significantly higher than Pre-Test scores, and remediation also had a positive impact on Post-Test scores. This study demonstrates that completing self-paced ITS lessons prior to initial class instruction can lead to positive learning impacts prior to the start of a class.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192709
       
  • Automatic Error Model (AEM) for User Interface Design: A new approach to
           Include Errors and Error Corrections in a Cognitive User Model

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      Authors: Amirreza Bagherzadehkhorasani, Farnaz Tehranchi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Replacing users with models that simulate users’ behaviors has been a long-standing vision in interface design. Cognitive models can simulate users’ cognitive processes and behaviors, but they cannot fully interact with user interfaces and simulate all behaviors. VisiTor (Vision+Motor) is a tool that provides cognitive models with methods to interact with the interface that users interact with. However, currently, cognitive models can only simulate experts and error-free users. Previous attempts at using cognitive models were inadequate due to hard-coded errors, which led to predictions that were not applicable to all users and tasks. Therefore, a general approach is required to include error generations and error corrections in cognitive models. VisiTor has been extended to generate and correct errors, leading to the development of an Automatic Error Cognitive Model that simulates more complete users’ behaviors in an Excel spreadsheet. This model helps to get closer to developing complete cognitive models that can replace users.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:30:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192248
       
  • Automation Use: The Roles of Self-Confidence, Trust, and Workload

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      Authors: Colleen E. Patton
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Discretionary automation, or the choice to turn automation on or off, is less studied than dependence on always-present (static) automation, even though discretionary automation is becoming more common in real-world environments. While the influences of dependence on static automation are generally known, it is unclear how they translate to discretionary automation use. Using a dual-task warehouse management paradigm, the influence of workload, trust, and self-confidence were investigated. Results indicated that higher trust in the automation than self-confidence in completing the task manually was a strong driver of automation use, whereas workload of a concurrent task had no effect on use. Implications of this work are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:27:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192708
       
  • Learning and Growth in an Inclusive Engineering and Design Course

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      Authors: Rod D. Roscoe, Madeleine F. Jennings
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers and educators have explored a variety of approaches for addressing diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging (DEIB) challenges in engineering and design. This research builds on recommendations to teach future engineers and designers about DEIB principles and applications, and to challenge the dissociation of engineering and societal concerns. This paper analyses 25 student reflections from a course on Inclusive Engineering and Design to reveal engaging topics, perceived learning, and personal growth. Our conclusion is that such courses are meaningful and worthwhile contributions to the curriculum.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192705
       
  • Transgender Inclusive and Affirming Design in Computing

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      Authors: Madison W. Call, Rod D. Roscoe
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      This paper seeks to bring further attention to transgender experiences and issues in the context of software applications. Research on transgender experiences has generally been quite limited, and the majority of that work has focused on non-digital environments. However, we argue that transgender individuals encounter several unique human-computer interaction challenges that are not typically experienced (or perhaps even considered) by cisgender individuals. This paper first articulates general challenges for transgender persons, and then discusses specific manifestations in computing: name display and updating, demographic data forms, and automating gendered assumptions. Potential recommendations are offered.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192704
       
  • Effects of Task Difficulty and Presentation Order in Subjective Usability
           Measurement

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      Authors: Rachel E. Rice, Shrreya P. Aagarwal, Philip T. Kortum
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Ahead of Print.
      The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a tool widely used in industry for measuring the usability of products and systems. Users are often asked to complete two or more tasks of varying complexity before evaluating a product using the SUS. However, task order effects may influence the overall usability rating of a product, but previous literature has not examined this issue. To test the effect of task order on the SUS, participants were asked to complete two tasks involving locating specific information on a college website. Participants completed an easy task and a hard task, and presentation of the tasks was randomized. Results showed that when participants completed the easy task first, they rated the overall usability of the website lower than when the hard task was presented first. This suggests that practitioners should be cautious when designing usability studies with tasks of varying difficulties.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
      PubDate: 2023-10-21T06:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21695067231192702
       
  • A Potential Case of Change Blindness in an Officer-Involved Shooting